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Wat was Operation Paperclip?

Wat was Operation Paperclip?


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Terwyl die Tweede Wêreldoorlog sy laaste stadium begin betree het, het Amerikaanse en Britse organisasies saamgespan om besette Duitsland te ondersoek vir soveel militêre, wetenskaplike en tegnologiese ontwikkelingsnavorsing as wat hulle kon ontbloot.

Agter die geallieerde gevegstroepe, het groepe soos die Combined Intelligence Objectives Subcommittee (CIOS) begin om oorlogsverwante dokumente en materiaal te konfiskeer en wetenskaplikes te ondervra terwyl die Duitse navorsingsfasiliteite in beslag geneem is deur die geallieerde magte. Een verhelderende ontdekking - herstel uit 'n toilet aan die Universiteit van Bonn - was die Osenberg -lys: 'n katalogus van wetenskaplikes en ingenieurs wat vir die Derde Ryk aan die werk gesit is.

In 'n geheime aangeleentheid wat oorspronklik Operation Overcast genoem is, maar later Operation Paperclip herdoop is, is ongeveer 1600 van hierdie Duitse wetenskaplikes (saam met hul gesinne) na die Verenigde State gebring om namens Amerika tydens die Koue Oorlog te werk. Die program is bestuur deur die nuutgestigte Joint Intelligence Objectives Agency (JIOA), wie se doel was om Duitse intellektuele hulpbronne te benut om Amerika se vuurwapenarsenaal en ander biologiese en chemiese wapens te ontwikkel, en om te verseker dat sulke gesogte inligting nie in die hande van die Sowjetunie.

Alhoewel hy die operasie amptelik goedgekeur het, het president Harry Truman die agentskap verbied om enige Nazi -lede of aktiewe Nazi -ondersteuners te werf. Desondanks het amptenare binne die JIOA en Office of Strategic Services (OSS) - die voorloper van die CIA - hierdie richtlijn omseil deur inkriminerende bewyse van moontlike oorlogsmisdade uit die wetenskaplikes se rekords uit te skakel of te was, en glo dat hul intelligensie van deurslaggewende belang is vir die land se naoorlogse oorlog pogings.

Een van die bekendste rekrute was Wernher von Braun, die tegniese direkteur by die Peenemunde Army Research Center in Duitsland, wat 'n belangrike rol gespeel het in die ontwikkeling van die dodelike V-2-vuurpyl wat Engeland tydens die oorlog verwoes het. Von Braun en ander vuurpylwetenskaplikes is na Fort Bliss, Texas, en White Sands Proving Grounds, New Mexico, gebring as 'spesiale werknemers van die oorlogsdepartement' om die Amerikaanse weermag te help met vuurpyl -eksperimente. Von Braun word later direkteur van NASA se Marshall Space Flight Center en die hoofargitek van die Saturn V -lanseervoertuig, wat uiteindelik twee dosyn Amerikaanse ruimtevaarders na die maan gestuur het.

Hoewel verdedigers van die klandestiene operasie beweer dat die magsbalans tydens die Koue Oorlog maklik na die Sowjetunie kon verskuif het as hierdie Nazi -wetenskaplikes nie na die Verenigde State gebring is nie, wys teenstanders op die etiese koste om hul afskuwelike oorlogsmisdade sonder straf te ignoreer of aanspreeklikheid.


The Horrible Secrets of Operation Paperclip: 'n Onderhoud met Annie Jacobsen oor haar wonderlike rekening

Aaron Leonard is 'n skrywer en joernalis wat tans besig is met die voltooiing van "Heavy Radicals - The FBI's Secret War Against America's Maoists: The Revolutionary Union/Revolutionary Communist Party 1968-1980", saam met Conor Gallagher, wat in die herfs van 2014 deur Zer0 Books gepubliseer sal word. Hy woon in Brooklyn, New York.

Annie Jacobsen is 'n joernalis en die skrywer van die New York Times -topverkoper Area 51. Sy is 'n gegradueerde aan die Princeton -universiteit en woon in Los Angeles saam met haar man en twee seuns.

Bekendstelling van 'n V2 in Peenemünde -foto geneem vier sekondes nadat hy van die toetsstaander, somer 1943, opgestyg het

Die joernalis Annie Jacobsen het onlangs Operation Paperclip: The Secret Intelligence Program gepubliseer wat Nazi -wetenskaplikes na Amerika gebring het (Little Brown, 2014). Jacobsen het deur die argiewe gewerk en voorheen onbekende rekords opgegrawe, sowel as op vroeëre werk, en vertel in 'n ontsagwekkende detail 'n baie besondere poging van die Amerikaanse weermag om die wetenskaplikes te benut wat noodsaaklik was vir Hitler se oorlogspoging.

Terwyl ek u boek gelees het, het ek begin dink oor die verskillende films van die Nazi -genre, soos The Boys from Brazil, The Odessa File en Marathon Man. slegte dinge doen. Die waarheid is blykbaar vreemder as fiksie. Wat was Operation Paperclip?

Operation Paperclip was 'n geklassifiseerde program om Nazi -wetenskaplikes na die Tweede Wêreldoorlog na Amerika te bring. Dit het egter 'n goedaardige openbare gesig gehad. Die oorlogsdepartement het 'n persverklaring uitgereik waarin gesê word dat goeie Duitse wetenskaplikes na Amerika sal kom om ons te help met ons wetenskaplike pogings.

Maar dit was glad nie goedaardig nie, soos gesien in die karakter van Otto Ambros, 'n man, soos u verduidelik, wou Amerikaanse soldate op die gebied van higiëne help deur dit seep aan te bied, kort nadat hulle Duitsland verower het. Wie was Ambros?

Otto Ambros, ek moet sê, was een van die donkerhartigste karakters waaroor ek in hierdie boek geskryf het. Hy was Hitler se gunsteling apteker, en ek sê dit nie ligtelik nie. Ek het 'n dokument in die National Archives gevind, ek glo nie dat dit ooit tevore onthul is nie, wat getoon het dat Hitler tydens die oorlog 'n miljoen Reichsmark -bonus vir sy wetenskaplike insig gegee het. Die rede was tweeledig. Ambros het gewerk aan die Reich's secret nerve agent -program, maar hy het ook sintetiese rubber uitgevind, wat buna genoem word. Die rede waarom rubber so belangrik was-as u dink aan die oorlogsmasjien van die Ryk en hoe tenks loopbane benodig, vliegtuie wiele benodig-het die Ryk rubber nodig. Deur sintetiese rubber uit te vind, het Ambros Hitler se gunsteling chemikus geword.

Nie net dit toe die Ryk besluit het om 'n fabriek in Auschwitz te ontwikkel nie-die doodskamp het 'n derde gebied, daar was Auschwitz, daar was Birkenau-hulle het dit gedoen in 'n derde gebied genaamd Auschwitz III, ook bekend as Monowitvz-Buna. Dit was waar sintetiese rubber vervaardig sou word met gevangenes wat die gaskamer gespaar sou bly terwyl hulle aan die werk gesit word, en meestal deur die Rykse oorlogsmasjien doodgemaak word. Die persoon, die hoofbestuurder daar by Auschwitz III, was Otto Ambros. Ambros was een van die laaste individue wat Auschwitz verlaat het, dit is in die laaste dae van Januarie 1945, terwyl die Russe op die punt staan ​​om die doodskamp te bevry. Ambros is daar volgens hierdie dokumente wat ek in Duitsland gevind het, en vernietig getuienis tot die einde toe.

Na die oorlog is Ambros deur die Geallieerdes gesoek en later gevind, ondervra en tereggestel in Neurenberg, waar hy skuldig bevind is aan massamoord en slawerny. Hy is tot gevangenisstraf gevonnis, maar in die vroeë vyftigerjare, toe die Koue Oorlog verhef is, is hy deur die Amerikaanse hoë kommissaris John McCloy genadig en uit die gevangenis vrygelaat. Toe hy gevonnis is, het die regters van Neurenberg al sy finansies weggeneem, insluitend die een miljoen Reichsmark -bonus van Hitler. Toe McCloy hom genadig was, herstel hy ook die finansies van Otto Ambros, sodat hy die geld wat hy oor het, teruggee. Hy kry toe 'n kontrak met die Amerikaanse departement van energie.

Het hy eintlik in die Verenigde State begin werk?

Otto Ambros is steeds een van die moeilikste sake om te klop in terme van Paperclip. Terwyl ek 'n paar nuwe en gruwelike inligting oor sy na -oorlogse lewe kon opspoor, bly die meeste daarvan "verlore of ontbreek", wat ek volgens my as ingedeeld beteken. Ons weet wel dat Ambros twee, moontlik drie keer na die Verenigde State gekom het. As 'n veroordeelde oorlogsmisdadiger wat na die Verenigde State reis, sou hy spesiale papiere van die Amerikaanse ministerie van buitelandse sake benodig het. Die staatsdepartement het my egter deur middel van die Wet op Vryheid van Inligting ingelig dat hierdie dokumente verlore of ontbreek.

