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Thomas Hutchinson

Thomas Hutchinson

Thomas Hutchinson was 'n talentvolle koninklike amptenaar wat in die loop van sy loopbaan as 'n pilaar van die gemeenskap uit die lewe neergedaal het tot een van Massachusetts se mees gehate skurke. Hy is gebore in Boston, die seun van 'n welvarende handelaar en die agter-agterkleinseun van die beroemde nie-konformis Anne Hutchinson. In 1737 word hy verkies tot 'n keurder in Boston en kort daarna op 'n setel in die Algemene Hof (wetgewer). Hutchinson het baie openbare aandag gekry na King George's War (1740-48) toe hy 'n plan borg om papiergeld wat deur Massachusetts uitgereik is, te borg. aan veterane van die Louisbourg -veldtog. Hutchinson het sy setel in die volgende verkiesing verloor. In 1749 is hy aangestel om in die goewerneursraad te dien, 'n pos wat hy meer as 15 jaar beklee het. In 1754 speel Hutchinson 'n groot rol op die kongres in Albany en word hy vier jaar later aangewys as luitenant-goewerneur van Massachusetts. Hy het persoonlik gekant teen baie van die keiserlike hervormingspogings wat gevolg het op die Franse en Indiese oorlog, maar was verplig om die bepalings daarvan af te dwing. Gedurende die 1760's het hy gereeld met die radikale gebots en 'n besonder stekelrige verhouding met Samuel Adams gesorg. In 1760 word Hutchinson aangewys as hoofregter van die Massachusetts Superior Court, 'n pos wat hy beklee het benewens sy pligte as luitenant-goewerneur. In 1765 het 'n bende in Boston wat verkeerdelik aangeneem het dat Hutchinson 'n voorstander was van die gehate seëlwet wat geplunder en vernietig is. sy huis. Hutchinson's word diep deur hierdie gebeure gekonsentreer, maar word in 1771 as goewerneur aangestel. dien toe as agent in Londen. Op daardie stadium verloor Hutchinson alle politieke doeltreffendheid, maar hy bly in sy amp. In 1772 groet hy 'n hartlike besluit om te sorg dat amptenare van die kroon, insluitend homself, uit die koninklike skatkis betaal word en nie met fondse wat deur die koloniale vergadering as presedent gestem is nie. voorgeskryf. Die volgende jaar het Hutchinson blindelings gehelp om die Boston Tea Party te versnel deur daarop aan te dring dat die omstrede tee in die hawe gebring word ondanks waarskuwings van ander amptenare. Teen 1774 het Hutchinson 'n politieke aanspreeklikheid geword en is hy as goewerneur vervang deur generaal Thomas Gage, wat beide politieke en militêre rolle te speel het. en smag om terug te keer na sy vaderland.Hutchinson het 'n groot historiese bydrae gelewer in sy Geskiedenis van die kolonie en die provinsie Massachusettsbaai (1764-1828). Dit bly 'n waardevolle verslag van vroeë gebeure daar; twee bundels is gedurende sy leeftyd gepubliseer en 'n derde na sy dood. Onlangse historici het Hutchinson met baie meer simpatie behandel as wat hy van sy tydgenote ontvang het, en erken dat hy 'n man van bekwaamheid en beginsel was gedurende 'n tyd waarin die strome van die geskiedenis was hard teen hom.


Die dood van Thomas Hutchinson

Thomas Hutchinson is op 9 September 1711 gebore aan 'n welgestelde Boston -handelaar. Sy pa het onderwys so waardeer dat hy die bou van 'n nuwe Latynse skool in die familie North End -woonbuurt befonds het. Uiteraard het daardie skool die Hutchinson -seuns baat gevind.

  • geskiedenis ondersoek en skryf, wat uitloop op die twee volumes van hom Geskiedenis van die provinsie Massachusetts-Bay en 'n manuskrip vir 'n derde, gepubliseer in die 1800's.
  • politiek.

Een van sy belangrikste prestasies was om die geldeenheid van Massachusetts te stabiliseer deur die Crown ’s -soortbetaling na die Louisburg -ekspedisie te gebruik om ou note af te betaal en dan die hoeveelheid nuwe skuld wat die provinsie elke jaar aangeneem het, te beperk. Hy het ook erkenning gekry vir die behoud van Boston as die provinsiale hoofstad nadat die Town House in 1747 gebrand het.

Hutchinson raak ongewild onder politici in Boston omdat hy soveel ampte tegelyk beklee het saam met sy familielede, die Oliver -broers, en dat hy hom by soveel koninkryke aangesluit het. Soms het hy eintlik teen die beleid van Londen gekant, net soos met die seëlwet, maar hy het dit gewoonlik privaat gedoen, en as hy die interne argument verloor het, het hy in die openbaar aangedring dat mense die plig het om die wet te volg.

Einde 1769 word Hutchinson die waarnemende goewerneur na die vertrek van sir Francis Bernard. Nadat die kroon hom amptelik as goewerneur aangestel het, duur hy ongeveer drie jaar voordat hy deur genl Thomas Gage vervang word. Teen die tyd dat die huis baie ongewild was, het Hutchinson na Londen gevaar.

Eers is die voormalige goewerneur beskou as 'n waardevolle adviseur oor die Amerikaanse situasie. Maar namate oorlog uitbreek en aangaan, soek die regering hom al hoe minder. Hy het die leier van die Massachusetts Loyalists in ballingskap gebly.

In 1780 was Hutchinson in sy agt-en-sestigste jaar, nie gesond nie. Sy seuns Thomas, Jr., en Elisha en sy dogter Sarah saam met haar man, dr. Peter Oliver, het by hom in Londen aangesluit. Sy geliefde jonger dogter Peggy is daar in 1777 oorlede.

Op 2 Junie begin die Gordon Onluste in Londen. Ek het hier oor hulle geskryf. Elisha Hutchinson beskryf die gebeure van die volgende dag in 'n verslag wat met sy pa se dagboek en briewe in 1886 gepubliseer is:

Die goewerneur het baie goed geslaap, soos wat hy die afgelope paar nagte gedoen het, soos gewoonlik om 08:00 opgestaan ​​het, homself geskeer het en sy ontbyt geëet het, en ons het almal vir hom gesê dat sy voorkoms 'n gesonder voorkoms het, en as hy nie beter was nie , ons het geen rede gehad om tot die gevolgtrekking te kom dat hy veld verloor het nie.

