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Oostelike TBM-1 Avenger

Oostelike TBM-1 Avenger


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Oostelike TBM-1 Avenger

Die Eastern TBM-1 Avenger was die eerste weergawe van die vliegtuig wat deur die Eastern Aircraft Division of General Motors vervaardig is, en is in groter getalle as die Grumman TBF-1 vervaardig.

Daar is baie moeite gedoen om die Avenger (en Wildcat) saam met General Motors in produksie te kry. Na die Amerikaanse toetrede tot die Tweede Wêreldoorlog het General Motors die motorproduksie by al vyf sy groot motorfabrieke gestaak en kontrakte begin soek om vliegtuigonderdele te vervaardig. Die vloot en Grumman het 'n meer ambisieuse idee gehad, maar wou eerder produksielyne vir volledige vliegtuie in die ongebruikte fabrieke oopmaak. Drie van die vyf fabrieke sou gebruik word om onderdele en sub-samestellings vir die Wildcat en Avenger te vervaardig, terwyl GM se fabriek in Lindon, New Jersey, die voltooide FM-1 Wildcats sou vervaardig en hul Trenton, New Jersey, die TBM-1 Avenger sou vervaardig. Die nuutgestigte vliegtuigvervaardiger het die Eastern Aircraft Division van GM geword.

Eastern het tien volledige stelle Avenger-byeenkomste gekry en 'n aantal vliegtuie wat met Parker-Kalon (PK) bevestigingsmiddels in plaas van klinknaels gebou is. Dit kan na willekeur verwyder en vervang word, sodat die monstervliegtuig herhaaldelik afgetakel en bymekaargemaak kan word.

Na die eerste vergaderings in die lente van 1942 is 'n produksiekontrak op 23 Maart 1942 onderteken. Die eerste volledige TBM-1, gebou uit onderdele van Grumman, is in November 1942 afgelewer, gevolg deur nog twee in Desember. Vroeg in 1943 het Eastern begin om vliegtuie wat uit hul eie byeenkomste gebou is, te monteer, en een-en-dertig vliegtuie is afgelewer in Maart 1943. Daarna het die produksie vinnig gebou, tot 75 in Junie, 100 in Julie, 215 in November 1943 en met 'n hoogtepunt van 400 in Maart 1945. Die laaste Grumman Avengers is in Desember 1943 gebou, wat Eastern as die enigste produsent vir die laaste twee jaar van die oorlog gelaat het.

Tussen November 1942 en die einde van die oorlog het Eastern 'n totaal van 7.546 Avengers gebou, driekwart van die totaal. Van hierdie vliegtuie was 550 TBM-1's en 2,332 TBM-1C's, vir 'n totaal van 2,882 vliegtuie.

Die eerste 550 vliegtuie van die lyn was presiese afskrifte van die TBF-1, aangedui TBM-1, en met dieselfde .30in geweer in kuip. Hulle is gevolg deur 2.332 TBM-1C's wat identies was aan die Grumman TBF-1C. 334 -1C's het Fleet Air Arm diens aangeneem as die Tarpon II/ Avenger II.

TBM-1 Avenger

Die TBM-1 Avenger was identies aan die Grumman-gebou TBF-1. Sommige van die interne verfkleure kan die twee tipes onderskei, aangesien Eastern nie Grumman se eie kleure gebruik nie, anders het slegs die Buro -nommers hulle geskei.

TBM-1C Avenger

Die TBM-1C was identies aan die TBF-1C, gewapen met twee .50in masjiengewere in die vleuel in die plek van die .30in geweer in die kap van die TBM-1.

TBM-1CP

Die TBM-1CP was 'n fotografiese verkenningsvliegtuig wat toegerus was met 'n trimetrogeen-kamera wat panoramiese foto's kon neem wat van horison tot horison in 'n enkele raam versprei het.

TBM-1D

Die TBM-1D was 'n nagbomwerper wat vervaardig is deur 'n geïnstalleerde ASD-1 (soekradar in die lug) op 'n standaard TBM-1 of -1C. Die radar is gedra in 'n peul wat aan die voorkant van die regtervleuel gemonteer is. Die vliegtuie wat van -1C's omgeskakel is, se vleuelgewere is verwyder, terwyl ander gewere soms verwyder is om gewig te bespaar. Die -1D is gebruik as 'n beheervliegtuig vir nagvegters, vir vroeë waarskuwingspligte in die lug en vir patrollies teen duikbote.

TBF -1E/ -3E

'N Klein aantal TBM-1's het ekstra radartoerusting en die benaming TBM-1E gekry.

TBM-1J

Die TBM-1J is aangepas vir Arktiese toestande, en het op elke voorkant en bykomende verwarmers de-icer stewels gekry. BuNo.06031 is omgeskakel na hierdie standaard.

TBM-1L

Die TBM-1L het 'n intrekbare soeklig in die bombaai gedra en is gebruik vir oorlogsvoering teen duikbote en reddingspligte op die see.

TBM-1P

Aanduiding gegee vir 'n klein aantal foto -verkenningsomskakelings van die -1 of -1C.


TBF Avenger, Amerikaanse draer -Torpedo -bomwerper

-1C het 2 0,50 masjiengewere (vlerke) en rakke vir agt 30 kg vuurpyle bygevoeg. Dit het ook toebehore bygevoeg vir 1 275 liter (1041 l) bombak -tenk en 2 58 gallon (220 liter) vlerkval tenks vir 'n totale veerbrandstofvermoë van 726 liter (2748 liter) en 'n veerbootreeks van 2335 myl (3758 km) .

-3 het radar en 'n R-2800-20-enjin met 'n nommer van 1900 pk (1417 kW), wat die diensplafon tot 27,100 '(8230 m) verhoog het.

-3P was 'n fotoreconnaissance -weergawe met die kameras gemonteer in die bombaai

-3W was die modelnommer vir CADILLAC, wat in 1943-3 in produksie is, maar tydens die oorgawe nog veldtoetse ondergaan het.


Die TBF Avenger het sy gevegsdebuut gemaak tydens die Slag van Midway, waar 'n staking van ses TBF's vanaf Midway Island begin is. Slegs een keer terug, stukkend geskiet, met die skutter dood en die radioman gewond. Die meeste missies wat deur die TBF gevlieg is, was baie meer suksesvol, met hierdie tipe wat die buigsaamste bomwerper van die oorlog was. Dit kan torpedo's aflewer of vir horisontale bombardemente gebruik word, en dit is ontdek dat dit 'n verbasend effektiewe sweefbommenwerper is. Soos alle Grumman -vliegtuie, was dit baie robuust. Anders as sy voorganger, die TBD Devastator, het dit 'n interne torpedobaai gehad wat die weerstand aansienlik verminder het.

Die eerste produksieorder, van 286 vliegtuie, is in Desember 1940 geplaas, nog voordat die eerste prototipe op 7 Augustus 1941 gevlieg het. Dit weerspieël beide ontevredenheid oor die prestasie van sy voorganger, die TBD Devastator, en die tekort aan Devastators, waarvan slegs 130 is vervaardig en slegs 40 was teen Junie 1942 nog in werking. Die vloot het 'n ontwerp aangevra met 'n topsnelheid van 483 km/h, 'n interne torpedobaai en 'n reikafstand van 4800 km, maar Grumman kon slegs 275 km / h bestuur. Die vloot het besluit dat dit moet gebeur, en die enigste groot verandering wat aan die TBF -prototipe benodig is, was die toevoeging van 'n rugvin vir stabiliteit.

Nadat hy die eerste 2290 vliegtuie gebou het, het Grumman die produksie oorgegee aan General Motors om op die F6F Hellcat te fokus, en General Motors se Eastern Aircraft -afdeling het nog 7546 Avengers as die TBM vervaardig. 'N Paar TBM's in die vroeë produksie het gebuk gegaan onder strukturele gebreke van die vlerke, en dit is uiteindelik herlei na die verskuiwing van klinknaels om die produksie te bespoedig, wat per ongeluk die sterkte van die vleuel verminder het. Oor die algemeen was die kombinasie van Grumman se lugvaartingenieurswese en General Motor se massaproduksie tegnieke 'n suksesvolle vennootskap.

Eksperimente met die Avenger as 'n sweefbomwerper is in Julie 1942 uitgevoer, miskien as gevolg van die teleurstelling van die vloot met die akkuraatheid van horisontale bombardemente met behulp van die Norden -bomsig. Daar is ontdek dat die Avenger van 6500 '(1980m) in 'n hoek van 45 tot 60 grade kan duik, sy bom op 2500' (760m) kan laat val en binne 'n afstand van 40 '(12 m) van 'n bewegende teiken kan kom. 'N Bomkruk, soos gebruik in duikbomwerpers, was nie nodig vir hierdie relatief vlak duik nie. Omdat die Avenger nie oorspronklik ontwerp was vir sweefbomaanvalle nie, het 'n Avenger af en toe uitmekaar gekom tydens 'n sweefbomaanval, en daar is berigte dat sommige spanne hierdie gevaar probeer verminder het deur die landingsgestel te laat sak om as 'n soort duikrem te dien. Latere produksievliegtuie is op 'n paar kritieke punte versterk en toegerus met versnellingsmeters om vlieëniers te waarsku toe die vliegtuig sy koevert begin druk, maar 'n ware sweefbomweergawe van die Avenger met hoësterkte legerings en versterkte vleuelskarniere, die TBM-4, het wel maak dit nie in produksie voordat die oorlog geëindig het nie.

Gegewe die doeltreffendheid van die Avenger as 'n sweefbommenwerper, het die vloot dit oorweeg om die Norden -botsing weg te gooi, maar huiwer om op te gee met die Avenger se horisontale bomvermoë. Teen 1944 was dit duidelik dat die Avenger 'n borsbeeld was as 'n horisontale bomwerper, en dat die enigste gebruik waarmee die meeste spanne die Norden gebruik het, as 'n outomatiese piloot was. Die Norden het daardie jaar begin vervang met 'n konvensionele outomatiese piloot.