U beskryf baie goed hoe u hierdie program tot stand gebring het - en die dwang om dinge te versnel sodra die Koue Oorlog volstoom getref het. Die rede was dat as die VSA hierdie mans nie in diens neem nie - en hulle was almal mans - dan sou die Sowjetunie dit hê. Hoe sien u die tipe argument met hierdie karakters so lewendig voor u?

Dit was regtig een van die mees traumatiese elemente om navorsing te doen en deur die dokumente te gaan, om te sien hoe daar verskillende faksies in die Pentagon is - omdat die program deur die gesamentlike stafhoofde uit die Pentagon is. Hulle het 'n spesifieke eenheid geskep, die Joint Intelligence Objectives Agency (JIOA), wat verantwoordelik was vir Paperclip. In hierdie dokumente kan u die toutrek sien tussen generaals wat absoluut gekant was teen die idee om enigiemand wat aan die opkoms van die Ryk deelgeneem het, te weerstaan, hulle was verafsku om hierdie wetenskaplikes hierheen te bring, wat hulle nie wou nie. Ek haal afskrifte aan waar sekere generaals presies dit sê. Aan die ander kant was daar ander individue, generaals en kolonels, wat die kans gehad het om Amerika se arsenaal, die totale van ons militêre krag, die sterkste ter wêreld en beslis sterker as die Sowjets te maak. Vir hierdie doel het hulle geen probleem ondervind om hierdie wetenskaplikes na die VSA te bring nie en was hulle skynbaar bereid om nie net die verlede van hierdie Nazi -wetenskaplikes oor die hoof te sien nie, maar hulle ook te was.

Die voormalige Nazi -chirurg -generaal, Walter Scheiber, het 'n advokaat in die VSA gehad in die persoon van kolonel Charles Loucks. U beskryf 'n foto wat geneem is van Loucks in Japan, waar hy by 'n "enorme stapel lyke" staan ​​wat op sy beurt "langs 'n stapel brandbomme" lê met 'n blik van losmaak. " Dit het my laat dink aan die beroemde aanhaling van die Amerikaanse generaal Curtis LeMay:

Die doodmaak van Japannese het my destyds nie baie gepla nie. Ek dink as ek die oorlog verloor het, sou ek as 'n oorlogsmisdadiger verhoor gewees het. Elke soldaat dink iets oor die morele aspekte van wat hy doen. Maar alle oorlog is immoreel, en as jy toelaat dat dit jou pla, is jy nie 'n goeie soldaat nie.

Die regverdigings van LeMay en Louck klink nie veel anders as die Nazi -rede: "Ek het slegs bevele gevolg nie." Hoe sien u dit en het u denke verander tydens die skryf hiervan?

By sommige van die individue was dit beslis 'n soort noodsaaklike losbandigheid in hul persepsie van wat hulle moes doen om hul land te dien. As ek in gedagte hou dat ek nie daar was tydens die Koue Oorlog nie en na die geskiedenis gekyk het, moet ek in ag neem hoe hoog die spel is - termo -kernoorlog. Sommige van die persone wat by Paperclip betrokke was, dit wil sê die Amerikaanse amptenare, as joernalis kon ek dit oorweeg en die paradoks en konflik sien en empatie hê om die moeilike besluite te moet neem.

Generaal Loucks was egter 'n uitsondering op my, omdat hy nie net die werk met Hitler se naaste vertrouelinge gesien het as 'n kwessie van nasionale veiligheid vir die Verenigde State nie; hy het die Nazi -wetenskaplikes werklik respekteer en waardeer. Ek het hierdie aanhalings van hom gevind in sy dagboeke, wat hy postuum aan die Military History Institute in Pennsylvania nagelaat het. U sien hoe hy sy liefde bespreek, byvoorbeeld 'n voormalige brigadier Fuhrer, Walter Schrieber, wat in die persoonlike personeel van Himmler was en so naby Hitler was, dat hy 'n goue partytjie -kenteken gekry het, wat beteken dat hy ten gunste van die Fuhrer was. Sheiber was betrokke by konsentrasiekamp eksperimente, hy was die skakel tussen Otto Ambros en die chemiese komitee van Reich, hy het direkte kennis gehad van die gruwelikste elemente van die konsentrasiekamp, ​​insluitend volksmoord. Hier word hy genooi na die huis van generaal Louck. Op 'n stadium in die dagboek, het ek geleer, sou hy selfs as 'n huishulp by die generaal se huis oornag.

Nou wys u op 'n interessante gedeelte in die boek wat ek dink 'n bietjie perspektief gee op generaal Loucks en my laat wonder het oor hoeveel die oorlog hom moontlik verander het? Hy was na die oorlog in beheer van die intelligensie oor chemiese wapens in Japan. Soos ek in die boek beskryf, gaan ek na die Japannese platteland en kyk na hierdie brandbomme wat hy tydens die oorlog verantwoordelik was vir die vervaardiging van die Amerikaners. Hy praat met hierdie eienaardige losbandigheid oor die afloop van 'n hoop van die oorblywende bomme en 'n hoop dooie liggame, Japannese burgerlikes wat dood is. Hy praat oor hulle met so 'n vreemde perspektief, waar hy net belangstel om te sien of sy brandbomme gewerk het. het my laat stilstaan.

Voormalige vise -president Henry Wallace, onder Franklin Roosevelt, is miskien veral bekend daarvoor dat hy kandidaat was vir die president en geweier het om afstand te doen van die steun van Amerikaanse kommuniste. Wat het hy te doen gehad met Operation Paperclip?

Dit is so 'n interessante detail om na te gaan, en dit was so 'n interessante element om oor te skryf. Alhoewel hy vise -president was en Truman later die vise -president van Roosevelt geword het, verhef die noodlot en omstandighede natuurlik Truman tot die president. Henry Wallace is dan minister van handel. Wat interessant was, is dat die sekretaris van handel 'n plek op die JIOA gehad het, en dat hy kennis geneem het van sommige, maar nie al die inligting rakende Operation Paperclip wat deur die gesamentlike stafhoofde bestuur is. Wallace as minister van handel was ongelooflik opgewonde oor die terugkeer van Amerikaners aan die werk. Hy het hierdie boek genoem, Sestig miljoen werksgeleenthede, en hy was van plan om Amerika te help om die mylpaal te bereik, die naoorlogse welvaart waarop almal in die land hoop. Wallace beskou wetenskap as 'n manier om dit te doen. Sonder om te weet wie hierdie Nazi -wetenskaplikes was en wat hul verlede was, het Wallace hierdie program onderskryf, tot so 'n mate dat hy self 'n brief aan president Truman geskryf het en gesê het dat u met hierdie program moet begin. Dit het 'n groot impak gehad op Operation Paperclip, wat op die oomblik, net 'n paar maande na die einde van die oorlog, gesukkel het met die idee van Paperclip, omdat die persepsie was dat dit 'n ooreenkoms was met die duiwel. Toe Wallace ingryp en sê dat dit 'n uitstekende handelsmerk is, was dit presies wat die Joint Chiefs gesoek het.

Hoe het u met hierdie onderwerp gebeur? Hoe moeilik was dit om dit te ondersoek en te skryf?

Ek het op Operation Paperclip afgekom toe ek skryf Gebied 51, wat betrokke was by die twee Nazi -vliegtuigontwerpers wat broers was, Walter en Reimar Horten. Die broers Horten het nie as deel van Paperclip na Amerika gekom nie, maar hul baas het dit beslis gedoen. Sy naam was Siegfried Knemeyer, hy was Herman Goering se belangrikste wetenskaplikes vir die Luftwaffe. Gorring was so lief vir hom dat hy na hom as 'my seuntjie' verwys het en hom hoof van alle tegniese ingenieurswese gemaak het. Toe ek verneem dat Knemeyer kort na die oorlog met sy sewe kinders en sy vrou na die Verenigde State gekom het, 'n lang en voorspoedige loopbaan by die Amerikaanse lugmag gehad het, en dat die ministerie van verdediging hom met sy pensioen in die middel van die sewentigerjare toegeken het Distinguished Civilian Service Award - die hoogste toekenning wat 'n wetenskaplike van die Pentagon kan kry - het ek by myself gedink, hoe gebeur dit? Hoe gaan jy van Herman Goring as jou baas, na die Amerikaanse ministerie van verdediging as jou baas, en is jy vir beide so belangrik? Dit is waar ek onmiddellik nuuskierig geraak het oor Operation Paperclip.

