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Waarom het Kanada nie by die Amerikaanse Revolusie aangesluit nie?

Waarom het Kanada nie by die Amerikaanse Revolusie aangesluit nie?

Amerika verklaar onafhanklikheid van Brittanje en voer 'n onafhanklikheidsoorlog. Verskeie state het by die stryd aangesluit, maar Kanada het Brits gebly. Waarom het die Amerikaanse opstand en onafhanklikheidsoorlog nie na Kanada versprei nie?


Kort antwoord: Die Canadiens was moeg vir oorlog en tevrede met die Britse bewind.

Lang antwoord:

Enkele en twintig jaar voor die Amerikaanse Revolusie (1754), wat net voor die Sewejarige Oorlog was, het die kaart van Britse kolonies so gelyk: Slegs 'n paar gebiede van die hedendaagse Kanada was destyds Britte: Nova-Scotia, Labrador-Newfoundland en rondom Jamesbaai en Hudsonbaai. Quebec strek suidwaarts tot onder die Niagara -waterval.

Die 13 Amerikaanse kolonies was gesentreer rondom New York:

1.) Geografiese skeiding veroorsaak dat die Engelssprekende Britse kolonies noord van Maine kultureel van die 13 Amerikaanse kolonies verskil. Die inwoners van Nova Scotia was half New Englanders en half Duitsers, Highlanders, Ulstermen en Yorkshiremen. Nova Scotia wou neutraal bly. Britse vlootmag en 'n Britse garnisoen in Halifax het enige ernstige Amerikaanse poging tot inval verhoed. In 1777 het Nova-Skotse buiteposte aangeval van privaat persone uit New England wat plundery soek. Dit het veroorsaak dat selfs voormalige Nieu-Engelanders milisies stig en hul huise verdedig. Kort daarna het die New Light godsdienstige beweging (Great Awakening) wat Henry Alline van Rhode Island begin het, deur New England en Nova Scotia gestroom en die aandag van Politiek afgewend.

2.) Aanvaarding van die Britse bewind: Toe New France in 1760 val, keer die verslaan leërs, Franse amptenare, 'n paar seigneurs en 'n paar handelaars terug na Frankryk. Britse krediet, geldeenheid en markte soos Londen was die belangrikste-nie Parys of Amerika nie. Die Britte het die verteenwoordigende regering in Quebec suksesvol geïmplementeer deur die godsdienstige vryhede van Katolieke te respekteer en die politieke waarde van die Katolieke Kerk te erken, wat gesteun is deur 'n pligsgetroue Franse bevolking wat skerp in kontras was met die resterende 13 Amerikaanse kolonies.

3.) Die Quebec -wet van 1774 het Quebec tevrede gestel en die Amerikaanse kolonies kwaad gemaak. Dit het die Engelse strafreg in staat gestel om parallel te bestaan ​​met die Franse burgerlike reg en die gevestigde seigneuriale stelsel. Quebec het selfs 'n (wettige) verpligte tiende aan die Katolieke Kerk gehad, wat slegs Katolieke betref.

Die Quebec -wet het die provinsie Quebec ook uitgebrei tot Labrador in die Ooste en die westelike grens uitgebrei tot by die aansluiting van die Ohio- en Mississippi -riviere tot noord na Rupert's Land. Hierdie uitbreiding het die ooglopende bedoeling gehad om die bontverhandelingsgebiede wat deur St. Lawrence gedien is, in die jurisdiksie van Quebec te bring. Die land was hoofsaaklik Indiese gebied (waar die Indiane met die Franse verbonde was) wat vir die bonthandel uitgebuit kon word sonder om Indiese grondregte in gevaar te stel en oorlog te waag.

Amerikaanse koloniste wou hierdie inheemse lande vestig, en noem daarom die Quebec -wet as een van die 'Insufferable Acts'.

4.) Kulturele en godsdienstige isolasie: Quebec was die grootste Britse kolonie in die huidige Kanada. Die taalhindernis gekombineer met die vreemde godsdiens van die Franse Quebec en die geskiedenis van vyandelikhede uit die Sewejarige Oorlog het veroorsaak dat Amerikaners die mense van Quebec as vyande beskou het.

5.) Patriotaanvalle op Canadiens verset teen die Amerikaanse revolusie. Die Amerikaanse Patriot -generaals Richard Montgomery en Benedit Arnold het Quebec aangeval in 'n poging om Kanada uit Britse beheer te neem (1775). Hulle het Montreal geneem en beleg (uiteindelik tevergeefs) na Quebec City, waar Britse stamgemeentes en 'n paar Kanadese burgermag verdedig het. Die Amerikaners was swak voorsien, maar het tot die lente gebly toe die Britse vloot die St. Lawrence opgevaar het.

Dit het ook waar geword dat in die oorlogsverbond wat in 1778 tussen Frankryk en die jong Amerikaanse republiek bereik is, nie een van die vennote die ander in Quebec wou vestig nie, en dit verkies om aan Brittanje te laat eerder as die een van die twee nuwe "vriende" moet dit hou.

6.) Ekonomiese belange: Die handelaars van Brits-Noord-Amerika het baat gevind by die toestroming van Britse troepe (en geld) wat die oortreding suid van Quebec aangedryf het. Die Kanadese het ook baat gevind by toegang tot die Britse markte wat teen tariewe beskerm is, wat veel groter New England-mededingers deur die oorlog verbeur het. Veral die bontmark het in Kanada begin floreer. Die Britse vloot op die Atlantiese Oseaan en deur Britse militêre mag in die binneland het beide die pelshandel bewaak.

Sakemanne het besef dat hul ekonomiese belang in die keiserlike stelsel baie groter is as enige politieke ontevredenheid oor die Quebec-wet-en die wet het immers die waardevolle suidwestelike bontdomeine weer aan Kanada geheg. Daarom het die handelaars se gevoel van toewyding toegeneem namate die handel vloei tot in die 1780's; toe hulle sien dat hul kommersiële koninkryk in St. Faktore van aardrykskunde en besigheidsbelangstelling was die vorming van die hoofleiers van Montreal tot Britse imperialiste en Kanadese ekonomiese nasionaliste saam.

7.) Baie lojaliste het na Kanada verhuis om die Britse saak te ondersteun ...

Gevolgtrekking: vergewe die aanhalings

Wat die massa Franse Kanadese in die provinsie (van Quebec) betref, het hulle begin om hul seigneuriale en geestelike elite in hul eie toewyding aan die Britse kant te volg. Uiteraard stel die Canadiens steeds hul besondere gemeenskapsbesorgdheid en erfenis voorop; tog het hulle ook tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat die Amerikaners nie verwelkom moet word nie, maar buite gehou moet word. Die selfverklaarde republikeinse "bevryders" was eenvoudig dieselfde ou vyande, les Bostonnais, die Puriteine ​​van Nieu-Engeland: perde in die Katolieke kerke steek tydens hul inval, waardevolle papiergeld inbetaal vir gewasse en voorrade wat op inwonende plase beslag gelê is. . Die Canadiens het gevolglik nie geleer om hul Britse veroweraars lief te hê nie - waarom sou hulle dit doen? - maar het geglo dat hulle beter daaraan toe was. Want die bepalings van die Quebec -wet het Frans -Kanada se eie spesiale regte en karakter onder Britse bewind gewaarborg: waarborge wat die Amerikaners beslis nie sou gegee het nie. In plaas daarvan het woedende Amerikaanse uitroepe die wet begroet vanweë die toekennings wat dit aan die "Franse papiste" gemaak het. Om verskillende, maar histories gesonde redes, het die Francofoon- en Anglophone -gemeenskappe van die Quebec -provinsie dus nie die Amerikaanse revolusiepad gevolg nie. Hulle het binne die oorblywende Britse ryk gebly - veral om te voorkom dat hulle ingesluk word in 'n ander opkomende ryk, die van die Verenigde State.

