Agter S.I


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Agter S.I

Die Ago S.I was 'n enkelaanvalvliegtuig wat aan die einde van die Eerste Wêreldoorlog nog ontwikkel is.

Die S.I is 'n redelik obskure vliegtuig. Twee was aan die einde van die pad in aanbou, maar nie een is voor die wapenstilstand voltooi nie.

Die S.I was 'n tweebaans tweedekker. Dit gebruik 'n gevorderde gesplete onderstel, vasgemaak aan die basis en sye van die romp. Die Bass und Selve BuS III -enjin het 'n tweelempropeller aangedryf.

Die S.I sou gewapen wees met twee Spandau -masjiengewere en 'n kanon van 2 cm. Die detail van die geweerinstallasie is nie duidelik nie, en dit is moontlik dat sommige van die gewere afwaarts afgevuur het.

Enjin: Basse und Selve BuS III
Krag: 260 pk
Bemanning: 1
Bewapening: Twee Spandau -masjiengewere, een 2 cm -kanon

Boeke oor die Eerste Wêreldoorlog | Onderwerpindeks: Eerste Wêreldoorlog


Hier is hoe u u mediese geskiedenis kan vind en opspoor

'N Afspraak maak om 'n gesondheidskwessie aan te spreek, lyk in teorie eenvoudig genoeg. Maar soos baie van ons weet, kan dit eintlik vinnig ingewikkeld raak.

Dit is veral waar as u met verskeie spesialiste jongleren of 'n algemene dokter probeer vind wat die beste by u pas. Heck, dit kan selfs 'n uitdaging wees om te onthou watter toestande of probleme wat u in die verlede ondervind het as u dokter dit vra. U moet u eie saakbestuurder wees, veral as u u mediese geskiedenis byhou.

Dit kan skrikwekkend lyk om u hele gesondheidsgeskiedenis bymekaar te maak (en te onthou!) Maar daar is eintlik verskillende bronne wat u kan help om dit dop te hou.

Hieronder is slegs 'n paar maniere waarop u u gesondheidsgeskiedenis kan onderhou en dit in die toekoms kan byhou:

Probeer 'n (veilige!) App

Daar is programme en aanlyn -dienste op die mark wat dit makliker maak as ooit om toegang tot u mediese rekords te kry en 'n duidelike beeld te kry van u hele gesondheidsgeskiedenis.

"Terwyl byna alle gesondheidsrekords nou in 'n elektroniese formaat opgestel word, deel baie organisasies steeds hierdie inligting op 'n manier wat nie die werklike waarde van die elektroniese rekord benut nie," het Julie Demaree, 'n doktersassistent in Saratoga Springs, New, gesê. York.

Daarom werk Demaree saam met Hixny, 'n aanlyn portaal vir gesondheidsorg vir pasiënte in dele van die noordooste waarmee hulle toegang tot rekords kan kry. Sy hoop dat alle mediese praktyke sulke instrumente begin gebruik om dinge vir pasiënte makliker te maak.

PicnicHealth is 'n ander opsie as u 'n maandelikse intekenfooi betaal (die diens beloop $ 33 per maand, sowel as 'n rekordheffingsfooi wanneer u u eerste aanmeld). Die onderneming in San Francisco versamel al u gesondheidsrekords en skryf dit oor in 'n visuele, interaktiewe tydlyn waartoe u en u dokters toegang kan verkry. U gee die diens toestemming om met u dokterskantore in verbinding te tree, en van daar af werk hulle dit voortdurend by.

'As u siek word, is daar 'n miljoen dinge wat u in gedagte hou,' sê mede-stigter van PicnicHealth, Noga Leviner. 'Die moeite om afskrifte van u rekords te kry, hoef nie 'n ander stressor te wees nie. . Met die diens doen ons alles in ons vermoë om seker te maak dat papierwerk en mediese rekords nie iets is waaroor u u hoef te bekommer nie. ”

As iemand wat met Crohn se siekte leef, verstaan ​​Leviner die oorweldigende ervaring van die bestuur van 'n komplekse mediese saak uit die eerste plek.

'Toe ek die eerste keer gediagnoseer is ... het ek aangeneem dat een dokter 'n volledige lêer van my mediese rekords sou hou en seker sou maak dat al die ander dokters wat ek besoek het, op hoogte was van my toestand,' het sy gesê. 'In plaas daarvan het die enorme verantwoordelikheid om my mediese geskiedenis te versamel, te organiseer en effektief te kommunikeer, net op my geval.'

As u 'n iPhone het, is die Health -app ook 'n bron om gratis toegang tot sommige van u rekords te kry. As u deel uitmaak van 'n mediese groep wat direk by die app aansluit (byvoorbeeld Scripps Medical Group of LabCorp), kan u u pasiëntportaal aan die Health -app koppel en u rekords daar sien.

Daar is ook LabFinder, 'n aanlyndiens wat 'geen fooi vir die pasiënte het nie, onbeperkte berging en ook 'n maklike afspraakbestuurstelsel', verduidelik Robert Segal, 'n kardioloog in New York en medestigter van LabFinder. '' N Pasiënt kan 'n laboratorium- of radiologietoets bespreek, hul toetsuitslae bestuur en help om mediese rekeninge te verras, aangesien pasiënte kan verseker dat hul versekering in die netwerk is voordat hulle eers vir die toets gaan.

Daar is ook baie meer app -opsies op die mark, het Demaree gesê. Doen u navorsing en kyk wat pas by u belangstellings. Maar wat u ook al kies, u wil seker maak dat u te doen het met 'n veilige platform en 'n onderneming wat voldoen aan die Wet op die versorging van gesondheidsversekering, die federale wet op mediese privaatheid, sodat u weet dat u mediese inligting veilig is.

"Hoewel daar geen standaard HIPAA-sertifisering is nie, kan maatskappye bewys lewer van derdeparty-oudits wat afgehandel is om die beskermingsmaatreëls te beoordeel," verduidelik Greg Burrell, 'n dokter in San Francisco en vise-president van kliniese produkte by Carbon Health. . Met ander woorde, dienste wat u gebruik, behoort te bewys dat dit 'n veilige onderneming is.

Vra u dokter of hulle 'n laboratoriumportaal het

Segal het gesê dat 'n laboratoriumportaal ''n aanlyn -stooreenheid is waar sentrums toetsresultate kan stoor en pasiënte dit altyd kan besoek.' Daar kan egter 'n voorbehoud wees: Segal het opgemerk dat alhoewel daar baie dokters en spesialiste is wat hierdie diens deur hul kantore het, daar 'n kans is dat hulle onafhanklik werk en nie met mekaar kommunikeer nie.

'As 'n pasiënt besluit om 'n röntgenfoto op onderneming A te bespreek en 'n bloedtoets op onderneming B te bespreek, moet die pasiënt op twee verskillende webwerwe of platforms toegang tot hul resultate kry,' het hy gesê.

Laboratoriumportale kan oor die algemeen nuttig wees as u dokter u op datum hou. Maak net seker dat u nie die resultate wat op die webwerf geplaas word, probeer ontsyfer nie.

"Daar is geen interpretasie van wat die resultate beteken nie, net rou data," verduidelik Inna Husain, 'n otolaryngoloog in Chicago. 'Dit is so belangrik om die belangrikheid van die resultate met u dokter te bespreek.'

Raadpleeg die gesondheidsdepartement van u staat vir inentingsrekords

U is miskien ook nuuskierig oor watter inentings u gehad het, nie ontvang het nie of 'n opdatering nodig het - en u weet nie waar u die inligting kan kry nie. Dit is 'n goeie plek om aan u voormalige versorgers te vra, maar soms is dit nie altyd 'n opsie nie. Volgens die Amerikaanse sentrums vir siektebeheer en -voorkoming hou sommige staatsgesondheidsdepartemente registers wat volwasse en kinders se entstofrekords insluit.

