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Warren Harding

Warren Harding


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Warren Gamaliel Harding is gebore in Corsica (later Blooming Grove), Ohio, die oudste van agt kinders. Harding het die Marion gekoop Ster in 1884 en het aktief geword in plaaslike burgerlike aangeleenthede en by 'n verskeidenheid broederlike, kerklike en sakegroepe aangesluit. In 1891 trou hy met Florence Kling DeWolfe, 'n welgestelde egskeiding, wat saam met hom in die koerantkantoor gewerk het; hulle verhouding was nie warm nie en Harding het hom toegegee aan 'n reeks sake. Harding het 'n gewilde figuur in Marion geword; hy was aantreklik, vriendelik, 'n talentvolle spreker, altyd sorgvuldig aangetrek, maar het hom nie as intellektuele gesofistikeerdheid voorgee nie. In 1910 hardloop hy tevergeefs vir goewerneur. Harding word gekies om die nominasierede vir William Howard Taft in 1912 te lewer, 'n gebeurtenis wat die koerantman nasionale aandag gebring het. Hy het hard gewerk tydens die daaropvolgende veldtog en het Theodore Roosevelt en die Bull Moose Party as politieke verraaiers aangeval. Hy het as wetgewer min impak gehad, maar het Henry Cabot Lodge betroubaar ondersteun oor die meeste aangeleenthede oor buitelandse sake, die belange van groot sake gesteun en lippe vir die verbod betaal. daarvan was 'n tipiese Harding -toespraak '' 'n leër van pompagtige frases wat oor die landskap beweeg op soek na 'n idee. 'In 1920 betree Harding verskeie vroeë Republikeinse presidentsverkiesings; hy het swak gevaar en wou uit die wedloop val, maar is aangemoedig om deur sy vrou en Daugherty te bly. Senator Lodge blyk 'n deurslaggewende faktor te wees deur ander politieke voordele in die berugte 'rookgevulde' hotelkamer in Chicago te beïnvloed en die benoeming aan die Ohioan by die 10de stembrief afgelewer. Die veldtog in 1920 het teruggekeer na dié van Benjamin Harrison en William McKinley, in wat 'n selfversekerde kandidaat tuis gebly het en gretige afvaardigings na hom toe gebring is. Harding het sy volgelinge vanaf sy voorstoep begroet en belowe om die nasie terug te keer na "normaliteit" - musiek vir die ore van baie uitgeput deur die Eerste Wêreldoorlog en Wilsoniese internasionalisme. Harding het eers in sy amp duidelik gemaak dat normaliteit sy doel was. Tussen hulle:

Die dringendheid van 'n onmiddellike tariefopstelling, 'n noodgeval en deur ons mense verstaan ​​dat dit slegs vir 'n noodgeval is, kan nie te veel beklemtoon word nie. Ek glo in die beskerming van die Amerikaanse industrie, en dit is ons doel om Amerika eers voorspoedig te maak. ... 'n Baie belangrike aangeleentheid is die stigting van die regering se sake op 'n sakebasis. Daar is verdraagsaamheid vir die maklike, onstelselmatige metode om ons fiskale aangeleenthede te hanteer, toe indirekte belasting die publiek onbewus van die federale las gehou het. Maar daar is kennis van die hoë regeringskoste vandag, en hoë lewenskoste is onlosmaaklik verbind met hoë regeringskoste. Daar kan geen volledige regstelling van die hoë lewenskoste wees totdat die regering se koste aansienlik verlaag is nie.

Warren Harding het belowe om die 'beste gedagtes' na Washington te bring, maar het 'n paar uiters swak keuses gemaak vir sleutelposisies. Binnelandse vordering is gemaak op gebiede soos die regulering van die federale begroting, die instelling van 'n hoë beskermende tarief, die beperking van immigrasie en die herroeping van hoë oorlogstydbelasting. Die aanstelling van die bekwame Charles Evans Hughes as staatsekretaris het gelei tot wat miskien die kroon van die regering was - die Washington Naval Conference en daaropvolgende pogings tot wapenvermindering en internasionale stabilisering. Harding het ook die bewondering van baie gewen vir sy vergifnis van Kersfees in 1921 van Eugene V. Debs - 'n man wat die teenoorgestelde van die president was oor byna elke politieke en sosiale kwessie. Teen die lente van 1923 was dit duidelik dat 'n paar makkers geneem voordeel trek uit die gemak van die president en het hulself op openbare koste verryk. Warren Harding het toevlug gesoek in reis, deur die hele land gewaag om toesprake te hou en vakansie te hou in Alaska. Op die terugreis het die president siek geword en skielik gesterf in San Francisco op 2 Augustus. Spekulasies het later ontstaan ​​oor die manier waarop Harding dood is, maar die beskikbare bewyse dui sterk op natuurlike oorsake. Warren G. Harding was 'n gewilde president tydens sy verkorte ampstermyn, maar nooit 'n ware geliefde nie. Will Rogers, die gewilde komediant, het oor die president gesê dat "hy niks gedoen het nie, maar dit is wat die mense wou doen." Harding se afsterwe word gekenmerk deur die gewone meegevoelens oor sy diens aan die land, maar hierdie gevoelens is gou vervang deur skerp kritiek namate nuus van die skandale na vore kom. Sy reputasie is verder beskadig in 1927, toe 'n boek gepubliseer is deur 'n vrou wat beweer dat sy die moeder van 'n kind was deur Harding voordat hy president was. waarde van sy pogings in internasionale aangeleenthede sowel as die vergelykende gebrek aan betekenis van die skandale.


10 dinge om te weet oor president Warren G. Harding

  • Amerikaanse geskiedenis
    • Amerikaanse presidente
    • Basiese beginsels
    • Belangrike historiese figure
    • Belangrike gebeurtenisse
    • Inheemse Amerikaanse geskiedenis
    • Amerikaanse Revolusie
    • Amerika beweeg weswaarts
    • Die vergulde eeu
    • Misdade en rampe
    • Die belangrikste uitvindings van die industriële revolusie

    Warren Gamaliel Harding is op 2 November 1865 in Corsica, Ohio, gebore. Hy is in 1920 tot president verkies en tree op 4 Maart 1921 in die amp. Hy sterf terwyl hy op 2 Augustus 1923 in sy amp sterf. Terwyl hy as die 29ste president van die land gedien het, het die Teapot Dome -skandaal plaasgevind omdat hy sy vriende aan bewind gesit het. Die volgende is tien belangrike feite wat belangrik is om te verstaan ​​wanneer u die lewe en presidentskap van Warren G. Harding bestudeer.


