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Op soek na die mees indrukwekkende antieke godsdienstige tempels ter wêreld

Op soek na die mees indrukwekkende antieke godsdienstige tempels ter wêreld


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Wat is die grootste tempel wat ooit op aarde gebou is en onthul hierdie mensgemaakte strukture geheime wat verband hou met die kosmos? Om die soeke na die grootste godsdienstige tempel te begin, moet u vasstel wat presies 'n tempel is. In antieke Griekeland was 'n tempel 'n afgebakende ruimte waar rituele uitgevoer is, maar vandag word die woord oor die algemeen gebruik om nie 'n heilige ruimte te beskryf nie, maar strukture wat gereserveer is vir godsdienstige en geestelike aktiwiteite. Nie elke godsdiens gebruik die woord 'tempel' nie. Westerse Christelike tradisies noem hul heilige ruimtes kerke, kapelle en katedrale, en ware tempels kom veral voor in Oos- en Suid -Amerikaanse kulture.

Grootste klipblokke: Baalbek

Die uitgestrekte en indrukwekkende argeologiese terrein in die noordooste van Libanon, ook Heliopolis (Sun city) of Baalbek genoem, huisves twee van die grootste tempels in die antieke wêreld. Die heuwel van Tell Baalbek is die afgelope 8 000 tot 9 000 jaar deurlopend bewoon en aan die begin van die eerste eeu vC is 'n megastruktuur opgerig wat die Romeinse bouers meer as twee eeue lank moes voltooi; drie tempels gewy aan Jupiter, Bacchus en Venus wat meer as sewe vierkante kilometer beslaan.

Die Baalbek -tempelkompleks spog met twee van die grootste Romeinse tempelruïnes: die tempel van Bacchus, soos op hierdie foto en die tempel van Jupiter getoon. (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Die eerste twee is die grootste tempels in die ryk, met die tempel van Jupiter met 54 enorme granietkolomme wat tot in die lug strek, en die tempel van Bacchus is in 150 nC gebou, met 'n lengte van 69 meter by 36 meter (226 voet by 118 voet) met 42 Korintiërs kolomme van 19 meter hoog. Hierdie webwerf is ook die tuiste van die grootste boustene op aarde, met die grootste enkele steen uit die antieke wêreld onder en langs 'n klip wat bekend staan ​​as die 'Steen van die swanger vrou' ('Hajjar al-Hibla'). Dit meet ongeveer 19,6 meter by ses meter by vyf en 'n half meter (64 voet by 20 voet by 18 voet) en sal na raming ongeveer 1,650 ton (1,820 ton) weeg.

In die somer van 2014 het 'n span van die Duitse argeologiese instituut onder leiding van Jeanine Abdul Massih van die Libanese Universiteit ontdek wat bekend staan ​​as die grootste antieke blok ter wêreld. ( Publieke domein)

Hoogste: Tikal

Die grootste Maya-stad wat tans in die hedendaagse Guatemala is, was Tikal, 'n groot oerwoudbewoning wat tussen 200 tot 900 nC voorspoedig was met 'n geskatte 200 000 inwoners.


Die vroegste tempelstrukture was nie gemaak van klippe of bakstene nie, wat baie later gekom het. In die ou tyd was openbare of gemeentelike tempels moontlik gemaak van klei met grasdakke van strooi of blare. Grottempels was algemeen in afgeleë plekke en bergagtige terreine.

Geskiedkundiges sê dat Hindoe -tempels nie gedurende die Vediese tydperk (1500–500 vC) bestaan ​​het nie. Volgens historikus Nirad C. Chaudhuri dateer die vroegste strukture wat afgodediens aandui, uit die 4de of 5de eeu nC. Daar was 'n deurslaggewende ontwikkeling in tempelargitektuur tussen die 6de en die 16de eeu nC. Hierdie groeifase van Hindoe -tempels gee 'n grafiek oor die opkoms en daling daarvan saam met die lot van die verskillende dinastieë wat gedurende die tydperk in Indië geheers het - veral die bou van tempels, veral in Suid -Indië.

Hindoes beskou die bou van tempels as 'n uiters vroom daad, wat groot godsdienstige verdienste meebring. Daarom was konings en ryk manne gretig om die bou van tempels te borg, sê Swami Harshananda, en die verskillende stappe om die heiligdomme te bou, is as godsdienstige rituele uitgevoer.


25 Indrukwekkendste voorbeelde van godsdienstige argitektuur

Godsdiens was deur die menslike geskiedenis die inspirasie vir briljante en helder werke van letterkunde, filosofie, beeldhouwerk, skilderkuns en argitektuur. Van die sand van antieke Egipte tot die strate van die hedendaagse Barcelona, ​​word heilige tradisies beliggaam, uitgedruk en bewaar op plekke van aanbidding en pelgrimstog.

Die volgende is 'n lys van 25 van die indrukwekkendste werke van godsdienstige argitektuur volgens 'n historiese tydlyn. Alhoewel hierdie lys onvolledig is en baie meer webwerwe ingesluit kan word, bied die onderstaande 'n uiteenlopende versameling van die glorierykste en ontsagwekkendste geboue ter wêreld.

Groot Piramide van Giza

As die oudste van die 7 wonders van die antieke wêreld, is die Groot Piramide van Giza ook die oudste argitektoniese terrein op ons lys. Alhoewel dit die oudste is, is dit ook een van die enigste wonders wat relatief ongeskonde gebly het. Daar word vermoed dat dit omstreeks 2560 v.C. en alhoewel die piramide 'n graf was, speel die piramides 'n belangrike rol in die godsdienstige oortuigings en gebruike van die Egiptiese volk. Die piramide was die plek van hergeboorte vir die ka of die siel. Egiptenare het geglo dat die gemak van die siel na die dood afhang van hoe die liggaam behoue ​​bly. Wat by die liggaam oorgebly het, kon in die hiernamaals geniet word. Die piramide is tydens die vloedseisoene deur boere gebou, en bestaan ​​uit klippe van meer as 2 ton elk. Die wonderlike verskynsel van die vervoer en hys van hierdie groot klippe tot 'n ongelooflike oorspronklike hoogte van 481 voet is al 'n geruime tyd 'n kwessie van veronderstelling.

Tot in die vroeë 20ste eeu was hierdie indrukwekkende struktuur die hoogste ter wêreld. Die wiskundige presisie waarmee die piramide gebou is, is groter as dié van enige ander. Alhoewel die piramide 'n massiewe 13 hektaar beslaan, is die vlak van elke hoeksteen nie meer as 'n half duim laer of hoër as die ander nie. Die metings regdeur die piramide toon aan dat die konstruktore waarskynlik bewus was van die presiese grootte van die aarde, asook van presiese wiskundige metings soos pi en die goue gemiddelde, nog lank voordat hulle so genoem is.

Athene, Griekeland

Alhoewel die hoofstruktuur bestaan, het die Parthenon die afgelope twee duisend jaar baie agteruitgegaan. Die oorblyfsels bo -op die Akropolis dui egter aan dat die oorspronklike tempel wat aan Athena gewy is, inderdaad indrukwekkend moes gewees het. Argeoloë skat dat die konstruksie in 438 vC geëindig het, en geleerdes meen dat die Parthenon die beste voorbeeld van Griekse argitektuur is.

Die tempel, wat van kalksteen gebou is, meet 228 x 101 voet. Agt buitenste kolomme lê aan die voor- en agterkant van die gebou en 17 aan die sye. Die binnekant, of cella, van die gebou is 98 by 60 voet. Oorspronklik was daar 'n groot standbeeld van Athena, en sommige vermoed dat die binnekant van die godsdienstige plek op 'n soortgelyke manier as 'n teater funksioneer. Benewens die grootsheid van die gebou self, bly standbeelde uit die Parthenon kosbare en kulturele skatte van onskatbare waarde, wat getuig van die Atheners se visie op die samelewing.