As u nog steeds nie kan opspoor watter skote u geneem het nie, kan u dokter bloedtoetse doen om te sien watter inentings in u stelsel is. Hulle kan van daar af help om 'n spesifieke entstofplan op te stel. Maak seker dat u dit opneem sodat u weet wat die toekoms is.

Uiteindelik, kontak u ou dokters

Dit is nie ideaal nie, maar u kan elke plek wat u self besoek het, bel. Die federale wet gee u die reg op afskrifte van u mediese rekords.

"Onder die federale HIPAA -privaatheidsreël het pasiënte die reg om toegang tot papier of elektroniese afskrifte van hul gesondheidsrekords te verkry," het Segal gesê. 'Hierdie rekords bevat mediese toetsuitslae, doktersnotas, laboratoriumverslae en selfs faktuurinligting.

Dit kan moontlik telefoonoproepe, faksies en briewe behels wat inligting bevat, soos u sosiale sekerheidsnommer, datums van besoeke en handtekeninge. Gewoonlik sal 'n gesondheidsorgverskaffer u vertel watter besonderhede u moet verskaf. Soms is daar 'n klein fooi wat verband hou met sekere versoeke, afhangende van die verskaffer, het Husain gesê.

'Ongelukkig bied sommige gesondheidstelsels dit slegs in papier teenoor 'n digitale kopie,' het Burrell bygevoeg en opgemerk dat dit ook dikwels tot 30 dae kan neem om inligting te ontvang. "Gesondheidstelsels mag u nie vir die rekord hef nie, maar sommige hospitale vra 'n 'drukkoste' van ongeveer 25 sent [per bladsy], wat beslis kan optel."

Dit alles kan natuurlik belasbaar wees. Veral as u besig is met 'n mediese diagnose.

'In 'n tyd toe ek verswak voel, toe ek nog aanpas by 'n nuwe realiteit uit my diagnose, moes ek eindelose rekordversoekvorms invul, wag op rekordversoeklyne, bel om seker te maak dat al my inligting betyds gefaks is en onthou dan om elke noot, elke laboratoriumverslag, elke röntgenfoto na my volgende afspraak te bring, ”het Leviner gesê.

Maar as u eers die inligting versamel het, is daar gereedskap om dit op een plek te bewaar vir maklike toegang. Met die oog op vooruitgang in tegnologie (soos programme en portale) en 'n groter fokus op hierdie kwessie, is vaartbelynde rekordtoegang meer moontlik as ooit.

Kenners sê dat u in die komende maande en jare nog meer ontwikkelings in hierdie mark kan sien. Baie dokters wil hê dat meer mense voel dat hulle beheer het oor hul eie gesondheidsgeskiedenis en inligting.

'Ons doel is dat pasiënte bemagtig voel in hul gesondheid. Toeganklikheid tot data speel 'n kritieke rol om dit te verseker, 'sê Jonathan Slotkin, 'n neurochirurg van Geisinger Health in Pennsylvania. 'Onlangse innovasies het pasiënte baie meer beheer oor hul inligting gegee en wat hulle daarmee wil doen.'

REGSTELLING: Hierdie artikel het voorheen gesê dat Hixny dit nie in Kanada bedryf nie.


Inhoud

Draagbare MP3 -spelers bestaan ​​al sedert die middel van die negentigerjare, maar Apple het bestaande digitale musiekspelers "groot en onhandig of klein en nutteloos" gevind met gebruikersvlakke wat "ongelooflik aaklig" was. [8] Apple het gedink dat spelers wat op geheue gebaseer is, nie genoeg liedjies dra nie en dat die hardeskyf te groot en te swaar is, sodat die onderneming besluit het om sy eie te ontwikkel. [9]

Volgens Steve Jobs, uitvoerende hoof, het Apple se hoof van hardeware -ingenieurswese, Jon Rubinstein, kontak gemaak met Tony Fadell, 'n voormalige werknemer van General Magic en Philips, wat 'n sake -idee gehad het om 'n beter MP3 -speler uit te vind en 'n musiekverkoopwinkel te bou om dit aan te vul. Fadell, wat voorheen die Philips Velo en Nino PDA ontwikkel het, het 'n maatskappy genaamd Fuse Systems begin om die MP3 -speler te bou en is deur RealNetworks, Sony en Philips geweier. [9] [10] Rubinstein het reeds die Toshiba -hardeskyf ontdek terwyl hy met 'n Apple -verskaffer in Japan vergader het, en die regte daarvoor vir Apple gekoop, en hy het ook reeds uitgewerk hoe die skerm, battery en ander belangrike elemente sou werk werk. [11]

Fadell het ondersteuning vir sy projek by Apple gevind en is in 2001 deur Apple Computers aangestel as 'n onafhanklike kontrakteur om aan die iPod-projek, toe met die kodenaamprojek P-68, te werk. [12] Omdat die ingenieurs en hulpbronne by Apple beperk is tot die iMac -lyn, het Fadell ingenieurs van sy opstartonderneming, Fuse, en veteraaningenieurs van General Magic en Philips aangestel om die kern -ontwikkelingspan van iPod te bou. [9]

Tydsbeperkings het Fadell genoop om verskeie komponente van die iPod buite Apple te ontwikkel. [9] Fadell werk saam met 'n onderneming genaamd PortalPlayer om die sagteware vir die nuwe Apple -musiekspeler te ontwerp wat iPod OS genoem word. [12] Binne agt maande het die span van Tony Fadell en PortalPlayer 'n prototipe voltooi. [13]

Die kragtoevoer is toe ontwerp deur Michael Dhuey [14] en die vertoonontwerp gemaak deur ontwerpingenieur Sir Jonathan Ive [8] in die huis van Apple. Die estetika is geïnspireer deur die Braun T3-transistorradio van 1958 wat deur Dieter Rams ontwerp is, terwyl die gebruikerskoppelvlak op wiel deur Bang & amp Olufsen se BeoCom 6000-telefoon aangevoer is. [15] [16]

Apple het 'n ander onderneming, Pixo, [12] gekontrakteer om te help met die ontwerp en implementering van die gebruikerskoppelvlak (sowel as Unicode, geheue bestuur en gebeurtenisverwerking [12]) onder direkte toesig van Steve Jobs. [8]

Die naam iPod is voorgestel deur Vinnie Chieco, 'n vryskut -kopieskrywer, wat (saam met ander) deur Apple gebel is om uit te vind hoe om die nuwe speler aan die publiek bekend te stel. Nadat Chieco 'n prototipe gesien het, dink hy aan die fliek 2001: A Space Odyssey en die frase "Open the pod bay doors, Hal", [17] wat verwys na die wit EVA Pods van die Discovery One -ruimteschip. Chieco het 'n analogie gesien van die verhouding tussen die ruimteskip en die kleiner onafhanklike peule in die verhouding tussen 'n persoonlike rekenaar en die musiekspeler. [8]

Die produk ("die Walkman van die een-en-twintigste eeu" [18]) is in minder as een jaar ontwikkel en op 23 Oktober 2001 onthul. Jobs het dit aangekondig as 'n Mac-versoenbare produk met 'n hardeskyf van 5 GB wat " 1 000 liedjies in jou sak. " [19]

Apple het die handelsmerk ondersoek en gevind dat dit reeds gebruik is. Joseph N. Grasso van New Jersey het in Julie 2000 oorspronklik 'n handelsmerk van 'iPod' by die Amerikaanse Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) gelys vir internetkiosks. Die eerste iPod -kiosks is in Maart 1998 aan die publiek in New Jersey bewys, en kommersiële gebruik het in Januarie 2000 begin, maar is blykbaar teen 2001 gestaak. Die handelsmerk is in November 2003 deur die USPTO geregistreer en Grasso het dit aan Apple Computer toegeken , Inc. in 2005. [20]

Die vroegste gebruik in die handel van 'n 'iPod' handelsmerk is in 1991 deur Chrysalis Corp. van Sturgis, Michigan, gestileer 'ekPOD ", vir kantoormeubels. [21]

Namate die ontwikkeling vorder, het Apple die voorkoms en gevoel van die sagteware verder verfyn en 'n groot deel van die kode herskryf. Vanaf die iPod Mini is die Chicago -lettertipe vervang met Espy Sans. Later het iPods weer lettertipes oorgeskakel na Podium Sans - 'n lettertipe soortgelyk aan Apple se korporatiewe lettertipe, Myriad. IPods met kleurskerms het 'n paar Mac OS X -temas aangeneem, soos Aqua -vorderingsstawe en geborselde metaal wat bedoel is om 'n kombinasieslot op te roep.