    Vroeë lewe

    Harding, gebore op 'n plaas, was die oudste van agt kinders van George Tryon Harding en Phoebe Dickerson Harding, en sy afkoms kombineer Engelse, Skotse en Nederlandse vee. Sy pa het later die boerdery verlaat om 'n dokter te word. Na 'n middelmatige opleiding by plaaslike skole in Ohio en drie jaar aan die Ohio Central College, probeer Harding sy hand by verskeie beroepe totdat hy in 1884 'n sukkelende weekblad in Marion, Ohio, koop waaraan hy hom toewy. Sewe jaar later trou hy met Florence Kling De Wolfe (Florence Harding), en sy het 'n belangrike rol gespeel in die transformasie Die Marion -ster tot 'n finansieel suksesvolle dagblad. Kort voor lank het Harding, 'n man met min waarneembare verstand of verbeelding, genooi om by vooraanstaande korporatiewe rade en broederlike organisasies aan te sluit. Toe hy met die staat se bewegers en skudders begin assosieer, is hy betrokke by die politiek van die Republikeinse Party. 'N Knappe man wat altyd goed geklee en goed versorg was, het Harding soos 'n leier gelyk. Dit was sy uiterlike voorkoms eerder as enige interne eienskappe wat die sterkste bydrae tot sy politieke sukses gelewer het.


    Warren Harding - Geskiedenis

    Warren G. Harding is die 29ste president van die Verenigde State. Tydens sy kandidatuur het hy die lyn gewild gemaak: "Die huidige behoefte van Amerika is nie heroïese nie, maar genesing nie neus nie, maar normaliteit nie revolusie nie, maar herstel nie roering nie, maar aanpassing nie chirurgie nie, maar kalmte, nie dramaties nie, maar passievol nie eksperiment nie, maar gee nie onderdompeling in internasionaliteit nie, maar volhoubaarheid in triomfantlike nasionaliteit … ”Hierdie klein-stad-man-gedraaide president het sy land gedien tot sy laaste asem.

    Warren G. Harding se vroeë lewe

    Warren Gamaliel Harding is op 2 November 1865 gebore in 'n boeredorp naby Corsica (nou Blooming Grove), Ohio. Hy was die seun van dokters, Phoebe Elizabeth Dickerson-Harding en George Tyron Harding. Toe hy 'n kind was, verhuis sy gesin na die groter stad Caledonia in Marion, Ohio. Ondanks die feit dat hy professionele persone het, het hy boerderywerk gedoen. Hy was die tipiese klein dorpie wat graag met die bure gesels en gemeng het. Hy was intelligent. Trouens, hy het goed gevaar op skool en het die universiteit aan die Ohio Central College voltooi.

    Na sy studie het Warren Harding 'n jaar lank klas gegee. Dit was 'n baie veeleisende werk gedurende daardie tyd. Hy het ook 'n tyd lank 'n versekeringsverkoper geword. Na hierdie kort termyn werk, het hy die koerantbedryf aangegaan en die Marion Star saam met twee vennote gestig. Hy het as redakteur van sy koerant gewerk voordat hy die enigste eienaar geword het. Die meeste van sy geskrifte was pro-Republikein. Op 20 -jarige ouderdom het hy as redenaar gewerk en toesprake gehou in graafskaps- en staats -republikeinse byeenkomste. Hy het in 1912 die nominasierede gehou vir president Howard Taft.

    Huwelik met Florence Kling

    Gedurende hierdie tyd het Amos Kling, die rykste man in Marion, kennis geneem van hierdie goed versorgde, intelligente jong man. Hy was daarteen gekant dat Harding iets te doen gehad het met sy pianistiese dogter, Florence.

    Florence Kling DeWolfe was onlangs geskei toe sy Warren op 'n skaatsbaan ontmoet het. Sy het 'n seun uit haar vorige huwelik gehad, maar het toesig gehou oor haar vervreemde man. Na 'n jaar van hofmakery trou Florence en Warren op 8 Julie 1891. Die twee het nooit 'n kind gehad nie. Die egpaar het onverskillig geraak teenoor Amos Kling toe hy die nuus versprei dat Warren swart voorouers het. Vanweë sy natuurlike, liefdevolle sjarme, het Warren die beskuldiging oorkom.

    Florence, wat Warren vir die hertogin genoem het, was die eerste wat hom aangemoedig het om in Ohio aan te stel. Hy neem die advies van sy vrou en wen 'n setel in die Ohio State Senate. Hy dien twee termyne as staatsenator voordat hy 'n luitenant -goewerneur word. Hy hardloop vir goewerneur, maar verloor die wedloop.

    Harry Daugherty, 'n politikus in Ohio, het die potensiaal van 'n groot leier in Warren Harding raakgesien. Hy het saam met die hertogin die veldtog vir Warren vir die Amerikaanse senaat gelei. Nadat hy lank in staatsdiens was, het hy verrassend gewen en 'n Amerikaanse senator geword.

    Hardloop vir president

    Die meeste van sy polisse word vergelyk met Washington ’s. Die resultate van sy beleid was net so suksesvol. Na ses jaar in die senaat, het Harding kandidate vir die president ingedien onder die Republikeinse Party. Hy het met 'n groot oorwinning gewen teen James M. Cox, 'n ander inwoner van Ohio. Hy het 404 kiesstemme gekry in teenstelling met Cox 127. Hy het sy intreerede gelewer op 4 Maart 1921. Hy was die eerste president wat 'n toespraak oor 'n luidspreker gehou het en die eerste koerantuitgewer wat die president van die Verenigde State geword het. Sy vise -president was Calvin Coolidge, wat hom opgevolg het nadat hy gesterf het.

    Harding se termyn was een van die mees omstrede administrasies in die Amerikaanse presidentskap. Die meeste Amerikaners beskou hom as een van die ergste presidente weens hierdie twiste. Hy het sake gehad met ander vroue, met wie hy 'n buite -egtelike kind gehad het. Sy era dui op die koms van die depressie en verhoogde wêreldkonflik. Volgens sommige historici was Warren Harding een van die beste presidente wat Amerika ooit gehad het.

    Gedurende sy eerste maand, president Harding, het hy die Thompson-Urrutia-verdrag goedgekeur, wat Columbia 25 miljoen dollar gegee het as 'n beloning om Panama te wen. Hy het die Wet op Noodkwota onderteken. Dit was bedoel om immigrante te beperk om in die Verenigde State te woon. Harding en sy administrasie het die Wet op Noodtariewe goedgekeur wat later bekend gestaan ​​het as die Fordney-McCumber Tariff Act. Die tariefwet dien as beskerming vir alle Amerikaanse produkte en om die resessie na die oorlog te beëindig.