Hy het die dag tevore goed en vry gesels oor die oproer in Londen en oor verskillende onderwerpe, en nog steeds die tyd om met die tussenposes in die bus te gaan, en het sy verwagtinge uitgespreek om binnekort te sterf, tekste uit die Skrif te herhaal, met kort ejakulasies na die hemel. Hy het 'n hemp gevra en vir Ryley, sy bediende, gesê dat hy skoon moet sterf.

Ek het gewoonlik voor hom die trappe afgestap, maar hy het skielik uit sy stoel opgestaan ​​en uit die kamer geloop en die dokter en ek agtergelaat. Ons het die kamer ingegaan langs die pad, en hy het hom gesien terwyl hy van die trappe van die deur na die koetsier stap ('n paar meter), sy hande na Ryley uitsteek en hom vasgryp, vir wie hy gesê het & #8220 Help my! ” en dit lyk asof ek flou val.

Ek het saam met die dokter gegaan. Die ander bediendes het hom kom ondersteun om nie te val nie, en hom by die deur van die huis gebring. Hulle het hom op 'n stoel in die Servants ‘ -saal of ingang in die huis gelig, maar sy kop het geval, en sy hande en eet, sy oë het afgerol.

Die dokter kon geen polsslag voel nie: hy het vlugtige stowwe op sy neusgate aangebring, wat skynbaar min of geen effek gehad het nie; wat, met een of twee snikke, sy siel oorgegee het aan God wat dit gegee het.

Hutchinson is begrawe op die kerkhof van Croydon Parish in Londen, drie duisend kilometer van die huis af.


Dinge om te onthou tydens die lees van die briewe van Thomas Hutchinson:

  • Hutchinson se brief van 18 Junie 1768 is geskryf nadat die Townshend -wette van 1767 in werking getree het. Die Townshend -wette vra belasting op lood, glas, verf, tee en ander items. Hulle het ook 'n nuwe stelsel van doeanekommissarisse ingestel om seker te maak dat die belasting gehef word. Die doeanekommissarisse het onlangs in Boston aangekom en oopgemaak vir sake. Een van hul eerste prestasies was om op John Hancock se boot beslag te lê omdat hy 'n bepaling van die Townshend Acts oortree het. Hutchinson het in sy brief na hierdie voorval verwys as 'n skending van 'die handel'.
  • Hutchinson se eerste brief verwys na die doeane -beamptes se beroep op die goewerneur om hulp nadat hulle deur die skare uit die stad gejaag is. Die deur Brittanje aangestelde goewerneur van Massachusetts, sir Francis Bernard (1712–1779), kon nie Britse soldate inroep sonder die goedkeuring van die Massachusetts-raad nie. Bernard het geweet sy raad sal nooit goedkeur dat Britse soldate in die strate van Boston patrolleer nie. Die raad van Bernard is deur die Massachusetts -vergadering verkies, en baie lede van die vergadering het simpatie gehad met die rebelle van Boston. Trouens, Samuel Adams, die leier van die rebellegroep The Sons of Liberty, was lid van die Massachusetts -vergadering. Hy was heel moontlik een van die lede van die skare.
  • Dit was vir Hutchinson uiters ontstellend dat dit lyk asof die parlement die chaos in die kolonies toelaat om voort te gaan. Hy kla eintlik dat sommige parlementslede eintlik die wetteloosheid aanmoedig deur koloniale weerstand teen belasting te ondersteun. Die ergste, meen Hutchinson, was dat die mense van Massachusetts die parlement as te skugter beskou om sy gesag te laat geld.
  • Koloniste wat beswaar maak teen Britse belasting, het aangevoer dat hulle ook Engelsmanne was en geregtig was op dieselfde regte as Engelsmanne in Engeland - soos om verteenwoordigers in die parlement te hê. Hutchinson het in sy tweede brief sy mening oor die argument uitgespreek. Hy het gesê dat hy twyfel of dit moontlik is dat mense wat so ver van die moederland af woon, dieselfde vryhede as mense in die vaderland kan geniet. Hy het gesê dat hy eerder ''n verdere beperking van die vryheid' 'sou sien as om die band tussen Amerika en Groot -Brittanje te verbreek.

Thomas Hutchinson - Geskiedenis

Thomas Hutchinson vertel die reaksie op die seëlwet in Boston

Teen die jaar 1760 was daar agtien opstande wat daarop gemik was om koloniale regerings omver te werp. Daar was ook ses swart rebelle, van Suid -Carolina tot New York, en veertig onluste van verskillende oorsprong. Hierdie opstandige energie het spoedig teen Engeland begin draai deur die belangrike mense in die kolonies wat groot voordele in die vryheid van die Britse bewind beleef het.

Die Sewejarige Oorlog tussen Frankryk en Engeland (in Amerika bekend as die Franse en Indiese Oorlog) eindig in 1763, met die Franse verslaan. Nou kon die Engelse hul aandag vestig op die verskerping van die beheer oor die Amerikaanse kolonies. Geld was nodig om vir die oorlog te betaal, en Engeland het daarvoor gesoek. Koloniale handel het belangrik geword vir die Britse ekonomie.

Met die Franse uit die pad, het die koloniale leierskap minder Engelse beskerming nodig gehad. Terselfdertyd het die Engelse nou die rykdom van die kolonies meer nodig gehad. Die elemente was dus daar vir konflik. Veral omdat die oorlog heerlikheid vir die generaals gebring het, die dood van die privaat persone, rykdom vir die handelaars en werkloosheid vir die armes. Die gevolglike woede kan nou teen Engeland eerder as teen die rykes van die kolonies gedraai word.

Een opvallende uitdrukking van hierdie woede was die reaksie op die oplegging van die seëlwet. Die seëlwet was 'n belasting wat deur die Britse kroon op die Amerikaanse kolonies gehef is om die groot skuld wat deur die koste van die Franse en Indiese oorlog opgebou is, te verlig. Een van die meer plofbare reaksies op die seëlwet in 1765 was 'n reeks aanvalle deur 'n skare in Boston op die huis van 'n ryk handelaar met die naam Andrew Oliver, een van die amptenare wat aangekla is van die handhawing van die seëlwet, en dan teen die huis wat aan hom behoort aan die luitenant -goewerneur, Thomas Hutchinson, wat hier die gebeure beskryf 1. William Gordon, wat die eerste volledige geskiedenis van die Amerikaanse rewolusie in 1788 gepubliseer het, het oor een van die onluste geskryf: "Manne van die leër, wat dorpe deur die vyand afgedank gesien het, verklaar dat hulle nog nooit 'n voorbeeld van sulke woede gesien het nie." verskillende gewelddadige reaksies op die seëlwet het daartoe gelei dat die Britse parlement dit herroep het.