Bylaag:

St. Johns, PEI en Newfoundland

Die klein naburige Atlantiese provinsie, die eiland St. John, het waarskynlik nie die verloop van ryke beïnvloed nie. Dit het beslis voortgegaan in Britse bewaring - hoewel 'n Amerikaanse privaataanval op Charlottetown in 1775 die waarnemende goewerneur en twee amptenare na generaal Washington, wat hulle nie wou hê nie, weggevoer en huis toe gestuur is. Die groot eiland Newfoundland het ook, en nog erger, gely onder Amerikaanse privaat verwoesting. Maar hier het Britse garnisone en vlooteskaders nog steeds 'n werklike bedreiging vir keiserlike beheer geblokkeer. Die oorlogsjare het in elk geval die bloeityd van die eiland in sy noodsaaklike kabeljouvisvangs, veral vir inwoners, gebring, aangesien baie van die besoekende oorsese vissers by die Royal Navy ingeskryf is. So het Newfoundland ook sekerlik binne Brittanje se Amerikaanse ryk gebly.

Great Lake Indiane

Aan die ander, westelike punt van die ryk het oorlog deur die binnelandse woude onder die Groot Mere versprei, van die Iroquois -land tot die wildernis Ohio en Michigan. In die boonste dele van die New York-provinsie het patriotiese rebellemagte kwaai gestry met eenhede wat van lojale gesindes in die gebied afkomstig was. Maar verder was die Six Nations Iroquois en hul tradisionele tuislande sterk betrokke. Die Tuscaroras en Oneidas was grootliks die kant van die Amerikaners. Die res van die Sesnasies, en veral die Mohawks, het die Britte ondersteun; want hier het ou bondgenootskappe sterk gebly. Hulle was tot sy dood in 1774 goed gesmee onder Sir William Johnson as Indiese superintendent, om daarna deur sy seun en erfgenaam, sir John Johnson, onderhou te word om later in eie reg superintendent te word.

Vir 'n diepgaande bespreking van hierdie onderwerp, kan ek hierdie Kanadese Erfenisboek (gratis) sien, wat die bron van die aanhalings en baie van die inhoud in hierdie antwoord is.


Na die seëlbelasting in 1765 het die 13 kolonies 'korrespondensiekomitees' gestig, waardeur vooraanstaande lede van een kolonie met die voorste lede van ander kolonies gesels het oor Britse (verkeerde) heerskappy. Hierdie leiers het later 'n 'Kontinentale Kongres' gevorm. As gevolg hiervan het die 13 kolonies 'n sekere algemene "bewussyn" ontwikkel. Toe 'n paar van hulle (bv. Massachusetts) in opstand gekom het, het hulle dit almal gedoen. Die Onafhanklikheidsverklaring verwys na "die Verteenwoordigers van die Verenigde State van Amerika in die Algemene Kongres."

'Kanada' was nie deel van hierdie 'bindings' -proses nie. In plaas daarvan is dit deur "Amerikaners" binnegeval en opgeroep om by die algemene rebellie teen die moederland aan te sluit. Maar eintlik was baie van die maatreëls wat Brittanje in die vorige dekade teen 'Amerikaners' getref het, eintlik bedoel om 'Kanadese' te beskerm, wat baie minder ontevrede was met die Britse bewind.

So anders as byvoorbeeld Georgië en Massachusetts, het "Kanadese" nie "Amerikaners" as mede -koloniste beskou nie, maar eerder as "ander" indringers wat Engels praat. (En Frankryk het nog nie 'n bondgenootskap met Amerika gehad nie, dus was daar geen aansporing vir Franssprekendes om die 'Amerikaners' te ondersteun nie.

Uiteindelik het die keuse vir die Kanadese waarskynlik neergekom op 'beter die duiwel wat ons weet, die een wat ons nie ken nie'.


Dit het. Op 'n aantal onverwagte maniere, veral die ballingskap van Patriot Tories, slawe wat vir King George geveg het en 'n aantal vlugtelinge wat heiligdom gesoek het. Dit het in sommige opsigte 'n wêreldoorlog geword. Miskien wil u meer lees oor die 'Tories' wat vir die Kroon geveg het, eerder as om onafhanklikheid en die vergoeding vir oud -Tories wat in die VSA hervestig het.


Hoe die Amerikaanse magte 200 jaar gelede nie daarin kon slaag om Kanada te verower nie

Die eerste inval van die Verenigde State in Kanada het plaasgevind aan die begin van die Amerikaanse Revolusionêre Oorlog, toe koloniale troepe tot in Quebec City opgeruk het voordat hulle afgeweer is. Teen die tyd dat die oorlog van 1812 byna vier dekades later afgehandel het, het die sogenaamde “war hawk ”-lede van die kongres 'n beroep gedoen op 'n tweede deurloop. Daar was selfs 'n paar oproepe om 'n gedeelte of die hele Kanada, destyds 'n Britse kolonie, te annekseer. Op daardie tydstip het ongeveer 7,5 miljoen mense in die Verenigde State gewoon, vergeleke met slegs ongeveer 500 000 in Kanada, waarvan baie van Franse of Amerikaanse afkoms was eerder as Britte.

In Junie 1812 verklaar die Verenigde State oorlog teen Groot -Brittanje, met verwysing na die praktyk om matrose uit Amerikaanse handelskepe te verwyder en hulle te dwing om in die Britse vloot te dien. Die Verenigde State het ook probleme ondervind met 'n stelsel van blokkades en lisensies wat bedoel is om die handel met Napoleontiese Frankryk te stop, en met Brittanje se veronderstelde aanleiding tot onrus in Indië. Byna onmiddellik daarna het die Amerikaanse president, James Madison, 'n drieledige aanval op Kanada goedgekeur. Baie Amerikaners het geglo dat die inval 'n bakleiery sou wees, veral omdat Brittanje so afgelei is deur die Napoleontiese oorloë in Europa. Voormalige president Thomas Jefferson noem die verkryging van Quebec 'n belangrike kwessie van optog, terwyl die voorsitter van die huis, Henry Clay, 'n prominente oorlogsvalk, verklaar dat die militante van Kentucky Bo -Kanada (in wese moderne Ontario) kon verower en Montreal sonder enige hulp. �r was baie sabel -rammelaars aan die gang, ” het John R. Grodzinski, 'n professor in geskiedenis aan die Royal Military College of Canada, gespesialiseer in die oorlog van 1812 gesê.

Ondanks die bevolkingsvoordeel het die Verenigde State slegs ongeveer 12 000 mans in uniform, waaronder te veel onbekwame offisiere en te veel rou, onopgeleide rekrute, verduidelik Donald R. Hickey, 'n geskiedenisprofessor aan Wayne State College en skrywer van verskillende boeke oor die oorlog van 1812. 'n Aantal ander faktore het Kanada ook tydens die begin van die oorlog bevoordeel. Eerstens het die Britte die Groot Mere beheer en was hulle dus beter in staat om troepe en voorrade te vervoer. Boonop het hulle steun ontvang van Kanadese, wat baie Amerikaners valslik geglo het dat hulle hulle as bevryders sou verwelkom, en van inheemse Amerikaanse stamme wat bekommerd was oor Amerikaanse ekspansionisme. 𠇍ie VSA was baie onvoorbereid, het Hickey gesê. Plus, die logistieke uitdagings om oorlog teen 'n verre grens te voer, was skrikwekkend, indien nie onuithoubaar nie. ”

Toe die Amerikaanse generaal William Hull 'n mag van ongeveer 2000 man bymekaarmaak en hulle na Detroit lei, die wegspringplek vir 'n beoogde aanval op die nabygeleë Fort Malden in Bo-Kanada, het die Britte uitgevind oor sy planne deur 'n skoener met sy bagasie en papiere daaroor. Om die saak vir Hull te vererger, het ongeveer 200 militante uit Ohio geweier om verder as die Amerikaanse gebied te gaan. Die generaal bly nietemin vol vertroue. Op 12 Julie 1812 het hy sy manne oor die Detroitrivier en na Kanada geneem, waar hy onmiddellik 'n skriftelike afkondiging uitgereik het waarin die inwoners gesê is dat hulle van tirannie en onderdrukking geëmancipeer sou word. sukses Ek kan u hulp vra, maar ek doen dit nie, ” Hull verklaar. “I kom voorbereid op elke gebeurlikheid. ”