In 2007 het Apple die iPod-koppelvlak weer aangepas met die bekendstelling van die sesde generasie iPod Classic en die derde generasie iPod Nano deur die lettertipe na Helvetica te verander en in die meeste gevalle die skerm in twee te verdeel deur die spyskaarte aan die linkerkant en albumkuns, foto's of video's aan die regterkant (wat die beste by die geselekteerde item pas).

In 2006 bied Apple 'n spesiale uitgawe vir die iPod 5G van die Ierse rockgroep U2 aan. Net soos sy voorganger, het hierdie iPod die handtekeninge van die vier lede van die band op sy rug gegraveer, maar dit was die eerste keer dat die onderneming die kleur van die metaal verander het (nie silwer nie, maar swart). Hierdie iPod was slegs beskikbaar met 30 GB stoorplek. Die spesiale uitgawe het kopers geregtig op 'n eksklusiewe video met 33 minute onderhoude en optrede deur U2, wat afgelaai kan word uit die iTunes Store. [22] [23]

In die middel van 2015 is verskeie nuwe kleurskemas vir al die huidige iPod-modelle opgemerk in die nuutste weergawe van iTunes, 12.2. Die Belgiese webwerf Belgium iPhone het oorspronklik die beelde gevind toe hulle die eerste keer 'n iPod aangesluit het, en daaropvolgende foto's wat uitgelek is, is deur Pierre Dandumont gevind. [24] [25]

Op 27 Julie 2017 het Apple die iPod Nano en Shuffle uit sy winkels verwyder, wat die einde beteken van die vervaardiging van selfstandige musiekspelers. [26] Tans is die iPod Touch die enigste iPod wat deur Apple vervaardig word.

Skyfiesets en elektronika
Skyfieset of elektronies Produk (te) Komponent (e)
Mikrobeheerder iPod Classic 1ste tot 3de generasie Twee ARM 7TDMI-afgeleide SVE's wat op 90 MHz werk
iPod Classic 4de en 5de generasie, iPod Mini, iPod Nano 1ste generasie ARM 7TDMI-verwerkers met 'n veranderlike snelheid wat op 'n hoogtepunt van 80 MHz werk om die batterylewe te bespaar
iPod Classic 6de generasie, iPod Nano 2de generasie, iPod Shuffle 2de generasie Samsung System-on-a-chip, gebaseer op 'n ARM-verwerker. [27] [28]
iPod Shuffle 1ste generasie SigmaTel D-Major STMP3550-chip wat op 75 MHz werk, wat beide die musiekdekodering en die klankbane hanteer. [29]
iPod Touch 1ste en 2de generasie ARM 1176JZ (F) -S by 412 MHz vir 1ste gen, 533 MHz vir 2de gen.
iPod Touch 3de en 4de generasie ARM Cortex A8 by 600 MHz vir 3de gen, 800 MHz vir 4de gen. (Apple A4)
iPod Touch 5de generasie ARM Cortex A9 by 800 MHz (Apple A5)
iPod Touch 6de generasie Apple ARMv8-A "Typhoon" op 1,1 GHz (Apple A8) met Apple M8 Motion-verwerker
Audio Chip iPod Classic 1ste tot 5de generasie, iPod Touch 1ste generasie, iPod Nano 1ste tot 3de generasie, iPod Mini [30] Audio Codecs ontwikkel deur Wolfson Microelectronics
iPod Classic 6de generasie, iPod Touch 2de generasie, iPod Shuffle, iPod Nano 4de generasie Cirrus Logic Audio Codec Chip
Bergmedium iPod Classic 45,7 mm (1,8 in) hardeskywe (ATA-6, 4200 rpm met ZIF-verbindings) gemaak deur Toshiba
iPod Mini 25,4 mm (1 in) Microdrive deur Hitachi en Seagate
iPod Nano Flash -geheue van Samsung, Toshiba en ander
iPod Shuffle en Touch Blits geheue
Batterye iPod Classic 1ste en 2de generasie Interne herwinbare litium -polimeerbatterye
iPod Classic, derde generasie, iPod Mini, iPod Nano, iPod Touch, iPod Shuffle Interne herwinbare litium-ioonbatterye
Vertoon 7de generasie iPod Nano 2,5-duim (diagonaal) Multi-Touch, 432 x 240 resolusie met 202 pixels per duim [31]
iPod Classic 5de en 6de generasie 2,5-duim (diagonaal) kleur-LCD met LED-agtergrond, 320-by-240-resolusie met 163 pixels per duim [32]
iPod Touch 5de en 6de generasie 4-duim (diagonaal) breedskerm Multi-Touch, 1136 x 640 resolusie met 326 pixels per duim [33]

Oudio

Die derde generasie iPod het 'n swak basrespons, soos blyk uit klanktoetse. [34] [35] Die kombinasie van die ondermaatse DC-blokkeer-kondensators en die tipiese lae impedansie van die meeste verbruikers-koptelefoon vorm 'n hoëpasfilter wat die lae-frekwensie basuitset verswak. Soortgelyke kapasitors is gebruik in die iPods van die vierde generasie. [36] Die probleem word verminder as u 'n hoë-impedansie-koptelefoon gebruik, en word heeltemal gemaskerd as u 'n hoë-impedansie (lynvlak) laai, soos 'n eksterne koptelefoonversterker. Die eerste generasie iPod Shuffle gebruik 'n dubbele transistor-uitvoerfase, [34] eerder as 'n enkele kapasitor-gekoppelde uitset, en toon geen verminderde basrespons vir enige las nie.

Vir alle iPods wat in 2006 en vroeër uitgereik is, sal sommige klankinstellings van die gelykmaker (EQ) die basklank te maklik verdraai, selfs op veeleisende liedjies. [37] [38] Dit sou gebeur met EQ -instellings soos R & ampB, Rock, Acoustic en Bass Booster, want die gelykmaker versterk die digitale klankvlak buite die limiet van die sagteware, wat vervorming (knip) op basinstrumente veroorsaak.

Vanaf die iPod van die vyfde generasie het Apple 'n volume-limiet ingestel wat deur die gebruiker ingestel kon word in reaksie op kommer oor gehoorverlies. [39] Gebruikers meld dat die maksimum volume-uitsetvlak in die EU-markte in die sesde generasie iPod beperk is tot 100 dB. Apple moes voorheen iPods uit die rakke in Frankryk verwyder omdat hy hierdie wettige perk oorskry het. [40] Gebruikers wat einde 2013 'n nuwe iPod van die sesde generasie gekoop het, het egter 'n nuwe opsie gerapporteer waarmee hulle die EU-limiet kon uitskakel. [41] Daar is gesê dat hierdie nuwe iPods 'n bygewerkte sagteware bevat wat hierdie verandering moontlik maak. [42] Ouer iPods van die sesde generasie kan egter nie na hierdie sagtewareweergawe opdateer nie. [43]

Konnektiwiteit

Oorspronklik is 'n FireWire -verbinding met die gasheerrekenaar gebruik om liedjies op te dateer of om die battery te herlaai. Die battery kan ook opgelaai word met 'n kragadapter wat by die eerste vier generasies ingesluit is.