Die verspreider van seëls vir die kolonie Connecticut (Jared Ingersoll] het uit Londen in Boston aangekom en, nadat hy agent vir die kolonie was, en in ander opsigte van 'n baie gerespekteerde karakter, het hy van baie geslagte van die stad sulke burgers ontvang as gevolg van Toe hy na Connecticut vertrek, vergesel mnr. [Andrew] Oliver, die verspreider van Massachusettsbaai, hom uit die stad. vroegoggend is 'n opgestopte beeld aan 'n boom gehang, die groot boom van die suidelike deel van Boston [later Liberty Tree] genoem. Etikette wat daarop gemerk is, is bedoel om ontwerp te word vir die verspreider van seëls. Mense wat verbystap , gestop om dit te sien, en die verslag het veroorsaak dat ander bymekaarkom en die verslag het veroorsaak dat ander uit alle oorde van die stad bymekaargekom het, en baie van die aangrensende dorpe. Die goewerneur het veroorsaak dat die raad byeengeroep is. die balju, saam met sy afgevaardigdes, was op die plek, maar op advies van sommige van die erger persone teenwoordig, het hy enige poging om die beeld te verwyder, verbied. Die meerderheid van die raad, maar nie die geheel nie, het aangeraai om dit nie te bemoei nie en het as rede aangespoor dat die mense ordelik was, en as hulle alleen gelaat sou word, die beeld sou afneem en begrawe sonder enige steuring, maar 'n poging om dit te verwyder, sal 'n oproer veroorsaak, die onheil wat bedoel is om te voorkom. Die goewerneur het dit egter goedgedink om die middag weer met die raad te vergader.

Voor die nag is die beeld afgeneem en deur die meenthuis gedra, in die kamer waarvan die goewerneur en die raad gesit het. Veertig of vyftig ambagsmanne, geklee, vooruitgegaan en 'n paar duisende van die skare het in die Kingstraat afgeval na die Olivers -dok, naby waar Oliver die afgelope tyd 'n gebou opgerig het, wat hy vermoed het vir 'n seëlkantoor. Dit is binne 'n paar minute plat op die grond gelê. Van daar af het die skare na Fort Hill gegaan, maar die huis van meneer Oliver was in die pad, maar het probeer om hulself daarin te dwing, en teenstaan, het die vensters gebreek, die deure geslaan, ingegaan en 'n deel van sy meubels vernietig en het tot middernag oproerig voortgegaan voordat hulle geskei het.

Die volgende dag het die goewerneur, op advies van die raad, 'n proklamasie uitgereik wat 'n beloning bied vir die ontdekking van oortreders, ens. Baie van die oortreders was bekend, en die afkondiging is as 'n blote vorm beskou. Sommige van die raad het die volgende aand 'n militêre wag in die stad aangeraai, maar 'n meerderheid was daarteen gekant en het dit genoeg geag om aan die uitgesoekte mans en regters aan te beveel om die aantal gewone stadswagte te vermeerder, maar selfs dit was nie gedoen. Verskeie van die raad het dit as mening meegedeel, terwyl die heer Oliver teenwoordig was, dat die mense, nie net van die stad Boston nie, maar van die land in die algemeen, hulle nooit sou onderwerp aan die uitvoering van die seëlwet nie, laat die gevolg van 'n opposisie daarteen is wat dit sou. Daar is ook berig dat die mense van Connecticut gedreig het om hul verspreider aan die eerste boom te hang nadat hy die kolonie binnegegaan het, en dat hy, om dit te vermy, na Rhode-Island gegaan het. Mnr. Oliver het wanhoop van beskerming en sy gesin in angs en groot nood gevind, en skielik besluit om sy amp voor 'n ander nag te bedank, en onmiddellik deur 'n opskrif onder sy hand aan een van sy vriende te kenne gee dat hy sou stuur briewe, deur 'n skip wat toe gereed was om na Londen te vaar, wat so 'n bedanking moet bevat en hy verlang dat die stad daarmee kennis gemaak word, en met die sterk versekering wat hy gegee het, dat hy nooit in daardie hoedanigheid sou optree nie.

Hierdie oorwinning was 'n saak van triomf. Die skare het saans byeengekom om nie die verspreider te beledig nie, maar om hom te bedank en 'n vreugdevuur te maak op die heuwel naby sy huis. Daar is gehoop dat die mense, nadat hulle alles gekry het wat hulle verlang, sou terugkeer na die orde, maar nadat hulle herhaaldelik straffeloos bymekaargekom het, het 'n baie klein skyn hulle gedwing om weer bymekaar te kom. Die volgende aand omsingel die skare die huis van die luitenant-goewerneur en hoofregter [Hutchinson se eie huis]. Hy was in die huis van meneer Oliver toe dit aangerand is, en het die balju en die kolonel van die regiment opgewonde gemaak om die skare te onderdruk. 'N Berig is wyd versprei dat hy 'n gunsteling van die seëlwet was en dit aangemoedig het deur middel van briewe aan die ministerie. Toe hy die mense nader, het hy veroorsaak dat die deure en vensters gesper was en in die huis gebly het. Nadat hulle probeer binnegaan het, het hulle hom versoek om op die balkon te kom en te verklaar dat hy nie ten gunste van die daad geskryf het nie, en dat hulle baie tevrede sou gaan. Dit was 'n verontwaardiging waarop hy hom nie wou onderwerp nie en daarom het hy geen antwoord gegee nie. 'N Ou, betroubare handelaar het hul aandag gekry en probeer om hulle te oortuig, nie net oor die ongegrondheid van hul verrigtinge nie, maar ook oor die ongegrondheid van hul vermoedens teenoor die luitenant-goewerneur, wat goed kon wens dat die parlement nie verby was nie , hoewel hy die gewelddadige opposisie teen die uitvoering daarvan afkeur. Sommige wou terugtrek en ander het aangehou toe een van die bure uit sy venster na hulle roep en bevestig dat hy die luitenant-goewerneur net voor die aand in sy wa sien, en dat hy by sy huis in die land. Hierna het hulle versprei, met slegs 'n deel van die glas. Hierdie aanvalle op twee van die hoofoffisiere van die kroon het terreur getref by mense van minderwaardige rang, en alhoewel hulle die gevaar van hierdie 1765 -mag in die bevolking sien, sou hulle geen hulp verleen om dit te verminder nie, sodat hulle nie self onaangenaam sou word nie. want daar is gefluister van gevaar weens verdere gewelddade. Op Sondag die 25ste Augustus is 'n preek in die sogenaamde West-byeenkomshuis gehou uit hierdie woorde: "Ek sou hulle selfs afgesny het, wat u pla." Die teks alleen, sonder 'n opmerking, wat destyds van die kansel afgelewer is, kan deur sommige van die ouditore geïnterpreteer word in die goedkeuring van die heersende onreëlmatighede. Een, wat 'n hoofhand in die uitbarstings gehad het wat spoedig gevolg het, verklaar toe hy in die gevangenis was dat hy opgewonde was oor hierdie preek en dat hy gedink het dat hy God diens verrig.