Die Pantheon in Rome, Italië, is een van die goed bewaarde stukke argitektuur uit die tyd van antieke Rome. Dit is deels omdat dit voortdurend gebruik is sedert dit om die jare 118 tot 125 deur keiser Hadrianus gebou is. Argitektonies het die Pantheon 'n paar indrukwekkende kenmerke. Een daarvan is die granietpilare van 40 voet, wat die eerste ding is wat u opmerk as u die gebou nader. 'N Ander een is die groot koepel wat in die hemel oopmaak en steeds die grootste betonkoepel is wat nog nooit gebou is nie! Die deursnee van die koepel en die hoogte tot by die piek is presies dieselfde op 43,3 meter. Op sy hoogtepunt is 'n “Oculus “, 'n opening na die lug wat dien as die enigste natuurlike lig vir die gebou. As dit reën, lei 'n byna onsigbare dreineringstelsel in die vloer die water uit die gebou.

Met beide Romeinse en Griekse inspirasie was die Pantheon 'n belangrike bron en invloed van die westerse argitektuur. Sy naam, wat letterlik alles "goddelik" beteken, dui op sy oorspronklike doel as 'n tempel van aanbidding vir alle Romeinse gode. In die 7de eeu het die Bisantynse keiser die gebou aan pous Bonifatius IV gegee, wat die tempel omskep het in 'n Katolieke kerk wat gewy is aan die heilige maagd Maria van al die martelare. Daar word gesê dat vragte oorblyfsels uit die katakombe in hierdie tyd na 'n wasbak onder die hoë altaar verskuif is. Die Pantheon word steeds as 'n Katolieke Kerk gebruik, alhoewel dit ook as 'n graf vir Renaissance -kunstenaars en Italiaanse konings gedien het.

Hagia Sophia

Istanbul, Turkye

Die grootste voorbeeld van die Bisantynse argitektuur, die Tempel van die Heilige Wysheid van God (Hagia Sophia) in die huidige Istanbul, is 'n werk van buitengewone godsdienstige argitektuur. Dit het duisend jaar ná die bou daarvan ongeëwenaard gebly. Die Hagia Sophia, gebou in 537 nC op versoek van die Bisantynse keiser Justinianus I, was die grootste katedraal ter wêreld. Eers in 1520 met die bou van die katedraal van Sevilla, Spanje (1520), is die Hagia Sophia in afmetings ingehaal. Die Hagia Sophia, wat in 'n reghoekige vorm gebou is, is ruim 230 voet breed en 246 voet lank met 'n massiewe 182 voet hoë koepel wat die Nave oorskadu-die gebied waar aanbidders bymekaarkom. Die binnekant van die Hagia Sophia dra die tekens van beide Christelike en later Islamitiese invloede.

Gedurende die eerste 900 jaar van sy bestaan ​​het die Hagia Sophia gedien as 'n plek van Christelike aanbidding. Dit was gevul met 'n oorweldigende verskeidenheid en aantal ikone, veral in die vorm van mosaïek. Beelde van Jesus Christus en die Maagd Maria is die algemeenste. Ander heiliges en keiserlike hooggeplaastes en beskermhere word egter ook verteenwoordig in die kuns van die Hagia Sophia. Toe die Ottomaanse Ryk Konstantinopel in 1453 verower, is die katedraal omskep in 'n moskee. As gevolg van die Islamitiese verbod op verteenwoordigende beelde, is 'n groot deel van die Christelike ikonografie toegeplak en vervang deur Islamitiese kalligrafiese godsdienstige simbole. Minarette is ook bygevoeg kort na die instelling van Moslemheerskappy.

As 'n plek van Moslem -aanbidding, verteenwoordig die Hagia Sophia enkele van die hoogste uitdrukkings van Islamitiese kuns. In 1931 is die Hagia Sophia omskep in 'n museum. Sedertdien is herstelwerk aan die binnekant van die gebou aan die gang. Die poging word aangewend om albei die vroeëre Christelike mosaïeke te ontbloot, terwyl die skade aan die latere Islamitiese kuns tot die minimum beperk word. In die Hagia Sophia van vandag bestaan ​​beide Moslem- en Christelike kuns en argitektuur langs mekaar, wat getuig van die uiteenlopende geskiedenis van hierdie argitektoniese wonder en die oorblywende godsdienstige, kulturele en historiese belangrikheid daarvan. Na voltooiing van die Tempel van die Heilige Wysheid, word berig dat keiser Justinianus uitgeroep het: "Ek het jou gedoen, Salomo"!

Wat argitektuur toordery, integrasie en innovasie betref, was Justinianus beslis korrek. Hy het moontlik ook die waarheid gepraat oor die oorweldigende mistieke atmosfeer wat die Hagia Sophia veroorsaak. Want in 987 het die groot omvang en oorvloed van die godsdienstige beelde veroorsaak dat verteenwoordigers van Wladimir I van Kiëf na bewering uitgeroep het: “We weet nie meer of ons in die hemel of op die aarde is nie en ook nie so 'n skoonheid nie, en ons weet nie hoe nie om daarvan te vertel. ”

Shwedagon -pagode

Yangon, Myanmar

Volgens die legende is die Shwedagon-pagode meer as 2500 jaar gelede gebou deur twee broers met die naam Taphussa en Bhallika, afkomstig uit die huidige Afghanistan. Na bewering het hulle die Gautama Boeddha ontmoet, en met oorblyfsels van die Boeddha sowel as leiding van ander geestelike wesens kon die twee broers die oorblyfsels van die vorige Boeddha's opspoor. Hierdie ontdekkingsplek was die plek van die Shwedagon -pagode. Historici en argeoloë hou, in teenstelling met die legendariese verslag, 'n meer onlangse datering van die bou van die heiligdom êrens gedurende die 6de eeu.

Ongeag wanneer dit gebou is, die Shwedagon -pagode is 'n baie heilige plek vir Theravada -boeddhisme. Gebou op 'n heuwel wat uitkyk oor die omliggende stad, lig die Shwedagon Pagoda, 'n 368 voet hoë goue spits, die landskap op en trek die toeskouer se oog. Die interieurontwerp en kuns weerspieël beide Boeddhistiese en Hindoe -oortuigings. As 'n monument vir beide Boeddhisme en Birmaanse kultuur, is Shwedagon Pagoda 'n indrukwekkende voorbeeld van godsdienstige argitektuur.

Masjid al-Haram

Mekka, Saoedi -Arabië

Die Mosjid al-Haram beslaan 'n groot oppervlakte van 88 hektaar en is die grootste Moslem-moskee rondom die oudste en heiligste plek van Islam, die Kaaba. Daar word gesê dat die Kaaba 'n huis is wat deur Abraham en sy seun Ismael omstreeks 2130 vC gebou is met 'n swart hoeksteen wat bonatuurlik van oorsprong was. Hierdie klip is steeds 'n noodsaaklike deel van die aanbidding en ritueel van die huidige Kaaba, hoewel dit nou in baie stukke gebreek is. Moslems regoor die wêreld staar tydens die gebed die rigting van die Kaaba in die gesig.