    Op 31 Mei 1921 het Edwin Denby, sekretaris van die vloot, beheer oor die oliereserwes in Kalifornië en Teapot Dome, Wyoming, oorgeplaas na sekretaris Albert B. Val van die departement van binnelandse sake. Dit het later 'n skandaal veroorsaak en die beeld van Harding se administrasie verwoes. Hy onderteken ook die Wet op Begroting en Rekeningkunde. Hy was die eerste president wat van alle regeringsinstansies vereis het om 'n begroting te hê. Op Junie 1921 kon die Begrotings- en Rekeningkundige Wet die Buro vir die Begroting en die Algemene Rekeningkundige kantoor onder die Tesourie -afdeling stig. Harding kon die regering se uitgawes met een miljard dollar besnoei.

    Op 2 Julie 1921 onderteken president Harding afsonderlik 'n vredesverdrag met Duitsland en Oostenryk. Aan die einde van die Eerste Wêreldoorlog was baie Amerikaners werkloos. Op 26 September 1921 het Herbert Hoover, minister van handel, berig dat ongeveer 5,7 miljoen Amerikaners sonder werk was. Dit was ook gedurende hierdie tyd dat gewelddade deur die Ku Klux Klan (of die KKK) gepleeg is.

    Die president onderteken die Sheppard-Towner Wet op kraam en baba. Hierdie wet was die reaksie van die administrasie op Amerikaanse vroue wat nie genoeg voorgeboortelike sorg gehad het nie.

    Voordat sy eerste jaar geëindig het, het Harding Eugene Debs en drie-en-twintig ander, wat tydens die Eerste Wêreldoorlog skuldig bevind is, kwytgeskeld.

    Die meeste van Harding se wette was vir die beskerming van Amerikaanse boere. Teen 18 Februarie 1922 onderteken Harding die Capper-Volstead-wet, wat boere in staat stel om te koop en verkoop sonder om die antitrustwette te oortree. Dit was gedurende hierdie tyd dat die stille geboorte van die Teapot Dome Scandal begin het. Op 7 April 1922 het sekretaris Albert Fall die oliereserwes aan Harry Sinclair verhuur, wat later die spreker van die land sou word.

    Om die begroting van die regering te beskerm en om die skuld aan veterane van die Groot Oorlog te kan betaal, het Harding die bonus van die soldate verwerp. Hierdie wetsontwerp is later aan Calvin Coolidge deurgegee. Teen 22 September het Harding die kabelwet goedgekeur waarmee die getroude Amerikaanse vroue hul burgerskap kon behou, ongeag die nasionaliteit van hul man.

    1923 was vir Warren Harding die mees vergeetbare jaar. Reeds op 2 Januarie 1923 het die Teapot Dome Scandal ontvou. Die president het die bedanking van sekretaris Albert Fall aanvaar. Na 27 dae bedank die sekretaris van die veterane -buro, Charles Forbes, ook uit sy departement. Hy is aangekla en skuldig bevind aan bedrog, sameswering en omkopery. As gevolg hiervan is die president korrup genoem. Die Teapot Dome -skandaal het die gewildste onderwerp geword, wat die reputasie van die president beskadig het. Warren Harding, hoewel dit wel of nie betrokke was, is belaster.

    Op 20 Junie 1923 verlaat Warren Harding en sy vrou, Florence, die Withuis na 'n toevlugsoord wat hulle as 'n begripsreis beskou het. Die rede vir hierdie reis deur Alaska en Kalifornië was om die beeld en geloof van die Harding -administrasie saam te stel, ondanks die skandaal waarmee hulle te kampe het.

    Harding se gesondheid het verswak. Hy het gely aan 'n ptomaine -vergiftigingsaanval wat later tot longontsteking gelei het. Alhoewel dit lyk asof hy besig was om te herstel, het hy steeds tekens van swakheid getoon. Voor sy reis kon sy toestand nie die normale rooster van die kantoor van die president byhou nie.

    Op 2 Augustus 1923 word Warren Harding dood aangetref in sy hotelkamer in San Francisco, Kalifornië. Sy dood was omstrede omdat die werklike rede nog onbekend is. 'N Lykskouing op sy liggaam is deur vrou Florence geweier. Spekulasies het rondgeloop oor sy dood. Ander beweer dat sy vrou hom vergiftig het nadat sy van sy minnares en hul liefdeskind geleer het. Ander het aangevoer dat sy vrou nie 'n geheim wou blootlê wat aan albei bekend was nie. Sommige het gedink dat hy homself om die lewe gebring het omdat hy nie die druk van die skandale waarmee hy omring was, kon oorkom nie.

    Sy dood het hom verhinder om sy administrasie teen die kontroversies te verdedig. Alhoewel sy beeld gekleur was deur die mislukte diens van sy administrasie, was Warren Harding steeds een van die mees gerespekteerde presidente van die Verenigde State. Sy optrede en beleid word weerspieël in die suksesse van die presidente na hom.


    Warren G. Harding

    Warren Gamaliel Harding (2 November 1865 - 2 Augustus 1923) was die 29ste president van die Verenigde State (1921–23), 'n Republikein uit Ohio wat in die Ohio -senaat gedien het en daarna in die Amerikaanse senaat, waar hy 'n geringe rol gespeel het.

    Met die konvensie van die Republikeinse Party naby die dood, is Harding tydens die verkiesing van 1920 gekies as 'n onaanstootlike kompromiskandidaat. Hy het vooraanstaande reklamekenners aan boord gebring, veral Albert Lasker, om sy presidensiële voorkoms en konserwatiewe beloftes bekend te maak. Hy belowe Amerika 'n "terugkeer na normaal" na die Eerste Wêreldoorlog, met 'n einde aan geweld en radikalisme, 'n sterk ekonomie en onafhanklikheid van Europese intrige. Harding verteenwoordig die konserwatiewe vleuel van sy party in teenstelling met progressiewe volgelinge van wyle Theodore Roosevelt (wat in 1919 oorlede is) en senator Robert M. LaFollette, senior. Hy verslaan die demokraat en sy mede -koerantuitgewer James M. Cox met die grootste stemme grondverskuiwing (60% tot 34%) in die presidensiële geskiedenis.

    Harding het die 'beste gedagtes' in sy kabinet opgesoek, waaronder Andrew Mellon by die tesourie, Herbert Hoover by Commerce en Charles Evans Hughes by die staatsdepartement. Hy beloon vriende en bydraers, bekend as die 'Ohio Gang', met kragtige regeringsposisies. Verskeie gevalle van korrupsie is tydens sy presidentskap en na sy dood aan die lig gebring, waaronder die berugte Teapot Dome-skandaal, wat in die tyd voor Watergate beskou is as die 'grootste en opspraakwekkendste skandaal in die geskiedenis van die Amerikaanse politiek'.