Sekere neerslae is geneem, baie maande voor hierdie transaksies, op bevel van die goewerneur, met betrekking tot die onwettige handel en een daarvan, deur die regter van die admiraliteit, op spesiale begeerte van die goewerneur, voor die luitenant-goewerneur, as hoofregter. Hulle is in een van die kantore in Engeland aan 'n persoon wat op hierdie tydstip in Boston aangekom het, vertoon, en hy het verskeie handelaars, wie se name in sommige afsettings as smokkelaars was, vertroud gemaak met die inhoud. Dit het egter sonder rede die wrok van die handelaars meegebring teenoor die persone wat deur hul amp verplig was om die eed af te lê, sowel as teen die amptenare van die doeane en admiraliteit, wat die afsettings en die leiers van die skare het 'n oproer ondervind, wat na 'n paar klein pogings teen sulke offisiere sy hoofmag op die luitenant-goewerneur sou uitgee. En die aand van die 26ste Augustus is so 'n skare in Kingstraat versamel, daarheen getrek deur 'n vreugdevuur en goed voorsien van sterk drank. Na 'n mate van ergernis vir die huis van die registrateur van die admiraliteit, en ietwat groter as die van die kontroles van die doeane, wie se kelders hulle geplunder het van die wyn en sterk drank daarin, kom hulle met bedwelmde woede oor die huis van die luitenant- goewerneur. Die deure is onmiddellik met breë byle in stukke geskeur, en 'n weg daarheen, en by die vensters, vir die ingang van die skare wat elke kamer in die huis binnegestroom en gevul het.

Die luitenant-goewerneur het baie kort kennis geneem van die benadering van die skare. Hy het sy kinders en die res van sy gesin beveel om die huis onmiddellik te verlaat en besluit om self die besit te behou. Sy oudste dogter, nadat sy 'n entjie van die huis af gekom het, het teruggekeer en geweier om op te hou, tensy haar pa dieselfde sou doen.

Dit het daartoe gelei dat hy van sy besluite afgewyk het, enkele minute voordat die skare ingegaan het. Hulle het hul besittings voortgesit totdat die dag die lig vernietig, weggevoer of in die straat gegooi het; alles wat in die huis was, het elke deel daarvan afgebreek, behalwe die mure, sover dit in hul vermoë was en het begin wegbreek van die metselwerk.

Die skade is geskat op ongeveer vyf en twintig honderd pond sterling, sonder inagneming van 'n groot versameling publieke sowel as privaat papiere, in besit en bewaring van die luitenant-goewerneur.

Die stad was die hele nag onder ontsag vir hierdie skare baie van die landdroste, met die veldoffisiere van die milisie, wat as toeskouers bygestaan ​​het en geen liggaam dit wou teenstaan ​​of weerspreek nie.

1 Thomas Hutchinson vertel die reaksie op die seëlwet in Boston (1765). In Thomas Hutchinson, red. Lawrence Shaw Mayo (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1936), vol. 3, pp. 86-88, 89-90.
Die geskiedenis van die kolonie en die provinsie Massachusetts-baai


Hutchins is in New Jersey gebore. [1] "Toe hy net sestien jaar oud was, het hy na die westelike land gegaan en 'n afspraak as vaandel in die Britse leër gekry." [2] "Hy het tydens die Franse en Indiese oorlog by die milisie aangesluit [1] en later 'n gereelde kommissie by die Britse magte aangeneem." hy het in die Franse en Indiese Oorlog (1754–1763) geveg. Eind 1757 word hy aangestel as luitenant in die kolonie Pennsylvania, en 'n jaar later word hy bevorder tot kwartiermeester in kolonel Hugh Mercer se bataljon en is hy gestasioneer in Fort Duquesne naby Pittsburgh. "[3]

'In 1763 word generaal Henry Bouquet, 'n Britse offisier wat toe in bevel was in Philadelphia, beveel om Fort Pitt, nou Pittsburgh, te verlig, en met 500 man, meestal Highlanders, het die grensnedersettings baie ontstel as gevolg van woeste invalle. Hy veg onderweg met die Indiane, maar het daarin geslaag om Fort Pitt met voorrade te bereik, maar agt offisiere en honderd en vyftien man verloor.Hutchins was op hierdie punt teenwoordig en onderskei hom as 'n soldaat terwyl hy lê die plan van nuwe versterkings uitgewerk en daarna uitgevoer onder die aanwysings van General Bouquet. " [2]

In 1766 het hy as ingenieur by die Britse weermag begin werk. [1] Daardie jaar het Hutchins by George Croghan, adjunk -Indiese agent, en kaptein Henry Gordon, hoofingenieur in die Westelike Departement van Noord -Amerika, op 'n ekspedisie langs die Ohio -rivier aangesluit om die gebied wat deur die 1763 -verdrag van Parys verkry is, te ondersoek. Hutchins het etlike jare in die Midwest -gebiede gewerk aan land- en rivieropmetings totdat hy in 1772 na die Suidelike Departement van Noord -Amerika oorgeplaas is. Hy het ongeveer vyf jaar lank aan opname -projekte in die westelike deel van Florida gewerk. Gedurende hierdie tyd reis hy ook af en toe noord, dikwels na Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Sy vordering op die gebied van topografie en geografie het daartoe gelei dat hy in die lente van 1772 tot lid van die American Philosophical Society verkies is. [4]

In 1774 neem hy deel aan 'n opname van die Mississippi -rivier van Manchac tot by die Yazoo -rivier. Dit was 'n kaartekspedisie onder leiding van George Gauld, saam met dr John Lorimer en kaptein Thomas Davey, kaptein van HMS Sloop Diligence. Deel van die ekspedisie was ook majoor Alexander Dickson, bevelvoerder van die 16de Regiment in Wes -Florida. Baie van die data wat Hutchins gebruik het vir die voorbereiding van sy boek uit 1784, "Historical, Narrative and Topographical Description of Louisiana and West Florida", kom uit sy ervarings tydens hierdie ekspedisie.