Ek kon die kleinseun van Knemeyer opspoor wat in die Verenigde State woon. Hy is omtrent my ouderdom en is 'n baie moedige man wat in deursigtigheid glo. Hy het ingestem om my 'n onderhoud met hom te gee. Daar begin 'n dialoog tussen Dirk Knemeyer en myself oor wat dit werklik beteken. In die onderhoude het ek besef dat daar 'n weg was na Operation Paperclip op 'n manier wat nog nie voorheen gerapporteer is nie. Natuurlik skryf ek my boek op die skouers van soveel ongelooflike joernaliste, waaronder Clarence Lasby, Linda Hunt en Tom Bower - mense wat al voorheen oor Paperclip geskryf het, maar met beperkte toegang - ons gaan almal saam en bou aan dinge soos meer inligting word onthul. Ek glo egter dat toegang tot hul familielede my baie insig gegee het in die karakters in Operation Paperclip.

Wat die tweede deel van u vraag betref, is die onderwerp so kompleks, sekerlik as u oor die oorlog lees, is dit donker en boos. As u dan lees oor wat na die oorlog gebeur het, is dit ingewikkeld en uitdagend. Vir 'n joernalis wat 'n uitdagende gebied is. Ek is iemand wat die uitdaging altyd verwelkom omdat ek nie glo dat stories swart en wit is nie. En ek glo nie dat verhale eensydig is of maklik gemaak kan word nie. Ek glo dat dit 'n onderwerp is wat ernstig oorweeg moet word, en ek dink ook dat daar nog soveel meer aan die lig moet kom. Ek hoop dat my boek joernaliste se sonde in die komende dekade inspireer om meer hierna te kyk. Omdat ek absoluut weet dat daar soveel hier is wat nog steeds geklassifiseer is.


Johan Vaaler

Johan Vaaler, 'n Noorse uitvinder met 'n graad in elektronika, wetenskap en wiskunde, het die paperclip uitgevind in 1899. Hy het in 1899 'n patent vir sy ontwerp in Duitsland ontvang, aangesien Noorweë op daardie stadium geen patentwette gehad het nie.

Vaaler was 'n werknemer by 'n plaaslike uitvindingskantoor toe hy die paperclip gemaak het. Hy ontvang 'n Amerikaanse patent in 1901. Die patentopsomming sê: "Dit bestaan ​​uit die vorming van 'n veermateriaal, soos 'n stuk draad, wat gebuig is tot 'n reghoekige, driehoekige of andersins gevormde hoepel, waarvan die einddele draadstuk vorm lede of tonge wat langs mekaar in teenoorgestelde rigtings lê. " Vaaler was die eerste persoon wat 'n papierklipontwerp gepatenteer het, hoewel ander ontwerpe wat nie gepatenteer is nie, moontlik eers bestaan ​​het.

Die Amerikaanse uitvinder Cornelius J. Brosnan het in 1900 aansoek gedoen om 'n Amerikaanse patent vir 'n paperclip. Hy noem sy uitvinding die 'Konaclip'.


Nerve Gas & Rockets to the Moon: Operation Paperclip & Nazi -wetenskaplikes in Amerika

Duitsland het in Mei 1945 oorgegee. Kort daarna het die westerse geallieerde moondhede en die Sowjetunie begin om Europa op te sny. Duitsland is in twee verdeel. Die ystergordyn is opgelig. Die volgende November begin die Neurenbergproewe. Die Nazi's is verantwoordelik vir hul misdade.

Daar is baie verhale, sowel feite as fiksie, van voormalige Nazi's wat uit Europa vlug. Sommige van hulle het egter nie teregstelling of lewenslange tronkstraf in die gesig gestaar nie, en hulle het nie na Argentinië of enige ander verborge hoek van die wêreld gevlug nie. In plaas daarvan het hulle na die Verenigde State gekom.

Hoekom? Hulle het geweet hoe om vuurpyle te maak. Hulle het die geheime van senuweegas geken. Hulle was wetenskaplikes.

In die wedloop teen Duitsland om atoomwapens te ontwikkel, het die VSA Operasie Alsos in 1943 gestig as 'n tak van die Manhattan -projek. Sy missie was om Duitse militêre navorsing op te spoor of te ontwrig, asook om te keer dat dit in die hande van die Sowjets val.

Die Trinity -toets van die Manhattan -projek was die eerste ontploffing van 'n kernwapen.

Die Koue Oorlog het reeds begin. Alhoewel die belangrikste doelwit Duitse kernnavorsing was, was die VSA op soek na nuwe militêre tegnologie.

Onder die mees gesogte Duitse uitvindings was die V-2-vuurpyl, een van die dodelikste wapens wat die Duitsers tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog gemaak het. Dit is ontwikkel in die laaste jaar van die oorlog en was een van die eerste in sy soort: 'n langafstand geleide missiel.

Met hierdie tegnologie kon die Duitsers byna straffeloos teikens bereik tot byna 322 kilometer van hul afskietplekke.

V-2-vuurpyllanseer, Peenemünde, aan die noordoostelike Baltiese Duitse kus. (1943) Deur Bundesarchiv – CC BY-SA 3.0 de

Londen en Antwerpen was die mees gereelde teikens. Die Duitsers het byna 3 000 vuurpyle na die twee stede gelanseer, met byna al die V-2-vuurpyle wat gelanseer is.

Die Duitsers alleen het hierdie tegnologie gehad, en benewens die vernietigende vermoëns, was dit ook die eerste mensgemaakte voorwerp wat die ruimte bereik het. Dit sou 'n nuttige basis wees om op voort te bou in die komende ruimtewedloop.

Wernher von Braun was die hoofontwerper van die V-2, en hy was boaan die lys van die mees gesoekte Duitse wetenskaplikes van die Amerikaanse weermag.

Wernher von Braun

Toe die Geallieerdes Duitsland toesluit, het von Braun en sy span weggekruip in die Beierse Alpe in 'n klein dorpie, veral bekend as 'n skigebied.

Daar hoor hulle oor die dood van Hitler oor die radio. Wetende dat hulle waardevol sou wees vir die geallieerde moondhede, het die wetenskaplikes hulself onmiddellik oorgegee aan die Amerikaanse en Franse troepe in die valleie daaronder.

Wernher von Braun is vir ondervraging geneem en slegs 'n paar maande later werk. Die daaropvolgende September het die VSA 'n aantal V-2-vuurpylwetenskaplikes vervoer, waaronder Wernher von Braun, na Fort Strong, 'n militêre basis op 'n klein eiland in die Boston-hawe.

Duitse wetenskaplikes en ingenieurs repatrieer uit Sukhumi in Februarie 1958. Deur Bundesarchiv – CC BY-SA 3.0 de

Von Braun het die volgende jare die ontwerp en bou van vuurpyle vir die Amerikaanse weermag in Fort Bliss, 'n weermagbasis noord van El Paso, deurgebring. Hy is later in 1950 aan die begin van die Koreaanse Oorlog na Huntsville, Alabama, oorgeplaas. Daar het von Braun en sy span die eerste kernwapen ballistiese missiel ontwikkel.

Von Braun met die F-1-enjins van die Saturnus V-eerste fase in die US Space and Rocket Center

In 1958, een jaar na die bekendstelling van die Sowjet -Spoetnik -satelliet, is NASA gestig. In 1960 is die NASA Marshall Space Flight Center gestig, en von Braun is gewerf om as direkteur te dien tot 1970. Daar het hy toesig gehou oor die ontwikkeling van die Saturn -vuurpylprogram.

NASA Marshall Space Flight Center – Seremonie van oordrag van die weermag na NASA 1 Julie 1960.

In 1969 het NASA die Saturn V -vuurpyl gebruik om die Apollo 11 -ruimtetuig te lanseer. Dit was die missie wat Buzz Aldrin en Neil Armstrong na die maan geneem het.

Dieselfde jaar het von Braun die NASA Distinguished Service Medal ontvang, net soos drie ander voormalige Nazi -vuurpylwetenskaplikes wat deur Operation Paperclip gewerf is.

Buzz Aldrin (foto) het saam met Neil Armstrong op die maan geloop, op Apollo 11, 20–21 Julie 1969

President Truman het die werwingsprogram vir Nazi -wetenskaplikes amptelik in Julie 1945 goedgekeur. Dit is toe Operation Overcast genoem, later herdoop tot Operation Paperclip, en die riglyne daarvan het die voorbehoud gemaak dat die VSA geen oorlogsmisdadigers en vurige Nazi's werf nie.