In Maart 1943 het Avengers begin om mynopdragte in die sentrale Solomons op te lê. Avengers sou uiteindelik baie gebruik word om myne in Japannese hawens in die Stille Oseaan te lê. In sommige gevalle is hawens stilweg ontgin net voor 'n meer algemene lug- of oppervlakaanval, om skeepvaart wat uit die hawe vlug, te vernietig.

Aan die einde van 1943 begin die Amerikaanse vloot lugpatrollies in die nag, wat bestaan ​​uit 'n radar-toegeruste Avenger vergesel van 'n paar konvensionele Hellcats, terwyl die Avenger as 'n lugdiensbeampte optree om sy vegters op die vyand te rig. Dit het taamlik noukeurige koördinasie geverg. Later in die oorlog is 'n radar ontwikkel wat klein en eenvoudig genoeg was om van enkelstoelvegters gebruik te word, wat die Avengers vrygelaat het om na vyandelike oorlogskepe te soek.

Teen die einde van die oorlog was die tipiese Amerikaanse lugdiens- of begeleide luggroep geheel en al uit vegters en Avengers, met Avengers wat ongeveer 'n derde van die vliegtuie in die luggroepe van die begeleier en ongeveer 'n kwart van die vliegtuie in ligte draers uitmaak. . Vlootvervoerders het 'n toenemende aantal vegters vervoer om af te weer kamikaze aanval, met 'n enkele eskader (ongeveer 15 vliegtuie) elk van Avengers en duikbomwerpers. Feitlik die hele produksie van die Avenger het na die Stille Oseaan gegaan.

Die Britte ontvang 402 en Nieu-Seeland 63 as Lend-Lease. Die vliegtuig het in die naoorlogse diens voortgegaan, met die Royal Navy se Fleet Air Arm wat nog tot 1953 100 Avengers as onderzeeervliegtuie gebruik.


Eastern TBM -1 Avenger - Geskiedenis

Vliegtuiggeskiedenis
Gebou deur General Motors, Eastern Aircraft Division. Afgelewer aan die Amerikaanse vloot (USN) as TBM-1C Avenger-buro nommer 45810.

Oorlogsgeskiedenis
Toegewys aan USS San Jacinto (CVL-30) aan Torpedo Squadron 51 (VT-51). Geen bynaam, neuskuns of eskadernommer bekend nie.

Sendinggeskiedenis
Op 27 Julie 1944 om 08:30 vertrek ons ​​vanaf USS San Jacinto (CVL-30) onder leiding van Lt. Ronald R. Houle tydens 'Operation Snapshot' gewapen met vier 500 pond bomme wat lei tot 'n formasie van vier Avengers op 'n bombardement teen pakhuise, stoorgeboue op die eiland Malakal (Ngemelachel) in Palau (teikengebiede 43.1-37.9 tot 43.3-38). Die formasie het ook agt F6F Hellcats van VF-51 plus vervoervliegtuie van USS Bunker Hill (CV-17) ingesluit, waaronder agt SB2C Helldivers van VB-8 en agt F6F Hellcats van VF-8 en agt TBM Avengers.

Die formasie het die teikengebied uit die suidooste op 'n hoogte van 9,000 'genader toe 'n skip suid van die Arorumaldon -eiland waargeneem is. Lt. Houle het die vaartuig raakgesien en na die suide gedraai en in 'n sweeftuigbom gestamp, maar die Avengers van VT-8 al in hul duik gewaar en sy aanval afgebreek en noordwaarts gedraai tot noordwes van Arakabesan-eiland (Ngerekebesang) en daarna na die reg om Malakal -eiland aan te val.

Voor die res van sy vlug het luitenant Houle alleen 'n sweefbomaanval van 7,000 'vanaf die noordweste na die suidooste begin, met die ander drie vliegtuie in sy vlug, ongeveer 5 km ver, waarna hy hom laas waargeneem het tydens 'n duik bo of net noordwes van Malakal -eiland teen 4 000 langs 'n wolk. Hierdie Avenger is nooit weer gesien nie, en toe dit nie terugkom nie, is dit weens onbekende oorsake amptelik as Missing In Action (MIA) gelys.

Terwyl die ander drie vliegtuie hul duike binnegekom het, het hulle 'n oop valskerm waargeneem waar iemand onder in die Malakal -hawe afdaal, ongeveer 200 meter suidoos van die kaai. Terselfdertyd is 'n brand op die water 'n paar honderd meter verder na die suide waargeneem, moontlik 'n vliegtuig wat neergestort het. Toe die ander drie vliegtuie uit hul duike trek, het hulle 'n vliegtuig met vierkantige vleuelpunte (moontlik 'n Avenger) op 'n afstand van 6-8 myl wes van Malakal waargeneem. Later het 'n ander vlug 'n vierkantige vlerkpuntvliegtuig waargeneem wat in vlak water net binne die buitenste rif 8-10 myl wes van die eiland Malakal gesak het. Destyds was daar geen inligting beskikbaar om vas te stel of een van hierdie waarnemings verband hou met die verlies van hierdie Avenger nie. Toe hierdie vliegtuig nie terugkeer nie, is dit amptelik as Missing In Action (MIA) gelys.

Die lot van die bemanning
Trouens, terwyl die vliegtuig laag oor die teiken vlieg, het die ontploffing die vliegtuig laat ontplof nadat die Avenger sy bom losgelaat het en dit in die see laat neerstort het. Die vlieënier het oorleef terwyl die skieter en radio -operateur in die ongeluk dood is. Pilot Houle het uit hierdie Avenger gered voordat dit neergestort het, maar sy lot is onbekend.

Wrakstukke
Hierdie Avenger het in die hawe van Malakal buite die eiland Malakal neergestort.

Op 24 Maart 2014 is die ongeluksterrein van hierdie Avenger op 'n diepte van ongeveer 100 'geleë deur 'n span van Project Recover, insluitend lede van Bent Prop plus personeel en studente van Scripps Institute of Oceanography, waaronder dr. Eric Terrill en die Universiteit van Delaware . Die ongeluksterrein is op 'n sanderige bodem bedek met sagte koraal. Een van die skroefblaaie is regop en onbuig en die linkervleuel met die ongeskonde pitotbuis is waargeneem.

Vier dae later het hulle ook die wrak van F6F Hellcat 41881 opgespoor. Op 31 Maart 2014 is 'n vlagseremonie oor die ongeluk met 'n Amerikaanse en Palau -vlag gehou.

Herstel van oorblyfsels
Gedurende April 2014 het 'n span van die Joint POW/MIA Accounting Command (JPAC) hul eie ondersoek gedoen. Op 20 April 2014 is 'n dokumentasie duik gemaak op die Avenger -ongeluksterrein met sonar en fotografie.

Gedurende Februarie 2018 is die susterskind van Kozak deur die Amerikaanse vloot gekontak om 'n DNS -monster te verskaf om moontlike oorblyfsels wat met stukke van 'n vliegtuig gevind is, te kontroleer of die DNA getoets is deur Defense POW/MIA Accounting Agency (DPAA).

Op 25 Julie 2018 het die Departement van Verdediging (DoD) aangekondig dat daar rekening gehou word met die radio -operateur Walter E. Mintus.

Gedenktekens
Die drie bemanningslede is amptelik op 4 Februarie 1946 dood verklaar. Al drie het postuum die Purple Heart verdien. Al drie word in die Amerikaanse begraafplaas van Manila gedenk op die tablette van die vermiste.

Houle het ook 'n gedenkmerker by die Fort Snelling Nasionale Begraafplaas in afdeling MA, terrein 28-2.

Ingram het ook 'n gedenkmerker by die Barrancas National Cemetery op artikel 36, terrein 2778.

Mintus is in November 2018 begrawe by die Sacred Heart Cemetery in Portage, PA.

Familielede
Rich Kozak (neef van Mintus)
Caroline Kozak (stiefsuster van Mintus)
Agnes Phillips (suster van Mintus)