Ondanks sy jare diens by die Britse leër, het hy simpatie gehad met die Amerikaanse saak tydens die Amerikaanse rewolusie. One Journal of these events, geskryf in sy handskrif in drie verskillende weergawes, was waarskynlik bedoel vir die beplande biografie wat nooit voltooi is nie. Dit dui aan dat Hutchins sy ou 60ste Royal American Regiment vir 'n kort rukkie vergesel het tydens die inval in Georgië in Desember 1778. Net soos ander anonieme tydskrifte wat aan Hutchins toegeskryf word, beskryf hy die platteland terwyl hy saam met 'n mede -kennis van New Jersey dien. Kol. Mark Prevost, broer van genl. Augustinus Prevost. Kaptein Hutchins het blykbaar sy regiment vergesel enkele dae voor die Slag van Brier Creek wat op 3 Maart 1779 in Georgië geveg is. Hy het moontlik tydens die Franse en Indiëroorlog in een van sy vorige hoedanighede by die Prevost gedien as opnemer en waarnemer van die geveg. Hutchins, hoewel dit nie direk in die geveg self was nie, was getuies van en het wreedhede waargeneem wat sy teenoorlogse standpunt teen die vyandelikhede teen die Amerikaners kon bevestig. Die veteraan -waarnemings van Hutchins het 'n paar van die lewenskragtigste beskrywings van die geveg aangeteken, terwyl die ligte infanterieregiment onder leiding van die berugte kaptein James "Bloody" Baird van die 71ste Fraser Highlanders na die oorgawe van Georgië begin bajonet het. Die beskrywings van Hutchins van die 71ste Highlanders gee blykbaar 'n aanduiding van die vooroordele wat gereeld deur die Britse gereelde offisiere gehou is, saam met Skotse regimente. 'N Paar dae na die byeenkoms het Hutchins waarskynlik vanaf Savannah, Georgia, na Groot -Brittanje gevaar om kartografiese materiaal van die Amerikaanse grens te druk. Tydens die voorafgaande weke is daar blykbaar 'n geheime ondersoek na die aktiwiteite van Hutchins aan die gang gesit. 'N Agent het ontdek dat Hutchins 'n geheime posadres gebruik en gekodeerde versendings gestuur het. 'N Paar vermeldings van Hutchins se aktiwiteite en briewe is deur Thomas Digges gemaak in briewe wat met Benjamin Franklin uitgeruil is. Dit is nie duidelik of dit spioenasie was of sy voortgesette aandag aan landspekulasie -aktiwiteite waarby hy in Amerika betrokke was nie. Aangesien kapt. Hutchins beskou is as een van Brittanje se voorste owerhede op die westelike grenslande, het dit hom in die ongewone posisie gelaat om 'n belangrike konsultant te wees oor winsgewende toekomstige inheemse Amerikaanse verkrygings. Sommige Amerikaanse en Britse leiers was betrokke by hierdie aktiwiteite, en toe nuus van sy ondersoek na vore kom, het baie mense dit as 'n moontlik skandalige aangeleentheid erken. Sommige sulke persone was die Prevost -familielede wat almal die kern van die bevel vir die 60ste Regiment verteenwoordig het. Een so 'n verband was in die deurmekaar aangeleentheid van die George Croghan -lande in Wes -Pennsylvania. Die potensiaal is moontlik as ernstig genoeg beskou om die Amerikaanse 60ste Regiment teen die einde van 1779 van die state na Jamaika te laat trek. Hutchins het vermoedelik sy ondersoek vermoed en probeer om sy kapteinskap in die Regiment te verkoop. Hutchins bedank uit sy pos in 1780. [1] [5] Hy is gearresteer, aangekla van verraad en in 'n meestal geheimsinnige reeks gebeure opgesluit. In 1780 ontsnap hy na Frankryk en kontak Benjamin Franklin in die Verenigde State met 'n versoek om by die Amerikaanse weermag aan te sluit. In Desember 1780 vaar Hutchins na Charleston, Suid -Carolina. Baie min is bekend oor sy diens by die Amerikaners gedurende die res van die oorlog. Hutchins is believed to be the only British Regular Officer to have switched to the American side during the war.

"By resolution on May 4, 1781, Congress appointed him geographer of the southern army. On July 11, the title was changed to 'Geographer of the United States.'" [6] Hutchins was the first and only Geographer of the United States [7] (see Department of the Geographer to the Army, 1777-1783) from 1781. He became an early advocate of Manifest Destiny, proposing that the United States should annex West Florida and Louisiana, which were then controlled by Spain. [5]

In May 1781, Hutchins was appointed geographer of the southern army, and shared duties with Simeon DeWitt, the geographer of the main army. Just a few months later, a new title was granted to both men, geographer of the United States. When DeWitt became the surveyor-general of New York in 1784, Hutchins held the prestigious title alone.

"Although Congress balked at the idea of a postwar establishment with an engineering department, it did see the need for a geographer and surveyors. Thus, in 1785, Thomas Hutchins became geographer general and immediately began his biggest assignment- surveying "Seven Ranges" townships in the Northwest Territory as provided by the Land Ordnance Act of 1785. For two years Josiah Harmar's troops offered Hutchins and his surveyors much needed protection from Indians." [8]

Hutchins died on assignment while surveying the Seven Ranges. [9] "The Gazette of the United States concluded a commendary memorial notice by the remark, 'he has measured the earth, but a small space now contains him.'" [10] He was interred at the cemetery of the First Presbyterian Church of Pittsburgh.


Thomas Hutchinson

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About Thomas Hutchinson, Col. Lt. Gov. of Massachusetts Bay

Governors of Massachusetts

Thomas Hutchinson (1711-1780)

Acting Royal Governor of Massachusetts (June through August 1760) Acting Royal Governor of Massachusetts (August 1769-November 1770) Royal Governor of Massachusetts (1770-1774)

Thomas Hutchinson was Governor during the difficult years leading to the American Revolution. He was very much "of Boston," but of an English Boston, to which he was earnestly loyal throughout his life.

Hutchinson had deep American roots. He was a descendent of Anne Hutchinson, who was expelled from Boston for her religious beliefs in the 1630s. He was born in Boston, attended Harvard earning a Master of Arts before entering business. He was a member of Boston's Board of Selectmen (1737) and was popularly elected to the Legislature where he served almost continuously until 1749. He served as a member of the state council, was Chief Justice of the Superior Court, and eventually Lieutenant Governor.

He resisted Boston's gradual drift away from England and perceived the revolution was stoked by hotheads, seizing on miniscule issues, which they used to inflame sentiments. Hutchinson was unflinchingly rational and held an enmity for the revolutionary radicals. They returned this feeling, when in 1765, as a mob they attacked and looted his personal residence.