Na sy seëvierende terugkeer na Mekka in 630, het Muhammed en sy skoonseun die heidense afgode wat opgerig is, gebreek en die Mosjid al-Haram gebou om die moskee te omring. Renovasies en aanbouings het geleidelik tot 1570 plaasgevind toe Mimar Sinan deur die sultan in opdrag was om die moskee op te knap. Sedert 1955 is meer opknappings voltooi, waaronder baie meer minarette, hekke en moderne verwarming en verkoeling. 'N Huidige uitbreiding is aan die gang om die kapasiteit van die moskee tot 2 miljoen aanbidders te vergroot.

Chichen Itza

Yucatan, Mexiko

Die heilige Maya -terrein, Chichen Itza, is die tuiste van die kultuur se grootste werk van godsdienstige argitektuur. Die tempel van Kukulkan, vernoem na 'n geveerde slanggod en sedert die tyd van die Spaanse verowering bekend as El Castillo, is voorsitter van die Noord -platform van die ou Maya -stad. Op net minder as 100 voet hoog, bestaan ​​die stap -piramidale struktuur van Kukulkan uit 'n stygende reeks van nege vierkante terrassen, elk ongeveer 8 voet hoog. Op die hoogtepunt van die gestapelde terrasse staan ​​'n 20 voet hoë tempel waarvan die sye ongeveer 181 voet hoog is. Soos baie Meso -Amerikaanse kulture, is geboue dikwels bo -op vorige strukture gemaak. Chichen Itza is geen uitsondering nie, wat dit moeilik maak om presies te bepaal wanneer die tempel gebou is.

Argeoloë skat dat die Maya -beskawing ongeveer duisend jaar lank by Chichen Itza teenwoordig was voordat Spaanse verkenning gedoen is. Maya's was baie geïnteresseerd in die waarneming van die beweging van die sterre en planete en het elemente van hierdie belang in hul geboue ingebou. Daar is ook beelde van slange, jaguars en ander inheemse en heilige diere. Chichen Itza is nou opgeneem in die UNESCO -wêrelderfenislys.

Mont-Saint-Michel

Laer Normandië, Frankryk

Mont-Saint-Michel, wat gedurende die laat Middeleeue en renaissance beskou is as 'n wonder van die Westerse wêreld en tans ongeveer 3 miljoen toeriste per jaar huisves, is een van die indrukwekkendste werke van godsdienstige argitektuur ter wêreld. Mont-Saint-Michel is geleë op 'n eiland, meer as 'n half kilometer in 'n baai voor die noordelike Franse kus naby Avranches. Die kompleks van geboue berus op 'n styging van ongeveer 250 voet bo seespieël en het 'n gevarieerde geskiedenis.

Die versterkingspotensiaal van die terrein is vroeg reeds erken. In 709 word berig dat die aartsengel Michael, Prins van die hemelse leërs, versoek het dat 'n kerk op die terrein gebou word en sodoende die plek as 'n godsdienstige plek sou vestig. Gedurende die daaropvolgende eeue het 'n Benediktynse kloostergemeenskap op die terrein gaan woon en is verskeie kerkbouprojekte uitgevoer, wat uitloop op die indrukwekkende kombinasie van Abdij en Kerk wat nou staan.

In die 14de eeu is die terrein versterk tydens die Honderdjarige Oorlog en word gesê dat dit tot 30 jaar lank 'n beleg kon deurstaan. In die 19de eeu is die abdij tot 'n gevangenis omgeskakel, en in 1966 keer 'n godsdienstige gemeenskap terug na die plek, wat die kerk weer in godsdiensgebruik bring. Histories was Mont-Saint-Michel gerangskik met Santiago de Compostella in Spanje en Rome self as die belangrikste pelgrimstog. In 1979 is Mont-Saint-Michel by die Wêrelderfenislys van UNESCO gevoeg.

Chartres -katedraal

Chartres, Frankryk

Chartres -katedraal word beskou as een van die grootste prestasies van die Franse Gotiese argitektuur. Gelukkig vir ons is dit baie goed bewaar. Die katedraal is hoofsaaklik tussen 1194 en 1250 gebou. Die argitektoniese vernuwing van vlieënde steunpunte, wat hoofsaaklik in die gebou verskyn, vergemaklik die groter en loodglasvensters waarvoor Chartres bekend is. Die fasade van die gebou is propvol godsdienstige beelde. Dit alles gekombineer met sy twee torings (349 voet en 377), maak die Chartres -katedraal 'n oorweldigende, maar pragtige voorbeeld van godsdienstige argitektuur.

Gebou ter ere van die Heilige Maagd Maria en berig om die huis te huisves Sancta Camisa (die kledingstuk wat Maria gedra het by Jesus ’ Geboorte), het die heilige oorblyfsels en die argitektoniese skoonheid van Chartres steeds pelgrims gelok vanaf die twaalfde en dertien eeue tot die hede. Chartres is op die UNESCO -wêrelderfenislys ingesluit.

Amiens -katedraal

Amiens, Frankryk

Amiens -katedraal is ongeveer 75 kilometer noord van Parys geleë. Dit is een van die grootste en indrukwekkendste kerke ter wêreld. Alhoewel daar nog geen rekord bestaan ​​van die bou van die katedraal nie, is almal dit eens dat die kerk in die middel van die 1200's hoofsaaklik voltooi is. Een bron beweer 'n voltooiingsdatum van 1266, met byvoegings en wysigings wat tot 1288 voortduur. Die Gotiese vlieënde steunpilaar word gehelp om die mure van die katedraal te stabiliseer. Dit het bygedra tot die argitekte se gewaagde ontwerp van die binnekluis, wat tot 'n hoogte van 139 voet styg.

Amiens -katedraal is die grootste Franse katedraal wat die binnekant betref, na raming op 260 000 kubieke meter. Net soos met ander kerke van die tydperk, bevat Amiens baie loodglasvensters. Ongelukkig is die meeste vernietig. Die katedraal het egter 'n bekende versameling gotiese beeldhouwerke bewaar. Die grootste is miskien die opvallendste timpaan aan die westelike fasade van die gebou. In 1981 is die Amiens -katedraal by die UNESCO -wêrelderfenislys gevoeg.

Notre Dame -katedraal

Parys, Frankryk

Die Notre Dame -katedraal, gewy aan die Maagd Maria, is 'n indrukwekkende voorbeeld van godsdienstige argitektuur. Dit is omstreeks 1345 voltooi en spog met 'n massiewe oppervlakte van 59.000 vierkante voet. Dit word beskou as een van die beste voorbeelde van Gotiese argitektuur. Die argitekte van Notre Dame was van die eerstes wat die vlieënde steunpilaar gebruik het wat hoër en dunner mure moontlik gemaak het. Dit het weer groter vensters van loodglas moontlik gemaak.

Die Notre Dame is bekend vir sy beeldhouwerk, veral vir sy motorhuise. Die klim van 387 trappe bied 'n asemrowende uitsig oor Parys. Johannes van Jandun, 'n Franse filosoof, teoloog en politieke skrywer, het oor die katedraal gesê: "Ek glo in werklikheid dat hierdie kerk die sorgsame oordeel tot bewondering bied dat sy inspeksie die siel amper nie kan versadig nie. ”

Salisbury -katedraal

Salisbury, Wiltshire, Engeland

Salisbury -katedraal is die indrukwekkendste voorbeeld van vroeë Engelse argitektuur. Die amptelike naam is die katedraalkerk van die Heilige Maagd Maria. Salisbury het in 1220 begin en minder as 40 jaar geneem om die hoofgebou te bou. Die katedraal, in die vorm van 'n kruis, is 442 voet groot. Die enkele toring met spits is die hoogste in Engeland op 404 voet. Die westelike gevel is versier met 'n magdom indrukwekkende beeldhouwerke wat godsdienstige en politieke persoonlikhede uitbeeld.