Verwysings
Navy resultate vir soeknommers - TBM -1C Avenger 45810
USN oorsese vliegtuigverlieslys Julie 1944-TBM-1C 45810 VT-51 USS San Jacinto (CVL-30)
NARA & quotVT-51 ACA-verslae #1 tot en met 8-Lugoperasies teen Palau-eilande, periode 7/25-27/44 & quot bladsye 22-25
NARA & quotWar History, 5/3/44 tot 8/15/45 Bylaag -6 In Memoriam - Missing In Action & quot bladsy 87
& quotHoule, Roland R. Lietu. 7-27-44
Ingram, Otis E. ACOM 7-27-44
Mintus, Walter E. ARM3c 7-27-44 & quot
American Battle Monuments Commission (ABMC) - Roland R. Houle
American Battle Monuments Commission (ABMC) - Walter E. Mintus
& quot die oorblyfsels van Aviation Radioman 3rd Class Walter E. Mintus is in 2018 verantwoord & quot
American Battle Monuments Commission (ABMC) - Otis E. Ingram
& quot die oorblyfsels van Aviation Radioman 3rd Class Walter E. Mintus is in 2018 verantwoord & quot
FindAGrave - Lt Roland R Houle (tablette van die vermiste)
FindAGrave - Lieut Roland Richard Houle (gedenkmerker)
FindAGrave - ARM3 Walter E Mintus (tablette van die vermiste)
FindAGrave - Walter E “Bert” Mintus (foto, graf)
FindAGrave - ACOM Otis E Ingram (tablette van die vermiste)
FindAGrave - Otis Earl Ingram (gedenkmerker)
Brief van president G. H. W. Bush 2003 aan Agnes Phillips (suster)
Jou oom het op 27 Julie 1944 saam met luitenant (Roland Eichard) Houle na Palau gegaan en hulle het nooit weer teruggekeer nie. hulle is albei neergeskiet. Ek is op 2 September 1944 doodgeskiet en het albei my bemanningslede verloor, ”het Bush geskryf. 'Toe ek by die Withuis werk, het ons probeer om alle lewende VT-51-eskaderlede en familielede van die oorlede lede op te spoor. laat weet ons as u enige vrae het. Ek en Barbara is baie dankbaar vir u vriendelike woorde vir ons seun (president George W. Bush). Hou hom en ons dapper troepe asseblief in u gebede. ”
BentProp & quotP-MAN VII Update 5 Maart 2005 & quot (foto's) via Wayback 30 Maart 2016
BentProp & quotP-MAN VII Update 15 Maart 2005 & quot (foto's) via Wayback 30 Maart 2016
BentProp & quotP-MAN VII 2005 Finale verslag via Wayback 20 Oktober 2010
BentProp & quotP-MAN XVI Update # 12-Sukses, TBM-styl! & Quot 25 Maart 2014 via Wayback 2 April 2016
BentProp & quotP -MAN XVI Update # 13 - Sean se foto's vir The Big Find. & Quot 24 Maart 2014 via Wayback 2 April 2010 BentProp & quotP -MAN XVI Update # 14 - 'n Terugblik op 2005: vind 'n TBM -vleuel in die mangroves, hoor 'n gesin legende, en die sluiting van 'n ander sirkel. Daarom gee ons nooit op nie. & Quot 26 Maart 2014 via Wayback 31 Maart 2016
FoxNews & quot Groep jag Stille Oseaan -oerwoude vir oorskot van Tweede Wêreldoorlog -vegters, vliegtuie & quot; 3 April 2014
Joyce het gesê die wrak is van 'n General Motors TBM Avenger wat in die see neergestort het na 'n missie om 'n kragsentrale te bombardeer. Die vliegtuig vlieg so laag dat die bom ontplof het toe die bom afgegaan het en die ongeluk veroorsaak het. Japannese soldate het die vlieënier gevang en dadelik tereggestel. Die twee ander insittendes van die vliegtuig het met die vliegtuig afgegaan.
'Nege jaar gelede het 'n Palauan vir ons 'n vleuel van 'n Avenger diep in 'n mangrove -moeras gewys,' het BentProp & rsquos Flip Colmer van Palau gesê in sy verslag oor die soektog. Die mangrovebome het genoeg gegroei om die hele vleuel uit die water te lig. Maar geen ander dele kon gevind word nie en vorige soektogte het leeg geraak. 'Toe vertel 'n Palauese vriend van BentProp & rsquos ons 'n paar jaar later dat haar pa haar vertel het hoe hy gesien het hoe die vliegtuig raakgery word en van die kus neerstort,' het Colmer gesê. 'Sy wys selfs na die gebied waar ons uiteindelik die vliegtuig gekry het. & Quot
CNET & quotHoe BentProp en onderzeese robotte op 20 April 2014 verlore WWII-bomwerpers gevind het
(Foto) Later die dag [31 Maart 2014] sou Scannon 'n soortgelyke seremonie lei bo die wrak van 'n TBM Avenger wat ook in 1944 neergeskiet is. & Quot
Science Daily & quot; Vliegtuie uit die Tweede Wêreldoorlog wat vir 72 jaar vermis is, geleë op die Stille Oseaan -eilande, & quot; 25 Mei 2016
Ocean News & amp Technology & quot; Terugkeer uit die diepte: WW2 -vliegtuie wat aan die kus van Palau ontdek is
Scripps & quotNew Technology maak historiese vondste moontlik, 6 November 2014
In die geval van die twee vliegtuie wat verlede lente gevind is, 'n TBM Avenger en 'n F6F Hellcat, het BentProp hulle byna 10 jaar lank gesoek. Dit het die REMUS-gemonteerde instrumente geneem om dit op 'n diepte van meer as 100 voet te sien, weggesteek vir die gewone aanblik deur die aanhoudende troebel van die seebodem. & Quot
Science Daily & quot Die vlieëniers van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog het verlore geraak in waters buite Palau & quot, 10 November 2014
Die groep het hul soekgebied vernou en in Maart 2014 het die AUV's die res van die Avenger -bomwerper gevind, wat al 70 jaar lank vermis was. 'N Paar dae later het sonarbeelde gehelp om 'n tweede vliegtuig, 'n F6F Hellcat, op 'n tweede plek te onthul. & Quot
DPAA & quotSailor Killed Tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog (Mintus, W.) & Quot 25 Julie 2018
The Times & quot Familie van vermiste radio -radio van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog kry moontlik bevestiging van sy lot deur Tom Davidson, 27 Maart 2018
Dankie aan Reid Joyce / Bent Prop en Katherine Rasdorf vir meer inligting

Dra inligting by
Is u 'n familielid of is u 'n familielid van iemand wat genoem word?
Het u foto's of bykomende inligting om by te voeg?


voorberei deur Forest Garner

Die Amerikaanse vloot het in 1934 die prototipe van die wêreld se eerste torpedobomwerper, die Douglas TBD Devastator, in 1934 bestel. Die eerste jaar vlieg die produksie van hierdie gevorderde vliegtuig in 1937. Aangedryf deur 'n vroeë 850 pk Pratt & amp; Whitney R-1830 Twin Wasp, die TBD-1 kon 206 mph bereik. Lugvaarttegnologie het egter vinnig verander, en teen 1939 het die vloot erken dat verbeterde prestasie nodig is. Op 25 Maart van daardie jaar het die vloot kontrakteurs gevra om te reageer op 'n vereiste vir 'n gevorderde torpedovliegtuig. Hierdie besluit was gelukkig, want teen 1942 sou die TBD verouderd wees.

Die vereistes van 25 Maart sluit in 'n maksimum snelheid van 300 mph, 'n reikafstand van minstens 1000 myl terwyl 'n torpedo gedra word, 'n plafon van minstens 30,000 voet, 'n opstart in 'n gevegsversiering van nie meer as 325 voet in 'n 25-knoop nie wind, en 'n stilstand met 'n torpedo van nie meer as 70 km / h nie. Verder was dit nodig dat die torpedo, of bomme, intern gedra moes word. In reaksie hierop het die vloot 13 ontwerpvoorstelle van ses vervaardigers ontvang. Teen 3 November 1939 het die vloot gefokus op twee van hierdie ontwerpe, een van Vought, aangedryf deur die Pratt & amp; Whitney R-2800 Double Wasp, en een van Grumman aangedryf deur die Wright R-2600. Alhoewel die vloot sy voorneme aangekondig het om elke ontwerp te bestel, het dit ses maande geneem voordat die kontrakte toegeken is.

Grumman het op 8 April 1940 die bestelling ontvang vir twee voorbeelde van die XTBF-1. Ekstern het dit soos Grumman se F4F Wildcat gelyk, maar met 'n groter maag. Die TBF is van die begin af ontwerp met vouvlerke, met die voumeganisme wat daarna ontwikkel is vir die Martlet II en F4F-4 Wildcat. Bewapening het bestaan ​​uit een gesinchroniseerde "50 kaliber" (12,7 mm) Browning -masjiengeweer in die boonste enjin wat deur die skroef skiet, nog 'n 50 kaliber wapen wat uit 'n klein rewolwer aan die agterkant van die lang afdak skiet, en 'n buiklike 30 kaliber (7,62 mm) masjiengeweer wat agtertoe skiet vanuit 'n posisie net agter die lang wapenbaai. Die wapenbaai was groot genoeg om vier bomme van 500 pond, of 'n torpedo van 'n Markus 13-pond van 22,4 duim, te bevat. Daar is voorsiening gemaak vir die dra van die Norden -bomsig, maar Avenger -vlieëniers het bevind dat dit minder akkuraat is as ander mikttegnieke.

Die Amerikaanse vloot het dringend besluit om die TBD te vervang, aangesien 'n bestelling geplaas is vir 285 TBF-1-vliegtuie en een TBF-2 op 30 Desember 1940, meer as sewe maande voordat die prototipe XTBF-1 gereed was vir vlugtoetse. Die twee subtipes het verskil deurdat die TBF-1 aangedryf sou word deur die tweespoed-enkeltrap R-2600-8, terwyl die TBF-2 aangedryf moes word deur die enkelspoed tweestapige R-2600 -10.

Die prototipe vlieg op 7 Augustus 1941. Verskeie belangrike probleme is geïdentifiseer, maar is vinnig opgelos. Die ontwikkeling van die TBF is nie groot geraak toe die eerste prototipe neergestort het nadat die vlug op 28 November 1941 vlamgevat het nie, aangesien die tweede prototipe teen daardie tyd amper gereed was.

Die eerste produksie TBF-1 is op 3 Januarie 1942 voltooi. Die TBF-1 het 'n span van net meer as 54 voet (17 voet met gevoude vlerke), 'n lengte van 40 voet, geweeg 10.080 pond leeg, 13.667 pond gelaai en Maksimum 15 905 pond. Aangedryf deur 'n 1,600 pk Wright R-2600-8, bereik die TBF-1 'n maksimum snelheid van 271 mph op 12,000 ft, hoewel dit teen 'n rustige 145 mph gery het. Die interne brandstofvermoë was 335 liter, wat 'n reikafstand (met torpedo) van 1215 myl gee.

Grumman het 1 524 voorbeelde van die TBF-1 saamgestel, terwyl die Eastern Aircraft Division of General Motors 550 van die feitlik identiese TBM-1 gebou het.

Die benaming TBF-1B is van toepassing op 402 vliegtuie wat vir die Royal Navy gebou is, wat die Britte aanvanklik Tarpon T.R. Mark I, maar later genoem Avenger T.R. Mark I. British Avengers is soms deur Blackburn Aircraft aangepas volgens die Britse spesifikasie, insluitend die installering van Britse suurstofstelsels en gewere.