Hierdie woorde was onmiddellik lagwekkend. Hull het Fort Malden kortliks beleër, maar het hom gou teruggetrek nadat krygers onder leiding van Shawnee -hoof Tecumseh sy toevoertrein onderskep het. Die Britse bevelvoerder Isaac Brock het die Amerikaners daarna oor die rivier teruggejaag en van Kanadese kant af kanonskote op Fort Detroit begin skiet. Brock het gereël dat 'n vals dokument die Amerikaners bereik wat vertel het van 'n groot aantal inheemse Amerikaners wat Detroit nader. Hy het ook aan Hull gesê dat hy nie sy inheemse Amerikaanse bondgenote sou kon beheer sodra die geveg begin nie. 'N Geïntimideerde Hull het uiteindelik sy hele leër en die stad oorgegee in Augustus nadat 'n kanonskoot in sy offisiere en#x2019 gemors neergestort het en vier doodgemaak het. Omstreeks dieselfde tyd verower die Britte Fort Dearborn in die huidige Chicago, saam met 'n Amerikaanse buitepos op Mackinac-eiland tussen Lake Huron en Lake Michigan. Hull is later in die hof gedaag en skuldig bevind aan lafhartigheid en pligsversuim.


Lojaliste in Kanada

Lojaliste was Amerikaanse koloniste, met verskillende etniese agtergronde, wat die Britse saak ondersteun het tydens die Amerikaanse Revolusionêre Oorlog (1775–83). Tienduisende lojaliste het tydens en na die oorlog na Britse Noord -Amerika gemigreer. Dit het die bevolking 'n hupstoot gegee, gelei tot die oprigting van Bo -Kanada en New Brunswick, en 'n groot invloed op die politiek en kultuur van wat Kanada sou word.

Een golf lojaliste het in 1783 teen die St Lawrence -rivier na die Ontariomeer gekom, waar hul kamp in die stad Kingston gegroei het. Tekening deur James Peachey.

Wat het die lojaliste geglo?

Terwyl Amerikaanse rebelle om onafhanklikheid van Brittanje geveg het, ondersteun lojaliste die 'moederland' om verskillende redes. Baie het 'n persoonlike lojaliteit teenoor die kroon gevoel, of was bang dat revolusie chaos in Amerika sou veroorsaak. Baie was dit eens met die siening van die rebelle dat Amerika in die hande van Brittanje onreg gely het. Maar hulle het geglo dat die oplossing binne die Britse Ryk uitgewerk kan word.

Ander beskou hulself as swak of bedreig binne die Amerikaanse samelewing en benodig 'n verdediger. Dit sluit in taalkundige en godsdienstige minderhede, onlangse immigrante wat nie volledig in die Amerikaanse samelewing geïntegreer is nie, sowel as swart en inheemse mense. Ander is eenvoudig aangetrokke deur die aanbod van gratis grond en voorraad in Brits -Noord -Amerika.

Simpatie met die kroon was 'n gevaarlike sentiment. Diegene wat die revolusionêre magte uitgedaag het, kan sonder burgerregte wees. Hulle is dikwels aan skaregeweld blootgestel of in die tronk gesit. Lojalistiese eiendom is gevandaliseer en dikwels gekonfiskeer.

Tydens die rewolusie het meer as 19,000 lojaliste Brittanje gedien in spesiaal geskepte provinsiale milisiekorps, soos die King's Royal Regiment of New York en Butler's Rangers. Hulle is vergesel deur 'n paar duisend inheemse bondgenote. (Sien ook: Voor-konfederasie van inheemse-Britse betrekkinge.) Ander het die oorlog in vestings soos New York en Boston, of in vlugtelingkampe soos dié in Sorel en Machiche, Quebec, deurgebring. Tussen 80 000 en 100 000 het uiteindelik gevlug, ongeveer die helfte van hulle na Kanada.

Lojale vroue

Ofskoon vroue die Britse kroon persoonlik ondersteun het of nie, hulle is vervolg weens gesinsverbande met lojaliste. Vroue het gedurende hierdie tydperk min wettige of politieke regte gehad. Onder die stelsel van dekmantel het 'n vrou na die huwelik nie 'n aparte wettige bestaan ​​gehad nie. Haar regte is onderdruk deur (of opgeneem in) haar man. Getroude vroue kon nie alleen stem of eiendom besit nie. As 'n man die Britte ondersteun, is sy vrou en kinders deur assosiasie besmet.

Tog het vroue dikwels 'n belangrike rol gespeel in die besluit van 'n gesin om lojalisties te word. Sommige het die Kroon aktief ondersteun, inligting versamel vir die Britte, getroue soldate gehelp en geld en belangrike papiere vir plaaslike owerhede weggesteek. Toe mans vertrek om by Loyalistiese militêre eenhede aan te sluit of om te ontsnap uit die opvang deur Amerikaanse "Patriotte", het hul vrouens dikwels familieboerderye en besighede bly bestuur.

Lojalistiese vroue was egter kwesbaar. As politieke minderheid het hulle min steun of beskerming gehad. Eiendom kan gekonfiskeer word omdat lojaliste as verraaiers beskou word. Baie vroue het hul gemeenskappe en eiendom verlaat en na vlugtelingkampe en militêre forte gereis om by hul mans aan te sluit. Ander vlug na New York en ander stede wat deur die Britte of na Kanada beheer word.



Wie was die lojaliste in Kanada?

Brittanje het 'n redelike presiese definisie gebruik om te bepaal wie 'n lojalis is en in aanmerking kom vir vergoeding vir oorlogsverliese. Lojaliste was diegene wat gebore is of in die Dertien Amerikaanse kolonies gebly het by die uitbreek van die rewolusie. Hulle lewer tydens die oorlog aansienlike diens aan die koninklike saak en verlaat die Verenigde State teen die einde van die oorlog of kort daarna. Diegene wat later aansienlik vertrek het - hoofsaaklik om grond te bekom of om te ontsnap uit groeiende rasse -onverdraagsaamheid - word dikwels 'laat' lojaliste genoem.

Die meeste lojaliste was nie ryk nie, maar ook nie besonder hoog in sosiale rang nie. Die meeste was boere, arbeiders, handelaars en hul gesinne. Hulle het verskillende kulturele agtergronde. Baie was onlangs immigrante. Wit lojaliste het ook 'n groot aantal mense saamgebring wat hulle 'n slaaf van gemaak het. Tot 1834 was slawerny wettig in alle Britse Noord -Amerikaanse kolonies behalwe Bo -Kanada, waar die instelling uitgefaseer is. (Sien ook: Black Enslavement in Kanada Chloe Cooley en die wet om slawerny in Upper Canada te beperk.)

Vryswartes en ontsnapte slawe wat in die Loyalist -korps geveg het, asook ongeveer 2 000 inheemse bondgenote (hoofsaaklik Haudenosaunee uit die staat New York) vestig hulle ook in Kanada. In 1789 verklaar Lord Dorchester, hoof-goewerneur van Brits-Noord-Amerika, dat die lojaliste en hul kinders toegelaat moet word om die letters "UE" by hul name te voeg, "wat verwys na hul groot beginsel, die Unity of Empire." As gevolg hiervan is die frase 'United Empire Loyalist', of UEL, toegepas op lojaliste wat na Bo- en Benede -Kanada gemigreer het. Die term is eers in die 20ste eeu amptelik in die Maritimes erken. (Sien ook: United Empire Loyalists 'Association of Canada.)