Die binnekant van die katedraal is bekend vir sy hoë geboë plafon en gebrandskilderde glas, wat ook 'n indrukwekkende beeldhouwerk bied. Benewens die skoonheid en grootte van die katedraalkerk self, het Salisbury ook die grootste klooster en katedraal in Brittanje (80 hektaar). Dit huisves die oudste werkhorlosie ter wêreld (1386) en beskik oor die vier beste kopieë van die Magna Carta.

Tempel van die hemel

Beijing, China

Die Tempel van die Hemel is 'n kompleks van godsdienstige geboue wat in die vroeë 1400's gebou is deur die keiser Yongle wat verantwoordelik was vir die bou van die Verbode Stad, ook in Beijing. Vanweë sy vroeë en meesterlike ontwerp, het die Tempel van die Hemel die afgelope 600 jaar 'n groot invloed op alle Oosterse argitektuur gehad. Die kompleks beslaan meer as anderhalf kilometer en bestaan ​​uit drie groepe hoogs simboliese konstruksie. Die eerste is die Hall of Prayer vir goeie oeste, wat hierbo op die foto verskyn. The Hall of Prayer is 'n inspirerende driehoekige ronde gebou wat 120 hoog is en op drie vlakke van marmersteen gebou is. Dit is uitsluitlik gemaak van hout sonder spykers. Die tweede konstruksie is die Imperial Vault of Heaven, 'n enkelgevelgebou wat lyk soos die groter gebedsaal. Dit word omring deur 'n gladde, ronde muur met die naam Echo Wall. Daar word gesê dat 'n fluistering aan die een kant van die muur duidelik aan die ander kant gehoor kan word.

Die twee geboue is verbind deur 'n verhoogde loopbrug wat stadig na die Gebedsaal klim. Die derde gebou is die Circular Mound Altar, weer met drie vlakke van marmerstene, waarop die stem van die keiser geheimsinnig sou vergroot toe dit na die hemel kom. Die verskillende elemente van die altaar, insluitend die stappe, hou alles verband met heilige getalle en simbole. Die altaar is in 1530 gebou en in die 1700's herbou. Die Tempel van die Hemel is in 1918 'n openbare park gemaak en in 1998 ingeskryf as 'n UNESCO -wêrelderfenisgebied.

Kloosters van Meteora

Thessalië, Griekeland

Meteora, Grieks wat in die lug opgehang is, is, na Athos, die tweede belangrikste netwerk van die Bisantynse kloosters in Griekeland. Alhoewel die kalksteentoppe wat die kloosters ondersteun al duisende jare lank bewoon was, het asketiese monnike in die 11de eeu gemeenskappe begin stig en bouprojekte op die plato’s onderneem. Teen 1500 is 24 sulke huise gebou. Tans oorleef slegs ses kloosters. Die asemrowende hoogtes van die oorblywende geboue, gemiddeld ongeveer 1000 voet bo die omliggende vlakte, bly egter wonderlike argitektoniese prestasies. Boonop word fresco's in die kloosters beskou as die belangrikste voorbeelde van ontwikkelinge in die Bisantynse Ortodokse godsdienstige kuns.

In die 1920's is beter lere en/of brûe in die klip van die berg gesny. Voorheen was toegang tot die kloosters moeilik en gevaarlik. Monnike, pelgrims en besoekers gebruik lang lere wat aan mekaar vasgemaak is om te klim of nette om na die soms 1200 voet kranse te sleep. Vandag, van die ses kloosters, is vier huismanne en twee die tuiste van vroue. Elke klooster het tans minder as tien inwoners. Die manjifieke Meteora -kloosters is nou op die Unesco -wêrelderfenislys opgeneem as 'n universele kulturele waarde en uitstaande artistieke prestasie.

Die katedraal van Vasily the Blessed

Moskou, Rusland

Die amptelike titel, algemeen bekend as die St. Basil ’s -katedraal, is die katedraal van die Allerheiligste Theotokos op die wal. Alhoewel dit nie groot is nie, roep die St. Basil ’ -katedraal, oorkant die Kremlin op die Rooi Plein, Moskou, 'n gevoel van verwondering op oor sy sierlike skoonheid. Met 'n fondament van wit klip en rooi baksteen gevel, bereik die tien koepels tot 156 voet. Stygende na die hemel en gespat in lewendige blou, groen, rooi en goud, gee hulle St. Basil ’s 'n unieke aantrekkingskrag. Argitektuurhistorici vind geen soortgelyke argitektoniese voorbeelde onder die Bisantynse kerke nie. Daar word egter bespiegel oor afgeleë Islamitiese invloed, veral met betrekking tot die koepels.

Die kerk is gebou op bevel van Ivan IV (“the Terrible ”) van 1555-1560/1 ter herdenking van die vaslegging van die Tataarse domeine Kazan en Astrakhan. Volgens die legende was St. Basil klaarblyklik so mooi dat Ivan beveel het dat die argitek se oë uitgesluit word sodat hy nooit weer 'n gebou kon bou om met Basil te vergelyk nie. Die Russies -Ortodokse katedraal van die Allerheiligste Theotokos op die Moat, vanweë sy unieke ontwerp en briljante kleure, verdien die opname by die mees indrukwekkende voorbeelde van godsdienstige argitektuur.

Potala -paleis

Lhasa, Tibet, China

Potala -paleis, vernoem na die berg Potalaka, was die mitiese woning van Bodhisattva Avalokitesvara en die winterkoshuis van die Dalai Lamas tot 1959 toe die 14de Dalai Lama na Indië gevlug het. Die bou daarvan het in 1645 begin en dit is op 'n hoogte van 12 duisend voet gebou. Die paleis is amper letterlik bo -op die wêreld. In kombinasies van rooi en wit het die paleiskompleks kantore, 'n drukker, 'n kweekskool en baie heiligdomme gehuisves.

Die struktuur is massief met dertien verdiepings van geboue, 1300 voet by 1150 voet. Om te beskerm teen aardbewings, is die fondament 16 voet dik aan die voet. Potala Palace, wat algemeen beskou word as 'n meesterstuk van Tibetaanse godsdienstige argitektuur en kuns, bevat meer as duisend kamers en duisende heiligdomme en standbeelde. In 1994 is die paleis op die UNESCO -wêrelderfenislys opgeneem. In alle opsigte - ligging, argitektuur, kuns en godsdienstige belangrikheid - is Potala -paleis een van die indrukwekkendste godsdienstige strukture ter wêreld.

Sri Digambar Jain Lal Mandir

Delhi, Indië

Sri Digambar Jain Lal Mandir, wat oorspronklik in 1656 gebou is, is die oudste Jain -tempel in die historiese stad Delhi, Indië. Die tempel het sedert die 17de eeu baie veranderings en uitbreidings ondergaan om die tempel te word soos dit vandag is. In die volksmond bekend as Lal Mandir of “Red Temple, en#8221, is een van die opvallende aspekte daarvan dat dit van rooi sandsteen is wat 'n pragtige kontras met sy wit torings en marmer -aksente maak. Die argitektuur is vol ingewikkelde snywerk en vergulde kunswerke, asook verfwerk in die voorkamer wat die belangrikste heiligdom na Parshvanath omring.

Dit is interessant dat dit bekend is vir 'n gratis veeartsenykundige hospitaal vir voëls wat die Jain Birds -hospitaal genoem word. Hier kan alle voëls vir siekte behandel word en gratis na die gesondheid gebring word. Dit is 'n diens wat geïnspireer is deur die Jain -leuse “Live and let Live. ” Die voëlhospitaal het ook 'n intensiewe sorgeenheid en navorsingslaboratorium. Die hospitaal is daartoe verbind om al die voëls te bevry sodra hulle genees is. As u die Jain -tempel besoek, moet u nie skoene of leer dra ter ere van die diere nie. Die gesnede en vergulde kunswerke wat in die botterlampe glinster, maak dit 'n klein opoffering vir diegene wat die rustige glorie van hierdie wonderlike argitektuur wil bewonder.