Die TBF-1C het die neusgemonteerde masjiengeweer verwyder en in plaas daarvan een wapen van 50 kaliber in elke vleuel gemonteer. Hierdie variant sou tot 391 liter ekstra brandstof in hulpbrandstoftenks dra. Grumman het 764 gebou, terwyl GM 2.332 van hul feitlik identiese TBM-1C gebou het.

Die TBF-1D was 'n wysiging van die TBF-1 wat die ASD- of ASB-radar pas vir die opsporing van duikbote of oppervlakteskepe.

Die eerste van twee XTBF-3-prototipes vlieg op 20 Junie 1943. Hierdie vliegtuig beskik oor die 1,900 pk Wright R-2600-20-enjin in 'n poging om die prestasie wat verlore gaan weens verhoogde bedryfsgewig in latere TBF-1-variante te herstel. Geen produksie TBF-3 is egter deur Grumman gebou nie. Om die fabriek van Grumman toe te laat fokus op die produksie van die kritiek belangrike F6F Hellcat, was die produksie van Avengers heeltemal in die hande van die Eastern Aircraft Division of General Motors, wat gedeeltes van die vliegtuie in verskeie stede vervaardig het en die laaste vergadering in Trenton, New, uitgevoer het. Jersey. GM het tussen April 1944 en Augustus 1945 4,657 van hierdie variant, die TBM-3, gebou.

Daar was ten minste 15 variante van die TBM-3, waaronder baie wat aangepas is om verskillende soorte radar vir oppervlaktesoek of radar vir vroeë waarskuwing in die lug te dra.

In sy eerste gevegsaksie in Midway op 4 Junie 1942 het die TBF sleg gevaar. Ses TBF-1-vliegtuie het die Japannese Kido Butai (Opvallende mag) van vier vlootvliegtuigkarre met 'n kragtige skerm aangeval. Vyf Avengers is neergeskiet, en die sesde, erg beskadig, het skaars na Midway Island teruggekeer. Hierdie aanval, soos die meeste daardie dag, het niks bereik nie. Douglas SBD Dauntless -duikbomwerpers het egter later die dag suksesvolle aanvalle gemaak wat al vier die Japannese draers fataal beskadig het.

In die daaropvolgende botsings met die Japannese vloot is die Avenger belemmer deur die ondoeltreffendheid van sy primêre wapen, die Mark 13 -torpedo. Die algemeen swak vervaardiging van hierdie wapen was 'n ernstige probleem, maar is deur die vele ontwerpfoute oorskadu. Dit was stadig en te broos vir vrystellingsnelhede van meer as 130 km / h (het later in die oorlog toegeneem). Alhoewel hierdie stadige vrystellingsnelheid die TBF kwesbaar gemaak het vir lugvuur, was vlieëniers dankbaar dat die Avenger 'n harde vliegtuig was, soos alle Grumman -vliegtuie van daardie era. Dit, en die swak Japannese vuurwapenskut, het baie Amerikaanse vlieëniers gered. Later is die Mark 13 -torpedo verbeter deur 'n "piekelvat" -behuizing rondom die neus van die torpedo te installeer om baie vinniger te laat val. Die kernkop, aanvanklik 401 pond TNT, is verhoog tot 600 pond van die veel sterker Torpex in 1943. Met die latere, meer effektiewe variante van die Mark 13, speel Avengers die primêre rol in die sink van die groot slagskepe Yamato en Musashi, en verskeie Japannese vliegdekskepe, kruisers, vernietigers en ander oorlogskepe.

Diens in die Atlantiese Oseaan

In die Atlantiese Oseaan was die Avenger die voor die hand liggende keuse om aan boord van Britse en Amerikaanse begeleiers te gebruik om konvooie te ondersoek en U-bote te jag. Avengers het U-bote opgeduik en op hulle neergeslaan in 'n sweefbomaanval, met die vrystelling van veelvuldige bomme van 250 pond, 325 pond of (meestal) 500 pond. As die U-boot 'n akkurate flak maak, kan die Avenger-vlieënier besluit om buite bereik te wag totdat ander vliegtuie help. Grumman Wildcat-vegters, met óf vier óf ses swaar masjiengewere, was dikwels effektief om die U-boot se vlaktebattery te demp sodat die Avengers hul aanvalle meer veilig kon maak. Later het die Avenger se arsenaal vuurpyle ingesluit vir gebruik op U-bote en na middel 1943 'n super-geheime anti-duikboot-torpedo, bekend as die Mark 24 Fido (ook genoem Zombie). Verskeie weergawes van die Avenger was toegerus met radar vir die vind van duikbote of oppervlakteskepe, met sonobuoys om ondergedompelde duikbote op te spoor, en met fakkels en soekligte om potensiële teikens in die nag te verlig. Dit was bekend dat Avengers kombinasies van hierdie toestelle dra, soos twee dieptebomme van 500 pond, een Fido, radar, fakkels en sonboeie.

Amerikaanse lugvaartgroepe van die escort -vervoer het 35 duikbote in die Atlantiese Oseaan gesink of gehelp. Die meeste van hierdie moordenaars moes waarskynlik deur Avengers gemaak gewees het. By hierdie totaal moet die prestasies van British Avengers gevoeg word. Boonop het Avengers anti-duikbootpatrollies vanaf landbasisse gevlieg en myne gelê.

In totaal is 9 839 Avengers bymekaargemaak, waaronder 2 293 TBF's wat deur Grumman gebou is en 7 466 TBM's wat deur Eastern Aircraft (General Motors) gebou is. Na die oorlog het hulle geleidelik van diens af verdwyn as die meeste vliegtuie van die era, en hulle het tot middel 1950's nuttige rolle beklee.

U-bote gesink deur hierdie tipe vliegtuig (Avenger)

1942
Sep U-589 +,

1943
Mei U-569, Jun U-217, U-118, Jul U-487 +, U-160, U-509, U-67,
U-527, U-43, Aug U-117 +, U-664 +, U-525 +, U-185, U-847 +, Okt U-422 +,
U-460 +, U-402, U-378 +, U-220 +, U-584, Des U-172 +, U-850 +,

1944
Jan U-544 +, Mrt U-575 +, U-801 +, U-1059 +, Apr U-288 +, U-515 +, U-68 +, Mei
U-66 +, Jun U-860 +, Jul U-543 +, Aug U-1229 +,

1945
Mei U-711 +,

35 U-bote het verloor vir Avenger-vliegtuie. + beteken dat die Avenger die eer vir die sinking gedeel het.

Bronne:

  • Francillion, R. J. (1989) "Grumman -vliegtuig sedert 1929"
    Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, besturende direkteur.
  • Gunston, W. (1986) "Amerikaanse oorlogsvliegtuie"
    Crescent Books, New York, NY.

Geselekteerde media -skakels


Eastern TBM -1 Avenger - Geskiedenis



























Oostelike (Grumman) TBM-3 Avenger
Tweede Wereldoorlog-gebaseerde enkelmotorige torpedobomwerper met drie motors, VSA

Argieffoto's [1]

[Eastern TBM-3 & ldquoAvenger & rdquo (BuNo 53835, c/n 3897, N3967A) te sien (10/10/2012) by die CAF Museum, Falcon Field Airport, Mesa, Arizona (Foto deur lt.kol. Marc Matthews, MD) ]

Oorsig [2]

  • Grumman TBF/Eastern TBM & ldquoAvenger & rdquo
  • Rol: Torpedo -bomwerper
  • Vervaardiger: Grumman (TBF) General Motors/Eastern Aircraft (TBM)
  • Eerste vlug: 7 Augustus 1941
  • Inleiding: 1942
  • Afgetree: 1960's
  • Status: Afgetree
  • Primêre gebruikers: Amerikaanse vloot, Royal Navy Royal Canadian Navy Royal New Zealand Air Force
  • Aantal gebou: 9 839

Die Grumman TBF & ldquoAvenger & rdquo (TBM deur General Motors) was 'n torpedobomwerper wat aanvanklik vir die Amerikaanse vloot en mariene korps ontwikkel is en uiteindelik deur verskeie lug- of vlootwapens regoor die wêreld gebruik is.

Die & ldquoAvenger & rdquo tree in 1942 in die Amerikaanse diens en het die eerste keer aksie tydens die Slag van Midway gesien. Ondanks die verlies van vyf van die ses & ldquoAvengers & rdquo tydens sy gevegsdebuut, het dit in diens oorleef om een ​​van die uitstaande torpedobomwerpers van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog te word. Na die oorlog is dit baie aangepas en het dit tot in die 1960's gebruik.

Ontwerp en ontwikkeling [2]

Die Douglas TBD & ldquoDevastator & rdquo, die belangrikste torpedobomaanvaller van die Amerikaanse vloot wat in 1935 bekendgestel is, was teen 1939 verouderd. Biedinge is deur verskeie maatskappye aanvaar, maar Grumman se TBF -ontwerp is gekies as die vervanging van die TBD en twee prototipes is in April 1940 deur die vloot bestel. Ontwerp deur Leroy Grumman, die eerste prototipe, is die XTBF-1 genoem. Dit is die eerste keer op 1 Augustus 1941 gevlieg. Hoewel een van die eerste twee prototipes naby Brentwood, New York, neergestort het, het die vinnige produksie voortgegaan.