Swart lojaliste

Ongeveer 3 500 swart lojaliste, beide vrye en slawe van mans, vroue en kinders, het in die Maritimes aangekom. (Sien ook: Aankoms van swart lojaliste in Nova Scotia.) Baie is getrek deur die belofte van 100 hektaar vir elke huisgesin en 'n ekstra 50 hektaar vir elke familielid, plus voorsiening. Black Loyalists verhuis na nedersettings naby Shelburne, Digby, Chedabucto (Guysborough) en Halifax. Sommige, soos Richard Pierpoint - 'n voorheen slaaf - het hul vryheid verkry deur te veg onder die Britse kroon tydens die Amerikaanse Revolusie. Die meeste was egter slawe. Hulle is na die Britse gebiede gebring as oorlogsbuit of as die eiendom van lojaliste. Teen die 1790's het die aantal slawe van swart mense in New Brunswick, Nova Scotia en Prince Edward Island van 1 200 tot 2 000 gewissel.

Skikking van lojaliste in Kanada

Die belangrikste golwe van lojaliste het gekom in die huidige Kanada in 1783 en 1784. Die gebied wat die maritieme provinsies geword het, het die tuiste van meer as 30,000 lojaliste geword. Die meeste kus -Nova Scotia het lojalistiese setlaars ontvang, net soos Cape Breton en Prince Edward Island (destyds St. John's Island genoem). Die twee belangrikste nedersettings was in die Saint John River -vallei in die huidige New Brunswick, en tydelik in Shelburne, Nova Scotia. Die lojaliste het die bestaande bevolking in die Maritimes verswak. In 1784 is die kolonies New Brunswick en Kaap Breton gestig om die toestroming te hanteer.

Ongeveer 2 000 lojaliste het na Laer-Kanada (die huidige Quebec) verhuis. Sommige vestig hulle in die Gaspé, op Chaleurbaai, en ander in Sorel, by die monding van die Richelieu -rivier. Ongeveer 7.500 het verhuis na die gebied wat tans deel uitmaak van die huidige Ontario. Die meeste vestig hulle langs die St. Lawrence -rivier tot by die Baai van Quinte. Daar was ook aansienlike nedersettings op die Niagara -skiereiland en aan die Detroit -rivier, met latere nedersettings langs die Teemsrivier en by Long Point. Die Six Nations of the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) Konfederasie uit die staat New York het 'n grondtoelaag ontvang langs die Grand River. Dit was erkenning vir hul lojaliteit aan Brittanje. Die stad Brantford staan ​​naby die rivieroorgang vernoem na hul beroemde leier, Joseph Brant (Thayendanegea).

Skildery deur William Berczy, omstreeks 1807, olieverf op doek.

Die lojalistiese toestroming het die streek sy eerste aansienlike bevolking gegee en het gelei tot die oprigting van 'n aparte provinsie, Bo -Kanada, in 1791. Lojaliste het 'n belangrike rol gespeel in die vestiging van opvoedkundige, godsdienstige, sosiale en regeringsinstellings.


Waarom het Quebec nie by die 13 kolonies -revolusie teen Engeland aangesluit nie?

Soos ek dit verstaan, het die 13 kolonies probeer om Quebec by die rewolusie aan te sluit. Gegewe die Franse steun vir die Amerikaanse rewolusie en die Franse bevolking in Quebec, waarom het Quebec nie by die ander kolonies in 'n opstand aangesluit nie?

Dit is 'n half onthoude kennis, sodat almal kan inspring om my hieroor reg te stel, maar hoe ek dit verstaan ​​het, was dat die Quebecois eintlik goed gevaar het ten tyde van die revolusie. Eerstens het hulle nie baie Britse troepe daar gestasioneer nie, asook die feit dat die Britte die Franse Katolieke wette eerbiedig het. Hierdie feit oor die katolisisme is redelik belangrik, aangesien baie Quebecois katoliek was, het hulle destyds nie die Amerikaners wat oorwegend protestant was, regtig vertrou nie. As u dit vanuit hul perspektief bekyk, het hulle 'n goeie deal as 'n Britse besit, aangesien Brittanje 'n groot handelsnetwerk gehad het wat hulle in staat gestel het om goedere uit die Karibiese Eilande te koop en hul goedere aan Britse markte te verkoop, sowel as die feit dat die Britte dit nie gedoen het nie. #x27t probeer regtig hul lewenswyse dramaties verander of verander.

Bewerk: vreemd dat my opmerking met die meeste stemme een van my plasings van r/askhistorians is wat ek die minste hou

Jy is absoluut korrek. Die Quebec -wet, wat in 1774 aangeneem is, het die Quebecois toegelaat om die Katolieke geloof te beoefen en selfs die Franse burgerlike reg te beoefen. Hulle wou nie in opstand kom nie, want hulle was in 'n mate redelik tevrede met hul situasie en wou dit nie alles verwoes nie.

Interessant genoeg word die Quebec -wet ook 'The Unforgivable Act' genoem, omdat dit gedeeltelik verantwoordelik was vir die Amerikaanse revolusionêre oorlog! Die koloniste kon nie glo dat Quebec sulke vryhede ontvang het terwyl hulle, Anglofone, niks gekry het nie!

Dit is slegs 'n mening, maar toe ek op skool die Kanadese/Quebecois -geskiedenis geleer het, het ek oor die algemeen gevoel dat die Franse nie veel omgee vir hul noordelike kolonies nie. Hulle het nie soveel hulpbronne as die Britte bestee vir hul ontwikkeling nie. Toe hulle die oorlog verloor, het hulle hul Karibiese kolonies behou met die interessantste bronne (koffie, tabak, ens.). Die Kanadese was moeg vir oorlog en die Britte het ingekom en die kolonies uitgebrei.

Om hierop uit te brei toe Quebec aan die Verenigde Koninkryk afgestaan ​​is, het die Britte die regering in Quebec toegelaat om self te regeer ten opsigte van die straf- en burgerlike reg, so die inwoners was ook baie bly daaroor.

Nie 'n historikus nie, maar persoonlik geïnteresseerd in die geskiedenis van Quebec. Ek het altyd gedink dat die Wet van Quebec (1774), wat die Franse taal en die katolieke kerk in die kolonie toelaat, as 'n verraad beskou word deur Amerikaners wat in die oorlog geveg het. En dit het (as 'n rede onder baie) gelei tot die Boston Tea Party en die revolusie. Is ek verkeerd?

Ek glo ook dat Amerikaners destyds effens rassisties was, en miskien het hulle Kanadese nie regtig as 'n betroubare bondgenoot beskou nie

Dit is een van die belangrikste redes vir die [Quebec Act 1774] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quebec_Act_ (1774)).

dit is die lang en kort daarvan. Die Britte het heelwat mag afgestaan ​​aan die tradisionele katolieke magstruktuur van Quebec. Dit het nie net beteken dat hulle militant was nie, maar hulle was ook bang vir die Amerikaners wat (waarskynlik korrek) dat ander koloniste hul kulturele voorregte sou wegneem

Quebec is nie die kolonie wat die naaste was om by die Amerikaners aan te sluit nie, dit was Nova Scotia. Die Britte in Amerika het pas die Acadiane daar ontruim en by New Englanders herbevolk. Washington was so seker dat Nova Scotia by sy land sou aansluit dat hy voorbereidings getref het om die Nova Scotia -strook by die vlag te voeg, maar dit het nooit gebeur nie. Daar was 'n paar opstande teen die Britte in die 1770's, die opvallendste was die beleg van Fort Cumberland in 1776 (ek gebruik 275 Alien Blue, vergewe my gebrek aan koppeling). Baie redes het daartoe gelei dat Nova Scotia lojaal bly aan die Britte.