After this attack, Hutchinson began to secretly advise England to move to forcefully restrain the Colony. As the town filled with English troops, he entreated them to take the greatest care, as the slightest tragedy would spread like flames through the province and perhaps beyond. Exactly that happened on March 5, 1770, when a group of unarmed men threatened English soldiers. The soldiers shot and killed five of them. Acting Governor Hutchinson, already hated by revolutionaries faced as serious a crisis as any Massachusetts Governor has ever seen.

The morning after what would later be called the Boston Massacre, Boston's selectmen demanded that Hutchinson order the English troops from Boston or see more "blood and carnage." He claimed as acting Governor he held no authority over the King's troops. Further, he matched their threat, ordering that anyone caught advising or provoking an attack on the troops would face charges of high treason, which he would enforce personally. Hutchinson's aggressive response, along with a quiet withdrawal of the involved regiment kept the peace, but it drew a final line between himself and his revolutionary countrymen. Having shown where his loyalty lay, Hutchinson was finally made Royal Governor in his own right in November 1770.

As Governor, he went on to support a popularly hated, though seemingly harmless Tea Tax in 1773. However, protest turned to assault when protestors dressed as "savages" threw crates of tea into the Boston harbor, rather than pay the tax. After the "Boston Tea Party," thousands of English soldiers flooded the city to enforce the rule of law. Hutchinson was now widely hated in his homeland, which ceased being the British Boston of his birth. Within six months he boarded a ship to England, where he would finish his life in exile and write the seminal History of the Colony of Massachusetts Bay. --------------------------------------------------------- Thomas Hutchinson From Wikipedia

Thomas Hutchinson (September 9, 1711 – June 3, 1780) was the American colonial governor of Massachusetts from 1771 to 1774 and a prominent Loyalist in the years before the American Revolutionary War.

Hutchinson was born in Boston, where his father, the great-grandson of Anne Hutchinson, was a wealthy merchant and ship owner. He was a highly intelligent man who graduated from Harvard in 1727 before his sixteenth birthday. He entered his father's counting room, early showed remarkable aptitude for business, and by the time he was 24 had accumulated considerable property in trading ventures on his own account. He married Margaret Sanford in 1734-a granddaughter of Rhode Island Governor Peleg Sandford and a great granddaughter of both Rhode Island Governor William Coddington and of Anne Hutchinson.

As his career advanced he became involved in the civil leadership of the colony, first as a selectman in Boston in 1737. Later in the same year he was chosen a representative to the General Court of the Colony and at once took a strong stand in opposition to the views of the majority with regard to a proper currency. His unpopular opinions led to his retirement in 1740. In that year he went to England as a commissioner to represent Massachusetts in a boundary dispute with New Hampshire. In 1742 he was re-elected to the General Court, and was chosen annually to the General Court until 1749, serving as the Speaker from 1746 to 1749. He continued his advocacy of a sound currency, and when the British Parliament reimbursed Massachusetts in 1749 for the expenses incurred in the Louisburg expedition, he proposed the abolition of the bills of credit, and the utilization of the parliamentary repayment as the basis for a new Colonial currency. The proposal was finally adopted by the Assembly, and its good effect on the trade of the Colony at once established Hutchinson's reputation as a financier.

On leaving the General Court in 1749 he was appointed at once to the Governor's Council. In 1750 he was chairman of a commission to arrange a treaty with the Indians in the District of Maine, and he served on boundary commissions to settle disputes with Connecticut and Rhode Island. In 1752 he was appointed judge of probate and a justice of the Common Pleas. In 1754, as a delegate from Massachusetts to the Albany Convention, he took a leading part in the discussions and favored Franklin's plan for Colonial union.

In 1758 he was appointed Lieutenant Governor, and in 1760 Chief Justice, of the Province. In the following year, by issuing writs of assistance, he brought upon himself a storm of protest and criticism. His distrust of popular government as exemplified in the New England town meeting increased. Although he opposed the principle of the Stamp Act, considered it impolitic, and later advised its repeal, he accepted its legality, and, as a result of his stand, his city house was sacked by a mob in August, 1765, and his valuable collection of books and manuscripts destroyed.

In 1769, upon the resignation of Governor Francis Bernard, he became acting Governor, serving in that capacity at the time of the Boston Massacre, March 5, 1770, when popular clamor compelled him to order the removal of the troops from the city.

In March, 1771, he received his commission as Governor, and was the last civilian governor of the Massachusetts colony. His administration, controlled completely by the British ministry, increased the friction with the patriots. The publication, in 1773, of some letters on Colonial affairs written by Hutchinson, and obtained by Franklin in England, still further aroused public indignation, and led the ministry to see the necessity for stronger measures. The temporary suspension of the civil government followed, and General Gage was appointed military governor in April, 1774. Driven from the country by threats in the following May and broken in health and spirit, Hutchinson spent the rest of his life an exile in England.

Hutchinson had built a country estate in Milton, Massachusetts. Although the house is now gone, the original "ha-ha" of the estate remains today beside Governor Hutchinson's Field, maintained by the Trustees of Reservations.

In England, still nominally Governor, he was consulted by Lord North in regard to American affairs but his advice that a moderate policy be adopted, and his opposition to the Boston Port Bill, and the suspension of the Massachusetts constitution, were not heeded.

His American estates were confiscated, and he was compelled to refuse a baronetcy on account of lack of means. He died at Brompton, now a part of London, aged 68.

He wrote a History of Massachusetts Bay (volume i, 1764 volume ii, 1767 volume iii, 1828) a work of great historical value, calm, and judicious in the main, but entirely unphilosophical and lacking in style. His Diary and Letters was published in 1884�. This article incorporates text from an edition of the New International Encyclopedia that is in the public domain.

Literature Bernard Bailyn, The Ordeal of Thomas Hutchinson (Cambridge, 1974) J. K. Hosmer, Life of Thomas Hutchinson (Boston, 1896) Vernon Parrington, Main Currents in American Thought (1927) Person ID I11343

Thomas Hutchinson (9 September 1711 – 3 June 1780) was the British royal governor of colonial Massachusetts from 1771 to 1774 and a prominent Loyalist in the years before the American Revolution.

Although Thomas Hutchinson believed in the supremacy of Parliament, he was opposed to the Stamp Act of 1765. Nevertheless, he attempted to enforce the tax, believing both that it was his duty and that Parliament had the legal authority to impose it. This stubbornness and refusal to publicly oppose Parliament contributed to Hutchinson's great unpopularity among Bostonians and other North American colonists. His apparent support for the Stamp Act provoked a mob of colonists opposed to the tax into destroying his mansion and its extensive library in 1765. Hutchinson became a symbol of unpopular Toryism in the American colonies.[1]

Hutchinson was born in Boston. He showed remarkable aptitude for business early on, and by the time he was 24 had accumulated considerable property in trading ventures on his own account. He married Margaret Sanford in 1734-who was a granddaughter of Rhode Island Governor Peleg Sandford Hutchinson was a great grandson of both Rhode Island Governor William Coddington and of Anne Hutchinson.

