Jacob Riis

Jacob Riis, die derde van vyftien kinders, is op 3 Mei 1849 in Ribe, Denemarke, gebore. Hy het as timmerman in Kopenhagen gewerk voordat hy in 1870 na die Verenigde State geëmigreer het. Hy kon nie werk kry nie en was dikwels gedwing om nag in polisiestasie huisies.

Riis het verskillende werk gedoen voordat hy in 1873 by 'n nuusburo in New York City werk gekry het. Die jaar daarna is hy deur die South Brooklyn News gewerf. In 1877 word Riis 'n polisieverslaggewer vir die New York Tribune. Riis was bewus van hoe dit was om in armoede te leef, en was vasbeslote om van hierdie geleentheid gebruik te maak om sy joernalistieke vaardighede te gebruik om dit aan die publiek oor te dra. Hy het voortdurend aangevoer dat die "armes die slagoffers was eerder as die makers van hul lot".

In 1888 is Riis in diens as foto-joernalis by die New York Evening Sun. Riis was een van die eerste fotograwe wat flitspoeier gebruik het, wat hom in staat gestel het om binne en buite die krotbuurte in die nag te fotografeer. Hy het ook verband gehou met wat later bekend geword het as 'n vieslike joernalistiek.

In Desember 1889 verskyn 'n verslag oor die stadslewe, geïllustreer deur foto's Scribner's Magazine. Dit het groot belangstelling geskep en die volgende jaar 'n volledige weergawe, Hoe die ander helfte lewe, gepubliseer is. Die boek is gesien deur Theodore Roosevelt, die polisiekommissaris van New York, en hy het die stadspolisiehuisies wat in die boek verskyn, laat sluit.

Harold Evans, die skrywer van Die Amerikaanse eeu: mense, mag en politiek (1998) het daarop gewys: "Jacob Riis het beraam dat daar in Dickensian London 175.816 mense op elke vierkante kilometer van sy ergste krotbuurte gewoon het, maar New York se Lower East Side teen die negentigerjare daarenteen ongeveer 290.000 per vierkante kilometer, wat dit miskien die ergste was krotbuurt in die geskiedenis van die Westerse wêreld .... Hy teken 'n woonhuis op met 1324 Italiaanse immigrante wat in altesaam 132 kamers woon.In een kamer van 12 by 12 voet het hy vyf gesinne, 20 mense, met twee beddens gevind Een derde van die hele stad se bevolking - ongeveer 1,2 miljoen - het in 43 000 woonhuise soos hierdie gewoon sonder lopende water of spoeltoilette binne ... ongeveer 40 persent van hulle het tuberkulose gehad. eerste verjaardag. "

Gedurende die volgende vyf-en-twintig jaar het Jacob Riis oor die probleme van die armes geskryf en lesings gegee. Dit het magiese lanternvertonings ingesluit en een waarnemer het opgemerk dat "sy kykers kreun, sidder, flou raak en selfs praat met die foto's wat hy geprojekteer het, en reageer op die skyfies nie as beelde nie, maar as 'n virtuele realiteit wat die krotbuurtwêreld van New York direk na die lesing vervoer het saal. "

Die werk van Riis het Lincoln Steffens geïnspireer, die man wat beskou word as die 'peetvader' van ondersoekende joernalistiek Outobiografie (1931): "Hy (Riis) het nie net die nuus gekry nie; hy het omgee vir die nuus. Hy het alle tirannies, mishandeling, ellende en passie gehaat, en hy het dit beveg. Hy was 'n terreur vir die verantwoordelike amptenare en eienaars, soos hy gesien het dit, vanweë die desperate toestand van die huise waar die armes gewoon het. Hy het dit in artikels, boeke en openbare toesprake en met resultate blootgelê. Al die filantrope in die stad het Riis, wat toe in staat was, as hervormer geken en ondersteun ook 'n verslaggewer om die aanstelling van 'n huurkommissie te dwing wat hy sagkens gelei het en hard na 'n ondersoek en 'n verslag gery het, wat - opgevolg deur hierdie verskriklike verslaggewer - gelei het tot die uitwissing van hele blokke rookerye, klein parke en die regulering van die huurhuise. "

As u hierdie artikel nuttig vind, kan u dit gerus op webwerwe soos Reddit deel. U kan John Simkin op Twitter, Google+ en Facebook volg of inteken op ons maandelikse nuusbrief.

Riis het ook meer as 'n dosyn boeke geskryf, insluitend Kinders van die armes (1892), Uit Mulberrystraat (1898), 'n outobiografie, Die maak van 'n Amerikaner (1901), Die stryd met die krotbuurt (1902), en Kinders van die Huur (1903).

Jacob Riis is op 26 Mei 1914 in Barrie, Massachusetts, oorlede.

Wat is 'n huurhuis? Die wet definieer dit as 'n huis "wat deur nog drie of vier gesinne bewoon word, onafhanklik woon en kook op die perseel; of deur meer as twee gesinne op 'n vloer, so woon en kook en het 'n gemeenskaplike reg in die gange, trappe , werwe, ens. "

Die woonstel is oor die algemeen 'n baksteengebou van vier tot ses verdiepings hoog op straat, gereeld met 'n winkel op die eerste verdieping, wat gebruik word vir die verkoop van drank, 'n syopening ten bate van die gevangenes en om die Sondagwet te ontduik ; vier gesinne beslaan elke verdieping, en 'n stel kamers bestaan ​​uit een of twee donker kaste, wat as slaapkamers gebruik word, met 'n sitkamer twaalf voet by tien. Die trap is te dikwels 'n donker put in die middel van die huis, en daar is geen direkte ventilasie moontlik nie; elke gesin word deur die skeiding van die ander geskei.

Weerskante van die smal ingang na Bandits 'Roost is "die buiging". Misbruik is die normale toestand van 'die buiging', moord is 'n alledaagse gewas, en die huurders is nie altyd die misdadigers nie. In hierdie blok tussen Bayard-, Park-, Mulberry- en Baxterstraat, "the Bend", het die laat Tenement House Commission 155 sterftes van kinders in 'n modeljaar getel (1882). Hulle persentasie van die totale sterftesyfer in die blok was 68,28, terwyl die persentasie vir die hele stad slegs 46,20 was. In nommer 59 langs Bandits 'Roost sterf daardie jaar veertien mense, en elf van hulle was kinders; in nommer 61 elf, en agt van hulle nog nie vyf jaar oud nie.

Sedert die burgeroorlog ontvang New York die oorvloed van bruin bevolking uit die suidelike stede. In die afgelope dekade het hierdie migrasie so groot geword dat na raming ons swartes sedert die tiende sensus redelik verdubbel het. Of die ruil vir die neger tot voordeel was, kan wel bevraagteken word. Ambagte waarvan hy praktiese beheer in sy suidelike huis gehad het, staan ​​hom nie hier oop nie. Ek weet dat daar geantwoord kan word dat daar nie 'n industriële kleurbepaling is nie; dat dit 'n kwessie van keuse is. Miskien so. Hy kies dit in elk geval nie. Hoeveel gekleurde timmermanne of messelaars het iemand by die werk in New York gesien?

Netheid is die kenmerk van die neger in sy nuwe omgewing, want dit was sy deug in die ou. In hierdie opsig is hy uiters die opperhoof van die laagste van die blankes, die Italianers en die Poolse Jode, onder wie hy in die verlede op die huurderskaal ingedeel is. Dit is bewys deur 'n ondersoek wat die Real Estate Record verlede jaar gedoen het. Dit het bewys dat agente feitlik eenparig was in die onderskrywing van die neger as 'n skoon, ordelike en winsgewende huurder.

Armoede, mishandeling en onreg aanvaar die neger met onstuitbare vrolikheid. Sy filosofie is van die aard wat geen ruimte het om te verfyn nie. Of hy nou in 'n barak van die agtste wyk woon of in 'n woonstel met 'n bruin klipfront en pretensies teen die teël van 'plat', hy kyk na die sonnige kant van die lewe en geniet dit. Hy is baie lief vir goeie klere en om 'n goeie lewe te hê as vir 'n bankrekening.