Paro Taktsang

Paro -vallei, distrik Paro, Bhoetan

Paro Taktsang, geleë in die koninkryk van Bhoetan, is geleë teen die gesig van 'n 10.000 voet hoë krans. Die Tibetaanse Boeddhistiese klooster, wat strek tot op die rand van 'n rak in 'n krans, is 'n argitektoniese wonder in sy ligging sowel as godsdienstige skoonheid en simboliek. Die legendes verskil oor die ontwikkeling van die kloosterlewe op die plek van die klooster. Daar word egter algemeen ooreengekom dat die uiteindelike inspirasie vir die bring van kloosterlewe na die hawe aan die krans lê by Guru Padmasambhava, 'n agtste-eeuse Boeddhistiese monnik wat Boeddhisme aan Bhoetan voorgestel het en na bewering in 'n grot op die plek mediteer.

Die klooster in sy moderne vorm is in die 17de eeu voltooi. Ongelukkig het die klooster, wat kort daarna herbou is, in 1998 deur 'n brand verwoes. Paro Taktsang, die tuiste van Tibetaanse Boeddhistiese monnike en 'n bestemming vir pelgrims en soekers van alle gelowe en kulture, is sekerlik een van die indrukwekkendste voorbeelde van godsdienstige argitektuur ter wêreld.

Sri Harmandir Sahib

Amristar, Indië

Die Sri Harmandir Sahib is 'n sentrale plek van aanbidding vir die Sikh -godsdiens. Die glansende goud en marmer daarvan word majestueus weerspieël in die omliggende water as 'n simbool van menslike broederskap en gelykheid. Die naam Sri Harmandir Sahib beteken letterlik die “Tempel van God ” en die vier verskillende ingange dui aan dat mense uit alle lewensterreine welkom is om die tempel of gurudwara te besoek, te aanbid en vrede te vind. Meer as 100,000 mense besoek die heiligdom daagliks en sommige eet ook by die gratis gemeenskapsmaaltyd en -kombuis, wat 'n tradisionele aspek van alle Sikh -gurudwaras is.

Die oorspronklike gurudwara is in 1604 voltooi, maar is in die middel van die 1700's erg beskadig deur 'n Afgaanse leër. 'N Sikh -leër is gestuur om die Afghaanse leër te vernietig en die tempel is in 1760 herstel. Die huidige dekoratiewe vergulde en marmerwerk, wat die opvallendste aspek van die Sri Harmandir is, dateer meestal uit die 19de eeu. Die pragtige Darshani Deorhi -boog wat na die weg lei, is 200 voet hoog en 20 voet breed. Teenoor die boog is die Akal Takh, wat die hoogste setel van aardse gesag van die Sikh -godsdiens is. Dit skyn wit en goud as 'n simbool van geregtigheid en onderskeidingsvermoë.

Sint -Pietersbasiliek

Vatikaanstad

As een van die grootste kerke ter wêreld en die grootste in Europa, word die Sint -Pietersbasiliek al lank beskou as een van die beste voorstellings van die Renaissance- en barokargitektuur. Die oorspronklike kerk is omstreeks 325 nC deur Konstantyn gebou en is gebou oor 'n klein heiligdom wat beskou word as die begraafplaas van die eerste pous, Sint Petrus. In 'n dringende behoefte aan herstel, is die kerk herbou gedurende 'n tydperk van 120 jaar in die 15de en 16de eeu. Dit is eers beïnvloed deur pous Julius wat die grootste kerk in die Christendom wou bou. Daar was 'n kompetisie tussen argitekte en die ontwerp van Donato Bramante is gekies. Hierdie plan was in die vorm van 'n enorme Griekse kruis met 'n koepel geïnspireer deur 'n ander webwerf op ons lys, die Pantheon.

Baie ander kunstenaars het hul stempel afgedruk op hierdie beroemde basiliek, een daarvan was Gian Lorenza Bernini, wie se bekendste bydrae die Piazza san Pietro is, in 'n ovaalvorm ontwerp as 'n perfekte ellips. Uiteindelik het Michelangelo die terrein oorgeneem en soos die kunshistorikus Helen Gardner dit gestel het: Sonder om die sentraliserende kenmerke van die plan van Bramante te vernietig, het Michelangelo met 'n paar penstrepe sy sneeuvlokkompleksiteit omskep in massiewe, samehangende eenheid 8221 wat is wat dit vandag is. Die afmetings self is massief: 614 voet lank, 145 voet hoog, tot 385 in die Michelangelo -koepel. 'N Indrukwekkendste preekstoel vir die pous van die Katolieke Kerk.

Kashi Vishwanath

Varanasi, Indië

Die Kashi Vishwanath -tempel is opgedra aan Lord Shiva en is een van die bekendste en heiligste Hindoe -tempels. Die stad Varanasi, waar Kashi Vishwanath geleë is, is aan die oewer van die heilige Ganges -rivier die heiligste stad in die Hindoe -geskiedenis. 'N Pelgrimstog na hierdie heilige stad, rivier en tempel word ten minste een keer in die lewe van 'n Hindoe begeer. Daarom het die tempel ongeveer 3000 besoekers per dag en kan dit by spesiale geleenthede tot 'n miljoen beloop.

Vanweë die gewildheid en skoonheid van die tempel, is baie ander Hindoe -tempels gebou in navolging van die heilige Kashi Vishwanath -tempel. Die tempel is verskeie kere verwoes en herbou. Die indrukwekkendste aspek van die tempel is die drie blink koepels wat met suiwer goud bedek is. The gold for these domes was donated by Maharajah Ranjit Singh after its final building in 1780. True devotees to Lord Shiva reverence the Temple and it is said that those who die naturally within the Kashi Vishwanath Temple have the mantra of salvation breathed into their ears by Lord Shiva.

Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India

Attracting over 3 million visitors per year the Taj Mahal stands simultaneously as a monument to hope beyond death and the power of human love. Located in north-central India, the Taj Mahal is by common consent the finest example of Mughal Architecture. It was commissioned by the fifth Mughal Emperor, Shah Jahan (1592-1666), upon the death of his wife, the Empress Mumtaz Mahal (1593-1631). The Taj Mahal was to be the Shah’s monument of love to the Empress who died while giving birth to their 13th child. The entirety of the mausoleum was finished in 1653.

Rooted in the Islamic faith of the Shah and the Empress, yet constructed within the surrounding Hindu context, the Taj Mahal incorporates the architectural and artistic developments flowing out of the Delhi Sultanate. This saw a combination of local Hindu with Islamic forms of architectural expression, according to the rulers of the day. Luminous white characterizes one’s first encounter with the Taj Mahal. From its base to its marvelous 145 feet high dome and 130 feet high minarets the Taj Mahal’s size and grandeur evoke awe.

The vast color and shape as well as the carvings and filigree reflect skilled artistry showing Hindu and Islamic influences and values. Side by side with carved calligraphic quotations from the Quran the visitor finds tracings of vegetation and flowers, notably the lotus and iris. The latter reveals the presence of Hindu belief, organically flourishing in the work of the Hindu artisans and laborers. The beauty, size, structure, and detail of the Taj Mahal remind one of the deceased’s house in paradise, the throne of God, in Islamic belief, on the Day of Judgment.