Grumman se eerste torpedobomwerper was die swaarste enkelmotorige vliegtuig van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog, en slegs die USAAF se Republiek P-47 & ldquoThunderbolt & rdquo was naby daaraan om die maksimum gewig onder alle enkelmotorjagters te vergelyk, slegs 181 kg teen die einde van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog ligter as die TBF. Die & ldquoAvenger & rdquo was die eerste ontwerp met 'n nuwe & ldquocompound-hoek en rdquo-vouvou-voumeganisme wat deur Grumman geskep is, wat bedoel was om die stoorplek op 'n vliegdekskip te maksimeer, die Grumman F4F-4 & ldquoWildcat & rdquo en latere modelle van & ldquoWildcat & rdquo het 'n soortgelyke vouwvleuel ontvang het ook hierdie meganisme gebruik. Die enjin wat gebruik is, was die Wright R-2600-20 & ldquoCyclone & rdquo 14 tweery radiale enjin (wat 1,900 pk/1,417 kW gelewer het). Die vliegtuig het 25 liter olie geneem en het 'n liter per minuut by die aanvang gebruik. There were three crew members: pilot, turret gunner and radioman/bombardier/ventral gunner. One 0.30 caliber machine gun was mounted in the nose, a 0.50 caliber (12.7 mm) gun was mounted right next to the turret gunner's head in a rear-facing electrically powered turret, and a single 0.30 caliber hand-fired machine gun mounted ventrally (under the tail), which was used to defend against enemy fighters attacking from below and to the rear. This gun was fired by the radioman/bombardier while standing up and bending over in the belly of the tail section, though he usually sat on a folding bench facing forward to operate the radio and to sight in bombing runs. Later models of the TBF/TBM dispensed with the nose-mounted gun for one 0.50 caliber gun in each wing per pilots' requests for better forward firepower and increased strafing ability. There was only one set of controls on the aircraft, and no access to the pilot's position from the rest of the aircraft. The radio equipment was massive, especially by today's standards, and filled the whole glass canopy to the rear of the pilot. The radios were accessible for repair through a &ldquotunnel&rdquo along the right hand side. Any &ldquoAvengers&rdquo that are still flying today usually have an additional rear-mounted seat in place of the radios, allowing for a fourth passenger.

The &ldquoAvenger&rdquo had a large bomb bay, allowing for one Bliss-Leavitt Mark 13 torpedo, a single 2,000 pound (907 kg) bomb, or up to four 500 pound (227 kg) bombs. The aircraft had overall ruggedness and stability, and pilots say it flew like a truck, for better or worse. With its good radio facilities, docile handling, and long range, the Grumman &ldquoAvenger&rdquo also made an ideal command aircraft for Commanders, Air Group (CAG's). With a 30,000 ft (10,000 m) ceiling and a fully loaded range of 1,000 mi (1,610 km), it was better than any previous American torpedo bomber, and better than its Japanese counterpart, the obsolete Nakajima B5N &ldquoKate&rdquo. Later &ldquoAvenger&rdquo models carried radar equipment for the ASW and AEW roles. Although improvements in new types of aviation radar were soon forthcoming from the engineers at MIT and the electronic industry, the available radars in 1943 were very bulky, because they contained vacuum tube technology. Because of this, radar was at first carried only on the roomy TBF &ldquoAvengers&rdquo, but not on the smaller and faster fighters.

Escort carrier sailors referred to the TBF as the &ldquoturkey&rdquo because of its size and maneuverability in comparison to the F4F &ldquoWildcat&rdquo fighters in CVE airgroups.

Operasionele geskiedenis [2]

On the afternoon of 7 December 1941, Grumman held a ceremony to open a new manufacturing plant and display the new TBF to the public. Coincidentally, on that day, the Imperial Japanese Navy attacked Pearl Harbor, as Grumman soon found out. After the ceremony was over, the plant was quickly sealed off to guard against possible sabotage. By early June 1942, a shipment of more than 100 aircraft was sent to the Navy, ironically arriving only a few hours after the three carriers quickly departed from Pearl Harbor, so most of them were too late to participate in the pivotal &ldquoBattle of Midway&rdquo.

Six TBF-1's were present on Midway Island, as part of VT-8 (Torpedo Squadron 8), while the rest of the squadron flew &ldquoDevastator&rdquos from the USS Hornet. Unfortunately, both types of torpedo bombers suffered heavy casualties. Out of the six &ldquoAvengers&rdquo, five were shot down and the other returning heavily damaged with one of its gunners killed, and the other gunner and the pilot injured. Nonetheless, the US torpedo bombers were credited with drawing away the Japanese combat air patrols so the American dive bombers could successfully hit the Japanese carriers.

Author Gordon Prange posited in &ldquoMiracle at Midway&rdquo that the outdated &ldquoDevastator&rdquos (and lack of new aircraft) contributed somewhat to the lack of a complete victory at Midway (the four Japanese fleet carriers were sunk directly by dive bombers instead). Others pointed out that the inexperienced American pilots and lack of fighter cover were responsible for poor showing of US torpedo bombers, regardless of type. Later in the war, with improving American air superiority, attack coordination, and more veteran pilots, &ldquoAvengers&rdquo were able to play vital roles in the subsequent battles against Japanese surface forces.

On 24 August 1942, the next major naval battle occurred at the Eastern Solomons. Based on the carriers &ldquoUSS Saratoga&rdquo and &ldquoUSS Enterprise&rdquo, the 24 TBF's present were able to sink the Japanese light carrier &ldquoRyujo&rdquo and claim one dive bomber, at the cost of seven aircraft.

The first major &ldquoprize&rdquo for the TBF's (which had been assigned the name "&ldquoAvenger&rdquo" in October 1941, before the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor) was at the Naval Battle of Guadalcanal in November 1942, when Marine Corps and Navy &ldquoAvengers&rdquo helped sink the battleship &ldquoHiei&rdquo, which had already been crippled the night before.

After hundreds of the original TBF-1 models were built, the TBF-1C began production. The allotment of space for specialized internal and wing-mounted fuel tanks doubled the &ldquoAvenger&rdquo's range. By 1943, Grumman began to slowly phase out production of the &ldquoAvenger&rdquo to produce F6F &rdquoHellcat&rdquo fighters, and the Eastern Aircraft Division of General Motors took-over, with these aircraft being designated TBM. The Eastern Aircraft plant was located in North Tarrytown (re-named Sleepy Hollow in 1996), NY. Starting in mid-1944, the TBM-3 began production (with a more powerful powerplant and wing hardpoints for drop tanks and rockets). The TBM-3 was the most numerous of the &ldquoAvengers&rdquo (with about 4,600 produced). However, most of the &ldquoAvengers&rdquo in service were TBM-1's until near the end of the war in 1945.

Besides the traditional surface role (torpedoing surface ships), &ldquoAvengers&rdquo claimed about 30 submarine kills, including the cargo submarine I-52. They were one of the most effective sub-killers in the Pacific theater, as well as in the Atlantic, when escort carriers were finally available to escort Allied convoys. There, the &ldquoAvengers&rdquo contributed in warding off German U-Boats while providing air cover for the convoys.

After the &ldquoMarianas Turkey Shoot,&rdquo in which more than 250 Japanese aircraft were downed, Admiral Marc Mitscher ordered a 220-aircraft mission to find the Japanese task force. At the extreme end of their range, 300 nm (560 km) out, the group of &rdquoHellcats&rdquo, TBF/TBM's, and dive bombers took many casualties. However, &ldquoAvengers&rdquo from &ldquoUSS Belleau Wood&rdquo torpedoed the light carrier &ldquoHiyo&rdquo as their only major prize. Mitscher's gamble did not pay off as well as he had hoped.

In June 1943, future-President George H.W. Bush became the youngest naval aviator at the time. While flying a TBM with VT-51 from the &ldquoUSS San Jacinto&rdquo (CVL-30), his TBM was shot down on 2 September 1944 over the Pacific island of Chichi Jima. Both of his crewmates died. However, he released his payload and hit the target before being forced to bail out he received the Distinguished Flying Cross.

Another famous &ldquoAvenger&rdquo aviator was Paul Newman, who flew as a rear gunner. He had hoped to be accepted for pilot training, but did not qualify because of being color blind. Newman was on board the escort carrier &ldquoUSS Hollandia&rdquo roughly 500 mi (800 km) from Japan when the Boeing B-29 &ldquoEnola Gay&rdquo dropped the first atomic bomb on Hiroshima.

The &ldquoAvenger&rdquo was the type of torpedo bomber used during the sinking of the two Japanese super battleships &ldquoMusashi&rdquo and &ldquoYamato&rdquo.

The &ldquoAvenger&rdquo was also used by the Royal Navy's Fleet Air Arm where it was initially known as the &ldquoTarpon&rdquo however this name was later discontinued and the &ldquoAvenger&rdquo name used instead, as part of the process of the Fleet Air Arm universally adopting the U.S. Navy's names for American naval aircraft. The first 402 aircraft were known as &ldquoAvenger&rdquo Mk 1, 334 TBM-1's from Grumman were the &ldquoAvenger&rdquo Mk II and 334 TBM-3 the Mark III.

The only other operator in World War II was the Royal New Zealand Air Force which used the type primarily as a bomber, operating from South Pacific Island bases. Some of these were transferred to the British Pacific Fleet.

During World War II, the US aeronautical research arm NACA used a complete &ldquoAvenger&rdquo in a comprehensive drag-reduction study in their large Langley wind tunnel. The resulting NACA Technical Report shows the impressive results available if practical aircraft did not have to be &ldquopractical&rdquo.

In 1945 &ldquoAvengers&rdquo were involved in pioneering trials of aerial topdressing in New Zealand that led to the establishment of an industry which markedly increased food production and efficiency in farming worldwide. Pilots of the Royal New Zealand Air Force's 42 Squadron spread fertilizer from &ldquoAvengers&rdquo beside runways at Ohakea air base and provided a demonstration for farmers at Hood Aerodrome, Masterton, NZ.

The postwar disappearance of a flight of American &ldquoAvengers&rdquo, known as &ldquoFlight 19&rdquo, was later added to the &ldquoBermuda Triangle&rdquo legend.

100 USN TBM-3E's were supplied to the Fleet Air Arm in 1953 under the US Mutual Defense Assistance Program. The aircraft were shipped from Norfolk, Virginia, many aboard the Royal Navy aircraft carrier &ldquoHMS Perseus&rdquo. The &ldquoAvengers&rdquo were fitted with British equipment by Scottish Aviation and delivered as the &ldquoAvenger&rdquo AS.4 to several FAA squadrons including No. 767, 814, 815, 820 and 824. The aircraft were replaced from 1954 by Fairey &ldquoGannets&rdquo and were passed to squadrons of the Royal Naval Reserve including No. 1841 and 1844 until the RNR was disbanded. The survivors were transferred to the French Navy in 1957-1958.