Die huise van die Hebreeuse wyk is ook die werkswinkels daarvan. U word daarvan deeglik bewus gemaak voordat u die lengte van 'n enkele blok in enige van hierdie East End-strate afgelê het, deur 'n duisend naaimasjiene wat onder hoë druk gewerk het vanaf die vroegste dagbreek totdat die gees en spiere saam uitgegee het. Elke lid van die gesin, van die jongste tot die oudste, steek 'n hand vas, toegesluit in die luukse kamers, waar maaltye gekook word en klere gewas en gedroog word, die dag van die lewe. Dit is nie ongewoon om 'n dosyn persone - mans, vroue en kinders - in 'n enkelkamer aan die werk te kry nie.

Die Vereniging vir die Voorkoming van Wreedheid teenoor Kinders het vyf van hierdie seunshuisies, en een vir meisies, in die stad. Die Duane Street -losieshuis alleen het sedert sy stigting in 1855 byna 'n kwartmiljoen verskillende seuns beskut. In al die losieshuise saam was 12 153 seuns en dogters verlede jaar beskut en onderrig. Daarbenewens het die Genootskap een en twintig industriële skole gestig en bedryf in die woonbuurte, wat met die gesaghebbende openbare skole koördineer, vir die kinders van die armes wat nie plek kan vind in die stad se skoolhuise nie, of wat te slap is. om daarheen te gaan; twee gratis leeskamers, 'n kleremaak- en tikskool en 'n wassery vir die onderrig van meisies; 'n siek kindersending in die stad en twee aan die kus, waar arm moeders hul babas kan neem; 'n huisie by die see vir kreupel meisies, en 'n kwasfabriek vir kreupel seuns in vier-en-veertigste straat.

Die Italiaanse skool in Leonardstraat alleen, het verlede jaar gemiddeld meer as seshonderd leerlinge bygewoon. Die daaglikse gemiddelde bywoning by almal was 4 105, terwyl 11 331 kinders geregistreer en onderrig was. As die feit dat daar onder hierdie 1 132 kinders van dronk ouers was, en 416 wat gevind is dat hulle bedel in die straat, in teenstelling is met die vertoning van $ 1,337,21 wat deur 1,745 leerlinge in die skool se spaarbanke gestort is, kry iets soos 'n voldoende idee die omvang van die Genootskap se werk in die stad.

Jake Riis was 'n Deense Amerikaner wat die polisie se hoofkwartier, die departement van gesondheid, wat toe in dieselfde gebou was, en 'die East Side', ''n kort naam vir die armes en die buiteland van die stad was. En hy het nie net die nuus gekry nie; hy gee om vir die nuus. Hy was 'n 'terreur' vir die amptenare en verhuurders wat, soos hy dit gesien het, verantwoordelik was vir die desperate toestand van die huise waar die armes gewoon het. Hy het dit in artikels, boeke en openbare toesprake "blootgelê", en met resultate. Al die filantrope in die stad het Riis geken en ondersteun, wat toe ook as hervormer en verslaggewer die aanstelling van 'n huurhuiskommissie kon dwing wat hy saggies gelei het en hard na 'n ondersoek en 'n verslag gestuur het wat daarna gevolg het deur hierdie vreeslike verslaggewer het gelei tot die uitwissing van hele blokke rookhuise, die maak van klein parke en die regulering van die huurhuise. Hy het hierdie euwels ontdek as 'n verslaggewer, wat byvoorbeeld 'n selfmoord, 'n brand of 'n moord aangemeld het. Dit was die nuus wat al die verslaggewers gekry het; net Riis het dit as stories geskryf, met hart, humor en begrip. En nadat hy die menslike kant van die misdaad of die ramp 'gesien' het, het hy ook kennis geneem van die huis of die blok of die straat waar dit gebeur het. Hy het teruggegaan en dit ook beskryf; het hy 'n beroep op die offisiere en verhuurders gedoen wat die voorwaardes toegelaat het, en 'afpers' hulle tot hervormings.


Verken die geskiedenis van Jacob Riis Park, die 'mense se strand'

Die mees onlangse onderdrukkende somerhitte is genoeg om New Yorkers die stad te wil verlaat op soek na 'n ontspannende bestemming aan die see - en gelukkig bestaan ​​daar so 'n idilliese ontsnapping in Queens. Jacob Riis Park dien al 'n eeu lank as 'n welkome ontsnapping vir baie inwoners, en ervaar tans 'n herlewing wat tot 'n groot skare gelei het. Maar dit is meer as net 'n strand, dit is ook 'n artefak uit die dikwels omstrede Robert Moses-era van NYC-ontwikkeling wat vandag nog resoneer.

Die grond wat Riis Park nou beset, was eens die tuiste van Naval Air Station Rockaway, een van die oorspronklike stasies van die Amerikaanse vloot. Die eerste transatlantiese vlug eindig hier in 1919, wat deur die Amerikaanse vloot bestuur word met behulp van die Curtiss NC-vliegboot (NC-4). Die NAS Rockaway bly in werking tot 1930, toe dit gesloop is om die bou van die park moontlik te maak. Die NAS is egter nie uitgeroei nie, dit is eerder oor die Jamaica Bay -inham na Floyd Bennett Field verplaas.

Die park is vernoem na Deens-gebore fotojoernalis en sosiale hervormer Jacob Riis, wat die skelm lewensomstandighede van die armste bevolkings in die stad gedokumenteer het. Sy bekendste werke - die publikasies Hoe die ander helfte lewe (1890) en Kinders van die armes (1892)-geïnspireerde destydse polisiekommissaris Theodore Roosevelt om "die ergste losies te sluit en stadsamptenare aangespoor het om die stad se behuisingsbeleid te hervorm en toe te pas." Riis was ook 'n voorstander van speelgronde en oop ruimtes, sowel as 'n inwoner van Jamaika, Queens. Hy het 'n prominente rol gespeel in die verkryging wat vroeër Telawana Park bekend gestaan ​​het, en die ruimte is na sy dood in 1914 vir hom hernoem.

Die park is miskien die bekendste vir sy Art Deco-badhuis, wat in 1932 geopen is. Ontwerp deur John L. Plock vir die argitekfirma Stoughton & Stoughton, is die gebou van kalksteen, baksteen en gegote klip, en voltooi vir $ 530,000. Die paviljoen het 8 000 strandgangers gehuisves en 'n kafeteria op die grondvloer en op die tweede verdieping, 'n restaurant wat na 'n terras lei (Ballon en Jackson, 2007).

Moses se betrokkenheid het in 1934 begin toe hy 'n reeks opknappings en aanbouings van die park ter waarde van $ 1,7 miljoen uitgevoer het. Toe hy die aantreklike badpaviljoen ondersoek, kom hy tot die gevolgtrekking dat dit te ver na die strand strek, en merk op dat die water tydens hoogwater die voorkant van die gebou loop. Sy oplossing: om honderd voet van die voorkant van die struktuur af te verwyder, asook 'n paar van die argitektoniese besonderhede van die gebou. In die boek van Hillary Ballon en Kenneth Jackson, Robert Moses en die moderne stad: die transformasie van New York, beskryf hulle die aftrekkings en byvoegings van Moses soos volg:

"Hy het die deel van die gebou wat op die strand uitgestrek is, uitgeskakel en dit vervang met 'n opvallende onbetaamlike betonfasade met hurk kolomme wat 'n konvekse boonste verdieping ondersteun, met 'n lintvenster. Hy het twee vlerke vir kleedkamers aan weerskante van die paviljoen en het die fynheid van die oorspronklike torings bederf deur dit te bedek met 15 voet donker, onopgesmukte baksteen.

Moses het 'n nuwe badhuis laat bou ten weste van die bestaande, opgeknapte struktuur. Dit is ontwerp deur Aymar Embury II, wat gereeld saam met Moses aan openbare projekte saamgewerk het. Hierdie baksteen- en betonstruktuur wat in 1937 voltooi is, bevat 'vereenvoudigde en afgeplatte klassieke vorms', waarin Embury 'die klassieke tradisie van klipkolomme speels naboots sonder om die aard van sy ekonomiese materiaal te probeer bedek', volgens Ballon en Jackson . 'N Wagtoring aan die westekant van die gebou is ook bygevoeg.