As his career advanced he became involved in the civil leadership of the colony, first as a selectman in Boston in 1737. Later in the same year he was chosen a representative to the Massachusetts General Court and at once took a strong stand in opposition to the views of the majority with regard to a proper currency. His unpopular opinions led to his retirement in 1740. In that year he went to England as a commissioner to represent Massachusetts in a boundary dispute with New Hampshire. In 1742 he was re-elected to the General Court, and was chosen annually to the General Court until 1749, serving as the Speaker from 1746 to 1749. He continued his advocacy of a sound currency, and when the British Parliament reimbursed Massachusetts in 1749 for the expenses incurred in the Louisbourg expedition, he proposed the abolition of the bills of credit, and the utilisation of the parliamentary repayment as the basis for a new Colonial currency. The proposal was finally adopted by the Assembly, and its good effect on the trade of the colony at once established Hutchinson's reputation as a financier.

On leaving the General Court in 1749 he was appointed at once to the Governor's Council. In 1750 he was chairman of a commission to arrange a treaty with the Indians in the District of Maine, which was then part of Massachusetts, and he served on boundary commissions to settle disputes with Connecticut and Rhode Island. In 1752 he was appointed judge of probate and a justice of the Common Pleas. In 1754, as a delegate from Massachusetts to the Albany Convention, he took a leading part in the discussions and favoured Benjamin Franklin's plan for colonial union.

In 1758 he was appointed Lieutenant Governor, and in 1760 Chief Justice, of the Province. In the following year, by issuing writs of assistance, he brought upon himself a storm of protest and criticism. His distrust of popular government as exemplified in the New England town meeting increased. Although he opposed the principle of the Stamp Act, considered it impolitic, and later advised its repeal, he accepted its legality, and, as a result of his stand, his city house was ransacked by a mob in August 1765, and his valuable collection of books was destroyed. For many years he had been working on a history of the colony, compiling original manuscripts and source materials. After the destruction of his home, he bitterly rescued many of these materials from the muddy road.

Governor of Massachusetts

In 1769, upon the resignation of Governor Francis Bernard, he became acting Governor, serving in that capacity at the time of the Boston Massacre, 5 March 1770, when popular clamour compelled him to order the removal of the troops from the city.

In March 1771, he received his commission as Governor, and was the last civilian governor of the Massachusetts colony. His administration, controlled completely by the British ministry, increased the friction with the patriots. The publication, in 1773, of some letters on colonial affairs written by Hutchinson, and obtained by Franklin in England, still further aroused public indignation. In England, while Hutchinson was vindicated in discussions in the Privy Council, Franklin was severely criticised and fired as a colonial postmaster general. The resistance of the colonials led the ministry to see the necessity for stronger measures. A temporary suspension of the civil government followed, and General Gage was appointed military governor in April 1774.

Driven from the country by threats in the following May and broken in health and spirit, Hutchinson spent the rest of his life an exile in England.

In England, still nominally Governor, he was consulted by Lord North in regard to American affairs but his advice that a moderate policy be adopted, and his opposition to the Boston Port Bill, and the suspension of the Massachusetts charter, were not heeded.

While he was still officially the acting governor, he was compelled to refuse a baronetcy because of the severe financial losses when his American estates and other property in Massachusetts were confiscated by the new government without compensation by the Crown. Bitter and disillusioned, Hutchinson, nevertheless, continued to work on his history of the colony which was the fruit of many decades of research. Two volumes were published in his lifetime. His History of Massachusetts Bay (volume i, 1764 volume ii, 1767 volume iii, 1828) a work of great historical value, calm, and judicious in the main, but considered by some to be entirely unphilosophical and lacking in style. His Diary and Letters was published in 1884�. He died at Brompton, now a part of London, on 3 June 1780, aged 68.

Hutchinson had built a country estate in Milton, Massachusetts, part of which, Governor Hutchinson's Field is owned by The Trustees of the Reservations and is open to the public. He built a garden behind the house, which is on the National Register of Historic Places as Gov. Thomas Hutchinson's Field.

Bernard Bailyn, The Ordeal of Thomas Hutchinson (Cambridge, 1974)

J. K. Hosmer, Life of Thomas Hutchinson (Boston, 1896)

Vernon Parrington, Main Currents in American Thought (1927), online

Hutchinson, Thomas, THE HISTORY OF MASSACHUSETTS: From the First Settlement Thereof in 1628 Until the Year 1750, 1764

"lord north" by ann hutchinson

Thomas was the last royal governor of Massachusetts. 1771-1774

He was a prominent Loyalist before the revolutionary war.

He Graduated from Harvard 1727 before his 16th Birthday.

He was a selected men in 1737.

He was a representative to the general court in 1737.

His unpopular opionions led to his retirement of the general court in 1740.

In 1758 he became Lt Governor.

He opposed the Stamp Act as a result his house was ransacked in 1765.

In 1769 upon the resignation of Gov. Bernard he became acting Governor. Serviing at the time of the Boston Massacre.

In 1771 received his commision as Governor. (f/g) Thomas Hutchinson Birth: Sep. 9, 1711 Boston Suffolk County Massachusetts, USA Death: Jun. 3, 1780, England

Graduate of Harvard College Class of 1727 Last Loyalist Governor of Massachusetts

Married May 16, 1734 Boston Mass

His ancestors Anthony Hutchinson and Isabel Harvery were also the ancestors of Mrs. Elizabeth Putnam a great great aunt of General Israel Putnam

Great grandson of religious dissident Anne Hutchinson also a descendant of Rhode Island Governor William Coddington his wife was a descendant of Rhode Island Governors William Coddington and Peleg Sandford

Note a Hutchinson Cousin also married into Winslow family

His daugther also married into the Oliver family becoming a daugther in law of Massachuetts Chief Justice Peter Oliver -who was related to Massachusetts Governor Jonathan Belcher and to New Hampshire Lt Governor William Partridge and to New Hampshire Lt. Governor George Vaughan

Burial: St John the Baptist Churchyard Croydon Greater London, England Plot: Buried in vault Created by: P Fazzini Record added: Jun 11, 2010 Find A Grave Memorial# 53543371 -tcd


Why was Thomas Hutchinson a loyalist?

Click to see complete answer. Accordingly, why is Thomas Hutchinson important?