Stel jou voor dat jy 'n setlaar was wat net na Nova Scotia verhuis het. U is pas afkomstig van "beskawing" en het nou die taak om nuut te begin in 'n nuwe land waar daar nie veel oor is van die ontruiming van die Acadiane nie. Hierdie mense is daarop ingestel om hul boerderye, gesinne en die oorlewing van die harde Kanadese winters te begin - hulle is nie bekommerd oor die belasting op tee en ander "onbelangrike" dinge waaroor die Amerikaners ontsteld was nie. Hierdie mense waardeer die stabiliteit wat gepaardgaan met die lewe onder Britse bewind.

Die Algonquins wat in hierdie kolonie, die Micmac, gewoon het, het ook hierdie nuwe stabiliteit geniet wat gekom het van een nasie wat die land regeer. (Onthou, dit is nadat die Franse en Britte 'n geruime tyd op hierdie gebied in oorlog was.) Hulle wou die status quo handhaaf en het dit duidelik gemaak dat as daar oorlog uitbreek, hulle in lyn sal kom met die Britte.

Oor die oorlog gepraat, die Britte het 'n aansienlik groot garnisoen in hul stad Halifax. Die Britse vloot sou sekerlik enige vlootvooruitgang deur die Amerikaners in die wiele ry, en hul grondtroepe sou die opstand in die buitelande onderdruk.

Dit was 'n kombinasie van apatie, oorlewing en vrees vir Britse en inheemse vergelding wat Nova Scotia - die 14de kolonie - laat weier het om by die Washington 's Revolution aan te sluit.

EDIT: Bron: Tans skryf ek 'n kwartaalvraestel oor hierdie onderwerp vir my 2de jaar Kanadese geskiedenisles.


Waarom het die Kanadese kolonies nie by die Amerikaanse Revolusie aangesluit nie?

Die Amerikaners het probeer, maar die Kanadese was onwillige vennote. Kanada was hoofsaaklik gevestig deur die Franse, wat natuurlik Katoliek was. As gevolg hiervan het die Katolieke geestelikes groot mag gehad, en die meeste magshouers was Katoliek. In 1774, voordat die Revolusionêre Oorlog begin het, en na die Boston Tea Party, het die Britte die Quebec -wet aangeneem. Dit is ontwerp om sekere bepalings te verminder wat Kanada moontlik tot die Amerikaanse rebellie kon laat toetree. Dit het onder meer baie gebiede (insluitend baie van die Amerikaanse Midde -Weste) aan Quebec toegeken, 'n vereiste verwyder dat getrouheid aan die protestantse geloof vereis word om in aanmerking te kom vir die amp, die Franse wet op 'n aantal gebiede toelaat en herstel die reg van die Katolieke Kerk om tiendes op te lê. Die gevolg hiervan was dat die meeste van die magshouers in Kanada hulself by die Britte aangesluit het, ten minste amptelik. Die Amerikaners het propagandaveldtogte na Kanada gelei en Montreal binnegeval, waarna hulle probeer het om Quebec binne te val, maar dit het misluk. Sonder dat mense by die saak aangesluit het, wat die Amerikaners verwag het, het die poging uitmekaar geval.

Tikfout: die Quebec -wet was 1774, nie 1744 nie.

Daar is ook 'n nogal amusante bietjie in die Statute van die Konfederasie.

Kanada wat tot hierdie konfederasie toetree, en aangrensend aan die maatreëls van die Verenigde State, word toegelaat tot en het geregtig op al die voordele van hierdie Unie, maar geen ander kolonie word tot dieselfde toegelaat nie, tensy nege state daartoe instem. .

Dit is artikel XI. & quotHeet julle, julle wil heeltemal by die cool klub aansluit, nie waar nie? . reg? & quot is beslis 'n interessante manier om die inval in Quebec op te volg.

Die Quebec-wet-waar die koning grond van die Ohio-rivier na die Mississippi aan Quebec gegee het-was ook 'n aanleiding tot die rewolusie. Dit word genoem in die Onafhanklikheidsverklaring se lys van griewe.

Amerikaners het die weste as regmatig hul ''s beskou, beslis nie Kanada nie.

Nova Scotia het amper by die rewolusie aangesluit. 'N Historiese roman uit 1942 deur Thomas Raddall ("His Majesty 's Yankees") lewer 'n uitstekende taak om te illustreer hoeveel simpatie daar vir die revolusie in Nova Scotia was. Die meeste mense wat in Nova Scotia woon, kom immers uit New England.

Ironies genoeg het die vordering van vyandelikhede wat gelei het tot die revolusie gehelp om Nova Scotia in die lojalistiese kamp te stoot. Mense wat lojaal was aan die kroon, het steeds na Nova Scotia verhuis om veiligheid te soek terwyl die konflik toeneem, wat die gewilde balans na Brittanje laat val het.

In die boek "The Neutral Yankees of Nova Scotia" uit 1937 beweer John B. Brebner dat die geografie van Nova Scotia, wat heeltemal omring deur see was, dit vir die Britte maklik gemaak het om dit te beveilig, waardeur dit 'n aantreklike plek is vir lojaliste wat die revolusie vlug. .

Wat die Franse kolonie Quebec betref, gebruik hulle die revolusie as 'n geleentheid om aansienlike waarborge van outonomie van die Britte te onttrek deur te dreig om deel te neem aan die revolusie, wat in die Quebec -wet van 1774 vervat is. Geen sulke waarborge vir die verskansing van taal, godsdiens en middeleeuse sosiale hiërargieë (wat steeds in Quebec beoefen word) is van die opstandige kolonies aangebied nie.

Thus codified the special legal exceptionalism of Quebec has persisted to this very day. Every time Quebec threatens another referendum on secession Canadians can have fun blaming the Americans for causing the perpetual rift in their society. The British never would have granted special autonomy to Quebec if they weren't desperate to keep even more colonies from rebelling.

. and medieval social hierarchies (still practiced in Quebec)

This may be a rumour but didn't the Quebec Act of 1774 further incense passion for independence in the American colonies?

Iɽ like to build on /u/secondsniglet's comments on Nova Scotia, having just written my honours thesis on Nova Scotian neutrality and the printing press and am going to be starting my MA in history next year to continue this research. Raddall and Brebner are both sources that I used but both are also quite old sources. There has been a lot of work done on the question of Nova Scotian neutrality since the 1940's and I would like to through a bit of it here. But first I need to give a bit of background.

Firstly I should establish that at this point Nova Scotia encompassed New Brunswick as well. New Brunswick and Cape Breton were created after the war to divide NS in case of revolutionary unrest. PEI was just being settled and was so sparsely populated that Revolution was not really in the cards for the island, although it was raided by American privateers during the Revolution, just as NS was.

As such the question "Why didn't the Canadian colonies join the American Revolution?" can be safely divided into two: that of why Quebec didn't join, and that of why Nova Scotia didn't join. I would be interested in any account of Newfoundland during this period but have not encountered anything more than the odd footnote on the topic of Newfoundland and the Revolution. I'll leave the question of Quebec to one better versed in its history and stick to trying to answer the Nova Scotia question.

I peg the beginning of the American Revolutionary Crisis as being 1765, with the passage of the Stamp Act that did so much to enrage and alienate North American newspaper printers and more importantly their subscribers. Sloan and Williams write in The American Revolution and the Press that this unified mass media opposition to the Stamp Act was unprecedented in history, and the perception of unified outrage that it created was a huge factor behind getting different British North American colonies to unify in opposition to Parliament's taxes.

In the 1760's the French had been shattered and expelled from Eastern Canada. To fill the vacant French Acadian lands Governor Lawrence issued a proclamation promising free land to any New Englanders that moved to Nova Scotia. Furthermore in 1758 he promised to form a Legislative Assembly, with two members elected from every township of fifty families or more, in order to attract the New Englanders who were used to their own democratic, decentralized form of township government.

Before this NS had been ruled by a central, appointed Executive Council that served at the pleasure of the royally appointed governor. Giving townships representation and some modicum of authority was an about-face in Imperial policy, which had previously been against developing Nova Scotia into a "New New England", as the Imperial government found the decentralized New England system irritating, as local township governments possessed the authority to impede the efforts of London authorities to impose economic and political agendas on the colonies.