One of the primary postwar users of the &ldquoAvenger&rdquo was the Royal Canadian Navy, which obtained 125 former US Navy TBM-3E &ldquoAvengers&rdquo from 1950 to 1952 to replace their venerable Fairey &ldquoFireflies&rdquo. By the time the &ldquoAvengers&rdquo were delivered, the RCN was shifting its primary focus to anti-submarine warfare (ASW), and the aircraft was rapidly becoming obsolete as an attack platform. Consequently, 98 of the RCN &ldquoAvengers&rdquo were fitted with an extensive number of novel ASW modifications, including radar, electronic countermeasures (ECM) equipment, and sonobuoys, and the upper ball turret was replaced with a sloping glass canopy that was better suited for observation duties. The modified &ldquoAvengers&rdquo were designated AS3. A number of these aircraft were later fitted with a large magnetic anomaly detector (MAD) boom on the rear left side of the fuselage and were redesignated AS3M. However, RCN leaders soon realized the &ldquoAvenger&rdquo's shortcomings as an ASW aircraft, and in 1954 they elected to replace the AS3 with the Grumman S-2 &ldquoTracker&rdquo, which offered longer range, greater load-carrying capacity for electronics and armament, and a second engine, a great safety benefit when flying long-range ASW patrols over frigid North Atlantic waters. As delivery of the new license-built Grumman CS2F &ldquoTracker&rdquos began in 1957, the &ldquoAvengers&rdquo were shifted to training duties, and were officially retired in July 1960.

Camouflage Research [2]

TBM &ldquoAvengers&rdquo were used in wartime research into counter-illumination camouflage. The torpedo bombers were fitted with Yehudi lights, a set of forward-pointing lights automatically adjusted to match the brightness of the sky. The planes therefore appeared as bright as the sky, rather than as dark shapes. The technology, a development of the Canadian navy's diffused lighting camouflage research, allowed an &ldquoAvenger&rdquo to advance to within 3,000 yards (2,700 m) before been seen.

Civilian Use [2]

Many &ldquoAvengers&rdquo have survived into the 21st century working as spray-applicators and water-bombers throughout North America, particularly in the Canadian province of New Brunswick.

Forest Protection Limited (FPL) of Fredericton, NB once owned and operated the largest civilian fleet of &ldquoAvengers&rdquo in the world. FPL began operating &ldquoAvengers&rdquo in 1958 after purchasing 12 surplus TBM-3E aircraft from the Royal Canadian Navy. Use of the &ldquoAvenger&rdquo fleet at FPL peaked in 1971 when 43 aircraft were in use as both water bombers and spray aircraft. The company sold three &ldquoAvengers&rdquo in 2004 (C-GFPS, C-GFPM, and C-GLEJ) to museums or private collectors. The Central New Brunswick Woodsmen's Museum has a former FPL &ldquoAvenger&rdquo on static display. An FPL &ldquoAvenger&rdquo that crashed in 1975 in southwestern New Brunswick was recovered and restored by a group of interested aviation enthusiasts and is currently on display. FPL was still operating three &ldquoAvengers&rdquo in 2010 configured as water-bombers, and stationed at Miramichi Airport. One of these crashed just after takeoff on April 23, 2010, killing the pilot. The last FPL &ldquoAvenger&rdquo was retired on July 26th, 2012 and sold to the Shearwater Aviation Museum in Dartmouth Nova Scotia.

There are several other &ldquoAvengers&rdquo in private collections around the world today. They are a popular airshow fixture in both flying and static displays.

Variante [2]

  • XTBF-1: Prototypes each powered by a 1,700 hp (1,300 kW) R-2600-8 engine, second aircraft introduced the large dorsal fin. (2 built)
  • TBF-1: Initial production model based on the second prototype. (1,526 built)
  • TBF-1B: Paper designation for the &ldquoAvenger&rdquo I for the Royal Navy.
  • TBF-1C: TBF-1 with provision for two 0.5 in (12.7 mm) wing guns and fuel capacity increased to 726 gal (2,748 l). (765 built)
  • TBF-1CD: TBF-1C conversions with centimetric radar in radome on starboard wing leading edge.
  • TBF-1CP: TBF-1C conversion for photo-reconnaissance.
  • TBF-1D: TBF-1 conversions with centimetric radar in radome on starboard wing leading edge.
  • TBF-1E: TBF-1 conversions with additional electronic equipment.
  • TBF-1J: TBF-1 equipped for bad weather operations.
  • TBF-1L: TBF-1 equipped with retractable searchlight in bomb bay.
  • TBF-1P: TBF-1 conversion for photo-reconnaissance.
  • XTBF-2: TBF-1 re-engined with a 1,900 hp (1,400 kW) XR-2600-10 engine.
  • XTBF-3: TBF-1 re-engined with 1,900 hp (1,400 kW) R-2600-20 engines.
  • TBF-3: Planned production version of the XTBF-3, cancelled.

General Motors (Easter Aircraft) TBM

  • TBM-1: As TBF-1 (550 built)
  • TBM-1C: As TBF-1C. (2336 built)
  • TBM-1D: TBM-1 conversions with centimetric radar in radome on starboard wing leading edge.
  • TBM-1E: TBM-1 conversions with additional electronic equipment.
  • TBM-1J: TBM-1 equipped for all weather operations.
  • TBM-1L: TBM-1 equipped with retractable searchlight in bomb bay.
  • TBM-1P: TBM-1 conversion for photo-reconnaissance.
  • TBM-1CP: TBM-1C conversion for photo-reconnaissance.
  • TBM-2: One TBM-1 re-engined with a 1,900 hp (1,400 kW) XR-2600-10 engine.
  • XTBM-3: Four TBM-1C aircraft with 1,900 hp (1,400 kW) R-2600-20 engines.
  • TBM-3: As TBM-1C, double cooling intakes, engine upgrade, minor changes. (4,011 built)
  • TBM-3D: TBM-3 conversion with centimetric radar in radome on starboard wing leading edge.
  • TBM-3E: As TBM-3, stronger airframe, search radar, ventral gun deleted. (646 built).
  • TBM-3H: TBM-3 conversion with surface search radar.
  • TBM-3J: TBM-3 equipped for all weather operations.
  • TBM-3L: TBM-3 equipped with retractable searchlight in bomb bay.
  • TBM-3M: TBM-3 conversion as a missile launcher.
  • TBM-3N: TBM-3 conversion for night attack.
  • TBM-3P: TBM-3 conversion for photo-reconnaissance.
  • TBM-3Q: TBM-3 conversion for electronic countermeasures with large ventral radome.
  • TBM-3R: TBM-3 conversions as seven-passenger, Carrier onboard delivery transport.
  • TBM-3S: TBM-3 conversion as an anti-submarine strike version.
  • TBM-3U: TBM-3 conversion as a general utility and target version.
  • TBM-3W: TBM-3 conversion as an anti-Submarine search with APS-20 radar in ventral radome.
  • XTBM-4: Prototypes based on TBM-3E with modified wing incorporating a reinforced center section and a different folding mechanism. (3 built)
  • TBM-4: Production version of XTBM-4, 2,141 on order were cancelled.
  • &ldquoAvenger&rdquo Mk.I: RN designation of the TBF-1, 400 delivered.
  • &ldquoAvenger&rdquo Mk.II: RN designation of the TBM-1/TBM-1C, 334 delivered.
  • &ldquoAvenger&rdquo Mk.III RN designation of the TBM-3, 222 delivered.
  • &ldquoAvenger&rdquo Mk.IV: RN designation of the TBM-3S, 70 cancelled
  • &ldquoAvenger&rdquo AS4: RN designation of the TBM-3S, 100 delivered postwar.
  • &ldquoAvenger&rdquo AS3: Modified by RCN for anti-submarine duty, dorsal gun turret removed, 98 built.
  • &ldquoAvenger&rdquo AS3M: AS3 with magnetic anomaly detector boom added to rear fuselage.

Operators [2]

  • Brazil: Brazilian Navy operated three &ldquoAvengers&rdquo in the 1950s for deck crew training aboard the carrier &ldquoMinas Gerais&rdquo (A-11).
  • Canada: Royal Canadian Navy operated &ldquoAvengers&rdquo until replaced by the CS2F &ldquoTracker&rdquo in 1960.
  • France: Aéronavale operated &ldquoAvengers&rdquo in 1950s.
  • Japan: Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force operated Hunter-Killer &ldquoAvengers&rdquo groups in 1950s and 1960's.
  • Netherlands: Royal Netherlands Navy - the Dutch Naval Aviation Service operated &ldquoAvengers&rdquo during the 1950s.
  • New Zealand Royal New Zealand Air Force No. 30, 31, 41 & 42 Squadrons RNZAF Central Fighter Establishment.
  • United Kingdom Royal Navy - Fleet Air Arm 820, 828, 832, 845-846, 848-857, 955 Naval Air Squadrons.
  • United States: United States Navy United States Marine Corps.
  • Uruguay: Uruguayan Navy operated &ldquoAvengers&rdquo in 1950s.