Born September 9, 1711, Thomas Hutchinson was a successful merchant, prominent politician and one of the most belangrik loyalists in the Massachusetts Bay Colony before the American Revolution. Hutchinson would play a major role in numerous events leading up to the American Revolution.

Furthermore, why would someone be a loyalist? Loyalists wanted to pursue peaceful forms of protest because they believed that violence sou give rise to mob rule or tyranny. They also believed that independence sou mean the loss of economic benefits derived from membership in the British mercantile system. The number of Loyalists in each colony varied.

In respect to this, was Thomas Hutchinson a loyalist or patriot?

Thomas Hutchinson (9 September 1711 &ndash 3 June 1780) was a businessman, historian, and a prominent Loyalist politician of the Province of Massachusetts Bay in the years before the American Revolution.


The history of .

"• The commissioners from Massachusetts Bay were Thomas Hutchinson, John Choate, Israel Williams, and James Otis, Esqrs. Sir William Pepperell had been appointed at the head of the commission, but sailed for England before the treaty took place. Theodore Atkinson and John Downing, Esqrs. were the commissioners from New Hampshire.

The Indians began the treaty with an act of "• The commissioners from Massachusetts Bay were Thomas Hutchinson, John Choate, Israel Williams, and James Otis, Esqrs. Sir William Pepperell had been appointed at the head of the commission, but sailed for England before the treaty took place. Theodore Atkinson and John Downing, Esqrs. were the commissioners from New Hampshire.

The Indians began the treaty with an act of pleasantry and good humour. Notice had been given, that they must bring in such English captives as were among them, and particularly a boy whose name was Macfarlane, and who was taken in the beginning of the war. They apologized for not bringing Macfarlane, and feigned some excuse, promising he should be sent when they re
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Thomas Hutchinson responds to independence (1776)

After being recalled to England, former Massachusetts governor Thomas Hutchinson wrote a lengthy response to the Declaration of Independence, answering each of its arguments and grievances in turn. This extract is from the first part of Hutchinson’s missive:

“They begin, my Lord, with a false hypothesis: that the colonies are one distinct people, and the kingdom [of England is] another, connected by political bands. The Colonies, politically considered, never were a distinct people from the kingdom. There never has been but one political band, and that was just the same before the first colonists emigrated as it has been ever since…

The supreme legislative authority [the British parliament] hath essential right and is indispensably bound to keep all parts of the Empire entire, until there may be a separation consistent with the general good of the Empire, of which good, from the nature of government, this authority must be the sole judge.

I should therefore be impertinent if I attempted to show in what case a whole people may be justified in rising up in opposition to the powers of government, altering or abolishing them and substituting, in whole or in part, new powers in their stead or in what sense all men are created equal or how far life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness may be said to be unalienable. Only I could ask the delegates of Maryland, Virginia and the Carolinas how their constituents justify the depriving more than a hundred thousand Africans of their rights to liberty and the pursuit of happiness, and in some degree to their lives, if these rights are so absolutely unalienable.

Nor shall I attempt to refute the absurd notions of government, or to expose the equivocal or inconclusive expressions contained in this Declaration but rather to show the false representation made of the facts… alleged to be the evidence of injuries and usurpations, and the special motives to rebellion. There are many of them… instead of justifying, they rather aggravate the criminality of this Revolt.

The first in order, ‘He has refused his assent to laws the most wholesome and necessary for the public good’, is of so general a nature that it is not possible to conjecture to what laws or to what colonies it refers. I remember no laws which any colony has been restrained from passing so as to cause any complaint of grievance, except those for issuing fraudulent paper currency and making it a legal tender…

‘He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing Importance…’. Laws, my Lord, are in force in the Colonies, as soon as a Governor has given his assent, and remain in force until the King’s disallowance is signed. Some laws may have their full effect before the King’s pleasure can be known…

‘He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly for opposing with manly firmness his Invasions of the Rights of the People’. Contention between governors and their assemblies have caused dissolutions of such assemblies, I suppose, in all the colonies, in former as well as later times. I recollect but one instance of the dissolution of an Assembly by special order from the King, and that was in Massachusetts Bay [in 1774]…

The professed reason for publishing the Declaration was ‘a decent respect to the opinions of mankind’, yet the real design was to reconcile the people of America to that independence, which they had been made to believe was not intended. This design has too well succeeded. The people have not observed the fallacy in reasoning… nor the absurdity of making the governed to be governors.

From a disposition to receive willingly complaints against rulers, facts misrepresented have passed without examining. Discerning men have concealed their sentiments, because under the present government in America, no man may, by writing or speaking, contradict any part of this Declaration without being deemed an enemy to his country, and exposed to the rage and fury of the populace.”


Thomas Hutchins


A map of eastern Ohio and Western Pennsylvania created ca. 1766 by Thomas Hutchins. The official title of the map is "A Map of the Country on the Ohio & Muskingum Rivers Showing the Situation of the Indian Towns with Respect to the Army Under the Command of Colonel Bouquet". One of the oldest drawings of the Ohio country, Thomas Hutchins rendered the top portion based on an earlier map he drew after he toured the area in 1762. Two years later, Hutchins drew the bottom portion while traveling with Colonel Henry Bouquet on an expedition from Fort Pitt into the Ohio

Thomas Hutchins was an American surveyor, mapmaker and the first "geographer of the United States."

Hutchins was born in the colony of New Jersey in 1730. Prior to the American Revolution, Hutchins served in the British army and participated in the French and Indian War. During the Revolution, Hutchins served in the British Army. In 1779, the British government charged him with treason, prompting Hutchins to resign his commission in 1780. On July 11, 1781, Congress appointed him as "geographer of the United States."

After the American Revolution, Hutchins continued as a geographer, surveying and making maps of the western frontier. Hutchins was given the job of plotting the land set aside for the Northwest Territory as a result of the Land Ordinance of 1785. He and his men laid out four of the Seven Ranges, which organized early settlement of the territory. Hutchins died of illness on April 18, 1789, before he could complete the survey of the final ranges. Hutchins had previously visited and mapped portions of what is now Ohio, when he participated in Bouquet's Expedition in 1764.

Hutchins's survey work in the newly-seized Northwest Territory illustrates the difficult conditions that existed in Ohio in the years following the American Revolution. The geographer's first expedition to the region was cut short by the threat of American Indian attack, and the second expedition only began its work once it received military protection. In particular, the Shawnee posed a serious danger, as they were upset about Anglo-American settlers' invasion of their lands. The Wyandot and Lenape (Delaware), similarly, did not consent to the treaties signing this American Indian land to white settlers.


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