My favourite book on NS during the Revolution is Fault Lines of Empire by Elizabeth Mancke, and she singles out township government as the point of divergence between New England and NS that sees the first revolt and the other remain neutral. She convincingly argues that Lawrence's system only appears to be similar to the decentralized New England system, but that the Executive Council actually still maintained sufficient control to stymie local government in NS, in large part due to the Executive's ability to use discretion in granting townships, and that it is this more than anything that keeps NS neutral. It is a great piece of historical work, very focused and extremely methodically researched.

But the plan worked and New Englanders flocked to NS in search of homesteads. The upshot of this is that by the time the American Crisis began over half of the population of NS was "American" in origin, that is they had immigrated from New England under the terms of Lawrence's Proclamation, bringing their culture, political views, and contacts/family connections to New England with them. This raises the question: With New England being a hotbed for revolutionary sentiment, and with New Englanders having a strong tradition of political participation, organization, and petitioning through their strong township system, why didn't Nova Scotia organize and revolt as the other colonies did? I will give my answer to this question later as there is some work I need to do first but I hope that this post intrigues a few people to a mostly overlooked story of the American Revolution.


A brief history of Americans moving to Canada

If Google searches and late-night talk show hosts are to be believed, the Peace Bridge may soon be overrun with Americans fleeing Donald Trump’s relentless march towards the presidency.

Google reported that the search term “how can I move to Canada” surged 350 per cent within a matter of hours on Super Tuesday. While Cape Bretoners are encouraging those hapless refugees of Trumpmania to emigrate to their windy shores.

These Yanks aren’t traitors against their homeland — they’re simply exercising their God-given right as Americans to head north when things get rough at home.

Here’s a look at the centuries-long tradition of Americans moving to Canada.

Refugees from the revolution

As long as there has been America, there have been Americans moving to Canada. About 100,000 colonists loyal to the king fled the thirteen colonies either during or just after the Revolutionary War.

About half settled in Canada, primarily in the Maritimes, Quebec and southern Ontario. Some were promised large plots of land, while others moved to escape hostile revolutionaries. These loyalists, as they were called, helped to create large English communities in southern Quebec and Nova Scotia, forever changing the Canada’s cultural landscape.

Fleeing for freedom

Before the United States abolished slavery in 1865, thousands of black Americans headed north to find freedom from slavery and racial oppression. During the American Revolution and the War of 1812, Britain promised land (mostly in Nova Scotia) to black slaves and freemen if they would fight for the Crown.

According to Historica Canada, British Commander-in-Chief Sir Guy Carleton promised all slaves who 𠇏ormally requested British protection” freedom.

Still, slavery persisted in Canada for years after the revolution, and many black people were discriminated against and denied land initially promised to them.

In the years leading up to the Civil War, thousands more fled slavery on the Underground Railroad, settling in southern Ontario. Although they found freedom, they still faced persistent economic discrimination and segregation.

Prairie pioneers

Although the land rush of the American frontier had ended by the end of the 19th century, there was plenty of wide open space in Western Canada well into the dawn of the 20th century.

According to the University of Regina, some 330,000 American pioneers settled in Saskatchewan between 1905 and 1923. Some were born in the U.S., while others were European immigrants who had first tried to settle south of the border.

Draft dodgers

The turmoil of the 1960s brought thousands of Americans who opposed the Vietnam to Canada, especially those who refused to participate in the draft.

Between 1966 and 1975, almost 240,000 Americans moved to Canada, according to Statistics Canada, almost twice the number as in the previous decade. In 1969, the Canadian government passed a law allowing U.S. immigration regardless of military status, effectively opening the door to draft-dodgers and deserters.

Moving to Canada reached its peak in 1974, when 27,932 Americans crossed the border. Although the U.S. granted amnesty to people who evaded the draft in 1977, many stayed in Canada.

Laai tans.

Bush-era escapees

When George W. Bush won re-election in 2004, not everyone was thrilled.

“That’s it!” many left-leaning Americans presumably said. “I’m moving to Canada.” The day after Bush was re-elected president, there were 191,000 hits on Canada's immigration website, six times its average traffic, an article in the Star stated.

Like the draft dodgers of the �s and �s, post-9/11 Americans moved to Canada more for ideological reasons than economic security. Although U.S. immigration to Canada never reached the heights that it did in the 1970s, there was a spike. In 2006, 10,942 Americans moved to Canada, a 30-year-high.

The threat of moving to Canada became such a popular trope that it even made the list of “Stuff White People Like,” a popular satirical blog.

“Though they will never actually move to Canada, the act of declaring that they are willing to undertake the journey is very symbolic in white culture. It shows that their dedication to their lifestyle and beliefs are so strong, that they would consider packing up their entire lives and moving to a country that is only slightly different to the one they live in now,” wrote blogger Christian Lander.


Why did Canada not join the American Revolution? - Geskiedenis

What were the Articles of Confederation?

The Articles of Confederation served as the first constitution of the United States. This document officially established the government of the union of the thirteen states.

The Articles of Confederation
Source: U.S. Government

Why did the colonies write the Articles of Confederation?

The colonies knew they needed some form of official government that united the thirteen colonies. They wanted to have written down rules that all the states agreed to. The Articles allowed the Congress to do things like raise an army, be able to create laws, and print money.

Who wrote the document?

The Articles of Confederation was first prepared by a committee of thirteen men from the Second Continental Congress. The chairman of the committee and primary author of the first draft was John Dickinson.

When was the document ratified by the colonies?

In order for the Articles to be official, they had to be ratified (approved) by all thirteen states. The Congress sent the articles to the states to be ratified near the end of 1777. Virginia was the first state to ratify on December 16, 1777. The last state was Maryland on February 2, 1781.

The Thirteen Articles

    1. Established the name of the union as "The United States of America."
    2. The state governments still had their own powers that were not listed in the Articles.
    3. Refers to the union as a "league of friendship" where the states will help to protect each other from attacks.
    4. People can travel freely between states, but criminals shall be sent back to the state where they committed the crime for trial.
    5. Establishes the Congress of the Confederation where each state gets one vote and can send a delegation with between 2 and 7 members.
    6. The central government is responsible for foreign relations including trade agreements and declaring war. States must maintain a militia, but may not have a standing army.
    7. States may assign military ranks of colonel and below.
    8. Money to pay for the central government will be raised by each of the state legislatures.
    9. Gives power to the Congress in regards to foreign affairs like war, peace, and treaties with foreign governments. Congress will act as the court in disputes between states. Congress shall establish official weights and measures.
    10. Established a group called the Committee of the States which could act for Congress when Congress was not in session.
    11. Stated that Canada could join the union if it wanted.
    12. Stated that the new union would agree to pay for earlier war debts.
    13. Declared that the Articles were "perpetual" or "never ending" and could only be changed if Congress and all the states agreed.
  • No power to raise money through taxes
  • No way to enforce the laws passed by Congress
  • No national court system
  • Each state only had one vote in Congress despite the size of the state

As a result, in 1788, the Articles were replaced with the current United States Constitution.


Why did Canada not join the American Revolution? - Geskiedenis

The economies of the West Indies and the Thirteen Colonies were completely different. The islands were based on sugar and, while stupendously profitable, needed an imperial market and protection of the Royal Navy. Many of the plantation owners were born in England and aspired to return to live as landed gentry. The West Indies were a place you went to make a lot of money and leave.

The Thirteen Colonies were much more middle class—and colonies of settlement. The leaders were aristocratic landowners, like Washington and Jefferson (who were natural-born Americans for many generations and had no desire to return to England) and the rank and file of army were yeoman farmers and craftsmen.

The Thirteen Colonies had a much more diversified economy and while they benefited from imperial trade, were comparatively self-sufficient. They also offered education and opportunity. Alexander Hamilton was born in Nevis, but had to come to New York to be educated and seek his fortune. In a place like Nevis, if you were white, you were either a landowner, an overseer or a clerk. There weren’t many other options.