Die derde generasie het 'n 30-pins dock-aansluiting begin, wat FireWire- of USB-verbinding moontlik maak. Dit het beter versoenbaarheid met nie-Apple-masjiene gebied, aangesien die meeste van hulle destyds nie FireWire-poorte gehad het nie. Uiteindelik het Apple begin om iPods met USB -kabels in plaas van FireWire te stuur, hoewel laasgenoemde afsonderlik beskikbaar was. Sedert die eerste generasie iPod Nano en die iPod Classic van die vyfde generasie, het Apple opgehou om FireWire te gebruik vir data-oordrag (terwyl dit steeds moontlik was om FireWire te gebruik om die toestel te laai) in 'n poging om koste en vormfaktor te verminder. Sedert die tweede generasie iPod Touch en die vierde generasie iPod Nano, is die laaivermoë van FireWire verwyder. Die tweede, derde en vierde generasie iPod Shuffle gebruik 'n enkele 3,5 mm-telefoonaansluiting wat beide 'n koptelefoonaansluiting of 'n USB-data- en laaipoort vir die dock/kabel dien.

Die dock -aansluiting het die iPod ook toegelaat om aan te sluit op bykomstighede, wat dikwels die iPod se musiek-, video- en foto -afspeel aanvul. Apple verkoop 'n paar bykomstighede, soos die iPod Hi-Fi wat nou gestaak is, maar die meeste word vervaardig deur derde partye soos Belkin en Griffin. Sommige randapparatuur gebruik hul eie koppelvlak, terwyl ander die iPod se eie skerm gebruik. Omdat die dock -aansluiting 'n eie koppelvlak is, moet die implementering van die koppelvlak tantieme aan Apple betaal word. [44]

Apple het op 12 September 2012 'n nuwe 8-pins dock-aansluiting, genaamd Lightning, bekendgestel met hul aankondiging van die iPhone 5, die vyfde generasie iPod Touch en die sewende generasie iPod Nano, wat almal bevat. Die nuwe connector vervang die ouer 30-pins dock-aansluiting wat deur ouer iPods, iPhones en iPads gebruik word. Apple Lightning -kabels het penne aan weerskante van die prop, sodat dit met beide kante na bo geplaas kan word. [45]

Bluetooth-verbinding is by die laaste model van die iPod Nano gevoeg en Wi-Fi by die iPod Touch.


Ago S.I - Geskiedenis

Die begin van 'n reis - op 15 November 1969 open Dave Thomas sy heel eerste Wendy's -restaurant in Columbus, Ohio, in East Broad Street 257. Binnekort het die vinnige diensketting bekend geword vir sy vierkantige beesvleispasteitjies, gemaak van vars beesvleis en ikoniese Frosty ®-nageregte.

Eerste afhaalvenster

Wendy's het die eerste moderne deurvoering aan die wêreld bekendgestel wat Dave Thomas die 'pick-up-venster' bedink het. Hierdie innovasie was so revolusionêr dat kliënte instruksies benodig oor hoe om deur die luidspreker te praat om 'n bestelling te plaas. Oorspronklik die 'inry-venster', wou Dave die naam verander van iets wat cruisers en joyriders kan lok.

Eerste Kanadese restaurant maak oop

Wendy's het die beesvleis na Kanada gebring toe dit die eerste internasionale Wendy's -restaurant in Hamilton, Ontario, Kanada, oopgemaak het.

Wendy's gaan publiek

Wendy's het sy aanvanklike openbare aanbod op die NASDAQ -beurs gehad, met 'n miljoen aandele gewone aandele teen $ 28 per aandeel.

Eerste Wendy's Commercial uitgesaai

Ligte, kamera, aksie! Wendy's het sy advertensies na die klein skerm geneem en 'n naam gemaak as die eerste kitsdiensketting met minder as 1 000 restaurante wat 'n nasionale advertensieveldtog begin het.

1000ste Wendy's Restaurant maak oop

Die 1000ste restaurant van Wendy het in Springfield, Tennessee, geopen en rekords gebreek omdat dit die onderneming se 1000ste restaurant in slegs 100 maande was.

Ons stel die Salad Bar bekend

Onder al die vars beesvleis het Wendy's die slaaibar by sy spyskaart gevoeg om die opsies te diversifiseer vir diegene wat groen wil eet. Wendy's slaaibar was 'n treffer in die 70's en 80's, maar namate Wendy's restaurante meer doeltreffend geraak het en kliënte meer draagbare slaai -aanbiedinge wou hê, is slaaibare in 2006 uitgefaseer.

2 000ste Wendy's Restaurant maak oop

1980 was die mylpaal van 2 000 Wendy's restaurante ... en tel.

Wendy's sluit aan by NYSE

Wendy se aandele is genoteer op die New York Stock Exchange met die handelssimbool "WEN".

Gebakte aartappels word by die spyskaart gevoeg

Gebakte aartappels het in 1983 by die spyskaart aangesluit. Die Wendy's gebakte aartappel het sukses in die 80's as die onvergeetlike 'warm-gevulde' beskou en het die toets van tyd deurstaan ​​as 'n beproefde gunsteling vir kliënte wat 'n ligter kant of 'n bestemming soek om hul chili te vergesel.

"Waar is die Beef®?" Kommersieel uitgesaai

Clara Peller het 'n gevoel van oornag geword toe sy 'n donsige hamburgerbroodjie ondersoek wat in die vleisafdeling ontbreek, en roep: 'Waar is die beesvleis?'. Die tagline het so gewild geword dat die advertensie 'n hupstoot van 31% in die jaarlikse inkomste van Wendy tot gevolg gehad het, en selfs 'n handelsmerk vir aanhangers veroorsaak het.

3 000ste Wendy's Restaurant maak oop

Die mylpaal - die 3 000ste restaurant - was die French Quarter in New Orleans. U kan nou al raai dat daar meer kom.

Dave se eerste TV -advertensie

Dave Thomas speel in 1989 sy eerste advertensie, en word vinnig 'n landwye huishoudelike naam. Na die eerste nasionale veldtog het Dave deur die jare in meer as 800 advertensies verskyn.

Superwaarde -spyskaart bekendgestel

Wendy's was die eerste om die konsep van 'n Super Value -spyskaart bekend te stel en dit het begin met nege items wat elke dag vir 99 ¢ beskikbaar was. Die spyskaartaanbiedings het gedraai op grond van die begeerte van kliënte.

Geroosterde hoenderbroodjie debuteer

Die voedingsbeleid van Wendy het uitgebrei, en die spyskaart ook. Die gegrilde hoenderbroodjie het sy eerste verskyning in 1990 gemaak as 'n ligter, laer kalorie-aanbod vir kliënte wat 'n nie-gebraaide hoenderproteïen-opsie soek.

Wendy's omhels aanneming

In 1990 het president George H.W. Bush het Dave Thomas gevra om as woordvoerder van die nasionale aannemingsinisiatief, "Adoption Works ... For Everyone," te dien. Wendy's het aanneming as 'n nasionale liefdadigheidsorganisasie aangeneem, en het in die jare daarna miljoene dollars aangegee om bewustheid vir kinders in pleegsorg en aanneming van pleegsorg te verhoog.

Varsgemaakte slaaie om te doen

Slaai op die vlug, iemand? Wendy's, gebore uit die suksesvolle en ikoniese slaaibars van Wendy, het kliënte se aandag gevestig op nuwe, varsgemaakte slaaie wat hulle kan aanpak: Geroosterde hoender, Taco Caesar, Deluxe Garden en Side Salades was die eerste slaaivoorrade.