Namate die Sowjet -bedreiging egter meer werklik geword het, sou hierdie voorskrifte verander. V-2-vuurpyle is deur slawe-arbeid vervaardig, 'n geheim wat die wetenskaplikes versigtig sou uitlaat as hulle oor hul na-oorlogse lewens onderhandel het.

Hierdie detail sou later na vore kom, maar nóg von Braun of enige van sy wetenskapspan is ooit aangekla vir oorlogsmisdade.

Von Braun -span 1959

Daarteenoor is sommige van die doelwitte van Operasie Alsos aangekla. Otto Ambros was een van hulle.

Anders as von Braun, was Ambros 'n Nazi -ideoloog, om die rede aanvanklik deur intelligensiedienste bestempel as ongeskik vir werwing. Hy was ook direk betrokke by die gruwelikste misdade van Nazi -Duitsland.

Hy was die hoof van die wapenafdeling van die chemiese onderneming, IG Farben. Ambros was ook een van die mede-ontdekkers van sarin gas, en hy was Hitler se gunsteling chemikus.

Otto Ambros

Tydens die oorlog het hy 'n ooreenkoms met die SS gesluit om IG Farben se industriële rubberaanleg na Auschwitz te verskuif. Die SS sou dan arbeid uit die konsentrasiekamp vir die fabriek voorsien. Ambros het toesig gehou oor hierdie aanleg sowel as 'n geheime chemiese wapenfasiliteit.

Hiervoor is Ambros skuldig bevind aan slawerny en massamoord tydens die IG Farben -verhoor in Neurenberg. Hy is tot agt jaar gevangenisstraf gevonnis, maar hy is vroeg in 1951 vrygelaat, toe het Operation Paperclip hom reeds vir werwing geteiken.

Project Paperclip Team by Fort Bliss crop.jpg

Hy werk later vir verskeie Europese en Amerikaanse chemiese ondernemings, sowel as die Amerikaanse departement van energie.

Fritz Hoffmann was nog 'n Duitse chemikus onder die Operation Paperclip -rekrute. Anders as die ander Duitse wetenskaplikes, is hy tydens die oorlog as anti-Nazi gedokumenteer. Hy het ook 'n Ph.D. in die filosofie.

Fritz Hoffmann

Hoffmann is ryp vir werwing en is na die Amerikaanse fasiliteit vir die ontwikkeling van chemiese wapens in die Edgewood Arsenal in Maryland gestuur. Daar het hy die Amerikaanse weermag gehelp om sarin en tabun te herhaal, 'n senuwee -agent soortgelyk aan sarin wat ook deur Otto Ambros aangevoer is.

In die 1950's is Hoffmann gewerf deur die destyds nuutgestigte C.I.A. om nuwe gifstowwe te vind wat gebruik kan word vir geheime sluipmoorde.

Dit is slegs 'n handjievol Nazi -wetenskaplikes wat deur Operation Paperclip na die VSA gebring is. Gemotiveer deur die reeds dreigende militêre en tegnologiese wedywering met die Sowjetunie, het die VSA vinnig beweeg om die tegnologie wat hulle van die verslane Derde Ryk sou kry, te benut.

Nege-en-dertig van die Duits-gebore wetenskaplikes by die Amerikaanse Redstone Arsenal, saam met die vroue van twee van die Operation Paperclip-groep, is tydens 'n naturalisasie-seremonie in 1954 as Amerikaanse burgers ingesweer.

President Truman was self huiwerig en het dit as 'n noodsaaklike kompromis goedgekeur om hom voor te berei op 'n nuwe militêre bedreiging.

Die erfenis van Operation Paperclip is al dekades lank geheim gehou, maar is onlosmaaklik verbonde aan die ontwikkeling van Amerikaanse tegnologie in die 20ste eeu. Sonder Nazi's sou daar geen mans op die maan gewees het nie.


Operasie Paperclip en die vuurpylwedren

Met die 50ste herdenking van die Apollo 11-maanlandingsending wat in Julie verbygegaan het, het historici 'n minder bekende aspek van ruimtevaart ondersoek: hoe die VSA 'n bende Nazi-vuurpylingenieurs weggeruk het voordat die Sowjetunie kon.

Hierdie langtermyn-operasie, met die naam Operation Paperclip, sou uiteindelik die kennis en personeel verskaf wat as die fondament van NASA sou dien.

En ja, daar was baie (voormalige) hakekorse teenwoordig. In die woorde van die satiriese spioenhoof Malory Archer:

& ldquoRockets! Wat hom [Neil Armstrong] op die maan geplaas het. Nadat die oorlog geëindig het, het ons Nazi -wetenskaplikes soos soetkoek opgeraap. Glo jy my nie? Loop een of ander tyd by NASA in en skree & lsquoHeil Hitler! & Rsquo WOOP! Hulle spring almal regop! & Rdquo

Kry die goedere

Aan die einde van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog was Amerikaanse intelligensiebeamptes verstom toe hulle ontdek dat Nazi -wetenskaplikes nie net 'n gevorderde arsenaal van senuweeagente ontwikkel het nie, maar ook 'n buisplaag biowapen (yikes).

Tesame met hul baanbrekerspogings in vuurpyl, was Nazi -tegnologie destyds ongeveer 25 jaar voor enige ontwikkelde land.

Volgens Annie Jacobsen, skrywer van Operasie Paperclip: Die geheime intelligensieprogram wat Nazi -wetenskaplikes na Amerika gebring het, & ldquo Dit was toe die topkoper besef het & lsquo Ons het hierdie wapens vir onsself nodig & rsquo. & rdquo

Dit was algemeen bekend deur die geallieerde intelligensie dat die Duitse V-2-vuurpylprogram onder toesig was van 'n genie (hoewel 'n stabiele) genaamd Wernher von Braun. Die V-2 het 'n operasionele reikafstand van 200 myl in 'n tydperk van ses minute gehad en was van kardinale belang.

Ondanks die V-2 en rsquos-stratosfeer-breekvermoëns, het dit meer as 2 000 mense tydens die London Blitz doodgemaak.

Wernher & rsquos groot avontuur

Von Braun was 'n voormalige SS-Unterscharf en uumlhrer (luitenant) wat slawe-arbeid uit die konsentrasiekamp Mittelbau-Dora uitgebuit het om sy vuurpyle te bou. Hy sou later dien as NASA en 'n Walt Disney-figuurlike figuur, met ruimtevaart na 'n gevange gehoor van Amerikaanse burgers.

'N Publiek wat in die algemeen mislei is met betrekking tot hul nuwe wetenskaplike en fascistiese agtergrond.

Terwyl sommige oorlewendes hom daarvan beskuldig het dat hy verantwoordelik was vir bykans 20 000 sterftes, het ander sy aansluiting by die Nazi -party as 'n vorm van dwang of diensplig beskou ter wille van sy navorsing.

U weet, daardie ou kastaiingbruin & mdash & ldquo Volg net opdragte. & Rdquo

Werner von Braun (1912-1977), die Duits-gebore Amerikaanse vuurpylingenieur met modelrakette. Hy was die direkteur van die Amerikaanse weermagspan wat die eerste satelliet Explorer I in 1958 in die ruimte gesit het. (& Kopieer Hulton-Deutsch Collection/CORBIS/Corbis via Getty Images)

Die belangrikste navorsingsentrum vir die V-2-program was in Peenem & uumlnde, Duitsland (aan die Baltiese kus), maar daar was verskeie hulp- en vervaardigingsfasiliteite in die binneland.

Toe die Sowjets die omliggende gebiede begin inneem, het hulle 'n soortgelyke doel gesoek en von Braun en sy voorste ingenieurs voor die Geallieerdes gevange geneem.

Von Braun en 'n geraamte -bemanning vlug toe suidwaarts met alle belangrike planne, navorsing en fisiese komponente van hul werk.

Geallieerde magte, onder leiding van Amerikaanse inligtingsamptenare, het hul sending vanuit die weste uitgevoer. En op 2 Mei 1945 gee von Braun, sy broer, Magnus, en tientalle ander vuurpylingenieurs hulle oor aan 'n geallieerde konvooi in Beiere.

Die voormalige Nazi kon nou met sy navorsing voortgaan, aangesien dit nie vir hom saak gemaak het wie daarvoor betaal het nie (menseregteskendings is verdoem).

Die vyand van jou vyand

Terwyl die Sowjetunie en die VSA bondgenote tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog was, was hul verhouding ten beste swak.

Die belangrikste vertrouensbreuk [soos deur die Sowjetunie beskou] was die versuim van die VSA om in 1944 in Europa te land, 'sê Pierre Asselin, professor in geskiedenis en Dwight E. Stanford -voorsitter aan die San Diego State University. Toe hulle wel opdaag, het die Sowjets gevoel asof hulle was baie laat na die partytjie. & rdquo

En die Sowjets het reeds die meeste verliese uit enige ander land gely. Nadat die VSA die bom (s) op Japan laat val het, beskou Stalin dit as 'n direkte bedreiging vir hom: & lsquoBly uit Asië, of dit is wat met jou kan gebeur, & rsquo & rdquo Asselin verduidelik.