    Binnelands het Harding die eerste federale kinderwelsynsprogram onderteken en gedeeltelik met stakende mynbou- en spoorwegwerkers gehandel deur 'n werkdag van 8 uur te ondersteun. Hy het die Buro vir die Begroting opgestel om die eerste federale begroting van die Verenigde State op te stel. Harding bepleit 'n wetsontwerp teen lynskiet om geweld teen Afro-Amerikaners te bekamp, ​​maar dit slaag nie in die kongres nie. In buitelandse sake het Harding die Volkebond verwerp en vredesverdragte met Duitsland en Oostenryk beding. Sy grootste prestasie in die buiteland het gekom tydens die Washington -vlootkonferensie van 1921–22, waarin die groot vlootmagte ter wêreld ooreengekom het oor 'n maritieme beperkingsprogram wat 'n dekade lank aan die gang was. [ aanhaling nodig ]

    In Augustus 1923 stort Harding skielik in duie en sterf in Kalifornië. Die vele skandale van sy administrasie het aan Harding 'n laer posisie van historici besorg, maar die afgelope paar jaar is daar erkenning gegee aan sy fiskale verantwoordelikheid en goedkeuring van Afro-Amerikaanse burgerregte. Harding word beskou as 'n meer moderne politikus wat tegnologie aangeneem het en sensitief was vir die nood van minderhede, vroue en arbeid.


    Warren G. Harding: Lewe voor die presidensie

    Warren G. Harding, deur sy ma 'Winnie' genoem, is op 2 November 1865 in Blooming Grove, Ohio, gebore. Toe hy tien was, verhuis sy gesin na die klein Ohio -dorpie Caledonië waar hy grootgeword het. Albei sy ouers was dokters - 'n ongewone onderskeid vir Phoebe Harding, wat 'n mediese lisensie gekry het op grond van haar ervaring as vroedvrou en om haar man, George Harding, by te staan. Warren het sy kinderherinneringe gekoester wat 'n gesonde en volmaakte prentjie-seuntjie geskilder het. 'N Opvoeding gevul met plaaswerk, swem in die plaaslike spruit en speel in die dorpsorkes was die basis van sy beroep by die huis later in die lewe. Soos so baie klein seuntjies in die na-burgeroorlog in Ohio, het Harding saam met sy vyf jonger broers en susters (vier susters en 'n broer) 'n eenkamer-skoolhuis bygewoon waar hy geleer het om te lees, skryf en spel van die McGuffey's Readers. Op veertienjarige ouderdom betree hy die Ohio Central College, waaruit hy 'n B.S. -graad in 1882, met 'n mate van onderskeiding vir die redigering van die kampuskoerant.

    Na die universiteit het Harding vir 'n kwartaal in 'n landskool buite Marion, Ohio, klasgegee voordat hy hom probeer het in die regte, versekeringsverkope en joernalistiek vir die plaaslike koerant. In 1884 het hy $ 300 ingesamel om saam met twee vriende die byna afgedankte Marion Star -koerant te koop. Hulle het die volgende vyf jaar matige sukses behaal. In 1891 trou Warren, vyf en twintig jaar oud, met 'n plaaslike egskeiding, Florence "Flossie" Mabel Kling DeWolf, vyf jaar ouer as hy. Sy het 'n tienjarige seun by haar voormalige man gehad en 'n aansienlike fortuin uit haar ryk familie. Sy het Warren meedoënloos agtervolg, en hy het uiteindelik toegegee, selfs al het haar pa Warren op straat gestop en gedreig om hom dood te maak as hy met sy dogter trou. Dit was 'n wedstryd waarteen haar pa beswaar gemaak het weens die gerug dat Warren se familie swart voorouers het.

    Uitgewerswese en politiek

    Vir die volgende tien jaar het Harding se besigheid floreer, deels as gevolg van Florence Harding se skerp oog, maar hoofsaaklik weens Harding se goedhartige manier. Sy koerant het 'n gunsteling geword by Ohio -politici van albei partye vanweë sy eiesoortige beriggewing. Hy het nooit 'n kritiese verhaal uitgevoer as hy dit kon vermy nie. Sy werknemers het hom ook liefgehad en gerespekteer vir sy bereidheid om die winste van die onderneming met hulle te deel. In sy hele loopbaan het hy nooit 'n enkele werknemer afgedank nie. In 1899 wen Harding die eerste van twee termyne vir die Ohio State Senate, en dien as meerderheidsleier voor sy bod vir die luitenant -goewerneurskap in 1903. Nadat hy sy amp in 1905 verlaat het, keer hy vir vyf jaar terug na sy koerant en waag hom weer oor staatspolitiek. in 'n verloorbod vir goewerneur in 1910.

    Hy was so gewild onder party-stamgaste dat hy die eer gekry het om president William Howard Taft se naam op die partykonvensie in 1912 te plaas. toon 'n harde en onbeskofte gedrag. In 1914 wen Harding die Ohio Republikeinse voorverkiesing vir senator en klop die prokureur -generaal Timothy Hogan in die algemene verkiesing. Harding se ondersteuners het Hogan wreed aangeval omdat hy 'n Katolieke bedoeling was om Ohio aan die pous af te lewer. Die godsdienskwessie oorheers die verkiesing en gee Harding 'n oorweldigende oorwinning, hoewel hy godsdiens nooit persoonlik in sy toesprake genoem het nie. Tog was die vuil verkiesingsveldtog 'n vlek op sy politieke rekord wat hom nooit maklik gemaak het nie.


    Die geskiedenis van die Warren Harding -fout

    Die Warren Harding -fout is deur Malcolm Gladwell in die boek gewild gemaak Knipper. Dit is 'n waarskuwende verhaal oor wat gebeur as ons mislei word deur voorkoms.

    In die vroeë 1920's, Warren Harding gekyk so presidensieel dat kiesers mislei is om te dink dat hy 'n goeie president sou word. Hulle onbewuste vooroordeel vir 'n leier wat aantreklik en waardig was, het hulle op 'n dwaalspoor gebring. Hierdie vooroordeel onderbreek die proses om dun te sny (as u vinnige, onbewuste besluite neem), wat 'n onbetroubare oordeel veroorsaak. Hulle het hul besluit op oppervlakbesonderhede gebaseer en een van die ergste presidente in die Amerikaanse geskiedenis gestem. Dit was die Warren Harding -fout.

    Oppervlakkige dun sny en die Warren Harding -fout

    Dun snye dien ons nie altyd nie. Soms maak ons ​​oppervlakkige vinnige oordele.

    Gewoonlik help dun sny ons om die besonderhede van 'n situasie onder die oppervlak te kry om diep patrone te vind. Maar stres, tyddruk en ingeburgerde assosiasies kan hierdie diep duik onderbreek, en ons laat 'n vinnige oordeel oor irrelevante oppervlakdetails.