Moses se plan bevat ook 'n 40 voet breë promenade en uitgestrekte parkeerterrein vir 14 000 voertuie. Boonop is 'n verskeidenheid geriewe en ontspanningsaktiwiteite vir strandgangers bygevoeg, waaronder speelgronde vir tafeltennis, handbal en shuffleboard en 'n pitch-and-putt-gholfbaan. Die landskapargitek Gilmore Clarke, wat gereeld met Moses saamgewerk het, het grasse en struike langs die ontspanningsgeriewe geplant om 'n duidelike versperring van die promenade te skep. Die parke -afdeling is uitsluitlik verantwoordelik vir alle toegewings en dienste, tot groot ergernis van plaaslike ondernemings wat voorheen toegelaat is om hul voorraad en ware sonder beperking te verkoop.

Riis is ontwerp om te herinner aan Moses se persoonlike gunstelingprojek - Jones Beach, op Long Island - maar met die voordeel dat dit meer toeganklik is vir inwoners van New York. Met die opening van die Marine Parkway -brug in 1937, was 'n besoek aan die strand net 'n motorrit of 'n busreis. Moses wou ook hê dat Riis Beach die teenstelling sou wees van die oorvol en amusementgedrewe Coney Island. Soos in Ballon en Jackson se boek gesê is, die New York Times beskryf dit as die volgende:

"Alhoewel Riis Park net ses myl oos van Coney Island lê, is dit 'n miljoen myl weg van die sogenaamde Coney Island-tradisie. Donderende sproei, in plaas van ratelende achtbane, maak die belangrikste musiek van die strand."

New York sou die eienaarskap van die park tot 1974 behou, toe die stad se ernstige finansiële krisis daartoe gelei het dat dit na die National Park Service oorgeplaas is. Riis is opgeneem in Gateway National Recreation Area, wat 27.000 hektaar kus -eiendomme insluit, waaronder die naburige Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge, Fort Tilden en Floyd Bennett Field. In die 21ste eeu het die gewildheid van Riis Park weer toegeneem, deels te danke aan die strandbazaar van Riis Park, wat in dele van die bestaande historiese geboue gevestig is. Die onderneming het Riis verstewig as 'n benydenswaardige, maar tog haalbare, somerbestemming.

Riis, wat grootgeword het in Brooklyn net oorkant die Marine Parkway Bridge, was 'n gereelde someruitstappie. Jare later is ek verheug om te kan sê dat dit nog steeds so is. Met elke jaar wat verbygaan, word die toenemende gewildheid van my tuisstrand al hoe duideliker. Die skilderagtige natuurskoon en herstellende eienskappe waarvan ek altyd geweet het dat dit waar is, het nou waarheid geword vir ander.


Die gebied om die Riis -huise te word, is in Augustus 1943 vernietig deur stedelike vernuwing, maar die bouwerk is vertraag weens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. [4] [5] Die Riis -huise is op 17 Januarie 1949 voltooi en is vernoem na fotograaf Jacob Riis, wat die lewensomstandighede van woonhuisbewoners aan die Lower East Side blootgelê het. [3]

Die speelterrein is ontwerp om vier "buitekamers" vir 'n verskeidenheid aktiwiteite te hê en is ontwerp deur Pomerance & Breines met M. Paul Freidberg & amp Associates as landskapargitekte. [6] Dit is gefinansier deur 'n toekenning van die Victor Astor -stigting en is in 1966 geopen met die bywoning van Ladybird Johnson. [7] Later dieselfde jaar het dit 'n eerbewys -toekenning ontvang vir uitnemende ontwerp deur die Departement van Behuising en Stedelike Ontwikkeling. [6] Vier nuwe speelgronde in die stad is in 1967 daaruit gemodelleer. [8] In 2018 is die speelgrond daarvan deur NYCHA geïnspekteer en gevind dat dit gevaarlik is. [9]

Tydens orkaan Sandy in 2012 is die ontwikkeling getref deur 'n stormvloed wat dit sonder elektrisiteit en ander dienste gelaat het. [10] [11] In 2018 ontvang NYCHA 'n toelae van $ 7,1 miljoen om die nodige infrastruktuurherstelwerk te finansier van Sandy wat na verwagting in 2022 sal begin. Opgraderings sluit in: noodopwekkers, elektriese verspreidingstoerusting, waterdigting van strukture en afwerkings, opgraderings na riool/storm bestuurstelsels, nuwe paaie, voetgangersbeligting, rehabilitasie van ingange en voorportale. [12]

  1. ^"Jacob Riis Huise Bevolking".
  2. ^
  3. "Jacon Riis huise gebied". Besoek op 7 November 2019.
  4. ^ ab
  5. "MyNYCHA Developments Portal". my.nycha.info . Besoek op 23 Julie 2019.
  6. ^
  7. "DIE LAER OOSKANT VERANDER". New York Times . Besoek op 23 Julie 2019.
  8. ^
  9. "CORNERSTONE HET IN DIE RIIS -HUISE VERTROU Hernuwing van die federale hulp word by die laaste projek aangemoedig met hulp van FPHA". New York Times . Besoek op 23 Julie 2019.
  10. ^ ab
  11. "Ontwerpers van 7 ontwikkelings vereer deur die Amerikaanse agentskap JACOB RIIS HUISE WIN HIER TOEKENNING". New York Times . Besoek op 23 Julie 2019.
  12. ^
  13. "Mev. Johnson maak Riis -speelterrein oop. Mev. Johnson kom hierheen om die eksperimentele Riis -speelterrein oop te maak". New York Times . Besoek op 23 Julie 2019.
  14. ^
  15. "Stad bou 12 beweegbare speelgronde wat ontwerp is vir vryheid in die vorming". NY Times. 28 Januarie 1967. Besoek op 23 Julie 2019.
  16. ^
  17. Otterman, Sharon (4 April 2018). "Oudit vind speelplekgevare in die ontwikkeling van behuisingsowerhede". Die New York Times. ISSN0362-4331. Besoek op 23 Julie 2019.
  18. ^
  19. Buckley, Cara Wilson, Michael (2 November 2012). "In openbare behuising na orkaan Sandy, vrees, ellende en heldhaftigheid". Die New York Times. ISSN0362-4331. Besoek op 23 Julie 2019.
  20. ^
  21. 'Die lewe na Sandy bly moeilik vir armes in New York'. Die Onafhanklike. 2 November 2012.
  22. ^
  23. "WDF kondig $ 71 miljoen aan die herstelprojek van Jacob Riis -huise aan". www.businesswire.com. 5 Desember 2018. Besoek op 23 Julie 2019.
  24. ^
  25. Kleinfield, N. R. Sengupta, Somini (8 Maart 2012). "Hacker, Informant en Party Boy of the Projects". Die New York Times. "Hector Xavier Monsegur, oftewel Sabu, het in woonstel 6F in laan D 90 in die Jacob Riis -kompleks in Manhattan gewoon."

Hierdie artikel oor 'n gebou of struktuur in Manhattan is 'n stomp. U kan Wikipedia help deur dit uit te brei.


Jacob Riis - Geskiedenis

Hou jy van hierdie galery?
Deel dit:

En as u van hierdie plasing gehou het, kyk gerus na hierdie gewilde plasings:

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Deel dit:

Van die vele foto's wat na bewering 'die wêreld verander' het, is daar foto's wat eenvoudig nie het nie (alhoewel hulle wonderlik is), die wat so het, en dan die wat werklik het.

Die foto's wat die wêreld verander het, het dit waarskynlik gedoen net soos ons almal gemaak het voel iets. Die foto's wat die wêreld werklik op 'n praktiese, meetbare manier verander het, het dit gedoen omdat dit genoeg van ons gemaak het doen iets.

En min foto's het die wêreld werklik verander soos dié van Jacob Riis.

Die stad New York waarheen die arme jong Jacob Riis in 1870 uit Denemarke geëmigreer het, was 'n stad wat ongelooflik gedy. In die drie dekades voor sy aankoms het die stad se bevolking, meedoënloos opwaarts gedryf deur intense immigrasie, meer as verdriedubbel. Oor die volgende drie dekades sou dit byna viervoudig wees.