Also, the ratio of slaves to masters in the West Indies was enormous: nearly 20:1 in some places. The local whites were so outnumbered that they couldn’t possibly have maintained control without the British Army and the Royal Navy.

The main reasons the 13 did revolt was over 1) enforcement of navigation acts, 2) end of salutary neglect, 3) Proclamation of 1763 barring settlers from moving past the Appalachian Mountains, 4) transportation costs and debt of the "founding fathers" and other elite colonists, 5) increased taxation on colonists by Parliament to recoup the costs of the Seven Years' War or French & Indian War.

For the Caribbean holdings, many of these issues did not apply, but were of paramount importance for people like Ben Franklin (always a radical proponent of separation), George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, and later John Adams. These figures and many more appealed to other British colonies in the hemisphere--all of which declined participation. It was even a challenge to get South Carolina and Georgia (colonies of colonies) on board with the revolt.

NJGOAT

That doesn't sound right. There were very few loyalists in the largest colony of Virginia which would have meant there had to have been a number almost approaching a majority in the others. It wasn't anywhere near that.

I reaiize why you may have thought that. There were about 1/2 the number of loyalists as patriots, but the two together made up just 60% of the population. So loyalists as a percentage of the total population would have been about 20%.

The currently accepted numbers are 15-20% of the population remained Loyalist and the Patriots enjoyed support from 40-45%, perhaps reaching as high as 50%. That leaves roughly 30-45% of the population as not actively taking sides.

The 1/3rd figure was propagated for a long time based on a letter from Adams stating that the Patriots were "fighting against one-third of the population that remained Loyal." He counted the other two-thirds as being Patriots or patriot sympathizers. His letter is often bastardized into 1/3 for, 1/3 against and 1/3 neutral. Many historians relied on the 1/3rd estimate for many years until around 2000 when actual estimates (posted above) were done and those are now commonly accepted.


Planning for 1777

The cumulative effect of the campaign would be to sever New England from the rest of the American Colonies. This plan was approved by Germain in early 1777 despite word from Howe that he intended to march against Philadelphia that year. Confusion exists as to when Germain informed Burgoyne that participation by British forces in New York City would be limited at best. As Clinton had been defeated at Charleston, SC in June 1776, Burgoyne was able to secure command of the northern invasion force. Arriving in Canada on May 6, 1777, he assembled an army of over 7,000 men.


Why did Canada not join the American Revolution? - Geskiedenis

Prelude to Revolution
1763 to 1775

1763 - The Proclamation of 1763 , signed by King George III of England, prohibits any English settlement west of the Appalachian mountains and requires those already settled in those regions to return east in an attempt to ease tensions with Native Americans.

1764 - The Sugar Act is passed by the English Parliament to offset the war debt brought on by the French and Indian War and to help pay for the expenses of running the colonies and newly acquired territories. This act increases the duties on imported sugar and other items such as textiles, coffee, wines and indigo (dye). It doubles the duties on foreign goods reshipped from England to the colonies and also forbids the import of foreign rum and French wines.

1764 - The English Parliament passes a measure to reorganize the American customs system to better enforce British trade laws, which have often been ignored in the past. A court is established in Halifax, Nova Scotia, that will have jurisdiction over all of the American colonies in trade matters.

1764 - The Currency Act prohibits the colonists from issuing any legal tender paper money. This act threatens to destabilize the entire colonial economy of both the industrial North and agricultural South, thus uniting the colonists against it.

1764 - In May, at a town meeting in Boston, James Otis raises the issue of taxation without representation and urges a united response to the recent acts imposed by England. In July, Otis publishes "The Rights of the British Colonies Asserted and Proved." In August, Boston merchants begin a boycott of British luxury goods.

1765 - In March, the Stamp Act is passed by the English Parliament imposing the first direct tax on the American colonies, to offset the high costs of the British military organization in America. Thus for the first time in the 150 year old history of the British colonies in America, the Americans will pay tax not to their own local legislatures in America, but directly to England.

Under the Stamp Act, all printed materials are taxed, including newspapers, pamphlets, bills, legal documents, licenses, almanacs, dice and playing cards. The American colonists quickly unite in opposition, led by the most influential segments of colonial society - lawyers, publishers, land owners, ship builders and merchants - who are most affected by the Act, which is scheduled to go into effect on November 1.

1765 - Also in March, the Quartering Act requires colonists to house British troops and supply them with food.

1765 - In May, in Virginia, Patrick Henry presents seven Virginia Resolutions to the House of Burgesses claiming that only the Virginia assembly can legally tax Virginia residents, saying, "If this be treason, make the most of it." Also in May, the first medical school in America is founded, in Philadelphia.

1765 - In July, the Sons of Liberty , an underground organization opposed to the Stamp Act, is formed in a number of colonial towns. Its members use violence and intimidation to eventually force all of the British stamp agents to resign and also stop many American merchants from ordering British trade goods.

1765 - August 26, a mob in Boston attacks the home of Thomas Hutchinson, Chief Justice of Massachusetts, as Hutchinson and his family narrowly escape.

1765 - In October, the Stamp Act Congress convenes in New York City, with representatives from nine of the colonies. The Congress prepares a resolution to be sent to King George III and the English Parliament. The petition requests the repeal of the Stamp Act and the Acts of 1764. The petition asserts that only colonial legislatures can tax colonial residents and that taxation without representation violates the colonists' basic civil rights.

1765 - On November 1, most daily business and legal transactions in the colonies cease as the Stamp Act goes into effect with nearly all of the colonists refusing to use the stamps. In New York City, violence breaks out as a mob burns the royal governor in effigy, harasses British troops, then loots houses.

1765 - In December, British General Thomas Gage, commander of all English military forces in America, asks the New York assembly to make colonists comply with the Quartering Act and house and supply his troops. Also in December, the American boycott of English imports spreads, as over 200 Boston merchants join the movement.

1766 - In January, the New York assembly refuses to completely comply with Gen. Gage's request to enforce the Quartering Act.

1766 - In March, King George III signs a bill repealing the Stamp Act after much debate in the English Parliament, which included an appearance by Ben Franklin arguing for repeal and warning of a possible revolution in the American colonies if the Stamp Act was enforced by the British military.

1766 - On the same day it repealed the Stamp Act, the English Parliament passes the Declaratory Act stating that the British government has total power to legislate any laws governing the American colonies in all cases whatsoever.

1766 - In April, news of the repeal of the Stamp Act results in celebrations in the colonies and a relaxation of the boycott of imported English trade goods.

1766 - In August, violence breaks out in New York between British soldiers and armed colonists, including Sons of Liberty members. The violence erupts as a result of the continuing refusal of New York colonists to comply with the Quartering Act. In December, the New York legislature is suspended by the English Crown after once again voting to refuse to comply with the Act.

1767 - In June, The English Parliament passes the Townshend Revenue Acts , imposing a new series of taxes on the colonists to offset the costs of administering and protecting the American colonies. Items taxed include imports such as paper, tea, glass, lead and paints. The Act also establishes a colonial board of customs commissioners in Boston. In October, Bostonians decide to reinstate a boycott of English luxury items.

1768 - In February, Samuel Adams of Massachusetts writes a Circular Letter opposing taxation without representation and calling for the colonists to unite in their actions against the British government. The letter is sent to assemblies throughout the colonies and also instructs them on the methods the Massachusetts general court is using to oppose the Townshend Acts.

1768 - In April, England's Secretary of State for the Colonies, Lord Hillsborough, orders colonial governors to stop their own assemblies from endorsing Adams' circular letter. Hillsborough also orders the governor of Massachusetts to dissolve the general court if the Massachusetts assembly does not revoke the letter. By month's end, the assemblies of New Hampshire, Connecticut and New Jersey have endorsed the letter.