Dave Thomas het die Dave Thomas Foundation vir Adoption® gestig

Ons stigter, Dave Thomas, is as kind aangeneem en het die Dave Thomas Foundation for Adoption (DTFA) gestig omdat hy geglo het dat elke kind 'n permanente, liefdevolle huis verdien. Die DTFA is die enigste openbare, nie-winsgewende liefdadigheidsorganisasie in die Verenigde State wat slegs gefokus is op die aanneming van pleegsorg.

Wendy's 3Tour Challenge debuteer

Ten bate van die Dave Thomas -stigting vir aanneming, het Wendy's die 3Tour Challenge aangebied - 'n jaarlikse gholftoernooi wat deur 2013 voortgesit het en meer as 11,6 miljoen in netto opbrengs in meer as twee dekades ingesamel het. Die 3Tour Challenge was die enigste professionele gholftoernooi waarby professionele persone van die PGA-, LPGA- en Champions Tour mekaar die stryd aangesê het om die 3Tour-titel.

4 000ste Wendy's Restaurant maak oop

Die 4000ste Wendy's is in Bentonville, Arkansas, geopen en was een van die 250 Wendy's -restaurante wat in 1992 geopen is.

Wendy’s word 25

Wendy's vier sy mylpaal 25ste verjaardag met die beste geskenk ooit-'n rekordstelsel van $ 4,2 miljard in 1994.

Wendy's High School Heisman® -program begin

In 1993 het Dave Thomas sy hoërskoolgelykheidsertifikaat ontvang en met 2500 afgestudeerde seniors gedeel dat hy voel dat sy grootste fout was om nie die hoërskool te voltooi nie. Wendy's, wat saamgestel is met die Heisman Trophy Trust ®, het die Wendy's High School Heisman-program op die been gebring om diegene wat onderwys waardeer, te vereer om senior atlete van hoërskool te vier wat bo en behalwe leer, prestasie en leiding op en van die veld was . Vyf en twintig jaar en honderde duisende uitsonderlike hoërskool-atlete later, het die program sy laaste klas studente in Desember 2018 vereer.

Wendy's verkry Tim Hortons®

Wil u 'n bietjie donuts saam met u hamburger hê? In Desember 1995 voltooi Wendy's die verkryging van Tim Hortons, 'n Kanadese restaurantketting met koffie en vars gebak.

Bekendstelling van pittige hoenderbroodjie

In 1995 was Wendy's die eerste groot kitskosrestaurantketting wat 'n pittige hoenderbroodjie aan sy spyskaart voorgestel het. Aanhangers was so lief vir die pittige skop van die hoender, gekomplimenteer met mayo, blaarslaai, tamatie en 'n geroosterde broodjie, en dit is aangekondig dat dit in 1996 as 'n voltydse spyskaart aangebied sou word.

5,000ste Wendy's Restaurant maak oop

Die 5000ste restaurant van Wendy's het in Columbus, Ohio, geopen as 'n kombinasie -eenheid van Wendy's/Tim Hortons.

Amerikaanse posseël vier aanneming

Die Amerikaanse posdiens het 'n stempel vrygestel om die vreugde van aanneming te vier, om bewustheid oor die oorsaak te verhoog en om diegene te bedank wat hul huise oopgemaak het om kinders in pleegsorg aan te neem. Wendy se stigter, Dave Thomas, was 'n deelnemer aan die amptelike seëlwydingseremonie.

Dierewelsynsraad

In 2001 het Wendy's 'n ouditprogram opgestel om die behoorlike hantering van diere onder ons Amerikaanse en Kanadese verskaffers te monitor, te verifieer en te evalueer. Hierdie poging is gebaseer op uitgebreide navorsing wat deur kundiges in diergedragwetenskap gedoen is.

6 000ste Wendy's Restaurant maak oop

Wendy's het nog 'n stap geneem in die rigting van internasionale groei toe hy die 6 000ste restaurant in Tijuana, Mexiko, geopen het. Die restaurant met twee verdiepings is gebou vir 224 kliënte.

Stigter Dave Thomas gaan weg

Op die ouderdom van 69 is Dave Thomas, stigter van Wendy, oorlede. Dave het op 'n jong ouderdom 'n passie vir die snelbedryfsrestaurantbedryf ontwikkel en het baie van sy lewe daaraan gewy om die besigheid van Wendy te laat groei en die ondersteuning van pleegsorg te ondersteun.

Wendy's Open Culinary Innovation Center

Wendy's het sy Culinary Innovation Center geopen by sy hoofkwartier in Dublin, Ohio. Later is die Brolick Innovation Center vernoem na die voormalige president en uitvoerende hoof van Wendy, Emil Brolick, en is die innovasiesentrum gebou om 'n kreatiewe ruimte vir kookkuns te bied en vir kliënte om deel te neem aan navorsingsgebaseerde smaakproefpanele ter ondersteuning van voornemende spyskaartitems.

Halloween -koeponboeke

Dit is geen truuk dat Wendy in 2003 hul Frosty ® -koeponboeke met Halloween-tema begin aanbied het nie. Hierdie koeponboeke heet nou Boo! Books ™ en het byna $ 40 miljoen ingesamel vir die Dave Thomas Foundation for Adoption.

Wendy's Wonderful Kids® is gestig

Wendy's Wonderful Kids (WWK) is die handtekeningprogram van die Dave Thomas Foundation for Adoption. Die DTFA ken toekennings toe aan aannemingsagentskappe om aannemingspersoneel aan te stel, wat elke dag werk om 'onaanvaarbaar' onaanvaarbaar te maak. Sedert 2004 is meer as 8 000 kinders deur WWK in liefdevolle huise geplaas.

Wendy's Kids Meal® word bekendgestel

In 2004 het Wendy's kindervriendelike aanbiedings vir sy jongste kliënte bekendgestel, genaamd Wendy's Kids Meal. By die bekendstelling, en sonder ekstra koste, kon ma en pa Franse patat vir mandarin -lemoene ruil en melk vir hul kleintjies drink in plaas van 'n koeldrank. In die later 2000's het Wendy's begin om melk- en appelskywe te wys as 'n uitstekende drank en bypassings in sy kindermaaltye.

Kombinasie -keuses aangekondig

Die nuwe Wendy's Combo Choices -spyskaart het bewys dat sye meer as net patat kan wees, en het kliënte in staat gestel om 'n gebakte aartappel, klein rissie of een van die twee slaaie in plaas van patat te kies.

Tim Hortons word publiek

Wendy's voltooi sy aanvanklike openbare aanbod van Tim Hortons in Maart 2006, en voltooi later die afwenteling van die Kanadese restaurantketting as 'n aparte openbare maatskappy in September 2006.

Nie meer transvet nie

Transvet het uit die mode geraak in die Noord -Amerikaanse restaurante toe Wendy's oorgeskakel het na 'n nie -gehidrogeneerde kookolie - met nul gram transvet - vir friet en gepaneerde hoender.

Wendy's voeg Vanilla Frosty by

Wendy’s upped its game in the dessert department when the company expanded its iconic chocolate Frosty flavor to vanilla. Speaking of upping the game, did you know you can request a pack of pecans to add a savory twist to your Frosty? If that’s not really your thing, feel free to stick to dipping your fries in your Frosty flavor of choice.


“I Remember Isaly’s”

Isaly’s was part of our growing up in Pittsburgh, Pa. We boys would ride our bikes to the main Isaly’s in Pittsburgh and it was a little trip. I remember the Skyscraper cones and the Klondikes and some had a coupon in them to get a free one. The chipped ham was our favorite, too. It is no longer there, but we can get Isaly’s chipped ham at our grocery market.