Hierdie paranoia wat wedersyds verseker is, sou uiteindelik dekades lank diplomatieke betrekkinge tussen die Sowjetunie en die VSA vorm. Soveel so dat die VSA bereid was om hul nuwe ingenieurs en fascistiese verlede net 'n oog te hou vir die Sowjetunie.

Tussen September 1945 en vroeg in 1946 het Wernher von Braun en 125 ander spanlede by Fort Bliss, Texas, aangekom.

Gedurende die volgende 15 jaar het von Braun en medewerkers met die Amerikaanse weermag saamgewerk om die ontwikkeling van ballistiese missiele te bespoedig en te help met V-2-lanseerings by White Sands Proving Ground in New Mexico.

Operasie Paperclip sou in sy geheel die betrokkenheid van byna 1600 Duitse vuurpylwetenskaplikes en tegnici betrek.

Die Sowjette het 'n soortgelyke program in werking gestel, Operasie Osoaviakhim, waar die NKVD (nie-so-geheime polisie) en weermag meer as 2 200 Duitse spesialiste uit die besettingsgebied verwyder het om vir hulle te werk.

Hulle het Sergei Korolev, 'n briljante vuurpylingenieur, in 1944 uit die Gulag vrygelaat om saam met Valentin Glushko aan die ballistiese raket A-4 te werk. In 'n ironiese wending was Glushko die man wat Korolev tydens Stalin & rsquos Purges gevinger het en hom uiteindelik vir die beter einde van ses jaar laat wegstuur het.

So ja, hulle was redelik styf.

Korolev en Glushko het daarna onder toesig saamgewerk om die A-4 te reproduseer met byvoegings uit stukkies/planne wat by navorsings- en toetsfasiliteite gevind is. Ten spyte van verskeie mislukte pogings, het hulle uiteindelik die vliegbaan verdubbel tot 500 myl in 15 minute.


Operasie Paperclip

In 1945, the Joint Intelligence Objectives Agency, a subcommittee established by the Joint Intelligence Committee of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, was tasked with retrieving German scientists, doctors and engineers who were identified as intellectually vital to the Third Reich.

Journalist Annie Jacobsen states in a 2014 interview that this was prompted by the Allies' concerns over Hitler's potential weapons arsenal.

"Fall of 1944, right after the Normandy landings, scattered among the Allies' troops are these little units of scientific intelligence officers and they're working to find out Hitler's biological weapons, his chemical weapons and his atomic weapons," said Jacobsen, author of "Operation Paperclip: The Secret Intelligence Program to Bring Nazi Scientists to America."

These intelligence officers eventually discovered while the atomic weapons program was not as advanced as initially feared, Hitler's biochemical weapons were. The hunt "for this scientific treasure and ultimately for the scientists themselves" thus ignited Operation Overcast, renamed Paperclip for the paperclips attached to the files of the most "troublesome cases," Jacobsen writes in her book.

The U.S. was not alone in this endeavor. Britain, France and especially the Soviet Union sought to enlist these German scientific experts, as well. A U.S.-Soviet technological rivalry marked by the Space Race and Cold War would also serve as a motivation, and justification, for Operation Paperclip's existence.

Tens of thousands of Nazi storm troopers take the oath of allegiance to Chancellor Adolf Hitler, in the Lustgarten, Berlin, Feb. 26, 1934. Nazi banners are dipped during the swearing of the oath. (Photo: AP Photo)


A Controversial, Secret Project and a Grim History

As a follow on to my two recent articles – one on Hubertus Strughold and the other on Wernher von Braun – I thought I would share with you the bigger picture of the Skuifspeld program that began in the post-Second World War era. It was a project filled with controversy and for a very good reason: Skuifspeld was filled with Nazis. Working in the United States. And under a veil of secrecy. Nie goed nie. Not good at all. Now, let’s have a look at the history of this grim operation. It was just about immediately after the Second World War came to an end in July 1945, certain elements of the American military and intelligence community clandestinely sought to bring some of the most brilliant figures within the German medical and scientific communities into the United States to continue research – and at times highly controversial research – they had undertaken at the height of the war. It was research that included studies of human anatomy and physiology in relation to aerospace medicine, high-altitude exposure, and what was then termed “space biology.” The startling fact that some of these scientists were ardent Nazis, and even members of the notorious and feared SS, proved not a problem at all to the government of the time. Thus was born the notorious Operation Skuifspeld, so named because the recruit’s papers were paper-clipped to regular American immigration forms.

In January 1994, President Bill Clinton appointed an Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments (ACHRE) that was tasked with investigating unethical medical experimentation undertaken on human beings from the mid-1940s onwards. The ACHRE was quick to realize that Skuifspeld personnel played a considerable role in post-war human experimentation on American soil. According to an April 5, 1995 memorandum, from the Advisory Committee Staff (ACS) to the Members of the ACHRE: “The Air Force’s School of Aviation Medicine (SAM) at Brooks Air Force Base in Texas conducted dozens of human radiation experiments during the Cold War, among them flash-blindness studies in connection with atomic weapons tests, and data gathering for total-body irradiation studies conducted in Houston.

Because of the extensive postwar recruiting of German scientists for the SAM and other US defense installations, and in light of the central importance of the Nuremberg prosecutions to the Advisory Committee’s work, members of the staff have collected documentary evidence about project Skuifspeld from the National Archives and Department of Defense records. The experiments for which Nazi investigators were tried included many related to aviation research. These were mainly high-altitude exposure studies, oxygen deprivation experiments, and cold studies related to air-sea rescue operations. This information about aircrew hazards was important to both sides, and, of course, continued to be important to military organizations in the Cold War.”

The ACHRE memorandum then detailed the background and scope of the project: “Project Skuifspeld was a postwar and Cold War operation carried out by the Joint Objectives Agency (JOIA) [Author’s Note: the JOIA was a special intelligence office that reported to the Director of Intelligence in the War Department, comparable to the intelligence chief of today’s Joint Chiefs of Staff.] Skuifspeld had two aims: to exploit German scientists for American research, and to deny these intellectual resources to the Soviet Union. At least 1,600 scientists and their dependents were recruited and brought to the United States by Skuifspeld and its successor projects through the early 1970s.” ACHRE continued: “In recent years, it has been alleged that many of these individuals were brought to the United States in violation of American government policy not to permit the entrance of ‘ardent Nazis’ into the country, that many were security risks, and that at least some were implicated in Holocaust-related activities.”

“At the time of its inception,” said ACHRE, “Skuifspeld was a matter of controversy in the War Department, as demonstrated by a November 27, 1946 memorandum from General Groves, director of the Manhattan Project, relating to the bringing to the United States of the eminent physicist Otto Hahn. Groves wrote that the Manhattan Project: ‘…does not desire to utilize the services of foreign scientists in the United States, either directly with the Project or with any affiliated organization. This has consistently been my views [sic]. I should like to make it clear, however, that I see no objection to bringing to the United States such carefully screened physicists as would contribute materially to the welfare of the United States and would remain permanently in the United States as naturalized citizens. I strongly recommend against foreign physicists coming in contact with our atomic energy program in any way. If they are allowed to see or discuss the work of the Project the security of our information would get out of control..”

The Advisory Committee Staff also revealed: “A number of military research sites recruited Skuifspeld scientists with backgrounds in aero-medicine, radiobiology and ophthalmology. These institutions included the SAM, where radiation experiments were conducted, and other military sites, particularly the Edgewood Arsenal of the Army’s Chemical Corps. The portfolio of experiments at the SAM was one that would particularly benefit from the Skuifspeld recruits. Experiments there included total-body irradiation, space medicine and biology studies, and flash-blindness studies. Herbert Gerstner, a principal investigator in TBI experiments at the SAM, was acting director of the Institute of Physiology at the University of Leipzig: he became a radiobiologist at the SAM. The Air Force Surgeon General and SAM officials welcomed the Skuifspeld scientists. In March 1951, the school’s Commandant, O.O. Benson Jr., wrote to the Surgeon General to seek more ‘…first class scientists and highly qualified technologists from Germany.