    Die saak van Warren Harding

    Voordat Warren Harding die 29ste president van die Verenigde State geword het, het hy 'n onbetwiste politieke loopbaan gehad. Hy was nie besonder slim nie, het selde standpunt ingeneem oor (of belangstelling in) politieke kwessies, het vae toesprake gehou en baie van sy tyd daaraan bestee om te drink en te vrou.

    Tog het Harding die politieke geledere beklemtoon en president geword. Hy word algemeen beskou as een van die ergste presidente in die geskiedenis. Hoe het hy die posisie in die eerste plek gekry? Die Warren Harding -fout.

    Hy gekyk soos 'n president. Sy vooraanstaande voorkoms en diep, oorheersende stem het die kiesers gewen. Hulle het onbewustelik geglo dat mooi mense bekwame leiers is. Harding se aantreklikheid het verenigings so sterk veroorsaak dat dit die kiesers se vermoë om onder die oppervlak te kyk, na sy kwalifikasies (of gebrek daaraan), oorskry het. Hierdie assosiasies is uit hul aard irrasioneel. Dit is hoe die Warren Harding -fout werk, en dit kan tot 'n ramp lei.

    Bewuste versus onbewuste houdings- Verduideliking van die Warren Harding -fout

    Soms is ons vinnige oordele nie net die produk nie, maar ook die wortel van vooroordeel en diskriminasie. Ons gesindheid oor ras en geslag werk byvoorbeeld op twee vlakke.

    • Ons bewuste houdings is wat ons kies om te glo en hoe ons kies om ons te gedra. Dit is die bron van ons doelbewuste besluite.
    • Ons onbewuste houdings is die ondenkende, outomatiese assosiasies wat ons het ten opsigte van ras en geslag.

    Die Warren Harding -fout is die gevolg van onbewuste houdings. Ons kan nie ons onbewuste houdings kies nie. Ons is moontlik nie eens bewus daarvan nie. Ons ervarings en skoolopleiding, die lesse wat ons as kinders geleer is, en die media vorm almal ons onbewuste gesindhede. Hierdie houdings kan dramaties verskil van ons bewuste.

    Ons sou byvoorbeeld nooit sê dat ons glo dat lang mense beter leiers maak as kort mense nie. Maar die getalle dui daarop om kort te wees, is net so 'n struikelblok vir korporatiewe sukses as om 'n vrou of 'n minderheid te wees. Ons glo dat lang mense goeie leiers is, selfs al weet ons nie dat ons dit glo nie. Dit is 'n voorbeeld van die Warren Harding -fout. Oorweeg hierdie statistieke:

    • In die VSA., 14.5% van mans is ses voet lank of langer 3.9% is ses voet twee of langer.
    • In Fortune 500 -ondernemings, 58% van uitvoerende hoofde is ses voet lank of langer 33% is ses voet twee of langer.

    Ons het 'n onbewuste verband tussen leierskap en hoogheid. Ons maak 'n vinnige oordeel oor ons leiers op grond van hul lengte. Die stereotipe is so sterk dat dit ander eienskappe of oorwegings oorskry. Ons maak altyd die Warren Harding -fout, en omdat ons dit onbewustelik doen, weet ons dit nie.

    Die nadele van snap -oordele

    1) Dit kan nie verduidelik word nie: As ons probeer verduidelik hoe ons tot 'n onbewuste besluit kom, is ons verduidelikings onakkuraat en soms problematies.

    Byvoorbeeld, as ons probeer om insigraaisels op te los (raaisels wat slegs die onbewuste verstand kan oplos), maak ons ​​strategieë skade. Sodra ons probeer om die raaisel van ons onbewuste prosesse toe te lig, skakel ons dit uit.

    2) Die proses om dun te sny kan onderbreek word: Gewoonlik onthul dun snye die diep waarhede en relevante besonderhede wat nodig is om 'n wyse besluit te neem. Maar spanning, tyd druk, en vooroordele kan die gewoonlik doeltreffende en diep proses van dun sny onderbreek, en ons laat vinnige oordeel oor irrelevante oppervlaktedetails.

    Om die krag van die dun sny van die bewusteloosheid te herken (en miskien die Warren Harding-fout te vermy), moet ons beide sy ligte en donker sye aanvaar:

    • Ligte kant: Met dun sny kan ons 'n persoon of situasie vanuit 'n eerste indruk beoordeel. Ons het nie lang ure of maande se studie nodig nie.
    • Donker kant: Deur dun te sny, kan dit op diep ingestelde vooroordele optree, wat ons rampspoedig kan mislei.

    Kan ons ons onbewuste houdings verander?

    Ja, maar dit verg moeite. Dit is moontlik om die Warren Harding -fout te beveg, om u implisiete aannames weer op te lei deur daarvan bewus te wees en u bewuste verstand aktief te gebruik om dit teë te werk.

    ——— Einde van voorskou ———

    Soos wat jy nou net gelees het? Lees die res van die wêreld se beste opsomming van "Blink" op Shortform. Leer die boek se kritiese konsepte binne 20 minute of minder.

    Hier is wat u in ons sal vind volledige opsomming van Knipoog:

    • Hoe kan u binne 3 minute weet of 'n huwelik sal misluk?
    • Waarom u eerste indrukke gewoonlik verbasend akkuraat is?
    • Die donker kant om eerste indrukke te maak en hoe om die

    Amanda Penn

    Amanda Penn is 'n skrywer en leesspesialis. Sy publiseer tientalle artikels en boekresensies oor 'n wye verskeidenheid onderwerpe, insluitend gesondheid, verhoudings, sielkunde, wetenskap en nog baie meer. Amanda was 'n Fulbright -geleerde en het skoolgehou in skole in die VSA en Suid -Afrika. Amanda het haar meestersgraad in onderwys aan die Universiteit van Pennsylvania ontvang.


    Presidensiële bod

    In 1920 het die politieke insider en vriend Harry Daugherty begin om Harding te bevorder vir die Republikeinse nominasie. Daugherty het geglo dat Harding & quot; lyk soos 'n president. & Quot Sy opvoeding was klassiek tuisgemaakte Amerikaans. Hy was bekend onder die Republikeinse leiers, het geen groot politieke vyande gehad nie, was 'eerlik' oor al die kwessies en verteenwoordig die krities belangrike deelstaat Ohio. By die byeenkoms in Junie 1920, na 10 stemrondes, was die benoeming vasgeloop. Finally, on the 11th ballot, Harding emerged as the presidential nominee, with Calvin Coolidge as his running mate.

    During the campaign, Harding pledged to return the country to "normalcy." Using clichés in lofty speeches, Harding easily won the election, gaining 61 percent of the popular vote and winning 37 of 48 states in the Electoral College he was the first sitting senator to be elected president. Opponents James M. Cox and Cox&aposs running mate, Franklin D. Roosevelt, only carried the deeply Democratic southern states.