Dit is nie verbasend nie dat die stad soveel nuwe inwoners tegelyk kon opneem. Net so verbasend, die armes van die stad was diegene wat aan die buitewyke oorgebly het om te veg vir enige brokstukke.

Die immigrante-armes van New York, wat beperk was tot oorvol, deur siektes geteisterde woonbuurte vol rampokkerige woonplekke wat 12 volwassenes in 'n kamer van 13 meter kon huisves, het 'n stryd geleef-maar 'n stryd beperk tot die krotbuurte en dus weggesteek vir die groter publiek oog.

Jacob Riis het dit alles verander. Werk as 'n polisieverslaggewer vir die New-York Tribune en ontevrede oor die mate waarin hy die krotbuurte met woorde kon vasvang, het Riis uiteindelik gevind dat fotografie die hulpmiddel was wat hy nodig gehad het.

Vanaf die 1880's het Riis die New York aangedurf waar min aandag aan gegee het en die harde realiteite daarvan gedokumenteer vir almal om te sien. Teen 1890 kon hy sy historiese fotosameling publiseer waarvan die titel perfek beskryf hoe openbaar sy werk sou wees: Hoe die ander helfte lewe.

'N Ontstellende blik op 'n wêreld wat moeilik is om te verstaan ​​vir diegene wat nie daartoe gedoem is nie, Hoe die ander helfte lewe Daar is foto's van die armes van immigrante in New York en die woonplekke, sweetwinkels, strate, dokke, stortingsterreine en fabrieke wat hulle in besonderhede huis toe genoem het.

En so treffend soos hierdie beelde, lê hul ware nalatenskap nie in hul estetiese krag of dokumentêre waarde nie, maar eerder in hul vermoë om verandering te bewerkstellig.

'Ek het u boek gelees, en ek het u kom help', het die destydse raadslid van die New Yorkse polisiekommissaris, Theodore Roosevelt, in 1894 aan Riis gesê. En Roosevelt was getrou aan sy woord.

Hoewel dit nie die enigste amptenaar was wat die saak wat Jacob Riis aan die lig gebring het, aangeneem het nie, was Roosevelt veral bedrywig in die behandeling van die armes. As stadsamptenaar en later as staatsgoewerneur en vise -president van die land het Roosevelt 'n paar van die ergste huise in New York laat afbreek en 'n kommissie ingestel om te verseker dat die onleefbare nie weer gebou word nie.

Met hierdie nuwe regeringsdepartement, sowel as Jacob Riis en sy groep burgerhervormers, het nuwe konstruksie opgegaan, strate skoongemaak, vensters ingekap in bestaande geboue, parke en speelgronde is geskep, ongeskikte skuilings vir haweloses is toegemaak, en aan en aan en aan.

Alhoewel die huurprobleem van New York beslis nie daar eindig nie, en hoewel ons nie al die hervormings hierbo aan Jacob Riis en Hoe die ander helfte lewe, min fotografiewerke het so 'n duidelike impak op die wêreld gehad. Dit is geen verrassing dat Roosevelt eens gesê het dat hy in die versoeking was om Riis 'die beste Amerikaner wat ek ooit geken het' te noem nie.

Sien hierdie visuele opname van die Five Points -bendes vir meer foto's van Jacob Riis uit die era van How the Other Half Lives. Kyk dan hoe die lewe was in die krotbuurte wat deur die immigrante van New York om die begin van die 20ste eeu bewoon is.


Die harde lewens van straatkinders in New York, vasgevang - in 'n japtrap - deur Jacob Riis (The Alienist)

GESKIEDENIS AGTER DIE Toneel Wat is die ware verhaal agter die historiese toneel uit u gunsteling TV -program of rolprent? As 'n semi-gereelde funksie op die Bowery Boys-blog, sal ons hierdie reeks herleef terwyl ons volg met TNT se beperkte reeks Die vreemdeling. Kyk hier na ander artikels oor ander televisieprogramme met 'n historiese tema (Mad Men, The Knick, The Deuce, Boardwalk Empire en Koper). En volg saam met die Bowery Boys op Twitter by @boweryboys vir 'n meer historiese konteks van u gunsteling programme.

Kyk na die einde van die vierde episode van Die vreemdeling, en jy sien 'n verrassende eerbetoon aan 'n ikoniese, hartverskeurende foto.

Genoem 'Straat -Arabiere in die omgewing van Mulberrystraat', Die beeld wat in 1889 geneem is, beeld drie hawelose seuns uit wat slaap oor 'n verhitte vent op die onderste verdieping van 'n woonstel (in die omgewing van vandag se Klein Italië).

Hulle name is onbekend. Aan die einde van die 19de eeu het honderde kinders in die strate van New York gewoon, uit hul huise gegaan of van hul geliefdes geskei. Baie het eintlik liefdevolle gesinne gehad, maar die lewensomstandighede in die huise was so bedompig dat sommige verkies om op straat te slaap.

Ons het hierdie beeld - en baie, baie soortgelyke - danksy joernalis en sosiale hervormer Jacob Riis.

Op 12 Februarie 1888 het Jacob Riis sy eerste ondersoek vir die New York Sunonthul die ellendige toestande van die ergste krotbuurte in New York deur gebruik te maak van 'n eksperimentele tegnologie - flitsfotografie. Die verbysterende foto's, deur Riis en 'n span ander fotograwe, is aanvanklik in lyntekeninge weergegee, maar die effek was nietemin diep.

Die hele artikel is aanlyn beskikbaar, maar die gedeelte is van toepassing op die foto hierbo:

'N Ander uitskakeling van die welwillende doel van mnr Riis ... is sy vertoning van 'n aangrypende prentjie van straat -Arabiere in slaapplekke wat dit seker moes gaan soek het. Hierdie jongmense het klaarblyklik hul verblyfgeld vir galerystoele by die skou bestee en het skuiling gevind op die agterstoep van 'n ou woonhuis. "

Hieronder: 'n illustrasie uit die koerant van 12 Februarie 1888 en die Riis -foto (van Bandit's Roost) wat dit voorstel.

Die foto's is meer as sosiale aktivisme, dit is die geskiedenis self, die eerste flitsfotografie wat ooit op hierdie manier gebruik is. Riis wys New Yorkers 'n lewendige blik op armoede - weeskinders in die geut, straatbendes in die stegie - met behulp van 'n tegniek waaraan min mense, behalwe portrette, gereeld blootgestel word.

Riis het homself nooit as 'n professionele fotograaf beskou nie. Later in sy loopbaan het hy selfs die fotografiese werk aan ander uitgewerk terwyl hy op skryfwerk en sosiale aktivisme gefokus het. En tog sou moderne fotojoernalistiek nie regtig wees soos dit vandag was sonder sy eerste uitstappies in krotbuurte, opiumdunne en biersale met sy lywige en duur toerusting nie. Sy vroeë werk beïnvloed 'n hele gebied van sosiale fotograwe wat probeer om die gesegde te bewys "'n foto is duisend woorde werd" ('n frase wat aan die einde van Riis se leeftyd verskyn het).

MCNY

Sy werk sou uiteindelik in 1890 as 'n boek gepubliseer word - Hoe die ander helfte leef: Studies onder die huurhuise van New York - en Riis sou die dekade feitlik bestee namens die behoeftiges van die stad.

In daardie boek gee hy 'n uiteensetting van die toestand van die 'straat -Arabier', oftewel straat -egel.

'Hulle is oral in die stad, hierdie straat -Arabiere, waar die woonbuurt 'n kans bied om bedags in die lewe te kom en in die nag' in te draai 'met 'n belofte van veiligheid uit verbasing. In warm weer maak 'n vragmotor in die straat, 'n gerieflike buitekamer of 'n opgegrawe in 'n hooibak by die kaai goeie stapelbeddens. Twee is gevind dat hulle nes gemaak het aan die einde van 'n groot ysterpyp by die Harlem -brug, en 'n ou ketel aan die Oosrivier het as 'n elegante woonstel vir 'n ander paartjie gedien.

Onder: Twee seuns slaap om 02:00 in die perskamer van die New York Sun -koerant.