More than 100 German scientists posing at Fort Bliss, Texas, 1946

“The first group of Skuifspeld personnel contained a number of scientists that have proved to be of real value to the Air Force. The weaker and less gifted ones have been culled to a considerable extent. The second group reporting here in 1949 were, in general, less competent than the original Skuifspeld personnel, and culling process will again be in order.’ General Benson’s adjutant solicited resumes from a Skuifspeld list, including a number of radiation biology and physics specialists. The qualifications of a few scientists were said to be known, so curricula vitae were waived. The adjutant wrote, also in March 1951: ‘In order to systematically benefit from this program this headquarters believes that the employment of competent personnel who fit into our research program is a most important consideration.'”

ACHRE then addressed the issues of (a) the way in which a race began between the United States and the Soviet Union to acquire the services of the German scientific and medical communities, post-1945 and (b) the extent to which some of the Skuifspeld scientists had been supporters of the Nazi regime: “Official U.S. government policy was to avoid recruitment of “ardent Nazis,” it was stated. However, this was qualified by the following: “Many of the Skuifspeld scientists were members of Nazi organizations of one sort of another. The documentary record indicates, however, that many claimed inactive status or membership that was a formality, according to files in the National Archives.”

Research undertaken by the ACS uncovered the fact that much pressure was exerted in an attempt to ensure that Skuifspeld succeeded. For example, an April 27, 1948 memorandum from the director of the Joint Intelligence Objectives Agency, Navy Captain Bosquet N. Wev, to the Pentagon’s Director of Intelligence states: “Security investigations conducted by the military have disclosed the fact that the majority of German scientists were members of either the Nazi Party or one or more of its affiliates. These investigations disclose further that with a very few exceptions, such membership was due to exigencies which influenced the lives of every citizen of Germany at that time.” Wev was critical of what were described as over-scrupulous investigations by the Department of Justice and other agencies as reflecting security concerns no longer relevant with the defeat of Germany, and “biased considerations” about the nature of his recruits’ fascist allegiances. The possibility of scientists being won to the Soviet side in the Cold War was, according to Captain Wev, the highest consideration.


Nazi Scientists in America

At first, U.S. officials promised none of the Germans would be known or alleged war criminals, going so far as to suggest none had been Nazis. This, of course, was impossible, as a German scientist could not obtain a job without party membership. Not all officials agreed with the idea. The Departments of State, Justice, Labor and Commerce all objected to skipping such legal requirements as visa clearances, but their staff were eventually persuaded by the promises that the scientists would stay only temporarily. That is, they’d be here under military guard until we’d learned from them all we needed.

President Truman initially agreed to the idea and about 150 scientists came. But in the winter of 1945-46, the expanded version of CIOS became seriously concerned that Russia was ahead of us in weapons development and that a Cold War was in the offing. We needed all the German scientists we could muster to prevent advanced Nazi technology from falling into the hands of the Soviet Union. The number of German scientists brought to the U.S. expanded to 1,500 (or possibly more records are hard to find and verify). To signal that no visa check was to be completed, the requesting staff attached a paperclip to each scientist’s folder. Thus the name of the operation. None of these scientists’ folders was subjected to the scrutiny required of other potential immigrants.


by Dr. Good Heart
A Green Road Journal

Project Paper Clip CIA Smuggled In And Hired Thousands Of Nazis And Hundreds of War Criminals To Develop And Set Off Nuclear Atom Bombs On US Soil, US Corporations Built And Supported Hitler War Machine

CIA PROVIDES DECLASSIFIED INFORMATION ABOUT PROJECT PAPERCLIP

THEREARENOSUNGLASSES
SEPTEMBER 14, 2016

In 1945, Gehlen surrendered to The Army Counter Intelligence Corp (CIC), and upon interrogation, he offered up his files and network of spies to the United States in exchange for his freedom. The files were dug up, his men in the Allied POW camps were transferred, and he was flown to Fort Hunt in Virginia in secret. It was there that a deal was hammered out for Gehlen to return to Germany, re-establish his intelligence network, and serve the United States Government. Thus the Gehlen Organization was born.

The Gehlen Organization, or the “Org” as it was referred to, was then grafted on to the fledgling CIA at its creation in 1947, and it was often the only eyes and ears on the ground in many Soviet bloc countries after the war. It was through the Gehlen Organization that many hundreds, and perhaps thousands, of SS, SD, and Gestapo men came to work for the United States Government. It was the intelligence reports from these Nazi men, that wound up comprising an estimated 70% of all U.S. intelligence on the Soviet Union during the early part of the Cold War.

In 1956, the Org was handed over to West Germany and Gehlen became the first President of the Federal Intelligence Service (BND). He held this post until 1968 before being forced out due to a combination of factors. At his retirement he received one of the highest civilian grade pensions from the West German Republic, and allegedly, a pension from the CIA…

DOWNLOAD FILES
Files hosted on Archive.org

Operation Paperclip
Wikipedia

A group of 104 rocket scientists (aerospace engineers) at Fort Bliss, Texas

Operation Paperclip was theUnited States Office of Strategic Services (OSS) program in which more than 1,500 Germans,[1] primarily scientists but also engineers and technicians, were brought to the United States from Nazi Germany for government employment starting in 1945 and increasing in the aftermath of World War II.[2] It was conducted by the Joint Intelligence Objectives Agency (JIOA) and in the context of the burgeoning Cold War.

One purpose of Operation Paperclip was to deny German scientific expertise and knowledge to the Soviet Union[2] and the United Kingdom,[3] as well as to inhibit post-war Germany from redeveloping its military research capabilities. A related course of action was taken by the US with regard to Japanese human experimenters employed from Unit 731. The Soviet Union had the somewhat similar yet much more limited Operation Osoaviakhim.[4]

The JIOA’s recruitment of German scientists began after the Allied victory in Europe on May 8, 1945, but U.S. President Harry Truman did not formally order the execution of Operation Paperclip until August 1945. Truman’s order expressly excluded anyone found “to have been a member of the Nazi Party, and more than a nominal participant in its activities, or an active supporter of Nazi militarism.” However, those restrictions would have rendered ineligible most of the leading scientists whom the JIOA had identified for recruitment, among them rocket scientists Wernher von Braun, Kurt H. Debus, and Arthur Rudolph, as well as physician Hubertus Strughold, each earlier classified as a “menace to the security of the Allied Forces.”[5]

The JIOA worked independently to circumvent President Truman’s anti-Nazi order and the Allied Potsdam and Yalta agreements, creating false employment and political biographies for the scientists. The JIOA also expunged the scientists’ Nazi Party memberships and regime affiliations from the public record. Once “bleached” of their Nazism, the scientists were grantedsecurity clearances by the U.S. government to work in the United States. The project’s operational name of Paperclip was derived from the paperclips used to attach the scientists’ new political personae to their “US Government Scientist” JIOA personnel files.[6]

Nazi Germany found itself at a logistical disadvantage, having failed to conquer the USSR with Operation Barbarossa (June–December 1941), the Siege of Leningrad (September 1941 – January 1944), Operation Nordlicht (“Northern Light”, August–October 1942), and the Battle of Stalingrad (July 1942 – February 1943). The failed conquest had depleted German resources, and its military-industrial complex was unprepared to defend the Großdeutsches Reich (Greater German Reich) against the Red Army‘s westward counterattack. By early 1943, the German government began recalling from combat a number of scientists, engineers, and technicians they returned to work in research and development to bolster German defense for a protracted war with the USSR. The recall from frontline combat included 4,000 rocketeers returned to Peenemünde, in northeast coastal Germany.[7][8]

Overnight, Ph.D.s were liberated from KP duty, masters of science were recalled from orderly service, mathematicians were hauled out of bakeries, and precision mechanics ceased to be truck drivers.
— Dieter K. Huzel, Peenemünde to Canaveral

The Nazi government’s recall of their now-useful intellectuals for scientific work first required identifying and locating the scientists, engineers, and technicians, then ascertaining their political and ideological reliability. Werner Osenberg, the engineer-scientist heading the Wehrforschungsgemeinschaft (Military Research Association), recorded the names of the politically cleared men to the Osenberg List, thus reinstating them to scientific work.[9]

In March 1945, at Bonn University, a Polish laboratory technician found pieces of the Osenberg List stuffed in a toilet the list subsequently reached MI6, who transmitted it to U.S. Intelligence.[10][11] Then U.S. Army Major Robert B. Staver, Chief of the Jet Propulsion Section of the Research and Intelligence Branch of the U.S. Army Ordnance Corps, used the Osenberg List to compile his list of German scientists to be captured and interrogatedWernher von Braun, Nazi Germany’s premier rocket scientist, headed Major Staver’s list.[12]