The Great Synagogue

Budapest, Hungary

The Great Synagogue, or the Dohany St. Synagogue, in Budapest, is the largest synagogue in Europe, second in the world to the Temple Emanuel in New York. Built over 150 years ago in the Jewish District and consecrated on September 6, 1859 as a place of worship for Neolog Judaism, the Great Synagogue retains traditional Jewish style integrated with Byzantine-Oriental and Muslim aesthetic qualities. Because it was constructed upon an asymmetric lot, the street-facing facade does not give the impression of great size. However, its twin almost minaret-like towers give the building a sense of wonder and grandeur.

Moreover, the Synagogue can hold up to 3,000 seats with standing room for another 2,000 people. Its interior is decorated in gold and red, giving the space a vital and luminous feel. The Great Dohany Street Synagogue remains the most important religious center for Neolog Jews in the world.

Las Lajas Sanctuary

Ipiales, Nariño, Columbia

Las Lajas Sanctuary stuns its viewers on account of both its structural beauty as well as its uncommon setting. Included in the construction of a bridge spanning a canyon, the Basilica Church rests across the Guaítara River. The Church is relatively new (finished in 1949) and built in the style of the Gothic Revival.

The current Church replaces earlier shrines stretching to the 18th century, which were dedicated to an apparition of the Virgin Mary in which the two Amerindian women were saved during a dangerous storm by the intercession of Mary. Attached to the miracle and apparition is an image of the Virgin set in a stone, which attracts visitors and pilgrims to this day.

Temple of the Sagrada Familia

Barcelona, ​​Spanje

With the first stone laid in 1882, the Temple of the Sagrada Familia was designed by the famous architect Antoni Gaudi. Gaudi, a highly gifted mathematician, spent 40 years designing the church but did not live to see it finished. He said before his death, “It is not a disappointment that I will not be able to finish the temple. I will grow old, but others will come after me. What must be always preserved is the spirit of the work its life will depend on the generations that transmit this spirit and bring it to life.” The work is still in progress and is expected to be finished in 2026.

Combining the traditions of Gothic and Byzantine architecture with a new and personal style, Gaudi created a structure that was inspired by nature but infused with the central theme of light and color. The building has an ordered Christian symbolism which is shown in its 18 towers. One represents Christ, one the Virgin Mary, 4 signify the Gospels and the remaining 12 are for the 12 apostles. Gaudi intended to create an atmosphere of introspection, thus the skylights and windows which provide architectural relief are filled with glass of greens and golds to bring light, harmony, and peace to those inside.


St Peter’s Basilica

St. Peter’s Basilica in the Vatican may be constantly swarming with tourists, but it doesn’t make it any less magnificent. It’s a crossover of Italian culture, religion and renaissance with Michelangelo as its primary designer. Vatican City, the universal headquarters of the Catholic Church, is also the Pope's residence.


20 of the world’s most beautiful Buddhist temples

These architectural marvels were designed to inspire peaceful reflection.

Between the mid-sixth and mid-fourth centuries B.C., Buddhism was founded in northeastern India and soon spread throughout the Asian subcontinent, influencing cultural and spiritual practices, art, and architecture. Today, around half a billion people around the world practice Buddhism, which is built upon principles like the Four Noble Truths and pursuit of nirvana. While traditional Buddhist temples often reflect the architectural styles of the region, all are designed to facilitate quiet reflection and meditation. (Here are 38 beautiful holy sites around the world.)

Etiquette at Buddhist temples is fairly universal. Visitors should remove their shoes at the door, wear clothing that covers knees and shoulders, and keep noise to a minimum. Pay attention to posted signage and avoid disruptive photography, especially when monks are praying. From the sprawling stone structures at Angkor Wat to the cliffside temples of Tiger’s Nest, here are 20 Buddhist temples worth a visit.


Borobudur, Indonesia

Located in Java, Indonesia, Borobudur is an iconic Buddhist temple with construction dating back to the eighth and ninth centuries, during the Syailendra Dynasty. The UNESCO World Heritage site comprises of three tiers, and 72 small stupas—dome-shaped structures containing relics usually related to Buddha—plus one larger central stupa at the top. The structure is specifically designed to represent the path to enlightenment: Each level represents a level of the universe, and the higher you climb, the closer you are to nirvana.


Luxor Temple, Egypt

Stock Photos from amin esmat.jordan/Shutterstock

Often referred to as “the world's greatest open-air museum,” Luxor, Egypt, has no shortage of ancient ruins to explore. After all, this city is home to Luxor Temple, a famous complex constructed way back in 1400 BCE.

Formally the site of the Thebes, the “City of a Hundred Gates,” Luxor is steeped in Egyptian history. “It was from here that Thutmose III planned his campaigns, Akhenaten first contemplated the nature of god, and Rameses II set out his ambitious building program” (Discovering Egypt). Luxor Temple epitomizes the city's pharaoh-ly focus, as it was the only temple in Thebes dedicated not to gods, but to the kingship.


What are the best Roman Temples in the world?

1. Baalbek

Home to the largest Roman temple ever built, Baalbek contains not just the remains of the Temple of Jupiter but also the far better preserved and simply magnificent Temple of Bacchus. Probably the most impressive entry on our list of Roman temples. Today, visitors can see the impressive ruins of these incredible structures including standing in the shadow of six of the original 54 columns of the Temple of Jupiter. Baalbek is also the place to see the stairs of the Temple of Mercury and a ceremonial entryway known as the propylaea.

2. Pantheon

The most famous Roman temple in the world and one of the very best preserved, the Pantheon in Rome was built during the reign of Hadrian in 125AD. Its vast concrete dome is a monumental engineering feat and remained the largest dome in the world until the 15th century. In 609AD the Pantheon was converted to a Church and this helped preserve the building from the destruction of later times. In the middle ages the Pantheon was also used as a burial chamber for notable figures and even Italian kings. Today, the Pantheon stands as a magnificent site in central Rome, and one of the most popular destinations for tourists. The Pantheon is free to visit and is a must-see for both the general tourist and the history enthusiast.

3. La Maison Carrée

One of the best preserved ancient temples in the world, the Maison Carree in Nimes largely survived due to its conversion to a church in the fourth century. Simply stunning, it is as close as you’d ever get to the temples which the Romans would have used. The site was lucky to survive the fall of the Empire and this is mostly due to the fact that the building became a church in the fourth century. Through the ages La Maison Carrée has been used as a consul’s house, stables and the town’s archive. It has been partly renovated and restored over the years, but remains true to its Roman origins and is certainly not a recreation. Visitors can view this stunning structure in all its glory as well as watching a multimedia presentation inside the building which brings Roman Nîmes back to life.

4. Garni Temple

Though in fact a reconstruction built from the original remains, the Garni Temple in Armenia is a beautiful site in a picturesque mountain setting and is definitely worth the effort to visit. Likely dedicated to the ancient deity Mithras, today the Garni Temple lies about 30km to the East of Yerevan and the complex hosts a number of buildings including a royal palace, Roman baths, and a 9th Century church.

5. Sbeitla

Visually among the most impressive temples from the Roman Empire, the forum temples at Sbeitla in Tunisia are reasonably well preserved and sit lined-up one alongside the next, making for a picture perfect ancient site. This startling site thrived as a Roman settlement from the 1st century AD before becoming a Christian centre, a Byzantine city and – after a brief period under Prefect Gregory – being taken by the Muslims. Today, Sbeitla’s ruins hint at the great city that once stood here. The highlights include its Temples of Jupiter and Minerva, both located in the beautiful forum. There is also a museum at the site which examines the history of the area and includes an array of finds from Sbeitla.