Die meeste straatkinders is koerantseuns of bootblacks, wat veg vir afval en 'n paar sent. In 'n ander afdeling skryf Riis:

'Ons het ses,' sê 'n egel van twaalf of dertien wat ek in die Newsboys 'Lodging House teëgekom het,' en ons het geen pa nie. Sommige van ons moes gaan. ” En so het hy gegaan om 'n bestaan ​​te maak deur swart stewels te maak. Die gang is maklik genoeg. Daar is baie min om die seuntjie vas te hou wat nog nooit iets anders as 'n huis in 'n woonhuis geken het nie. Binnekort hou die wilde lewe in die strate hom vas, en daarna kan daar deur sy eie poging nie ontkom word nie. Hy alleen vind homself spoedig genoeg plek in die polisieboeke, en daar sou geen ander antwoord wees op die tweede vraag: "wat word van die seun?" as wat elke dag in die week deur die strafhof gegee word. ”

"Het nêrens gebly nie." MCNY

Hieronder is meer foto's van kinders op die strate van New York in die laat 1880's en vroeë 1890's, geneem deur Riis en sy medewerkers, met vergunning van die Museum of the City of New York.

MCNY
"Shooting Craps: The Game of the Street," Bootblacks and Newsboys, 1894, MCNY 'N Reeks seuns in 'n steeg in Mulberrystraat. 1890, MCNY 'N Jong seun wat 'n baba vashou, 'n vrou reik na hulle. 1890, MCNY 1890, MCNY The Mott Street Boys, "Hou van die gras af". 1890. MCNY

Hierdie artikel maak 'n gedeelte uit ons resensie van die Museum of the City of New York se 2015 -uitstalling oor Riis.


Die baanbreker van die sosiale hervormer Jacob Riis onthul hoe die ander helfte in Amerika lewe

In 1870, toe Jacob August Riis uit Denemarke op die stoomskip na Amerika immigreer Iowa, ry hy in die bestuur met niks anders as die klere op sy rug nie, 40 geleende dollars in sy sak en 'n kissie met 'n enkele hare van die meisie wat hy liefgehad het. Dit moes vir die 21-jarige Riis moeilik gewees het om hom voor te stel dat hy binne 'n paar kort jare saam met 'n toekomstige president sou wees, 'n pionier in fotojoernalistiek sou word en die behuisingsbeleid in New York sou help hervorm. .

Jacob Riis, wat hierdie maand 100 jaar gelede oorlede is, sukkel deur sy eerste paar jaar in die Verenigde State. Hy kon nie 'n vaste werk kry nie, maar werk as 'n boer, ysterwerker, baksteen, timmerman en verkoopsman, en beleef die ergste aspekte van die Amerikaanse verstedeliking-misdaad, siekte, swaarmoedigheid-in die huurhuise en losies. dit sou uiteindelik die jong Deense immigrant inspireer om hom toe te wy aan die verbetering van die lewensomstandighede vir die stad se laer klas.

Deur 'n bietjie geluk en baie harde werk het hy 'n pos as joernalis gekry en 'n platform om die nood van die laer klasgemeenskap bloot te lê. Uiteindelik het Riis 'n polisieverslaggewer geword vir Die New York Tribune, sommige van die stad se mees misdaadgeteisterde distrikte, 'n werk wat tot roem sou lei en 'n vriendskap met polisiekommissaris Theodore Roosevelt, wat Riis 'die beste Amerikaner wat ek ooit geken het' genoem het. Riis het geweet wat dit is om te ly, om honger te ly en om haweloos te wees, en hoewel sy prosa soms sensasioneel was en selfs soms bevooroordeeld was, het hy wat Roosevelt noem "die groot gawe om ander te laat sien wat hy sien en voel wat hy voel . "

Maar Riis wou letterlik aan die wêreld wys wat hy sien. Om sy lesers te help om die ontmenslikende gevare van die immigrantebuurte wat hy maar te goed ken, werklik te verstaan, het Riis homself fotografie geleer en 'n kamera saamgeneem tydens sy nagtelike rondtes. Die onlangse uitvinding van flitsfotografie het dit moontlik gemaak om die donker, oorvol huise, grimmige sitplekke en gevaarlike krotbuurte te dokumenteer. Riis’s pioneering use of flash photography brought to light even the darkest parts of the city. Used in articles, books, and lectures, his striking compositions became powerful tools for social reform.

Riis’s 1890 treatise of social criticism How the Other Half Lives was written in the belief “that every man’s experience ought to be worth something to the community from which he drew it, no matter what that experience may be, so long as it was gleaned along the line of some decent, honest work.” Full of unapologetically harsh accounts of life in the worst slums of New York, fascinating and terrible statistics on tenement living, and reproductions of his revelatory photographs, How the Other Half Lives
was a shock to many New Yorkers - and an immediate success. Not only did it sell well, but it inspired Roosevelt to close the worst of the lodging houses and spurred city officials to reform and enforce the city’s housing policies. To once again quote the future President of the United States: “The countless evils which lurk in the dark corners of our civic institutions, which stalk abroad in the slums, and have their permanent abode in the crowded tenement houses, have met in Mr. Riis the most formidable opponent every encountered by them in New York City.”


How the Other Half Lives

Jacob August Riis, “Knee-pants” at forty five cents a dozen—A Ludlow Street Sweater’s Shop, c. 1890, 7 x 6″, from How the Other Half Lives: Studies Among the Tenements of New York, Charles Scribner’s Sons: New York, 1890 (The Museum of the City of New York)

The slums of New York

Jacob Riis documented the slums of New York, what he deemed the world of the “other half,” teeming with immigrants, disease, and abuse. A police reporter and social reformer, Riis became intimately familiar with the perils of tenement living and sought to draw attention to the horrendous conditions. Between 1888 and 1892, he photographed the streets, people, and tenement apartments he encountered, using the vivid black and white slides to accompany his lectures and influential text, How the Other Half Lives, published in 1890 by Scribner’s. His powerful images brought public attention to urban conditions, helping to propel a national debate over what American working and living conditions should be.

Jacob August Riis, How the Other Half Lives: Studies Among the Tenements of New York, Charles Scribner’s Sons: New York, 1890

A Danish immigrant, Riis arrived in America in 1870 at the age of 21, heartbroken from the rejection of his marriage proposal to Elisabeth Gjørtz. Riis initially struggled to get by, working as a carpenter and at various odd jobs before gaining a footing in journalism. In 1877 he became a police reporter for The New York Tribune, assigned to the beat of New York City’s Lower East Side. Riis believed his personal struggle as an immigrant who “reached New York with just one cent in my pocket”¹ shaped his involvement in reform efforts to alleviate the suffering he witnessed.

As a police reporter, Riis had unique access to the city’s slums. In the evenings, he would accompany law enforcement and members of the health department on raids of the tenements, witnessing the atrocities people suffered firsthand. Riis tried to convey the horrors to readers, but struggled to articulate the enormity of the problems through his writings. Impressed by the newly invented flash photography technique he read about, Riis began to experiment with the medium in 1888, believing that pictures would have the power to expose the tenement-house problem in a way that his textual reporting could not do alone. Indeed, the images he captured would shock the conscience of Americans.

Jacob August Riis, The Mulberry Bend, c. 1890, 7 x 6″, from How the Other Half Lives: Studies Among the Tenements of New York, Charles Scribner’s Sons: New York, 1890 (The Museum of the City of New York)

Midnight rounds

At first Riis engaged the services of a photographer who would accompany him as he made his midnight rounds with the police, but ultimately dissatisfied with this arrangement, Riis purchased a box camera and learned to use it. The flash technique used a combination of explosives to achieve the light necessary to take pictures in the dark. The process was new and messy and Riis made adjustments as he went. First, he or his assistants would position the camera on a tripod and then they would ignite the mixture of magnesium flash-powder above the camera lens, causing an explosive noise, great smoke, and a blinding flash of light. Initially, Riis used a revolver to shoot cartridges containing the explosive magnesium flash-powder, but he soon discovered that showing up waving pistols set the wrong tone and substituted a frying pan for the gun, flashing the light on that instead. The process certainly terrified those in the vicinity and also proved dangerous. Riis reported setting two fires in places he visited and nearly blinding himself on one occasion.