Identification

V-2 rocket launching, Peenemünde, on the north-east Baltic German coast. (1943)In Operation Overcast, Major Staver’s original intent was only to interview the scientists, but what he learned changed the operation’s purpose. On May 22, 1945, he transmitted to U.S. Pentagon headquarters Colonel Joel Holmes’s telegram urging the evacuation of German scientists and their families, as most “important for [the] Pacific war” effort.[11] Most of the Osenberg List engineers worked at the Baltic coast German Army Research Center Peenemünde, developing the V-2 rocket. After capturing them, the Allies initially housed them and their families in Landshut, Bavaria, in southern Germany.Beginning on July 19, 1945, the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) managed the captured ARC rocketeers under Operation Overcast. However, when the “Camp Overcast” name of the scientists’ quarters became locally-known, the program was renamed Operation Paperclip in November 1945.[13] Despite these attempts at secrecy, later that year the press interviewed several of the scientists.[11][12][14]Regarding Operation Alsos, Allied Intelligence described nuclear physicist Werner Heisenberg, the German nuclear energy project principal, as “worth more to us than ten divisions of Germans.” In addition to rocketeers and nuclear physicists, the Allies also sought chemists, physicians, and naval weaponeers.[15]Meanwhile, the Technical Director of the German Army Rocket Center, Wernher von Braun, was jailed at P.O. Box 1142, a military-intelligence black site in Fort Hunt, Virginia, in the United States. Since the prison was unknown to the international community, its operation by the US was in violation of the Geneva Convention of 1929, which the United States had ratified.[16] Although Von Braun’s interrogators pressured him, he was not tortured however, in 1944 another prisoner of war, U-boat Captain Werner Henke, had been shot and killed while climbing the fence at Fort Hunt.[17] Capture and detention

The Allied zones of occupation in post-war Germany, highlighting the Soviet zone (red), the inner German border (heavy black line) and the zone from which British and American troops withdrew in July 1945 (purple). The provincial boundaries are those of Nazi Germany, before the present Länder (federal states) were established.Early on, the United States created the Combined Intelligence Objectives Subcommittee (CIOS). This provided the information on targets for the T-Forces that went in and targeted scientific, military and industrial installations (and their employees) for their know-how. Initial priorities were advanced technology, such as infrared, that could be used in the war against Japan finding out what technology had been passed on to Japan and finally to halt the research.

A project to halt the research was codenamed “Project Safehaven”, and it was not initially targeted against the Soviet Union rather the concern was that German scientists might emigrate and continue their research in countries such as Spain, Argentina or Egypt, all of which had sympathized with Nazi Germany. In order to avoid the complications involved with the emigration of German scientists, the CIOS was responsible for scouting and kidnapping high profile individuals for the deprivation of technological advancements in nations outside of the US.

Much U.S. effort was focused on Saxony and Thuringia, which by July 1, 1945, would become part of the Soviet Occupation zone. Many German research facilities and personnel had been evacuated to these states, particularly from the Berlin area. Fearing that the Soviet takeover would limit U.S. ability to exploit German scientific and technical expertise, and not wanting the Soviet Union to benefit from said expertise, the United States instigated an “evacuation operation” of scientific personnel from Saxony and Thuringia, issuing orders such as:

On orders of Military Government you are to report with your family and baggage as much as you can carry tomorrow noon at 1300 hours (Friday, 22 June 1945) at the town square in Bitterfeld. There is no need to bring winter clothing. Easily carried possessions, such as family documents, jewelry, and the like should be taken along. You will be transported by motor vehicle to the nearest railway station. From there you will travel on to the West. Please tell the bearer of this letter how large your family is.

By 1947 this evacuation operation had netted an estimated 1,800 technicians and scientists, along with 3,700 family members. Those with special skills or knowledge were taken to detention and interrogation centers, such as one code-named DUSTBIN,[18] to be held and interrogated, in some cases for months.

A few of the scientists were gathered up in Operation Overcast, but most were transported to villages in the countryside where there were neither research facilities nor work they were provided stipends and forced to report twice weekly to police headquarters to prevent them from leaving. The Joint Chiefs of Staff directive on research and teaching stated that technicians and scientists should be released “only after all interested agencies were satisfied that all desired intelligence information had been obtained from them”.

On November 5, 1947, the Office of Military Government of the United States (OMGUS), which had jurisdiction over the western part of occupied Germany, held a conference to consider the status of the evacuees, the monetary claims that the evacuees had filed against the United States, and the “possible violation by the US of laws of war or Rules of Land Warfare”.

The OMGUS director of Intelligence R. L. Walsh initiated a program to resettle the evacuees in the Third World, which the Germans referred to as General Walsh’s “Urwald-Programm” (jungle program), however this program never matured. In 1948, the evacuees received settlements of 69.5 million Reichsmarks from the U.S., a settlement that soon became severely devalued during the currency reform that introduced the Deutsche Mark as the official currency of western Germany.

John Gimbel concludes that the United States put some of Germany’s best minds on ice for three years, therefore depriving the German recovery of their expertise.[19]

Scientists

German scientists and engineers repatriated from Sukhumi in February 1958. (see Forced labor of Germans in the Soviet Union)In May 1945, the U.S. Navy “received in custody” Dr. Herbert A. Wagner, the inventor of the Hs 293 missile for two years, he first worked at the Special Devices Center, at Castle Gould and at Hempstead House, Long Island, New York in 1947, he moved to the Naval Air Station Point Mugu.[20] In August 1945, Colonel Holger Toftoy, head of the Rocket Branch of the Research and Development Division of the U.S. Army’s Ordnance Corps, offered initial one-year contracts to the rocket scientists 127 of them accepted. In September 1945, the first group of seven rocket scientists (aerospace engineers) arrived at Fort Strong, located on Long Island in Boston harbor:Wernher von Braun, Erich W. Neubert, Theodor A. Poppel, August Schulze, Eberhard Rees, Wilhelm Jungert, and Walter Schwidetzky.[11] Beginning in late 1945, three rocket-scientist groups arrived in the United States for duty at Fort Bliss, Texas, and atWhite Sands Proving Grounds, New Mexico, as “War Department Special Employees”.[7]:27[13]In 1946, the United States Bureau of Mines employed seven German synthetic fuel scientists at a Fischer-Tropsch chemical plant in Louisiana, Missouri.[21]

In early 1950, legal U.S. residency for some of the Project Paperclip specialists was effected through the U.S. consulate in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico thus, Nazi scientists legally entered the United States from Latin America.[7]:226[12]

Eighty-six aeronautical engineers were transferred to Wright Field, where the United States had Luftwaffe aircraft and equipment captured under Operation Lusty (Luftwaffe SecretTechnology).[22]

The United States Army Signal Corps employed 24 specialists – including the physicists Georg Goubau, Gunter Guttwein, Georg Hass, Horst Kedesdy, and Kurt Lehovec the physical chemists Rudolf Brill, Ernst Baars, and Eberhard Both the geophysicist Helmut Weickmann the optician Gerhard Schwesinger and the engineers Eduard Gerber, Richard Guenther, and Hans Ziegler.[23]

In 1959, 94 Operation Paperclip men went to the United States, including Friedwardt Winterberg and Friedrich Wigand.[20] Throughout its operations to 1990, Operation Paperclip imported 1,600 men, as part of the intellectual reparations owed to the United States and the UK, some $10 billion in patents and industrial processes.[20][24]

During the decades after they were included in Operation Paperclip, some scientists were investigated because of their activities during World War II. Arthur Rudolph was deported in 1984, but not prosecuted, and West Germany granted him citizenship.[25]

CIA OPERATION PAPERCLIP VIDEO

4,000 NAZI’S WENT TO WORK FOR US GOVERNMENT AFTER WWII

Many Nazis, some of whom committed war atrocities, such as overseeing death camps, were imported into the USA. The US government was willing to hide those Nazi secrets and their ID’s from Americans. The US government was willing to hire and pay money to anyone who had what they wanted, such as nuclear information. Thousands of 110% Nazi’s were imported into the USA after the end of World War II. What effect did the importation of these radical individuals have on the US, and on the for profit military industrial complex?

AMERICA’S NAZI SECRET AND THE TWO CIA’S IN THE US, ONE FOR THE REPUBLICANS AND ANOTHER FOR THE DEMOCRATS, HISTORICALLY AND TODAY

MEMBERS OF SS JOINED US MILITARY VIA CIA AFTER WORLD WAR II

A Top Secret program called Project Paper Clip was put into effect after WWII by the CIA. War criminals were supposed to be avoided and excluded from this super secret nuclear information import of Nazis into this US program. But when most of the Nazi scientists and other experts failed this war criminals test, the CIA recruiters simply falsified the Nazi’s files and sent those to the State Dept. urging them to hire these criminals, just so that the Soviets could not have them.