6. Dougga

Dougga boasts a series of impressive Roman ruins including the impressive Temple of Jupiter and the temples of Juno Caelestis and Saturn.The city had a variety of cultural influences, having been a thriving Numidian capital and later being incorporated into the Roman Empire. The incredible state of preservation combined with its mix of cultural influences led UNESCO to list it as a World Heritage site in 1997. Grand and full of fascinating sites, Dougga is one of Tunisia’s most interesting archaeological sites.

7. Temple of Augustus and Livia

One of the best surviving examples of a Roman temple anywhere in the world, the Temple of Augustus and Livia in Vienne, France, is an extremely well-preserved ancient site and definitely one to see. Whilst probably built sometime between 20BC and 10BC, several aspects of the temple date to the first century AD. Yet, the main reason for the great state of preservation is that it was incorporated into a church perhaps as early as the fifth century and restored in the nineteenth century.

8. Temples of the Forum Boarium

The Temples of the Forum Boarium in Rome date back to the second century BC and are considered to be the best-preserved temples of the Republican era. Comprised of two temples, the Temple of Hercules Victor and the Temple of Portunus, they are fascinating to explore. The Forum Boarium was itself originally part of the Roman cattle market before becoming a commercial centre.

9. Djemila

An extremely good example of a Roman temple can be found in Djemila, Algeria, with the Temple of Venus Genetrix. This unrestored ruin still has its original walls and columns intact and offers a rare glimpse into the original Roman architecture. Constructed amidst mountainous terrain, Djemila was built to fit in with its surroundings and, as it expanded in the second century, amassed an impressive set of buildings. Like Timgad, Djemila was probably the home of a military base. Today, the site houses a wealth of ancient ruins such as those of the Arch of Caracalla, a well-preserved bath complex and the theatre built by Emperor Antoninus Pius.

10. Temple of Ercole Vincitore

The Temple of Ercole Vincitore is a circular structure with twenty Corinthian columns atop a podium of marble steps. Dating from the late second century BC, it is the oldest preserved marble monument in Rome. It can be found in the Forum Boarium. It is believed that the temple was restored in around 15 AD. The fresco of the Madonna with Child inside is a remnant of its time as a church.


Inhoud

The English word "temple" derives from the Latin templum, which was originally not the building itself, but a sacred space surveyed and plotted ritually. [6] The Roman architect Vitruvius always uses the word templum to refer to the sacred precinct, and not to the building. The more common Latin words for a temple or shrine were sacellum (a small shrine or chapel), aedes, delubrum, en fanum (in this article, the English word "temple" refers to any of these buildings, and the Latin templum to the sacred precinct).

The form of the Roman temple was mainly derived from the Etruscan model, but in the late Republic there was a switch to using Greek classical and Hellenistic styles, without much change in the key features of the form. The Etruscans were a people of northern Italy, whose civilization was at its peak in the seventh century BC. The Etruscans were already influenced by early Greek architecture, so Roman temples were distinctive but with both Etruscan and Greek features. [8] [9] Surviving temples (both Greek and Roman) lack the extensive painted statuary that decorated the rooflines, and the elaborate revetments and antefixes, in colourful terracotta in earlier examples, that enlivened the entablature.

Etruscan and Roman temples emphasised the front of the building, which followed Greek temple models and typically consisted of wide steps leading to a portico with columns, a pronaos, and usually a triangular pediment above, which was filled with statuary in the most grand examples this was as often in terracotta as stone, and no examples have survived except as fragments. Especially in the earlier periods, further statuary might be placed on the roof, and the entablature decorated with antefixes and other elements, all of this being brightly painted. However, unlike the Greek models, which generally gave equal treatment to all sides of the temple, which could be viewed and approached from all directions, the side and rear walls of Roman temples might be largely undecorated (as in the Pantheon, Rome and Vic), inaccessible by steps (as in the Maison Carrée and Vic), and even back on to other buildings. As in the Maison Carrée, columns at the side might be half columns, emerging from ("engaged with" in architectural terminology) the wall. [10]

The platform on which the temple sat was typically raised higher in Etruscan and Roman examples than Greek, with up to ten, twelve or more steps rather than the three typical in Greek temples the Temple of Claudius was raised twenty steps. These steps were normally only at the front, and typically not the whole width of that. It might or might not be possible to walk around the temple exterior inside (Temple of Hadrian) or outside the colonnade, or at least down the sides. [11] The description of the Greek models used here is a generalization of classical Greek ideals, and later Hellenistic buildings often do not reflect them. For example, the "Temple of Dionysus" on the terrace by the theatre at Pergamon (Ionic, 2nd century BC, on a hillside), had many steps in front, and no columns beyond the portico. [12] The Parthenon, also approached up a hill, probably had many wide steps at the approach to the main front, followed by a flat area before the final few steps. [13]

After the eclipse of the Etruscan models, the Greek classical orders in all their details were closely followed in the façades of Roman temples, as in other prestigious buildings, with the direct adoption of Greek models apparently beginning around 200 BC, under the late Republic. But the distinctive differences in the general arrangement of temples between the Etruscan-Roman style and the Greek, as outlined above, were retained. However the idealized proportions between the different elements in the orders set out by the only significant Roman writer on architecture to survive, Vitruvius, and subsequent Italian Renaissance writers, do not reflect actual Roman practice, which could be very variable, though always aiming at balance and harmony. Following a Hellenistic trend, the Corinthian order and its variant the Composite order were most common in surviving Roman temples, but for small temples like that at Alcántara, a simple Tuscan order could be used. Vitruvius does not recognise the Composite order in his writings, and covers the Tuscan order only as Etruscan Renaissance writers formalized them from observing surviving buildings. [14]

The front of the temple typically carried an inscription saying who had built it, cut into the stone with a "V" section. This was filled with brightly coloured paint, usually scarlet or vermilion. In major imperial monuments the letters were cast in lead and held in by pegs, then also painted or gilded. These have usually long vanished, but archaeologists can generally reconstruct them from the peg-holes, and some have been re-created and set in place. [15]

There was considerable local variation in style, as Roman architects often tried to incorporate elements the population expected in its sacred architecture. This was especially the case in Egypt and the Near East, where different traditions of large stone temples were already millennia old. The Romano-Celtic temple was a simple style, usually with little use of stone, for small temples found in the Western Empire, and by far the most common type in Roman Britain, where they were usually square, with an ambulatory. It often lacked any of the distinctive classical features, and may have had considerable continuity with pre-Roman temples of the Celtic religion. [16]

Romano-Celtic temples were often circular, and circular temples of various kinds were built by the Romans. Greek models were available in tholos shrines and some other buildings, as assembly halls and various other functions. Temples of the goddess Vesta, which were usually small, typically had this shape, as in those at Rome and Tivoli (see list), which survive in part. Like the Temple of Hercules Victor in Rome, which was perhaps by a Greek architect, these survivors had an unbroken colonnade encircling the building, and a low, Greek-style podium. [17]

Different formulae were followed in the Pantheon, Rome and a small temple at Baalbek (usually called the "Temple of Venus"), where the door is behind a full portico, though very different ways of doing this are used. In the Pantheon only the portico has columns, and the "thoroughly uncomfortable" exterior meeting of the portico and circular cella are often criticised. At Baalbek, a wide portico with a broken pediment is matched by four other columns round the building, with the architrave in scooped curving sections, each ending in a projection supported by a column. [18]

At Praeneste (modern Palestrina) near Rome, a huge pilgrimage complex of the 1st century BC led visitors up several levels with large buildings on a steep hillside, before they eventually reached the sanctuary itself, a much smaller circular building. [19]

A caesareum was a temple devoted to the Imperial cult. Caesarea were located throughout the Roman Empire, and often funded by the imperial government, tending to replace state spending on new temples to other gods, and becoming the main or only large temple in new Roman towns in the provinces. This was the case at Évora, Vienne and Nîmes, which were all expanded by the Romans as coloniae from Celtic oppida soon after their conquest. Imperial temples paid for by the government usually used conventional Roman styles all over the empire, regardless of the local styles seen in smaller temples. In newly planned Roman cities the temple was normally centrally placed at one end of the forum, often facing the basilica at the other. [20]

In the city of Rome, a caesareum was located within the religious precinct of the Arval Brothers. In 1570, it was documented as still containing nine statues of Roman emperors in architectural niches. [21] Most of the earlier emperors had their own very large temples in Rome, [4] but a faltering economy meant that the building of new imperial temples mostly ceased after the reign of Marcus Aurelius (d. 180), though the Temple of Romulus on the Roman Forum was built and dedicated by the Emperor Maxentius to his son Valerius Romulus, who died in childhood in 309 and was deified.