Specifications (TBF &ldquoAvenger&rdquo) [2]

Algemene kenmerke

  • Bemanning: 3
  • Length: 40 ft 11.5 in (12.48 m)
  • Wingspan: 54 ft 2 in (16.51 m)
  • Height: 15 ft 5 in (4.70 m)
  • Wing area: 490.02 ft² (45.52 m²)
  • Empty weight: 10,545 lb (4,783 kg)
  • Loaded weight: 17,893 lb (8,115 kg)
  • Powerplant: 1 × Wright R-2600-20 radial engine, 1,900 hp (1,420 kW)

Performance

  • Maximum speed: 275 mph (442 km/h)
  • Range: 1,000 mi (1,610 km)
  • Service ceiling: 30,100 ft (9,170 m)
  • Rate of climb: 2,060 ft/min (10.5 m/s)
  • Wing loading: 36.5 lb/ft² (178 kg/m²)
  • Power/mass: 0.11 hp/lb (0.17 kW/kg)
  • Guns: 1 × 0.30 in (7.62 mm) nose-mounted M1919 Browning machine gun(on early models)
  • Guns: 2 × 0.50 in (12.7 mm) wing-mounted M2 Browning machine guns
  • Guns: 1 × 0.50 in (12.7 mm) dorsal-mounted M2 Browning machine gun
  • Guns: 1 × 0.30 in (7.62 mm) ventral-mounted M1919 Browning machine gun
  • Rockets: up to eight 3.5-inch forward firing aircraft Rockets, 5-inch forward firing aircraft rockets or high velocity aerial rockets
  • Bombs: Up to 2,000 lb (907 kg) of bombs or 1 × 2,000 lb (907 kg) Mark 13 torpedo

Copyright © 1998-2019 (Our 21 st Year) Skytamer Images, Whittier, California
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED


Fleet Air Arm Avenger- which kit?

Can any of the Trumpeter 1/32 Avengers be built as an FAA Avenger or Tarpon? Tried looking on http://www.fleetairarmarchive.net/ but couldn't figure it out.
I've got a crazy hankering, but I'm going to suppress it and build an Avenger instead. BTW, it's too dammed hot to paint out on my back porch today- about 107 or so. Gotta go down to Palm Springs tomorrow, too. 2000 feet lower means that much more sweaty!

Jim Atkins
Twentynine Palms CA

"Outside of a dog, a book is man's best friend. Inside of a dog, it's too dark to read." - Groucho Marx

Depends on the paint scheme you want

Aug 16, 2007 #2 2007-08-16T23:13

The TBM 3 from what I have been able to work out only flew with the FAA in all over dark blue whilst the TBF-1/1C (Tarpon 1/2) flew in the variety of colour schemes with the FAA.

I am going to be using the Eagle STrike decals sheet 32072 for my 1/32 TBF-1C Avenger. It comes with three schemes:
1. Avenger I of 711 SQN 1945, Extra Dk sea grey/slate grey upper with white lower surfaces
2. Avenger 1 of 832 SQN, HMAS Begum 1944, EDSG/SG upper and RAF Sky lower with white cowling ring and
3. Tarpon Mk II of 848 SQN, HMAS Formidable mid 1945, EDSG/SG/RAF Sky.

OK- so I think I've got it now-

Aug 17, 2007 #3 2007-08-17T00:16

That's the sheet I was looking at and got started on this quest. Avengers were TBM-3s, Tarpon I was the TBF-1, and Tarpon II was the TBF-1C then. I know about the bulged observer window on Tarpons- do the kits have it included? Before I really outrage my wife I'd like to get the right kit in the first place.

Jim Atkins
Twentynine Palms CA

"Outside of a dog, a book is man's best friend. Inside of a dog, it's too dark to read." - Groucho Marx

My kit doesn't have the rounded windows

Aug 17, 2007 #4 2007-08-17T01:49

I just had a look and compared it against the Accurate Miniatures kit and the 1/32 kit doesn't inlude the rounded windows unfortunately. I'm sure that someone out there makes after market stuff for it but I don't know who. There are numerous PE sets for the kit but i'm not sure that the kit actualy needs them as it is BIG and reasonably well detailed.

Wifes do get a bit fussy over spending the $ for the kit! My wife only relented as I swapped some kit's I wasn't using for it.

Aug 17, 2007 #5 2007-08-17T03:42

I saw a kit build and I believe the builder bought a Squadron-Falcon canopy set for the 1/48 Monogram B-29 and used the gunner blisters for the bulged circular windows on a Fleet Air Arm Avenger/Tarpon. I believe it was the Trumpeter kit.

Try to find the build by Jamie Haggo

Aug 17, 2007 #6 2007-08-17T07:16

Can any of the Trumpeter 1/32 Avengers be built as an FAA Avenger or Tarpon? Tried looking on http://www.fleetairarmarchive.net/ but couldn't figure it out.
I've got a crazy hankering, but I'm going to suppress it and build an Avenger instead. BTW, it's too dammed hot to paint out on my back porch today- about 107 or so. Gotta go down to Palm Springs tomorrow, too. 2000 feet lower means that much more sweaty!

Jim Atkins
Twentynine Palms CA

"Outside of a dog, a book is man's best friend. Inside of a dog, it's too dark to read." - Groucho Marx

FAA Avengers

Aug 17, 2007 #7 2007-08-17T09:38

The TBM 3 from what I have been able to work out only flew with the FAA in all over dark blue whilst the TBF-1/1C (Tarpon 1/2) flew in the variety of colour schemes with the FAA.

I am going to be using the Eagle STrike decals sheet 32072 for my 1/32 TBF-1C Avenger. It comes with three schemes:
1. Avenger I of 711 SQN 1945, Extra Dk sea grey/slate grey upper with white lower surfaces
2. Avenger 1 of 832 SQN, HMAS Begum 1944, EDSG/SG upper and RAF Sky lower with white cowling ring and
3. Tarpon Mk II of 848 SQN, HMAS Formidable mid 1945, EDSG/SG/RAF Sky.

Hi!
Here is a quick primer on FAA Avengers.

Tarpon/Avenger I: All Grumman built TBF-1b and TBF-1c.
the TBF-1b is an expor version of the TBF-1.

Tarpon/Avenger II: All Eastern Built TBM-1 and TBM-1c

Avenger III: All Eastern built TBM-3

All were delivered with the second cockpit similar to the TBF/M-1, but with British radios. All were delivered with the bubble observers windows on the fuselage sides.


As for colors, all MK.I a/c were delivered in shades of EDSG, DSG, and sky which matched the MAP shades.All had Bronze green cockpits and tinted zinc chromate crew areas. The remainder of the interior was probably in "Grumman Grey", esp the cowl.

All Mk.II were delivered in US colors of Olive Drab, Sea Grey ( close to Neutral grey) and USN Non-Specular Lt. Grey. The entire cockpit was in interior green. The remainder of the interior of the airframe was in tinted zinc chromate or yellow Zinc chromate primer.

All Mk.III were delivered in Glossy Sea Blue.The remainder or the paint was as the Mk.II

So what you need is the serial number to see
1- Who built the a/c
2- was it a -1 or a -1c?


Ziroli Avenger History

Back in the early 2000s, Nick Ziroli Jr. wanted to design something extra special to compete with at Frank Tiano’s Top Gun Scale Invitational event. Since he hailed from Long Island, the famous Grumman TBM Avenger torpedo/bomber seemed most appropriate.


Nick Jr. designed and drew all the working plans for the 1/6-scale TBM model. He went on to build all the plugs and develop molds to produce the fiberglass fuselage and engine cowling, and he vacuum-formed the clear plastic canopy and gun turret. Nick Jr. then tackled the very daunting job of designing and machining the functional folding-wing mechanism. Nick Sr.’s longtime friend Bob Walker of Robart Manufacturing agreed to build the scale retractable landing gear and also helped Nick work out the design of the wing hinge locks.

The finished Avenger was a sight to behold. Powered by a Precision Eagle 4.2ci gas engine, the TBM was all done up in the U.S. Navy colors of future President George H.W. Bush.

The Avenger impressed everyone with its torpedo drop demo flights. The only real issue with the new model was that the folding wing mechanism gave the aircraft a very high wing loading, and it was subsequently damaged during one of the flights at Top Gun.

Undaunted, Nick returned to the workshop, removed the folding wing mechanism, and switched to lighter plug-in outer wing panels. The second time around Nick refinished his Avenger in the colors of the British Tarpon I. All went extremely well, or so it seemed, until the model experienced radio failure shortly after takeoff for the halftime show. The model climbed out at a high angle, tip-stalled, and came down hard, seriously damaging the airframe.

Nick Jr. had no intentions of completing the Avenger plans or offering them (or molded parts) for sale, but close friend Tony Kirchenko of Setauket, New York really wanted to build one. So Nick Jr. sent the damaged landing gear back to Robart for repair while he and Tony laid up another fuselage from the mold. They cut foam cores for the outer wing panels, and some months later, a new Grumman TBM, powered with a Quadra 75cc gas engine, rolled onto the Skyhawks’ flightline.

Tony’s new TBM featured a fully detailed cockpit interior, a droppable torpedo from its internal bomb/torpedo bay, and a retractable tail hook. Tony’s Avenger was just as impressive as the original. After owning it for several years, Tony decided it needed a new home as it was just too big was always cumbersome for Tony to move around.

Enter Jim McQueen of Wading River, New York. When Jim heard that Tony’s TBM was for sale, he jumped at the opportunity. You see, this was not only a Ziroli-designed TBM, it was the only flying Ziroli Avenger flying in the entire world! There are no others. You can’t build one, because there aren’t any plans available. And you can’t buy one, unless you make a deal with Jim, and I don’t think he intends to let go of this one any time soon.


Eastern TBM-1 Avenger - History

Off Cape Cod – July 19, 1944

U.S. Navy TBM Avengers
National Archives Photo

At about 10:45 p.m., on the night of July 19, 1944, an unspecified number of navy airplanes were conducting night training maneuvers off Cape Cod, Massachusetts, when two aircraft, both TBM-1C Avengers, were involved in a mid-air collision.

One plane, (Bu. No. 45716), was able to make it back safely to Otis Air Field in Falmouth, Massachusetts the other, (Bu. No. 45706), plunged into the sea and both men aboard were lost and never recovered. They were identified as:

(Pilot) Ensign Leo Henry Reimers, 22, of Yamhill, Oregon. There is a memorial to Ensign Reimers in Willamette National Cemetery, in Portland, Oregon. To see a photo, and learn more information about Ensign Reimers, see www.findagrave.com, Memorial, # 36351469.)

Aviation Radioman 3/c Herbert W. Burke, of Milton, Oregon.