My father used to take me to the Isaly’s store in German Village, Columbus, OH. We always had the same lunch, a ham sandwich and a vanilla phosphate drink. Whenever I now eat Isaly’s chipped chopped ham, it brings back that wonderful memory of my father and me having lunch together.

Mary's MemoryOh! Isaly's has been a part of my life, for the past 79 years. I'm 85 and in my day, once you were 6 years old, especially being #10 of 11 children, you were helping with shopping, and so many other things. Of course, i remember the "Sky Scraper Ice Cream Cones, the Klondikes that if you bit into the ice cream and saw a stripe of Strawberry (Pink) Ice cream, you got a free one! We grew-up on Isaly's Chipped Ham Sandwiches, especially with the Bar-B-Q sauce. We also made what we called: "Hot Sandwiches", where in you prepared the Chipped ham, a piece of Cheese and some condiments wrapped them in foil and heated them in the oven for few minutes and served them hot! wow, what a treat! My dear mom and her friends had a "Card Club" in their day and when it was my mom's turn to have the game at our house, she always served the ladies sandwiches of Isaly's Chipped Ham at our Christmas Party, my son made a crock pot of Isaly's Bar-B-Q Chipped ham for all of us to enjoy! Isaly's holds many wonderful memories for me! i still love Klondikes and now, I'm so hungry for some Isaly's Bar-B-Q Chipped ham!

I grew up in Monongahela, PA and remember going just about everyday as a child to Isaly’s. Either for the Klondikes, Chipped ham or those amazing deviled crabs. When I misbehaved it was my trip to Isaly’s that was taken away from me..as you can imagine I didn’t misbehave too much. I now own a hot dog cart in Arizona and whenever I make a trip back to the “burgh” I always bring several pounds of the chipped ham. Until it”s gone I serve an amazing “sammich” for all the Pittsburghers that live out here. I have a great all beef hot dog and then top with a heap of juicy warm Isaly’s chipped ham and some fresh grated Asiago cheese. The “burghers” LOVE IT! And for the moment they are reminded of their childhood back in the Steel city. Thanks Isaly’s for keeping those memories alive.

My most vivid memory of Isaly's was when I was eleven or twelve and I was given money to go get a pound of chipped ham. Mind you I lived in the projects in New Kensington and it was a very dangerous neighborhood. I was chased by three or four of the neighborhood boys for the money I had, I ran as fast as I could down to 5th avenue and ran into an Isaly's and asked for help I was being robbed. The counter clerk stood in front of the door and waited for them to come in and try to rob me. They did not, he stood there until they left. He gave me an ice cream and told me to wait a while until things settled down. I waited a half hour and purchased the chipped ham and a loaf of bread. I thanked the gentleman and headed home. Wouldn't you know that they were waiting around the corner for me and beat the living daylights out of me and took the food and left me lying there. Needless to say when I came home empty handed, I also got the crap beat out of me.Didn't eat that night and had a broken nose and some ribs and punished for letting them rob me.Good times in good old New Kensington.

I worked for 2 Isaly’s stores in the late 40s, after returning from Europe. Marysville and Columbus, on the east side. Still have pleasant memories of life then.

I LOVE ISALY’S!! It brings back such wonderful memories of my dad and me going to German Village in Columbus, OH and going to the Isaly’s store. My favorite was ice cream and and vanilla phosphate drink. It was a special treat.

We lived near the Isaly’s in Bethel Park, PA. My mom, step-brother and myself would go in on a Saturday and wait in a long line for chipped ham and all the other foods Isaly’s sold that was so good. I think we got a pink free klondike once. As we rounded the bend waiting to get to the counter my eyes got so big looking at all the goodies on the shelves. Also, my Mom and I would go down to Isaly’s get our Skyscraper ice cream cones and park the car in the parking lot and watch the South Park drive-in movie. My grandparents and I would go in when I was little, sit at the tables, and eat our ice cream. My grandma would get rainbow and I know I would almost always get chocolate chip, my favorite.

When I was a child about 6 years old,1950, I met Mrs. Isaly. I lived in Youngstown, Ohio and my Uncle was in charge of maintenance at the Isaly factory. My dad and I went through the factory and they had a machine that made Klondike ice cream bars. At that time Klondike bars were chocolate covered ice cream with a wooden stick in them. I now noticed that all Klondike bars consist of chocolate covered ice cream without the stick. Do the stick versions still exist?

Walter E Meyer Leonard, MI

Starting round 1962,my dad would take me and my little sister to Isaly's after he did the grocery shopping. I would always get a chocolate skyscraper ice cream cone ,and she would get a chocolate milk shake. It was a rare and Very BIG treat for us!! We loved the skyscraper ice cream cones, but they occasionally toppled off the cone. We grew up eating Chipped Ham from Isaly’s… Thanks for the memory!!


Martin Luther King, Jr. : I Have a Dream Speech (1963)

On August 28, 1963, some 100 years after President Abraham Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation freeing the slaves, a young man named Martin Luther King climbed the marble steps of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C. to describe his vision of America. More than 200,000 people-black and white-came to listen. They came by plane, by car, by bus, by train, and by foot. They came to Washington to demand equal rights for black people. And the dream that they heard on the steps of the Monument became the dream of a generation.

As far as black Americans were concerned, the nation’s response to Brown was agonizingly slow, and neither state legislatures nor the Congress seemed willing to help their cause along. Finally, President John F. Kennedy recognized that only a strong civil rights bill would put teeth into the drive to secure equal protection of the laws for African Americans. On June 11, 1963, he proposed such a bill to Congress, asking for legislation that would provide “the kind of equality of treatment which we would want for ourselves.” Southern representatives in Congress managed to block the bill in committee, and civil rights leaders sought some way to build political momentum behind the measure.

A. Philip Randolph, a labor leader and longtime civil rights activist, called for a massive march on Washington to dramatize the issue. He welcomed the participation of white groups as well as black in order to demonstrate the multiracial backing for civil rights. The various elements of the civil rights movement, many of which had been wary of one another, agreed to participate. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, the Congress of Racial Equality, the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, the Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee and the Urban League all managed to bury their differences and work together. The leaders even agreed to tone down the rhetoric of some of the more militant activists for the sake of unity, and they worked closely with the Kennedy administration, which hoped the march would, in fact, lead to passage of the civil rights bill.

On August 28, 1963, under a nearly cloudless sky, more than 250,000 people, a fifth of them white, gathered near the Lincoln Memorial in Washington to rally for “jobs and freedom.” The roster of speakers included speakers from nearly every segment of society — labor leaders like Walter Reuther, clergy, film stars such as Sidney Poitier and Marlon Brando and folksingers such as Joan Baez. Each of the speakers was allotted fifteen minutes, but the day belonged to the young and charismatic leader of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference.

Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. had originally prepared a short and somewhat formal recitation of the sufferings of African Americans attempting to realize their freedom in a society chained by discrimination. He was about to sit down when gospel singer Mahalia Jackson called out, “Tell them about your dream, Martin! Tell them about the dream!” Encouraged by shouts from the audience, King drew upon some of his past talks, and the result became the landmark statement of civil rights in America — a dream of all people, of all races and colors and backgrounds, sharing in an America marked by freedom and democracy.

For further reading: Herbert Garfinkel, When Negroes March: The March on Washington…(1969) Taylor Branch, Parting the Waters: America in the King Years, 1954-1963 (1988) Stephen B. Oates, Let the Trumpet Sound: The Life of Martin Luther King Jr. (1982).
“I HAVE A DREAM” (1963)

I am happy to join with you today in what will go down in history as the greatest demonstration for freedom in the history of our nation.

Five score years ago, a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand today, signed the Emancipation Proclamation. This momentous decree came as a great beacon of hope to millions of slaves, who had been seared in the flames of whithering injustice. It came as a joyous daybreak to end the long night of their captivity. But one hundred years later, the colored America is still not free. One hundred years later, the life of the colored American is still sadly crippled by the manacle of segregation and the chains of discrimination.