One of the earliest and most prominent of the caesarea was the Caesareum of Alexandria, located on the harbour. It was begun by Cleopatra VII of the Ptolemaic dynasty, the last pharaoh of Ancient Egypt, to honour her dead lover Julius Caesar, then converted by Augustus to his own cult. During the 4th century, after the Empire had come under Christian rule, it was converted to a church. [22]

The Etruscan-Roman adaptation of the Greek temple model to place the main emphasis on the front façade and let the other sides of the building harmonize with it only as much as circumstances and budget allow has generally been adopted in Neoclassical architecture, and other classically derived styles. In these temple fronts with columns and a pediment are very common for the main entrance of grand buildings, but often flanked by large wings or set in courtyards. This flexibility has allowed the Roman temple front to be used in buildings made for a wide variety of purposes. The colonnade may no longer be pushed forward with a pronaus porch, and it may not be raised above the ground, but the essential shape remains the same. Among thousands of examples are the White House, Buckingham Palace, and St Peters, Rome in recent years the temple front has become fashionable in China. [23]

Renaissance and later architects worked out ways of harmoniously adding high raised domes, towers and spires above a colonnaded temple portico front, something the Romans would have found odd. The Roman temple front remains a familiar feature of subsequent Early Modern architecture in the Western tradition, but although very commonly used for churches, it has lost the specific association with religion that it had for the Romans. [24] Generally, later adaptions lack the colour of the original, and though there may be sculpture filling the pediment in grand examples, the full Roman complement of sculpture above the roofline is rarely emulated.

Variations on the theme, mostly Italian in origin, include: San Andrea, Mantua, 1462 by Leon Battista Alberti, which took a four-columned Roman triumphal arch and added a pediment above San Giorgio Maggiore, Venice, begun 1566, by Andrea Palladio, which has two superimposed temple fronts, one low and wide, the other tall and narrow the Villa Capra "La Rotonda", 1567 on, also by Palladio, with four isolated temple fronts on each side of a rectangle, with a large central dome. In Baroque architecture two temple fronts, often of different orders, superimposed one above the other, became extremely common for Catholic churches, often with the uppermost one supported by huge volutes to each side. This can be seen developing in the Gesù, Rome (1584), Santa Susanna, Rome (1597), Santi Vincenzo e Anastasio a Trevi (1646) and Val-de-Grâce, Paris (1645 on). [25] The Palladian villas of the Veneto include numerous ingenious and influential variations on the theme of the Roman temple front.

An archetypical pattern for churches in Georgian architecture was set by St Martin-in-the-Fields in London (1720), by James Gibbs, who boldly added to the classical temple façade at the west end a large steeple on top of a tower, set back slightly from the main frontage. This formula shocked purists and foreigners, but became accepted and was very widely copied, at home and in the colonies, [26] for example at St Andrew's Church, Chennai in India and St. Paul's Chapel in New York City (1766).

Examples of modern buildings that stick more faithfully to the ancient rectangular temple form are only found from the 18th century onwards. [1] Versions of the Roman temple as a discrete block include La Madeleine, Paris (1807), now a church but built by Napoleon as a Temple de la Gloire de la Grande Armée ("Temple to the Glory of the Great Army"), the Virginia State Capitol as originally built in 1785–88, and Birmingham Town Hall (1832–34). [27]

Small Roman circular temples with colonnades have often been used as models, either for single buildings, large or small, or elements such as domes raised on drums, in buildings on another plan such as St Peters, Rome, St Paul's Cathedral in London and the United States Capitol. The great progenitor of these is the Tempietto of Donato Bramante in the courtyard of San Pietro in Montorio in Rome, c. 1502, which has been widely admired ever since. [28]

Though the Pantheon's large circular domed cella, with a conventional portico front, is "unique" in Roman architecture, it has been copied many times by modern architects. Versions include the church of Santa Maria Assunta in Ariccia by Gian Lorenzo Bernini (1664), which followed his work restoring the Roman original, [29] Belle Isle House (1774) in England, and Thomas Jefferson's library at the University of Virginia, The Rotunda (1817–26). [30] The Pantheon was much the largest and most accessible complete classical temple front known to the Italian Renaissance, and was the standard exemplar when these were revived.

The Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus on the Capitoline Hill was the oldest large temple in Rome, dedicated to the Capitoline Triad consisting of Jupiter and his companion deities, Juno and Minerva, and had a cathedral-like position in the official religion of Rome. It was destroyed by fire three times, and rapidly rebuilt in contemporary styles. The first building, traditionally dedicated in 509 BC, [31] has been claimed to have been almost 60 m × 60 m (200 ft × 200 ft), much larger than other Roman temples for centuries after, although its size is heavily disputed by specialists. Whatever its size, its influence on other early Roman temples was significant and long-lasting. [32] The same may have been true for the later rebuildings, though here the influence is harder to trace.

For the first temple Etruscan specialists were brought in for various aspects of the building, including making and painting the extensive terracotta elements of the entablature or upper parts, such as antefixes. [33] But for the second building they were summoned from Greece. Rebuildings after destruction by fire were completed in 69 BC, 75 AD, and in the 80s AD, under Domitian – the third building only lasted five years before burning down again. After a major sacking by Vandals in 455, and comprehensive removal of stone in the Renaissance, only foundations can now be seen, in the basement of the Capitoline Museums. [34] The sculptor Flaminio Vacca (d 1605) claimed that the life-size Medici lion he carved to match a Roman survival, now in Florence, was made from a single capital from the temple. [35]


Verdere navorsing

PBS’s Frontline explores “the life of Jesus and the rise of Christianity” in this in-depth documentary. View the piece in its entirety here: http://openstaxcollege.org/l/PBS_Frontline.

For more insight on Confucianism, read the Analects by Confucius, at http://openstaxcollege.org/l/Confucius_Analects. For a primer on Judaism, read Judaism 101 at http://openstaxcollege.org/l/Jew_FAQ.

Sorting through the different Christian denominations can be a daunting task. To help clarify these groups, go to http://openstaxcollege.org/l/Christian_denominations.



Kommentaar:

  1. Konnyr

    Ek dink hy is verkeerd. Ek is seker. Skryf vir my in PM, bespreek dit.

  2. Mago

    Ek kan nie nou aan bespreking deelneem nie - dit is baie beset. Ek sal vrygelaat word - ek sal die mening noodwendig uitspreek.

  3. Harel

    die baie waardevolle boodskap

  4. Macpherson

    Ek glo jy was verkeerd. Ek is seker. Ons moet bespreek.



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