The Register-Guard, (Eugene, Ore.), “Two Oregon Fliers Lost Off Cape Cod.”


“The first behemoth to fall victim to the Avengers’ attacks was the Musashi, a 67,000-ton battleship that sunk after nineteen hits.”

It almost never fails that heads turn and cameras flash as the powerful R-2600 engine of the TBM Avenger roars to life. This is the same roar echoed off countless carrier decks throughout the world over fifty years ago. Constructed in 1940 as a replacement for the obsolete Douglas TBD Devastator, Grumman’s team ended up creating one of the most influential aircraft of the Second World War.

The Avenger’s line of service began when a group of six Avengers took off on June 4th, 1942 as part of the Battle of Midway. Unfortunately, all but one of the six Avengers launched were shot down. This bloody initiation into combat caused the Navy to lose faith in the potential of the Avenger and the idea of torpedo attacks as a whole. However, after this harsh baptism under fire, the TBM would prove its lethal ability while it fought in every carrier-versus-carrier battle of the war.

While the Avenger had many successes in its combat career, there are a few that standout. At the Battle of Guadalcanal, the Avengers scored several key hits on the battleship Hiei. Later, in the 1944 Battle of the Philippine Sea, the Avengers prevailed in a duel against the carrier Hiyo, which sank shortly after several torpedo hits. Yet, the real victories for the Avenger occurred in 1945 when the world’s two largest battleships were sunk as a direct result of torpedo attacks. The first behemoth to fall victim to the Avengers’ attacks was the Musashi, a 67,000-ton battleship that sunk after nineteen hits. Next, the Yamato, which was the sister ship of the Musashi and former flagship of Admiral Yamamoto, mastermind of the Pearl Harbor attack, was sunk after ten torpedo hits. Accordingly, it is quite safe to state that the Avengers lived up to their name-avenging the attack on Pearl Harbor.

After WWII, the Avengers served in several training squadrons and were also modified to be carrier onboard delivery aircraft (COD). Later, the TBM’s were even modified as first-generation early-warning aircraft. Through these roles, the Avengers helped to continue their mission of preserving freedom until they were retired from United States naval service in 1954.

Across America, generations of young Americans are growing up without much knowledge regarding the history of Word War Two. Accordingly, much of the sacrifice and undertakings of the people during the Second World War is being forgotten. We have taken it upon themselves to restore aircraft like the TBM so that people across the nation may better understand their history and those that participated in it. Therefore, when the TBM roars to life and takes off, it is not merely just an old airplane. It is a memorial to the thousands of people who worked and fought to preserve our way of life.

*The TBM is on the premises in Massachusetts and can be viewed during special events and by appointment only. Call the office for details.

The American Heritage Museum at the Collings Foundation featuring the Jacques M. Littlefield Collection explores major conflicts ranging from the Revolutionary War until today. Visitors discover and interact with our American heritage through the history, the changing technology, and the Human Impact of America’s fight to preserve the freedom we all hold dear.

American Heritage Museum
568 Main Street
Hudson, MA 01749


Eastern TBM-1 Avenger - History

Hobby Boss 1/48 TBF-1C Avenger

Kit #80314 MSRP $74.95 $63.70 from Great Models Web Store
Images and text Copyright © 2010 by Matt Swan with scale commentary by Gaston Marty

Developmental Background
The Avenger was one of the most famous aircraft of WWII in Navy service and rapidly displaced the obsolete Devastator aboard US carriers. Originally designed as a carrier-based torpedo bomber by Grumman Aircraft, the Avenger found use as a close-support bomber and patrol aircraft. From the Guadalcanal landings in August 1942 until the end of the Pacific War it remained the only shipboard torpedo aircraft of the US Navy and was known as the largest single-engine, carrier-based aircraft of WWII.
The order for two prototypes was placed on 8 April 1940 and first aircraft was flown on August 1st 1941. The first three-seat Grumman TBF-1 Avengers went into service just less than one year later. The US Navy's demands for Grumman production of the F6F Hellcat fighter led to manufacture of the Avenger being taken over by Eastern Aircraft Division of General Motors - the GM-produced aircraft being designated the "TBM". Those manufactured by Grumman were designated “TBF”.
On the afternoon of December 7, 1941, Grumman held a ceremony to open its new Plant 2 in Bethpage and to display the new torpedo bomber to the public. During the program, Grumman vice president Clint Towl was notified that the Japanese had attacked Pearl Harbor but no announcement was made and the festivities continued. The new plane first saw action on 4 June 1942 against the Japanese carrier striking force at the Battle of Midway - only six Avengers were involved, operating from Midway Island. Five of the six were shot down, the surviving plane returned to Midway severely damaged and with its gunner dead but it demonstrated the Avenger’s toughness, and it was immediately apparent that its battle-worthiness justified its production in great numbers.
The Avenger took part in every carrier-versus-carrier battle and almost all carrier operations from Midway onwards, working from every fast carrier and escort carrier of the Pacific Fleet and from land bases. For almost all of this time it operated as a bomber, a search aircraft and as an anti-submarine aircraft, rather than as a torpedo-plane. As a torpedo-plane it was initially hampered by the many serious defects in the American torpedoes however in the Battle of Leyte Gulf the Avenger achieved one of its most notable successes by sinking the Japanese battleship Musash after delivering nineteen hits.
The Avenger's virtues, especially its ruggedness, reliability, and stability as a weapons platform, ensured it a remarkably long operational history. It in fact remained in service - as an anti-submarine, search-and-rescue aircraft, an all-weather night bomber and an electronic countermeasures platform - until 1954. Until recently, at least one aerial firefighting operation used Avengers as fire bombers and/or fire spotters over the woods of Canada.
During its career it was known by many names: Chuff, Turkey, Pregnant Beast or Tarpon (RAF). No matter what it was called it was a widely used aircraft and was produced in great numbers with 7546 being manufactured by General Motors and 2290 manufactured by Grumman. Today, according to Warbird Alley, there are at least 42 of these amazing aircraft still airworthy.

The Kit
I think the first question that rose in many modelers minds when this kit was released was ‘do we really need another Avenger kit?’ Really, was the Accurate Miniatures kit not pretty darned good? Maybe the question should have been ‘what can be better than what we have now?’ or ‘what inaccuracies that I suffered previously have been resolved?’ Sadly the answers provided by the Trumpeter kit do not adequately resolve any of these questions. One thing the Trumpeter kit gives us that the earlier AM kit did not was folded wings. Admittedly you could buy an aftermarket wing fold kit for the Accurate Miniatures package and by that time you would have a comparable total kit cost so no great gain here. Before I talk about the actual physical plastic let’s take a moment and review some of the accuracy issues that were evident with the AM kit and whether they have been addressed in the Trumpeter kit or now.
First let me say that I don’t think there is any kit on the market of any subject that is completely accurate. There will always be some detail that the kit manufacture simply did not get right, sometimes these are minor while others they are glaringly obvious. As the modeler we need to decide what is acceptable or not on an individual basis. For many modelers if it looks like your intended subject, that is good enough. It may not matter that the model is 3 scale inches too long, has five spokes on a rim rather than four or has an extra row of rivets. For others this could be a deal breaker.


You may click on these small images to view larger pictures

My general modeling philosophy is “if it looks like a ------ then it’s good enough for me” providing of course that there are no really glaring errors. What exactly a glaring error is can be pretty subjective though so let’s visit or resident rivet counter, Gaston Marty and see just how this kit compares with published drawing.

Compared to the Accurate Miniatures kit (which has it’s own issues) the Hobby Boss TBM-3 demonstrates the correct prop and likely better side profile but the top and bottom intakes are far too proportionally deep or narrow, which would be very labor-intensive to fix.
There are no really good TBM-3 cowls or resin correction options, so the easy choices are limited to TBF-1 variants:

HB TBF-1: This cowling is the only one that appears to be correct.

Actual dimensions. (All from CAF TBM-3 pilot Rob Duncan)

Wing chord at root: 140" actual= 3556 mm= 1/48th: 74.0 mm

Wing chord at outer aileron edge: 59" actual= 1498 mm= 1/48th: 31.2 mm

Wing uppermost root point to canopy base: 29.0" actual= 736 mm= 1/48th: 15.3 mm

Actual aircraft front canopy bottom width: 38.5" actual= 978 mm= 1/48th: 20.3 mm.

Front canopy top frame cross-section width: 22" actual= 558 mm= 1/48th: 11.6 mm.

The Hobby Boss canopy is deceptive 22-23 mm on-sprue which in fact flexes down easily to the needed fuselage width of 20.5-20.6 mm. The Hobby Boss front canopy top frame comes in at 11.2 mm.

Decals and Instructions
Kit instructions consist of three separate sheets, two that are black and white multi-panel fold-outs and a single double sided full color glossy sheet. The fold-out sheets contain fourteen individual panels with lots of exploded view assembly steps. Part numbers are all clearly identified and there are some limited color call-outs. The full color sheet includes a fair paint code chart and displays decal placement instructions for three different aircraft.
The decal sheet is large and adequate for the three aircraft shown however does not include any instrument markings or seatbelt material. Color density is good, print registry looks spot on however the blue background appears nearly black which in my eyes is a little dark.

Construction
This kit looks pretty intimidating on paper as does the Accurate Miniatures kit, there are lots of little parts and layers upon layers of detail to deal with. I began with the interior floor pans painting them dark green then highlighting them with interior green. The engine cylinder banks were done with Alclad steel and highlighted with silver. The kit ignition harness really sucked so I simply cut it off and replaced it with medium magnet wire pieces cut to length – this dramatically improved the looks of the power-plant. The seatbelts were cut from the decal sheet and applied with the paper backing in place to give them a little more depth. The aft gun turret proved to be a real challenge being very fiddly and is also difficult to install in the fuselage.


You may click on these small images to view larger pictures


Kyk die video: TBM-1 Avenger 148 Italeri scale model kit (Mei 2022).