Jacob August Riis, “A man atop a make-shift bed that consists of a plank across two barrels,” c. 1890, 7 x 6″, from How the Other Half Lives: Studies Among the Tenements of New York, Charles Scribner’s Sons: New York, 1890 (The Museum of the City of New York)

Home and work

While it is unclear if Riis’ pictures were totally candid or posed, his agenda of using the stark images to persuade the middle and upper classes that reform was needed is well documented. A major theme of Riis’ images was the terrible conditions immigrants lived in. In the 1890s, tenement apartments served as both homes and as garment factories. “Knee-Pants at Forty-Five Cents a Dozen—A Ludlow Street Sweater’s Shop” depicts the intersection of home and work life that was typical. Note the number of people crowded together making knickers and consider their ages, gender, and role. Each worker would be paid by the piece produced and each had his/her own particular role to fill in the shop which was also a family’s home.

Detail, Jacob August Riis, “Knee-pants” at forty five cents a dozen—A Ludlow Street Sweater’s Shop, c. 1890, 7 x 6″, from How the Other Half Lives: Studies Among the Tenements of New York, Charles Scribner’s Sons: New York, 1890 (The Museum of the City of New York)

While Riis did not record the names of the people he photographed, he organized his book into ethnic sections, categorizing the images according to the racial and ethnic stereotypes of his age. In this regard, Riis has been criticized for both his bias and reducing those photographed to nameless victims. “Knee-Pants,” appears in the chapter Jewtown and one can assume that the individuals are part of the large wave of Eastern European Jewish migration that flooded New York at the turn of the twentieth century.

Detail of the “Table of Contents,” Jacob August Riis, How the Other Half Lives: Studies Among the Tenements of New York, Charles Scribner’s Sons: New York, 1914

They are likely conversing in Yiddish and share some type of familial or neighborly connection. Some of the workers depicted might have lived in a neighboring New York City apartment or next door back in the old country. Home life, family relations and business relations, are intertwined. Just as it is impossible to know the names of the people captured in Riis’ image, and what Riis actually thought of them, one also cannot know their own impressions of the workplace, or their hopes and day-to-day challenges.

Jacob August Riis, 󈫼 year old boy at work pulling threads. Had sworn certificate he was 16—owned under cross-examination to being 12. His teeth corresponded with that age,” c. 1890, 7 x 6″, from How the Other Half Lives: Studies Among the Tenements of New York, Charles Scribner’s Sons: New York, 1890 (The Museum of the City of New York)

The work performed in tenements like these throughout the Lower East Side made New York City the largest producer of clothing in the United States. Under the contracting system, the tenement shop would be responsible for assembling the garments, which made up the bulk of the work. By 1910, New York produced 70% of women’s clothing and 40% of men’s ready-made clothing. That meant that the knee-pants and garments made by the workers captured in this Ludlow Street sweatshop were shipped across the nation. Riis’ photographs helped make the sweatshop a subject of a national debate and the center of a struggle between workers, owners, consumers, politicians, and social reformers.

The Progressive Era

Riis’ photographs are part of a larger reform effort undertaken during the Progressive Era, that sought to address the problems of rapid industrialization and urbanization. Progressives worked under the premise that if one studies and documents a problem and proposes and tests solutions, difficulties can ultimately be solved, improving the welfare of society as a whole. Progressives like Riis, Lewis Hine, and Jessie Tarbox Beals pioneered the tradition of documentary photography, using the tool to record and publicize working and housing conditions and a renewed call for reform. These efforts ultimately led to government regulation and the passage of the 1901 Tenement House Law, which mandated new construction and sanitation regulations that improved the access to air, light, and water in all tenement buildings.

Jessie Tarbox Beals, Child on Fire Escape, c. 1918, for the New York Association for Improving the Condition of the Poor (Columbia University Libraries)

In the introduction to the How the Other Half Lives, Riis challenged his readers to confront societal ills, asking “What are you going to do about it? is the question of to-day.” It was a question of the past, but one that endures.

Go deeper

Bonnie Yochelson and Daniel Czitrom, Rediscovering Jacob Riis: Exposure Journalism and Photography in Turn-of-the-Century New York ( Chicago University Press, 2014).


Jacob Riis - History

H. e arrived on America's shores in 1870 virtually penniless. Twenty-one-year-old Jacob Riis had traveled from his native Denmark to find a better life. He spent the next few years on the brink of starvation as he went from job to job, never finding anything lasting. His big break came in 1877 when he was hired as a police reporter by the New York Tribune newspaper.

In 1887 Riis learned of a new photographic method that ignited flash powder to provide enough illumination to take photos in darkness. Soon he was incorporating this method in his coverage of the city, first employing other photographers and then taking the photos himself. His objective was to document the conditions he saw in order to change them. In 1891 he published How the Other Half Lives. The force of his words combined with the stark reality of his photos did much to sway public opinion to cleaning up the squalled conditions in the tenements

"I found the patient on the top floor stretched upon two chairs. . ."

"That ignorance plays its part, as well as poverty and bad hygienic surroundings, in the sacrifice of life is of course inevitable. They go usually hand in hand.

A message came one day last spring summoning me to a Mott Street tenement in which lay a child dying from some unknown disease. With the 'charity doctor' I found the patient on the top floor stretched upon two chairs in a dreadfully stifling room. She was gasping in the agony of peritonitis that had already written its death-sentence on her wan and pinched face. The whole family, father, mother, and four ragged children, sat around looking on with the stony resignation of helpless despair that had long since given up the fight against fate as useless.

The father's hands were crippled from lead poisoning. He had not been able to work for a year. A contagious disease of the eyes, too long neglected, had made the mother and one of the boys nearly blind. The children cried with hunger. They had not broken their fast that day and it was then near noon. For months the family had subsisted on two dollars a week from the priest, and a few loaves and a piece of corned beef which the sisters sent them on Saturday.

The doctor gave direction for the treatment of the child, knowing that it was possible only to alleviate its sufferings until death should end them, and left some money for food for the rest.

An hour later, when I returned, I found them feeding the dying child with ginger ale, bought for two cents a bottle at the peddler's cart down the street. A pitying neighbor had proposed it as the one thing she could think of as likely to make the child forget its misery. There was enough in the bottle to go round to the rest of the family. In fact, the wake had already begun before night it was under way in dead earnest."

Verwysings:
Riis Jacob, How the Other Half Lives (1891) Lane James B., Jacob A Riis and the American city (1974).


Jacob Riis - History

Have you ever heard the saying that a picture is worth a thousand words? Jacob Riis, an immigrant from Denmark, proved the truth of this saying. His photographs of the terrible living and working conditions of immigrants made Americans realize that the American Dream was not coming true for some people. Something had to be done.

Riis was born in Ribe, Denmark. He sailed for the United States in 1870. He lived in poverty in New York City for several years before he found a job with a newspaper in 1873. His work as a police reporter took him into the slums. There he saw the horrible conditions in which immigrants lived. He taught himself how to use a camera and began to take photographs to accompany his news articles.

People who saw Riis' pictures were horrified at the nasty conditions in the dark tenement housing, the unhealthy factories and overcrowded schools. Riis earned the title "Emancipator of the Slums" because his work on behalf of the city poor led to reforms in education, child labor, and housing.


Jacob Riis: Revealing &ldquoHow the Other Half Lives&rdquo Riis and Reform

As governor of New York, Riis&rsquos friend Theodore Roosevelt appointed a Tenement House Commission, which led in 1901 to the creation of the Tenement House Department, headed by another Riis friend, Robert de Forest of the Charity Organization Society. Riis and this circle of municipal citizen-reformers, which included social welfare activists Josephine Shaw Lowell and Lillian Wald, worked to gather statistical evidence and raise public awareness. They advocated for new housing designs to ease crowding and improve fire safety, sanitation, and access to air and light. Riis described the evolution of tenement house reform as a forty-year effort, which included demolishing the Five Points and Mulberry Bend neighborhoods, initiating new construction, cleaning the streets, creating parks and playgrounds, tearing down rear tenements, and cutting more than 40,000 windows through interior walls to let in light.