1768 - In May, a British warship armed with 50 cannons sails into Boston harbor after a call for help from custom commissioners who are constantly being harassed by Boston agitators. In June, a customs official is locked up in the cabin of the Liberty, a sloop owned by John Hancock. Imported wine is then unloaded illegally into Boston without payment of duties. Following this incident, customs officials seize Hancock's sloop. After threats of violence from Bostonians, the customs officials escape to an island off Boston, then request the intervention of British troops.

1768 - In July, the governor of Massachusetts dissolves the general court after the legislature defies his order to revoke Adams' circular letter. In August, in Boston and New York, merchants agree to boycott most British goods until the Townshend Acts are repealed. In September, at a town meeting in Boston, residents are urged to arm themselves. Later in September, English warships sail into Boston Harbor, then two regiments of English infantry land in Boston and set up permanent residence to keep order.

1769 - In March, merchants in Philadelphia join the boycott of British trade goods. In May, a set of resolutions written by George Mason is presented by George Washington to the Virginia House of Burgesses. The Virginia Resolves oppose taxation without representation, the British opposition to the circular letters, and British plans to possibly send American agitators to England for trial. Ten days later, the Royal governor of Virginia dissolves the House of Burgesses. However, its members meet the next day in a Williamsburg tavern and agree to a boycott of British trade goods, luxury items and slaves.

1769 - In July, in the territory of California, San Diego is founded by Franciscan Friar Juniper Serra. In October, the boycott of English goods spreads to New Jersey, Rhode Island, and then North Carolina.

1770 - The population of the American colonies reaches 2,210,000 persons.

1770 - Violence erupts in January between members of the Sons of Liberty in New York and 40 British soldiers over the posting of broadsheets by the British. Several men are seriously wounded.

March 5, 1770 - The Boston Massacre occurs as a mob harasses British soldiers who then fire their muskets pointblank into the crowd, killing three instantly, mortally wounding two others and injuring six. After the incident, the new Royal Governor of Massachusetts, Thomas Hutchinson, at the insistence of Sam Adams, withdraws British troops out of Boston to nearby harbor islands. The captain of the British soldiers, Thomas Preston, is then arrested along with eight of his men and charged with murder.

1770 - In April, the Townshend Acts are repealed by the British. All duties on imports into the colonies are eliminated except for tea. Also, the Quartering Act is not renewed.

1770 - In October, trial begins for the British soldiers arrested after the Boston Massacre. Colonial lawyers John Adams and Josiah Quincy successfully defend Captain Preston and six of his men, who are acquitted. Two other soldiers are found guilty of manslaughter, branded, then released.

1772 - In June, a British customs schooner, the Gaspee, runs aground off Rhode Island in Narragansett Bay. Colonists from Providence row out to the schooner and attack it, set the British crew ashore, then burn the ship. In September, a 500 pound reward is offered by the English Crown for the capture of those colonists, who would then be sent to England for trial. The announcement that they would be sent to England further upsets many American colonists.

1772 - In November, a Boston town meeting assembles, called by Sam Adams. During the meeting, a 21 member committee of correspondence is appointed to communicate with other towns and colonies. A few weeks later, the town meeting endorses three radical proclamations asserting the rights of the colonies to self-rule.

1773 - In March, the Virginia House of Burgesses appoints an eleven member committee of correspondence to communicate with the other colonies regarding common complaints against the British. Members of that committee include, Thomas Jefferson, Patrick Henry and Richard Henry Lee. Virginia is followed a few months later by New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Connecticut and South Carolina.

1773 - May 10, the Tea Act takes effect. It maintains a threepenny per pound import tax on tea arriving in the colonies, which had already been in effect for six years. It also gives the near bankrupt British East India Company a virtual tea monopoly by allowing it to sell directly to colonial agents, bypassing any middlemen, thus underselling American merchants. The East India Company had successfully lobbied Parliament for such a measure. In September, Parliament authorizes the company to ship half a million pounds of tea to a group of chosen tea agents.

1773 - In October, colonists hold a mass meeting in Philadelphia in opposition to the tea tax and the monopoly of the East India Company. A committee then forces British tea agents to resign their positions. In November, a town meeting is held in Boston endorsing the actions taken by Philadelphia colonists. Bostonians then try, but fail, to get their British tea agents to resign. A few weeks later, three ships bearing tea sail into Boston harbor.

1773 - November 29/30, two mass meetings occur in Boston over what to do about the tea aboard the three ships now docked in Boston harbor. Colonists decide to send the tea on the ship, Dartmouth, back to England without paying any import duties. The Royal Governor of Massachusetts, Hutchinson, is opposed to this and orders harbor officials not to let the ship sail out of the harbor unless the tea taxes have been paid.

December 16, 1773 - About 8000 Bostonians gather to hear Sam Adams tell them Royal Governor Hutchinson has repeated his command not to allow the ships out of the harbor until the tea taxes are paid. That night, the Boston Tea Party occurs as colonial activists disguise themselves as Mohawk Indians then board the ships and dump all 342 containers of tea into the harbor.

1774 - In March, an angry English Parliament passes the first of a series of Coercive Acts (called Intolerable Acts by Americans) in response to the rebellion in Massachusetts. The Boston Port Bill effectively shuts down all commercial shipping in Boston harbor until Massachusetts pays the taxes owed on the tea dumped in the harbor and also reimburses the East India Company for the loss of the tea.

1774 - May 12, Bostonians at a town meeting call for a boycott of British imports in response to the Boston Port Bill. May 13, General Thomas Gage, commander of all British military forces in the colonies, arrives in Boston and replaces Hutchinson as Royal governor, putting Massachusetts under military rule. He is followed by the arrival of four regiments of British troops.

1774 - May 17-23, colonists in Providence, New York and Philadelphia begin calling for an intercolonial congress to overcome the Coercive Acts and discuss a common course of action against the British.

1774 - May 20, The English Parliament enacts the next series of Coercive Acts, which include the Massachusetts Regulating Act and the Government Act virtually ending any self-rule by the colonists there. Instead, the English Crown and the Royal governor assume political power formerly exercised by colonists. Also enacted the Administration of Justice Act which protects royal officials in Massachusetts from being sued in colonial courts, and the Quebec Act establishing a centralized government in Canada controlled by the Crown and English Parliament. The Quebec Act greatly upsets American colonists by extending the southern boundary of Canada into territories claimed by Massachusetts, Connecticut and Virginia.

1774 - In June, a new version of the 1765 Quartering Act is enacted by the English Parliament requiring all of the American colonies to provide housing for British troops in occupied houses and taverns and in unoccupied buildings. In September, Massachusetts Governor Gage seizes that colony's arsenal of weapons at Charlestown.

1774 - September 5 to October 26, the First Continental Congress meets in Philadelphia with 56 delegates, representing every colony, except Georgia. Attendants include Patrick Henry, George Washington, Sam Adams and John Hancock.

On September 17, the Congress declares its opposition to the Coercive Acts, saying they are "not to be obeyed," and also promotes the formation of local militia units. On October 14, a Declaration and Resolves is adopted that opposes the Coercive Acts, the Quebec Act, and other measure taken by the British that undermine self-rule. The rights of the colonists are asserted, including the rights to "life, liberty and property." On October 20, the Congress adopts the Continental Association in which delegates agree to a boycott of English imports, effect an embargo of exports to Britain, and discontinue the slave trade.

1775 - February 1, in Cambridge, Mass., a provincial congress is held during which John Hancock and Joseph Warren begin defensive preparations for a state of war. February 9, the English Parliament declares Massachusetts to be in a state of rebellion. March 23, in Virginia, Patrick Henry delivers a speech against British rule, stating, "Give me liberty or give me death!" March 30, the New England Restraining Act is endorsed by King George III, requiring New England colonies to trade exclusively with England and also bans fishing in the North Atlantic.

1775 - In April, Massachusetts Governor Gage is ordered to enforce the Coercive Acts and suppress "open rebellion" among the colonists by all necessary force.

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