CIA-NAZIS: TERROR AND MURDER INCORPORATED

BRITISH BANKERS AND HO– USE OF WINDSOR, UK ROYALTY BACKED HITLER AND HIS RACIST BELIEF SYSTEM

100 US CORPORATIONS BUILT UP AND SUPPLIED THE HITLER WAR MACHINE VIDEO OF TEN AMERICAN COMPANIES THAT AIDED HITLER AND HELPED HIM INVADE OTHER COUNTRIES

Hitler Financed, Supplied By 100 US Corporations Coca Cola, Metro Goldwyn Mayer, Chase Manhattan Bank, Dow Chemical, Brown Brothers Harriman, Woolworth, Alcoa, Ford, GM, IBM, Standard Oil, BBH Prescott Bush
http://www.agreenroadjournal.com/2016/07/hitler-financed-supplied-by-us.html

Top 10 American Companies that Aided the Nazis — TopTenzNet
VIDEO http://youtu.be/AojiX7QFuxM 8 min.

DOCUMENTARY HITLERS AMERICAN BUSINESS PARTNERS WERE FUNDAMENTAL TO HITLER HAVING THE SUCCESS THAT HE DID, AND HE COULD NOT HAVE DONE WHAT HE DID WITHOUT THESE CORPORATIONS HELP, FINANCING AND SUPPORT

Hitler’s American Business Partners

TRADING WITH THE ENEMY THE BUSH DYNASTY WAS DEEPLY INVOLVED IN SUPPORTING THE NAZI FASCIST WAR MACHINE, JUST AS MODERN DAY PRESIDENT BUSH HAD DEEP TIES TO THE DICTATORIAL SAUDI REGIME, LINKED TO 9/11

The Oligarchical Bush Family of Generational Treason
VIDEO: http://youtu.be/a4jrv71ZfgA 45 min.

The Oligarchical Bush Family of Generational Treason from the Nazi SS and Adolf Hitler to Osama bin Laden. The journalist in this video is providing factually true evidence. The oligarchical Bush family of generational treason reaching back to the namesake of the two Bush presidents, George Herbert Walker. The way we do anything is the way we do everything.

WHAT WILL THE LONG TERM CONSEQUENCES BE, OF DEVELOPING AND BUILDING NUCLEAR WEAPONS IN EVERY COUNTRY GLOBALLY?

Isn’t the US acting much like the Nazis did, in a way that mimics their actions of global militarism and global conquest? The US has thousands of military bases all around the world. The US often expresses it’s power in a way that does not lead to healthy democracy in the country touched by that power.

ONE CONSEQUENCE: DECEPTION, SECRECY AND CORRUPTION INSIDE THE CIA, MILITARY INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX

STUDY EXPLAINS HOW RELIGION, SCIENCE AND MEDICINE CAN BE PERVERTED AND CORRUPTED IT IS REALLY EASY TO DO AND TO PULL IT OFF SUCCESSFULLY FOR LONG PERIODS OF TIME

WHY ALL NUCLEAR PLANTS NEED TO BE SHUT DOWN AND DISMANTLED

SUMMARY

Hitler rose to power with the help of bankers and corporations from the US and the UK. He could not have built up his huge war machine except with their help and support. This support continued on even into the days AFTER the US and UK declared war on Germany. Corporations and bankers do not care who wins or loses in war, and they make sure that they make a PROFIT off of both sides. War is very profitable, much more so than ordinary commerce. For the same reason, bankers are also involved in drug money laundering, because it is VERY PROFITABLE.

The appearance of freedom and democracy is maintained on the surface, so that people can believe in something. Meanwhile, underneath, these very dark forces intent on destruction, killing, suffering, racism, and profit are holding all of the reigns of power. The 1 percent manipulate the news, events, and create false flag attacks if needed, in order to start wars that they then profit from, ON BOTH SIDES.

Medical doctors, Christian churches and psychiatrists were all perverted and corrupted, allowing Nazism to flourish in Germany. They are all vulnerable to abuse, misuse and corruption, especially when lots of money is involved, as it is today. The fact is that Nazism or Fascism is not an isolated extreme example, but rather, it is a common place, every day thing that happens all around the world, especially in countries where huge corporate monopolies exert huge financial, political and mass media pressure on every profession and every community.

The Science Of Sustainable Health needs to be taught in all schools, from grade school to college and graduate universities. The consequence of not doing this is the extinction of the human race, as it races towards doom, imposed by short term PROFIT thinking with no thoughts regarding consequences of actions taken in haste and only for money.

The American Indians believed that anyone who had greed/short term profit as a motivation in life was mentally ill, and they were right.


Identification [ edit | wysig bron]

V-2 rocket launching, Peenemünde, on the north-east Baltic German coast. (1943)

In Operation Overcast, Major Staver's original intent was only to interview the scientists, but what he learned changed the operation's purpose. On 22 May 1945, he transmitted to US Pentagon headquarters Colonel Joel Holmes's telegram urging the evacuation of German scientists and their families, as most "important for [the] Pacific war" effort. Ζ] Most of the Osenberg List engineers worked at the Baltic coast German Army Research Center Peenemünde, developing the V-2 rocket. After capturing them, the Allies initially housed them and their families in Landshut, Bavaria, in southern Germany.

Beginning on 19 July 1945, the US Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) managed the captured ARC rocketeers under a program called Operation Overcast. However, when the "Camp Overcast" name of the scientists' quarters became locally-known, the program was renamed Operation Paperclip in March 1946. Despite these attempts at secrecy, later that year the press interviewed several of the scientists. Ζ] Η] ⎖]

Regarding Operation Alsos, Allied Intelligence described nuclear physicist Werner Heisenberg, the German nuclear energy project principal, as "worth more to us than ten divisions of Germans." In addition to rocketeers and nuclear physicists, the Allies also sought chemists, physicians, and naval weaponeers. ⎗ ]

Meanwhile, the Technical Director of the German Army Rocket Center, Wernher von Braun, was jailed at P.O. Box 1142, a secret military-intelligence prison in Fort Hunt, Virginia in the United States. Since the prison was unknown to the international community, its operation by the US was in violation of the Geneva Convention of 1929, which the U.S. had ratified. ⎘] Although Von Braun's interrogators pressured him, he was not tortured however in 1944 another PoW, U-boat Captain Werner Henke was shot and killed while climbing the fence at Fort Hunt. ⎙ ]


OPERATION PAPERCLIP: A Dark Chapter in our History

Operation Paperclip was an OSS, Office of Strategic Services, program which brought over 1,500 Germans to the United States after World War II.

The OSS was in a race with the Russians at the end of the world to reap the cream of the Nazi scientific corps and utilize them. The OSS was the precursor to the CIA.

President Truman formally signed the authorization for Paperclip in August 1945, but the race for the Nazi braintrust had started even before the war ended.

Truman’s order prohibited any person who had been an “active supporter of Nazi militarism”. This exclusion was often ignored. After all, the most valued scientists came out of the Nazi missile program.

There were also scientists who’d worked in the Nazi chemical weapons program. There was Operation Alsos which focused on Nazi nuclear scientists and Operation TICOM which went after German cryptologists.

Werner Von Braun is one of the more famous of these scientists. He worked on the V-2 program and then the United States rocket program, especially the Apollo program. He’d been a member of the Nazi Party and the SS.

Also part of Operation Paperclip, was the recruitment of Japanese scientists and doctors from the infamous Unit 731. That is the subject of a different slideshare.

It is estimated that Paperclip scientists ended up contributing over 10 billion worth in patents and industrial processes, as well as critical help to our space program.

Do the ends justify the means? Besides wanting the expertise, and denying it to the Russians, another aspect of Paperclip was to remove these scientists from post-war Germany so they couldn’t contribute to their own country.

What if there were more to Operation Paperclip than we know? Parts of it are still classified to this day. While Von Braun and others worked at Fort Bliss, what if some were sent to Area 51 to study a rather unique problem?

In the first book in the Area 51 series, one of those scientists from Operation Paperclip plays a key role. Area 51

Area 51- Book One Since before the dawning of modern man, an alien mothership and nine abandoned flying saucers have been hidden away in Area 51, a top-secret military base in the Nevada desert. There, scientists have studied the crafts, hoping to unlock the secrets of the alien technology and, perhaps, the origins of life on Earth. But now a deranged general wants to activate the mothership’s interstellar drive—and the consequences could prove catastrophic for humankind. Dr. Hans Von Seeckt—an elderly scientist, ex- Nazi, and original member of the Area 51 research team—joins up with the president’s science adviser, Dr. Lisa Duncan, and Special Forces officer Mike Turcotte to put a stop to the planned test flight and tell the public the truth about Area 51. Meanwhile, a brilliant archaeologist, Professor Nabinger, discovers a message on runes found in ancient Egypt that could change everything we think we know about human evolution and the role that alien visitation may have played in it.



Kommentaar:

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