    Inhoud

    A presidential transition was guaranteed to occur in 1920, as incumbent president Woodrow Wilson was not nominated for reelection by the Democratic Party.

    At the time that Harding's occurred, the term "presidential transition" had yet to be widely applied to the period between an individual's election as president of the United States and their assumption of the office. [1]

    Judson Welliver served as the president-elect's public relations manager. [2] Harry M. Daugherty served as Harding's "personal representative", a role which saw him meet with those visiting Harding and conduct confidential errands across the country on Harding's behalf. In sy boek Presidential Transitions, Laurin L. Henry wrote that positioning individuals for patronage appointments seemed to be in Daugherty's purview during the transition. [3]

    Key members of Harding's entourage that seemed to have been interviewing officials on Harding's behalf included Albert Bacon Fall, Harry M. Daugherty, and John W. Weeks. [4]

    Other key members of Harding's staff included George B. Christian Jr., Charles E. Sawyer, and Judson Welliver. [2] Harding also had a sizable clerical staff in Marion. [5]

    Early into the transition period, Harding traveled, largely vacationing. At the time, it was common for president-elects to take weeks long vacations following their election, as presidential transitions were longer than they have been more recently (the Twentieth Amendment to the United States Constitution would shorten transitions), and were far less substantial in scale compared to the large operations of more recent presidential transitions. [6]

    Port Isabel, Texas Edit

    Harding, after his election victory, left his home in Marion, Ohio, and took a train trip down to Port Isabel, Texas in the company of key members of his staff, such as George B. Christian Jr., Harry M. Daugherty, Charles E. Sawyer, and Judson Welliver. The train made occasional whistle stop appearances along the route. In Port Isabel, Harding spend several days relaxing, with activities including golfing, fishing, and hunting. [7] Harding gave a Armistice Day speech in nearby Brownsville, Texas. [8]

    Trip to Panama Edit

    On November 17, Harding departed from Brownsville to head to New Orleans, Louisiana, arriving the next day. Once in New Orleans made a brief speech from the steps of the city hall. That evening, Harding left New Orleans for a cruise to Panama. [8]

    Harding arrived in Panama on November 23. He insisted that he be treated as a private visitor rather than an official visitor to Panama. He spent most of his time in Panama sightseeing and vacationing, but also toured the Panama Canal Zone defenses and held discussions with the key individuals stationed there. [8] [9]

    Harding left Panama on November 28. His ship briefly stopped in Kingston, Jamaica on November 30, [8] [10] and arrived at Newport News, Virginia on December 4. [8] In Newport News, he was greeted by his advisor Harry M. Daugherty. [8] Harding then spent a day visiting Norfolk-area Army and Navy installations. [8] The following day he gave an address about brotherhood at the Elks National Home in Bedford, Virginia. [8] [11]

    First post-election visit to Washington, D.C. Edit

    At 11:20 PM Eastern Time on December 5, Harding arrived in Washington, D.C. by train. [12] Harding had arrived for the opening of the second session of the 66th United States Congress. [8] Harding was still a member of the United States Senate. [8] On December 6, Harding delivered a farewell speech in the Senate Chamber. [4] [13] [14] Harding, however, would not formally resign his Senate seat until January 13 (having submitted a resignation letter on January 9, which would take effect on the 13th). [15] [16] The reason that Harding continued to hold his seat until January was that it would not be until then that James M. Cox (incidentally his Democratic opponent in the presidential election) would leave office as governor of Ohio, and be succeeded by Republican Harry L. Davis. If Harding resigned before the change in governors, Cox would be able to name a Democrat to fill his Senate seat. [16]

    Harding followed his farewell speech with a press conference, where he confirmed that he would call a special session of Congress following his inauguration. [4]

    Harding spent the rest of the day, and the day after, holding meetings with members of Congress and with other leaders of the Republican Party. [4]

    Wilson did not meet with President Wilson. However, his wife, Florence Harding, did meet with First Lady Edith Wilson at the White House on December 7, and received a tour of the White House from her. [17]

    After his trip to Washington, D.C., Harding returned to his home in Marion, Ohio on December 9. At his house, he then began work on preparing to take office. [18] Transition activities also overflowed into the house of Harding's neighbor George Christian. [5]

    In Marion, Harding made himself available to reporters, but was not always willing to be directly quoted. [5] There were also regularly press briefings about what happened at the meetings held for the transition, and information was also frequently leaked. [19]

    After roughly five weeks of transition work in Marion, Harding continued his transition work while vacationing in Florida from January 22 through February 27. [20] In Florida, he, for the majority of his time, stayed in St. Augustine. [21]

    Correspondence Edit

    While in Marion during December and January, Harding and his team had a lot of correspondence they needed to conduct. The clerical staff, as well as principal staffers such as George B. Christian Jr., Harry M. Daugherty, and Judson Welliver conducted most of the correspondence, but some correspondence required the president-elect's attention. [22]

    Visitors Edit

    There were many individuals that visited Marion during December and January. [22] Some were potential Cabinet selections. However, there were many visits from other leading political figures. [22] Additionally, there were visits from lesser political figures, including local and state Republican leaders. [22]

    There were also visits from representatives of various groups, including business groups, farmer organizations, fraternal organizations, patriotic organizations, trade unions, and veterans organizations. [22] One example of this was when a sizable delegation from the Child Conservation League visited Harding on December 15 (Harding read this delegation a prepared statement, and secured their support for his proposal to create a federal public welfare department). [22] [23]

    While Harding had, by leaving Washington, D.C. for Marion, strongly signaled his intent to not play an active leadership role in the lame duck congressional session, he did receive occasional visits to Marion from Congressional Republican leaders seeking to discuss matters that were pending in the Congress. [16]

    On December 16, Vice President-elect Calvin Coolidge and his wife Grace Coolidge visited Marion, and the vice president-elect met with the president-elect. [22] It was reported Harding and Coolidge discussed choices for Cabinet appointments, and that Harding, with strong reluctance, consented to Coolidge's request that Coolidge be allowed, as vice president, to regularly attend Cabinet meetings and take part in the administration's councils, which would be a departure from convention. [22] [24]

    Harding continued to receive a great number of visitors while in St. Augustine. [25]

    Policy formulation Edit

    Harding lacked firm positions on a number of policy issues, and had expressed his willingness to act as an instrument of the Republican Party. [5] He also was, in the words of Laurin L. Henry, "committed to the role of the accommodating and conciliating leader", and, therefore, sought the approval of party elders on all matters. [5] On policy maters involving Congress, Harding would seek out the views of both experts and leading legislators, and would seek to incorporate them into a party agenda. [5] Therefore, the process of formulating policy during the transition has been characterized by Laurin L. Henry as "a exercise in group thinking". [18]