One hundred years later, the colored American lives on a lonely island of poverty in the midst of a vast ocean of material prosperity. One hundred years later, the colored American is still languishing in the corners of American society and finds himself an exile in his own land So we have come here today to dramatize a shameful condition.

In a sense we have come to our Nation’s Capital to cash a check. When the architects of our great republic wrote the magnificent words of the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence, they were signing a promissory note to which every American was to fall heir.

This note was a promise that all men, yes, black men as well as white men, would be guaranteed the inalienable rights of life liberty and the pursuit of happiness.

It is obvious today that America has defaulted on this promissory note insofar as her citizens of color are concerned. Instead of honoring this sacred obligation, America has given its colored people a bad check, a check that has come back marked “insufficient funds.”

But we refuse to believe that the bank of justice is bankrupt. We refuse to believe that there are insufficient funds in the great vaults of opportunity of this nation. So we have come to cash this check, a check that will give us upon demand the riches of freedom and security of justice.

We have also come to his hallowed spot to remind America of the fierce urgency of Now. This is not time to engage in the luxury of cooling off or to take the tranquilizing drug of gradualism.

Now is the time to make real the promise of democracy.

Now it the time to rise from the dark and desolate valley of segregation to the sunlit path of racial justice.

Now it the time to lift our nation from the quicksand of racial injustice to the solid rock of brotherhood.

Now is the time to make justice a reality to all of God’s children.

I would be fatal for the nation to overlook the urgency of the moment and to underestimate the determination of it’s colored citizens. This sweltering summer of the colored people’s legitimate discontent will not pass until there is an invigorating autumn of freedom and equality. Nineteen sixty-three is not an end but a beginning. Those who hope that the colored Americans needed to blow off steam and will now be content will have a rude awakening if the nation returns to business as usual.

There will be neither rest nor tranquility in America until the colored citizen is granted his citizenship rights. The whirlwinds of revolt will continue to shake the foundations of our nation until the bright day of justice emerges.

We can never be satisfied as long as our bodies, heavy with the fatigue of travel, cannot gain lodging in the motels of the highways and the hotels of the cities.

We cannot be satisfied as long as the colored person’s basic mobility is from a smaller ghetto to a larger one.

We can never be satisfied as long as our children are stripped of their selfhood and robbed of their dignity by signs stating “for white only.”

We cannot be satisfied as long as a colored person in Mississippi cannot vote and a colored person in New York believes he has nothing for which to vote.

No, no we are not satisfied and we will not be satisfied until justice rolls down like waters and righteousness like a mighty stream.

I am not unmindful that some of you have come here out of your trials and tribulations. Some of you have come from areas where your quest for freedom left you battered by storms of persecutions and staggered by the winds of police brutality.

You have been the veterans of creative suffering. Continue to work with the faith that unearned suffering is redemptive.

Go back to Mississippi, go back to Alabama, go back to South Carolina go back to Georgia, go back to Louisiana, go back to the slums and ghettos of our modern cities, knowing that somehow this situation can and will be changed.

Let us not wallow in the valley of despair. I say to you, my friends, we have the difficulties of today and tomorrow.

I still have a dream. Dit is 'n droom wat diep gewortel is in die Amerikaanse droom.

I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed. We hold these truths to be self-evident that all men are created equal.

I have a dream that one day out in the red hills of Georgia the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slaveowners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood.

I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice.

I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by their character.

I have a dream that one day down in Alabama, with its vicious racists, with its governor having his lips dripping with the words of interposition and nullification that one day right down in Alabama little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls as sisters and brothers.

I have a dream that one day every valley shall be engulfed, every hill shall be exalted and every mountain shall be made low, the rough places will be made plains and the crooked places will be made straight and the glory of the Lord shall be revealed and all flesh shall see it together.

Dit is ons hoop. This is the faith that I will go back to the South with. Met hierdie geloof sal ons 'n klip van hoop uit die berg van wanhoop kan kap.

Met hierdie geloof sal ons die wankelende onenigheid van ons volk kan omskep in 'n pragtige simfonie van broederskap.

With this faith we will be able to work together, to pray together, to struggle together, to go to jail together, to climb up for freedom together, knowing that we will be free one day.

This will be the day when all of God’s children will be able to sing with new meaning “My country ’tis of thee, sweet land of liberty, of thee I sing. Land where my father’s died, land of the Pilgrim’s pride, from every mountainside, let freedom ring!”

And if America is to be a great nation, this must become true. So let freedom ring from the hilltops of New Hampshire. Let freedom ring from the mighty mountains of New York.

Let freedom ring from the heightening Alleghenies of Pennsylvania.

Let freedom ring from the snow-capped Rockies of Colorado.

Let freedom ring from the curvaceous slopes of California.

But not only that, let freedom, ring from Stone Mountain of Georgia.

Let freedom ring from every hill and molehill of Mississippi and every mountainside.

When we let freedom ring, when we let it ring from every tenement and every hamlet, from every state and every city, we will be able to speed up that day when all of God’s children, black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics, will be able to join hands and sing in the words of the old spiritual, “Free at last, free at last. Thank God Almighty, we are free at last.”


Ago S.I - History

A unique landscape created by volcanic tuff and delicately shaped by wind, snow and rain for over thousands of years. The homeland of the Hittites, the largest monastery settlement of the world for centuries, the native land of grapes and wine, the cradle of Christianity, the heart of the Seljuks, the oasis of the Anatolian steppe or the "Land of Beautiful Horses" as the Persians called it: this is Cappadocia.

The unfolding of a fascinating history, a mystical atmosphere, a beauty forever etched in mind. And in the middle of all this stands a hotel built with a love for this region: Argos in Cappadocia. It is the most special hotel of the land which underground cities were carved into thousands of years ago, millions of pigeons considered to be the safest nest, and monks retreated to for centuries.

The hotel offers an unparalleled stay with a unique value offering from one of a kind room options to an enchanting history, staff to food & beverage varieties, decoration to architecture, eco-consciousness and pet friendliness to a meaningful contribution to the region.


The Future

So what is in store for the future? In the immediate future, AI language is looking like the next big thing. In fact, it’s already underway. I can’t remember the last time I called a company and directly spoke with a human. These days, machines are even calling me! One could imagine interacting with an expert system in a fluid conversation, or having a conversation in two different languages being translated in real time. We can also expect to see driverless cars on the road in the next twenty years (and that is conservative). In the long term, the goal is general intelligence, that is a machine that surpasses human cognitive abilities in all tasks. This is along the lines of the sentient robot we are used to seeing in movies. To me, it seems inconceivable that this would be accomplished in the next 50 years. Even if the capability is there, the ethical questions would serve as a strong barrier against fruition. When that time comes (but better even before the time comes), we will need to have a serious conversation about machine policy and ethics (ironically both fundamentally human subjects), but for now, we’ll allow AI to steadily improve and run amok in society.

Rockwell Anyoha is a graduate student in the department of molecular biology with a background in physics and genetics. His current project employs the use of machine learning to model animal behavior. In his free time, Rockwell enjoys playing soccer and debating mundane topics.


The Real Patriots Invaded the Nation’s Capital Fifty Years Ago

Elise Lemire is the author of the just released Battle Green Vietnam: The 1971 March on Concord, Lexington, and Boston (University of Pennsylvania Press) and other titles. She is Professor of Literature at Purchase College, SUNY.

Vietnam Veterans Against the War in Washington, DC. 1971.