Jacob Riis. &ldquoThe Tenement House Exhibition.&rdquo Harper & rsquos Weekly, February 3, 1900, page from Riis&rsquos scrapbook. Jacob A. Riis Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (006.00.00)

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Flat in Hell’s Kitchen on the West Side

Riis wrote in his 1889 article for Scribner&rsquos Magazine, &ldquoHow the Other Half Lives:&rdquo &ldquoNot that all the tenements above Fourteenth Street are good, or even better than those we have seen. There is Hell&rsquos Kitchen and Murderers&rsquo Row in the region of West-side slaughter-houses and three-cent whiskey. . . . &rdquo The couple in this photograph taken by Riis lived on New York City&rsquos West 38th Street in a barracks that covered an entire city block and lacked interior windows, ventilation, and indoor plumbing.

Jacob Riis. Flat in Hell&rsquos Kitchen, &ldquoRuin,&rdquo 1887&ndash1889. Modern gelatin printing out paper. Museum of the City of New York, Gift of Roger William Riis, 199 (90.3.4.155) (003.00.00)

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Fire Insurance Map

During the first half of the nineteenth century, most fire insurance companies were small and based in a single city. The underwriters could personally examine properties they were about to insure. As insurance companies became larger and expanded their coverage to numerous cities, a mapping industry developed to support the greater need. Insurance maps provided block-by-block inventories of existing buildings&ndashsuch as the map of the New York City&rsquos Hell&rsquos Kitchen, home to a large population of Irish immigrants in Riis&rsquos time. The outline or footprint of each building is indicated, and the buildings are color coded to show the construction material: pink for brick, yellow for wood, and green indicated &ldquospecially hazardous risks&rdquo for insurers.

Perris & Browne. West 42nd to West 37th Streets, between 10th Avenue and the Hudson River from Insurance Maps of the City of New York [fire insurance map], 1889. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (004.00.00)

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Public Health

Disease, sanitation, garbage and hygiene issues were constant concerns in crowded impoverished tenement districts, where vital statistics were alarming. Jacob Riis wrote frequently to urge measures to protect public health and to alert wealthy residents of the city to slum conditions that put everyone at risk. Poor water quality, filth, vermin, and compromised living conditions meant typhus and cholera outbreaks were common, as were high rates of child mortality and tuberculosis. Rag pickers and petty thieves made city dumps their homes, while unemployed &ldquotramps&rdquo lived in shack housing in back alleyways. The Tenement House Committee of 1894 (known as the &ldquoGilder Committee) called rear tenements &ldquoinfant slaughter-houses,&rdquo where as many as one in five babies died. Riis collaborated with health and hygiene department officials to compile and report sources of disease and seek remedies to improve public health.

Jacob Riis. &ldquoExtra: Real Wharf Rats,&rdquo Evening Sun, March 18, 1892, page from Riis&rsquos scrapbook. Jacob A. Riis Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (012.00.00)

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Children of the Dump

In the winter of 1892, Riis visited eleven of the city&rsquos sixteen riverside dumps to investigate the enforcement of two public health laws: one required that old rags be washed before resale, and the other forbade rag pickers from living in the dumps. He learned that neither law was enforced. Riis interviewed the rag pickers and took seven photographs, five of which were reproduced as line engravings in the Evening Sun. Riis saw women and children working and living in the dumps. He wrote: &ldquoI found boys who ought to have been at school, picking bones and sorting rags. They said that they slept there, and as the men did, why should they not? It was their home. They were children of the dump, literally.&rdquo

Jacob Riis. A Child of the Dump, 1892. Gelatin printing out paper on board [vintage print]. Museum of the City of New York, Gift of Roger William Riis (90.13.3.116) (008.00.00)

Jacob Riis. In Sleeping Quarters, Rivington Street Dump, 1892. Modern gelatin printing out paper. Museum of the City of New York, Gift of Roger William Riis (90.13.4.208) (007.00.00)

Perris & Browne. Piers along the East River from Insurance Maps of the City of New York [fire insurance map], 1889. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (009.00.00)

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Public Space

As older dense buildings gave way to new tenement design, Riis advocated for open-air parks for children, who previously had nowhere but the streets or the dark hallways and cramped back spaces of tenements to play. Riis helped raise support for small public parks and thought that every public school should have a playground. He believed in the right of boys and girls to play as part of healthy early child development, and as an outlet for energies that could instead be turned to lives of vice or crime. One of Jacob Riis&rsquos triumphs as a reformer was the creation of Mulberry Bend Park where crime-ridden housing had once been. Riis believed in the benefits of exposure to nature and also supported the idea of excursions for city kids to farms and meadows in the countryside.

&ldquoPlaygrounds as a Cure for City Crime,&rdquo Brooklyn Times, April 27, 1900, from page in Riis&rsquos scrapbook. Jacob A. Riis Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (017.00.00)

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Establishing Parks and Playgrounds

Riis photographed a privately funded, experimental playground at West 28th Street between 11th and 12th Avenues, the block pictured in the map above, where equipment was installed, and a janitor and two teachers were hired to watch the children. Riis described the park: &ldquoIt was not exactly an attractive place. . . . But the children thought it lovely, and lovely it was for Poverty Gap, if not for Fifth Avenue.&rdquo Riis helped establish several small public parks in tenement neighborhoods including a park on Rivington Street. This petition, signed by 300 school girls &ldquoto make the corporation yard at the foot of Rivington St. into a public play-ground,&rdquo succeeded. Hamilton Fish Park opened in 1900.

Jacob Riis. Children&rsquos Playground, Poverty Gap, 1892.Modern gelatin printing out paper. Museum of the City of New York, Gift of Roger William Riis (90.13.4.121) (013.00.00)

Petition for Rivington Street Park, 1897, page of signatures. Jacob A. Riis Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (026.00.00)

Perris & Browne. West 32nd to West 17th Streets, between 10th Avenue and the Hudson River from Insurance Maps of the City of New York [fire insurance map], 1889. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (015.00.00)

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Crime

As a young new immigrant, alone, homeless, and struggling to find work&mdashwith only a stray dog as a companion on the street&mdashJacob Riis was the victim of crime at a police lodging house. A locket bearing an image of his beloved Elisabeth was stolen from him in his sleep. Reporting the crime, he was thrown from the premises by a disbelieving policeman, who clubbed his dog to death when it snarled in his defense. Riis never forgot either the theft or the brutality, and his crusade against conditions in police lodging houses became his vendetta. Claiming the true crime was the lack of action on the part of municipal authorities to institute reform, Riis campaigned for the establishment of city-run lodging houses as an alternative, both to alleviate public menace and provide decent habitation for men and women in crisis.

Jacob Riis. &ldquoVice Which is Unchecked in Police Lodging Houses,&rdquo New York Tribune, January 31, 1892, page from Riis&rsquos scrapbook. Jacob A. Riis Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (025.00.00)

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Bandits’ Roost

Bandits&rsquo Roost was an alley on Mulberry Street on New York&rsquos Lower East Side, where Italian immigrants paid excessive rent to live in &ldquorear tenements,&rdquo ramshackle structures that were added onto old houses. Riis, working with amateur photographers Richard Hoe Lawrence and Henry G. Piffard, took this photograph with a stereoscopic camera, which produced two side-by-side images: on the left is a woman with two small children on the right, young &ldquotoughs&rdquo look warily at the camera. Riis led a ten-year crusade to clean up the area in which this photograph was taken called &ldquoMulberry Bend,&rdquo it was notorious as a haven for gangs and criminal activity.

Jacob Riis, Richard Hoe Lawrence, and Henry G. Piffard, photographers. Bandits&rsquo Roost, 1887&ndash1888. Modern gelatin printing out paper. Museum of the City of New York. Gift of Roger William Riis (90.13.4.104 & .105) (018.00.00)

Perris & Browne. &ldquoMulberry Street&rdquo from Insurance Maps of the City of New York [fire insurance map of Lower East Side], 1880. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (021.00.00)

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Arbeid

Jacob Riis worried about sweatshop labor taking place within tenement apartments and in small factory locations in the Lower East Side. Whole families, including children, as well as hired help, would often be involved in various levels of piecework. Garment making (cutting, sewing, tailoring, pressing), cigar making, millinery, and artificial flower assembly, were among the forms of production at which immigrant laborers worked in crowded hot conditions inside residences and were paid by the &ldquopiece&rdquo or the lot. Sweatshop labor meant health risks, including high rates of consumption and shortened life spans. Riis was dismayed about child labor in particular&mdashin homes and in factories. Adolescent girls tended younger siblings while parents worked, or took on heavy domestic jobs like laundry and scrubbing. Out in the streets, newsboys roamed at night and vice beckoned boys and girls alike. Riis lamented that many of these little children appeared old before their time from taking on adult forms of labor.