    A major policy question was whether the United States would enter the League of Nations. [26] Harding gave some signs that he might allow the United States to enter the League of Nations, even requesting that Charles Evans Hughes revise the Treaty of Versailles in order to "secure its ratification in the Senate." [26] However, he also gave some signs that he would not support entering the League of Nations. [26]

    Selection of appointees Edit

    Albert J. Beveridge declined an offer to join Harding's Cabinet due to his belief that Harding might enter the United States into the League of Nations, which Beveridge strongly opposed. [26]

    By late December, with many Cabinet selections appearing to have been in place, news editorials speculated that Harding would soon make an early announcement of some of his Cabinet selections, in order help enable for designees to be able to both familiarize themselves with their pending jobs and work with Republican leaders of the lame duck Congress. At the end of the month, reporters anticipated such announcements, but they did not materialize. [27] [28]

    Most of Harding's choices, as rumors leaked of their selection, faced opposition from figures within his party. [29]

    Attorney general Edit

    By December 24, it was being reported that Harding desired to make Harry M. Daugherty his administration's attorney general. [30] This came despite Daugherty's lack of high standing in the field of law. [31] Senator James Wadsworth Jr., who visited Harding in Marion on December 19, would later recall that he and others had, to no avail, made efforts to persuade Harding against this selection. [31] [32] On February 21, Harding announced to reporters at the St. Augustine hotel where he was staying that Daugherty would be his choice for attorney general, and defended Daugherty's qualifications. [33] [34] On February 21, Harding announced to reporters at the St. Augustine hotel where he was staying that Daugherty would be his choice for attorney general, and defended Daugherty's qualifications. [33] [34]

    Postmaster general Edit

    By the final week of December, it appeared all but certain that Will H. Hays would be Harding's choice for postmaster general. [31] [35] [36] The prospective choice faced opposition from leaders in his home state, and many considered him inexperienced. [29]

    Secretary of agriculture Edit

    On December 20, Henry Cantwell Wallace met with Harding in Marion. He was selected for secretary of agriculture. [37] When rumor of this selection broke, it faced strong backlash from the meat packing industry, which had great sway in the Republican Party. [29]

    Secretary of commerce Edit

    On December 12, Herbert Hoover met with Harding in Marion. Hoover was selected for secretary of commerce. [38]

    Hoover was a choice that came with political risks. He was likely to be opposed by the right-wing of Republican Party for a number of reasons, including that Hoover was suspected to have only recently become a Republican, he was an internationalist who supported the League of Nations, a progressive, and had previously been a member of administration of Democrat Woodrow Wilson. [39] [40] Indeed, once rumors of selection began to circulate in mid-December, it encountered criticism. [40] [41] Among the old guard of the Republican Party, Hoover was, perhaps, the pick that received the strongest opposition. [29] Hoping to pressure Harding against this choice for secretary of commerce, Senator Philander C. Knox visited Harding in Marion on Decenter 30, and expressed both his and fellow Pennsylvania U.S. Senator Boies Penrose's opposition to both Hoover for secretary of commerce and Charles Evans Hughes for secretary of state. [29] Outrage against Hoover did not dissipate. [42]

    After an agreement was reached on February 24 between Harding and Hoover, it was announced that he would be Harding's choice for secretary of commerce. [43] [44]

    Secretary of the interior Edit

    On December 15, Albert B. Fall met with Harding in Marion. Harding would select him for secretary of the interior. [38] Harding had also contemplated Fall as a candidate for the position of secretary of state. [37] [45]

    Secretary of labor Edit

    In his 1960 book Presidential Transitions, Laurin L. Henry wrote that secretary of labor appears to have been the only cabinet position that Harding had not decided upon at least a preliminary favorite for by the end of December. [31]

    Perhaps under the influence of Pennsylvania U.S. Sentators Philander C. Knox and Boies Penrose, after Knox's late-December visit with him in Marion, Harding offered James J. Davis the position on January 10. [46]

    Secretary of the navy Edit

    By the final week of December, Harding had chosen John W. Weeks for be his secretary of the navy. [31] Harding would ultimately reassign him to the position of secretary of war after discussions with him in mid-January. [46] On January 17, Harding offered Frank Orren Lowden a choice between secretary of the navy or being a diplomat in charge of an embassy. [46] On January 27, Lowden sent Harding a telegram declining the position of secretary of the navy. On February 10, Harding asked him to reconsider the offer, only to have Lowden decline it again two days later. On February 14, Harding again asked Lowden to take the office, telling him that he was not simply offering the post as a courtesy to Lowden, but, rather, because Harding strongly desired to have someone from Illinois in his Cabinet. The next day, Lowden politely, but firmly, declined the position for a third time. After this, Harding came to terms with the reality that Lowden was not interested in the position. [42] [47] A.T. Hert was considered for the position afterwards. [48]

    Harding had decided on Edwin Denby for the position by late December, and this choice was seen as an utter surprise. [49] On February 26, Denby visited Haring in St. Augustine. The following day, at a press conference, he was introduced as Hoover's selection for the position. [50]

    Secretary of state Edit

    Harding had initially considered Albert B. Fall, who he selected for secretary of the interior, as a potential choice for secretary of state. [37] [45] He was strongly advised against this, however. [45]

    Charles Evans Hughes met with Harding in Marion on December 10, the first individual to visit Harding in Marion for a meeting once he returned. [51] Harding asked him to be his secretary of state. [52] [26] After consulting about the offer with his law partners in New York, Hughes wrote Harding on December 13 to accept the offer. [53] On December 22, Harding wrote Hughes to officially further confirm and finalize that he would be his choice for the job. [37]

    The choice encountered criticism from the right-wing of the party when rumors about it began to circulate in mid-December. [41] Hughes was criticized by the party establishment as being too much of an internationalist and too much of an independent. [29] Hoping to pressure Harding against this choice for secretary of state, Senator Philander C. Knox, himself a former secretary of state, visited Harding in Marion on Decenter 30, and expressed both his and fellow Pennsylvania U.S. Senator Boies Penrose's opposition to both Hughes for secretary of state and Herbert Hoover for secretary of commerce. [29]

    The uproar against Hughes largely dissipated by February. [42] On February 19, Hughes visited Harding in St. Augustine, and was presented at a press conference as Harding's choice for secretary of state. [42]

    Secretary of the treasury Edit

    It was known that Harding desired not to give the post of secretary of the treasury to an individual who would be a tool of Wall Street. [54] Frank Orren Lowden had received much speculation early on as a prospective choice for the position. [54] While Harding thought positively of Lowden, he was also interested in Charles G. Dawes for the position, who he offered the position to when they met met in Marion on December 20. [54] When rumors broke of Dawes being chosen for the position, the choice was opposed by William Hale Thompson, the Republican mayor of Dawes' home city of Chicago. It was also opposed by Republican members of the Chicago City Council. [29]