They called their trip to Washington, D.C., an &ldquoinvasion.&rdquo Vowing not to be &ldquodeterred or intimidated by police, government agents, [or] U.S. marshals,&rdquo they arrived outfitted for war in fatigues and jungle boots with weapons and gas masks firmly in hand. Calling themselves &ldquoconcerned citizens&rdquo and &ldquopatriots,&rdquo they announced their intention to &ldquoprotect the flag&rdquo by &ldquostop[ing] all business as usual, until the government recognizes and responds positively to our demands.&rdquo

No, these were not the self-professed patriots who stormed the U.S. Capitol Building on January 6, 2021.

This was back in 1971 when President Richard Nixon claimed to be fulfilling his campaign promise of &ldquopeace with honor&rdquo by lowering the number of American ground troops in Vietnam. Much to the horror of thousands of recently returned GIs, the civilian branch of the most vocal and sustained antiwar movement in American history took the bait and stopped protesting.

And thus, on the evening before Patriots&rsquo Day, twelve hundred members of Vietnam Veterans Against the War (&ldquoVVAW&rdquo) arrived in Washington from around the country for what they called Operation Dewey Canyon III in a pointed rebuke of the recent American expansion of the air war into Laos under code names Operation Dewey Canyon I and II.

At first the public was confused. The men who descended on the nation&rsquos capital in olive drab, some with bandoliers strapped across their chests, did not look anything like the closely clipped GIs featured in the military recruiting posters plastering America&rsquos post offices. These guys had beards and long hair.

&ldquoSon, I don&rsquot think what you&rsquore doing is good for the troops,&rdquo a Daughter of the American Revolution complained to one them, as the veterans marched past the DAR&rsquos Memorial Hall.

&ldquoLady, we are the troops,&rdquo was the ready reply.

After four days spent in such peaceable pursuits as lobbying their congresspeople, laying funeral wreaths at Arlington National Ceremony for both the American and the Vietnamese dead, holding a candlelight vigil at the White House, and testifying in front of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, the veterans announced their plan to descend on the Capitol Building, which the Nixon administration decided to surround, preemptively, with a version of the same kind of barrier fence that encircles it now.

The nation held its collective breath.

But rather than storm the seat of the legislative branch of the U.S. government, the veterans set about assembling a makeshift platform on the west side of the Capitol, which they equipped with a powerful sound system. At the appointed time, those who were not confined to wheelchairs walked up to the microphone one-by-one. Holding up their medals, ribbons, and citations, each man told the assembled crowd of veterans and journalists what the nation&rsquos highest honors meant to him.

&ldquoA symbol of dishonor, shame, and inhumanity,&rdquo said one veteran as he hurled his medals over the barrier fence.

&ldquoWorthless,&rdquo said another as the pile of discarded honors grew.

Many of the veterans called out the American government for being racist towards South Asians and others.

&ldquoI symbolically return my Vietnam medals and other service medals given me by the power structure that has genocidal policies against the nonwhite peoples of the world.&rdquo

&ldquoOur hearts,&rdquo many of the veterans declared, &ldquoare broken,&rdquo and their copious tears proved it.

In taking a stand against the war in front of the Capitol Building, the veterans were following in the footsteps of Martin Luther King Jr., who addressed the American people in 1963 from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial as a means of asking them to measure the distance between the promise of the Emancipation Proclamation and the reality of Jim Crow. VVAW was similarly asking the country to note the difference between the promise of an inclusive and transparent government, as represented by the welcoming façade and the usually open doors of the Capitol Building, and the secret air war the Nixon administration was conducting.

These first veterans to protest a war in which they had served won their countrymen&rsquos respect. Noting that the day they began their protest was the &ldquoanniversary of the day the &lsquoshot heard round the world&rsquo was fired at Concord Bridge,&rdquo one Boston newspaper asked any readers who might be reluctant to recognize the veterans as patriots to remember that &ldquoin 1775 the colonial forces were also unruly and young.&rdquo

After being photographed and filmed by all of the major news outlets throwing away their medals and discarding what turned out to be Mattel-manufactured toy M16s, the veterans packed up their gear and policed their campsite on the National Mall. Just to be sure they left it in better shape than they had found it, they planted a tree. Then they went home to their local VVAW chapters where they continued to work to end the war by mobilizing other sacred symbols. The New England chapter marched Paul Revere&rsquos route in reverse, stopping at the famed Revolutionary War battlefields in Concord, Lexington, and Charlestown to perform mock search-and-destroy missions in a demonstration of the difference between fighting against an imperialist regime and becoming one. On another occasion, antiwar veterans signaled their distress about the ongoing war in Southeast Asia by hanging an upside-down American flag from the crown of the Statue of Liberty. And when the war was finally over in 1975, VVAW set to work advocating for better mental health care for those American servicemen who had been traumatized by being asked to do the most un-American thing imaginable: deny another country its own April 19, 1775.

On this Patriots&rsquo Day, fifty years after a battalion of Vietnam veterans brought their anguish and their outrage to the Capitol Building, the nation owes its thanks not only to the colonial militiamen who lost their lives along the famed Battle Road, but also to their direct descendants, the antiwar veterans who, in reminding a nation of its foundational values, sought to reset its course.


Finding Your Home’s History

In 2009 I bought my first house. Having lived in Swindon for a couple of years, I knew the town fairly well, and opted for a small terraced house near the centre, in need of considerable redecoration. Any free time over the next few years was spent on painting and DIY, but once that was finished I decided I’d like to know a bit more about the history of the house, when it was built and who had lived there before me.

I already knew a little bit about the history of Swindon. It had been a small, fairly insignificant town with a population of less than 3000 until the mid 19th century, when the decision was made to base the new Great Western Railway works there. As a result of this, the town expanded rapidly in the second half of the 19th century, and thousands of identical small terraced houses were built in a relatively short space of time. Mine was one of these, built to house railway workers and their families.

The survey which had been done on my house before I bought it gave a suggested construction date of 1900. I started my research by looking at old Ordnance Survey maps of the town, to try and work out whether this date was right. The first edition of the 1:2500 Ordnance Survey map, which was made before 1893, shows that some of the houses on my street, including mine, had already been built. However, building work had yet to start on some of the surrounding streets, which are still shown as fields on the map. By the next edition of the Ordnance Survey, carried out from 1891-1921, many more houses and streets in the surrounding neighbourhood had been built, although the street adjoining mine was still in use as allotments.

Looking at the maps had given me a good overview of how quickly the neighbourhood had changed from rural fields to rows of terraced houses. I’d also found that the surveyor’s date of 1900 was in fact several years too late – my house had certainly been built before 1890. I decided to see whether I could pinpoint the exact date of building.

A bit of digging around in paperwork produced by the solicitors when I bought the house unearthed the title deeds. These showed that in 1877 a large plot of land was sold by James Hinton to William Langford. The deeds outline the building restrictions for the plot, and also specify that no ‘tavern, beerhouse or refreshment house’ could be built on the site. This narrowed down the date of the house considerably – I now knew it must have been built between 1877 and 1890.

At this point I decided it was time to make my first visit to the local record office. For my house in Swindon, this meant a trip to the Wiltshire and Swindon History Centre in Chippenham. I began my research here by looking at the New Swindon Board Minutes. These were the minutes of the local council, which luckily had an index so could be searched by street very easily. In the second register I looked at, I found an entry for my street on 5th May 1881, in which a proposal was made to change the name of the street from Redcross Street to Radnor Street. The proposal was passed, and the street has been known as Radnor Street ever since. The minutes didn’t give a reason for the change, but it certainly explains why the flats at the top of the road are called Redcross Place!

So far I felt that my research had led to some interesting new discoveries about my house – I’d managed to narrow down the date of construction, and found out a bit more about the local area and how quickly it had grown after the railway came to Swindon. My next steps would be to look at the design of the house in order to find out how people lived when it was originally built, and to research the previous owners. I was particularly interested to discover who moved in when the house was first built!