Jacob Riis. How the Other Half Lives, Studies Among the Tenements of New York. New York: Charles Scribner&rsquos Sons, 1890. Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (030.00.00)

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Piece Work&mdashCigar-Making

Riis devoted a chapter of How the Other Half Lives to &ldquoThe Bohemians&mdashTenement-House Cigar Making.&rdquo Riis described these Eastern European immigrants as working seventeen-hour days, seven days a week, inside their apartments rank with toxic fumes, making pennies an hour by stripping and drying piles of tobacco leaves and rolling finished products. In the Riis photograph, the parents work at the cigar mold and their oldest child, at the center of the frame, prepares the tobacco leaves for rolling.

Jacob Riis. Bohemian Cigar Makers at Work, 1889&ndash1890. Modern gelatin printing out paper. Museum of the City of New York, Gift of Roger William Riis (90.13.4.149) (027.00.00)

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Fire Insurance Map

During the first half of the nineteenth century, most fire insurance companies were small and based in a single city. The underwriters could personally examine properties they were about to insure. As insurance companies became larger and expanded their coverage to numerous cities, a mapping industry developed to support the greater need. Insurance maps provided block-by-block inventories of existing buildings&mdashsuch as the map above of an area east of the Bowery where there was a dense concentration of Jewish tenement sweatshops. The outline or footprint of each building is indicated, and the buildings are color coded to show the construction material: pink for brick, yellow for wood, and green indicated &ldquospecially hazardous risks&rdquo for insurers.

Perris & Browne. Plate 24 ½ Lower East Side from Insurance Maps of the City of New York [fire insurance map], 1889. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (028.00.00)

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Onderwys

Jacob Riis honored education, especially for children, as a way up and out of slum life. The son of a schoolmaster, Riis had been a rebellious student nevertheless, he loved to read as a child. He believed that education was not just a pathway to better employment and a more fulfilled and informed life, it made good naturalized citizens. Riis was a strong supporter of industrial schools, which imparted practical job-related skills and taught civics lessons to children whose families originated from many nations. Though work was almost always a necessity, some first-generation immigrants recognized the better chances that literacy in English could bring to their children, and supported their sons and daughters in their desire to learn to read and write. Riis also worked with the New York Kindergarten Association and settlement house workers to promote early child education.

&ldquo&lsquoA Message from the Slums,&rsquo Jacob Riis of New York Addresses the Congregational Club,&rdquo Hartford [CT] Courant, May 22, 1895, from Riis&rsquos scrapbook. Jacob A. Riis Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (035.00.00)

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Educating the Young

Pietro worked as a bootblack before he was hit by a streetcar and maimed. Riis made two photographs of the boy at his home on Jersey Street, where he was learning to write English, “in the hope of his doing something somewhere at sometime to make up for what he had lost.” In the photograph above, the thirteen-year-old Pietro is shown with his mother and young sibling.

Riis believed that introducing immigrant children to the principles of American democracy would go a long way toward making them proud citizens. The administrator of the Beach Street Industrial School on the Lower East Side of New York asked the students to vote on whether the school day should begin with a salute to the American flag. Riis’s photograph shows the students casting their ballots, monitored by the student election inspectors

Jacob Riis. Pietro Learning to Write, 1891&ndash1892. Modern gelatin printing out paper. Museum of the City of New York, Gift of Roger William Riis (90.13.4.163) (032.00.00)

Jacob Riis. The First Patriotic Election in the Beach Street Industrial School, 1891&ndash1892. Modern gelatin printing out paper. Museum of the City of New York, Gift of Roger William Riis (90.13.4.172) (033.00.00)

Perris & Browne. Beach Street from Insurance Maps of the City of New York [fire insurance map], 1889. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (034.00.00)

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Homelessness

Jacob Riis, himself once homeless as a young man new to the United States, wrote sympathetic vignettes about those who fell on hard times and became homeless&mdashoften due to the loss of a job or an injury or, because they were evicted from their tenement homes when they could not afford escalating rents. Riis lamented the indifference of employers and the greed of landlords. But he reserved particular venom for those who begged for a living or who did not actively seek work, a category of homeless he referred to as &ldquotramps.&rdquo His campaign against police lodging houses, which acted as nightly homeless shelters, was due to their poor conditions and their role in the spread of crime and disease, but also because they perpetuated this form of homelessness. With the help of then Police Commissioner Theodore Roosevelt, the police station lodging houses were closed in 1896, with the intent that those displaced were to be served by improved charitable and civic services.

Jacob Riis. &ldquoPolice Lodging Houses: Are They Hotbeds for Typhus?&rdquo Christian Union, January 14, 1893, from Riis&rsquos scrapbook. Jacob A. Riis Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (038.00.00)

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Eldridge Street Station

In 1892 and 1893, Riis took photographs of the deplorable conditions of the police lodging houses, which served as the city&rsquos homeless shelters. These images illustrated his articles and a lecture at the Academy of Medicine in February 1893&mdasha lecture Riis gave to garner support for closing the houses and replacing them with a municipal wayfarer&rsquos lodge. The police station lodging rooms at 87/89 Eldridge Street, located on the lower right portion of the map above, sheltered only women. When a sick man asked to stay for the night, he was placed in an empty room and laid down on the bare plank floor. It was soon discovered that he had typhus. Riis wrote:

Jacob Riis. The Single Typhus Lodger in Eldridge Street, 1893.Modern gelatin printing out paper. Museum of the City of New York, Gift of Roger William Riis (90.13.4.247) (036.00.00)

Perris & Browne. &ldquoEldridge Street, north of Grand Street&rdquo from Insurance Maps of the City of New York [fire insurance map of Lower East Side], 1880. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (037.00.00)

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Immigrasie

Ellis Island served as the gateway for more than twelve million immigrants from many nations between its opening as the U.S. immigration inspection station at the port of New York in 1892 to its closing in the 1950s. When Riis emigrated from Denmark in 1870 to seek &ldquoan honest dollar,&rdquo the German, Irish, and Chinese immigration of the mid-century was ebbing. Most Scandinavian immigrants headed to farmland and cities in the West and Midwest. As Riis gained fame in his career&mdashbetween 1890 and his death in 1914&mdasha &ldquothird&rdquo or &ldquonew&rdquo wave of immigrants arrived in New York. Of many nationalities and faiths, they came primarily from Russia, Italy, and Eastern Europe. When featuring New York&rsquos immigrant groups and their neighborhoods in his articles and bestselling books, Riis expressed personal religious and ethnic prejudices, but he steadfastly championed immigrants he perceived to be of good character and drive.

Jacob Riis. &ldquoThe Gateway of All Nations,&rdquo Christian Herald, October 11, 1905. Jacob A. Riis Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (041.00.00)

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In Jersey Street

An Italian family lived in this one-room, windowless home on Jersey Street, a few blocks from Riis&rsquos Mulberry Street office. Jersey Street in the map above is sandwiched between Prince and East Houston Streets and is crammed with the back-to-back tenements that Riis railed against. In Riis&rsquos photograph the family&rsquos possessions and furnishings, which includes a rolled mattress, barrel, and piles of clothes a dustpan, a basin, a wooden pallet that may have served as a bed, and a cast iron stove and various containers, fill the frame. Riis commented on the Italian custom of swaddling: &ldquoYou can see how they wrap [their babies] around and around until you can almost stand them on either end and they won&rsquot bend, so tightly are they bound.&rdquo

Jacob Riis. Italian Mother and Her Baby in Jersey Street, 1888&ndash1889. Modern gelatin printing out paper. Museum of the City of New York, Gift of Roger William Riis (90.13.4.160) (039.00.00)

Perris & Browne. Plate 24 showing Jersey Street, between Prince and East Houston Street from Insurance Maps of the City of New York [fire insurance map], 1880. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (040.00.00)


Kyk die video: Jacob Riis Clip (November 2021).