    Harding relented to right-wing pressure for a more right-wing secretary of the treasury, and selected Andrew Mellon instead to appease them. [55] Mellon visited Harding in Marion on January 8. [56] Mellon had, at that meeting, expressed reluctance towards holding the position. [55]

    Secretary of war Edit

    By late December, Harding was giving serious consideration to selecting Leonard Wood for secretary of war. Harding had been sending signals to Wood that he would be offered a cabinet position. In early January, significant Republican figures such as Henry L. Stimson were strongly lobbying on behalf of Wood for Harding to give him the position. [31] [57] The prospect of Wood holding the position, however, also faced criticism from others. One area of criticism was the appropriateness of appointing an individual directly from service as an active duty general to the civilian role of secretary of war. [29] By the second week of January, Wood was no longer being considered for Harding's Cabinet. [56]

    John W. Weeks, originally Harding's selection for secretary of the navy, [31] was reassigned to this position after discussions with him in mid-January. [46]

    Other positions Edit

    In late-November, while Harding was still conducting his initial post-election travels, there had been reports that he was planning to ask congress to create a new cabinet position, "secretary of education", to which he planned to appoint a woman, likely Harriet Taylor Upton. [58] This did not materialize. It would be more than a decade before the nation would come to see its first female Cabinet member with Frances Perkins in 1933. [59]

    Laurin L. Henry wrote in Presidential Transitions that patronage appointments seemed to be in Harry M. Daugherty's purview during the transition. [3]

    On February 27, at the same time that Edwin Denby was announced as secretary of the navy, it was also announced that Theodore Roosevelt Jr. would serve as assistant secretary of the navy. This was seen as a gesture of good faith toward's that Republican Party's Bull Moose-Wood faction. [50]

    It was announced in the closing days of the transition that George B. Christian Jr. would serve as secretary to the president and Charles E. Sawyer would serve as White House physician. [60]


    Warren G Harding’s Economic Policy

    During World War I, the top income tax rate had been increased from 7 percent to an incredible 73 percent. Andrew Mellon, secretary of the Treasury under both Harding and Coolidge, believed that such suffocating rates were damaging the economy. He also believed that such a high rate was actually yielding less revenue to the federal government than would a lower rate. (Mellon thereby anticipated the argument of economist Arthur Laffer and his “Laffer Curve,” which gained attention in the late 1970s.) The excessively high rates were causing the wealthy to shelter their incomes rather than expose themselves to such punishing taxation. If they invested their money and did well, the federal tax code allowed them to keep twenty-seven cents of every dollar earned, but if they invested their money and failed, they would lose 100 cents of every dollar. No thanks, said many Americans.

    A great many wealthy Americans were putting their money into tax-free state and municipal bonds—not an extraordinarily lucrative avenue, of course, but they yielded at least some return, and they were not taxable. Meanwhile, businesses were starved for capital. Money that might have been devoted to business investment was tied up in state bonds. The states were awash with cash to fund various projects of dubious merit, but the private sector was in trouble.

    Warren G Harding’s Economic Policy

    Mellon, therefore, considered tax relief essential to the nation’s economic health. Under his influence, rates were reduced across the board, for all tax brackets, throughout the course of the decade. The top rate, since it was so high, saw the greatest absolute reduction, from 73 to 40 and later to 25 percent, but the greatest proportional reductions occurred in the lower income brackets, where people saw most of their income tax burden eliminated altogether.

    As a result, not only did federal revenue actually increase—the unfortunate aspect of Mellon’s policy—but, much more important, economic activity multiplied many times over. These tax reductions undoubtedly played a role in bringing about the prosperity of the 1920s. In 1926, unemployment reached an incredible low of 1 percent.

    America prospered during the 1920s. American business set production records. Wages increased and working hours declined. And as if to underscore yet again the irrelevance of labor unionism, these outcomes occurred at a time when labor union membership was undergoing a rapid decline.

    Warren Harding had earned the Republican nomination in 1920 partly because he was utterly unlike Wilson. He had no grandiose plans to remake the world, and no particular desire to strengthen and enlarge the office of the presidency along Wilsonian lines. As Massachusetts Senator Henry Cabot Lodge explained, “Harding will not try to be an autocrat but will do his best to carry on the government in the old and accepted Constitutional ways.”

    As for foreign affairs, Harding favored a modest and independent course: “Confident of our ability to work out our own destiny and jealously guarding our right to do so, we seek no part in directing the destinies of the Old World. We do not mean to be entangled. We will accept no responsibility except as our own judgment and conscience may determine.” Although certainly no genius, Harding was not the bumbling idiot that unsympathetic historians have made him out to be. His private papers reveal how well-read he was his favorite writers included Carlyle, Dickens, Pope, and Shakespeare.


    Ohio Gang

    Ons redakteurs gaan na wat u ingedien het, en bepaal of hulle die artikel moet hersien.

    Ohio Gang, in U.S. history, a group of politicians who achieved high office during the presidential administration of Warren G. Harding and who betrayed their public trust through a number of scandals. Leader of the Ohio Gang was Harry M. Daugherty, a long-time political operative who was the principal manager of Harding’s political ascendancy and who was named attorney general of the United States. Other members of the gang included Albert B. Fall, secretary of the interior Will H. Hays, postmaster general Charles R. Forbes, head of the Veteran’s Bureau and Jess Smith, an official of the Justice Department.

    Early in 1924, shortly after Harding’s death, congressional committees began investigating reports of graft and corruption during the Harding administration. As a result of those investigations, Forbes was indicted and later convicted for fraud, conspiracy, and bribery in operating the Veteran’s Bureau. Fall was indicted, convicted, and imprisoned for his role in the Teapot Dome scandal and the Elk Hills oil-reserves scandal, becoming the first member of a president’s Cabinet to be convicted of a felony while in office. Daugherty was tried for conspiracy on charges of selling illegal liquor permits and pardons. He was acquitted but was forced to resign by President Calvin Coolidge. Jess Smith committed suicide.


    Kyk die video: Senator Elizabeth Warren calls Jerome Powell a dangerous man (Julie 2022).


Kommentaar:

  1. Govannon

    I would like to argue with the author that everything is exclusively so? I think what can be done to expand this topic.

  2. Kirg

    Hmm ... elke Abram het sy eie program.

  3. Telkis

    I think he is wrong. Let us try to discuss this.

  4. Keiran

    Ek is jammer, maar na my mening is jy verkeerd. Ek is seker. Skryf vir my in PM.

  5. Attwell

    Ek wens geluk, 'n briljante idee en dit is behoorlik

  6. Bressal

    Stem saam, nuttige gedagte

  7. Garwig

    Stem heeltemal saam met haar. Ek dink dit is 'n goeie idee.

  8. Harlan

    Die skrywer het 'n baie aangename lettergreep



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