Geskiedenis Podcasts

Universiteit van St. Andrews

Universiteit van St. Andrews

In die 13de eeu was St. Andrews 'n klein vissersdorpie aan die ooskus van Skotland. Die dorpie het in omvang gegroei toe dit 'n pelgrimstog geword het nadat daar beweer is dat dit die oorblyfsels van die Heilige Andreas die Apostel het. 'N Katedraal vir die heilige relikwie is gebou en in 1411 word die derde universiteit van Brittanje in St. Andrews gestig. Alhoewel dit 'n aansienlike groei in die 19de eeu beleef het, is die bevolking van St. Andrews slegs 16 000, waarvan 'n kwart studente is.


Geskiedenis van die Universiteit van St Andrews

Die geskiedenis van die Universiteit van St Andrews begin met die stigting daarvan in 1410 toe 'n statuut van inlywing aan die Augustynse priory van die St Andrews -katedraal verleen is. Die universiteit het redelik vinnig in omvang gegroei St Salvator's College is in 1450 gestig, St Leonard's College in 1511 en St Mary's College in 1537. Sommige van die universiteitsgeboue wat vandag gebruik word, dateer uit hierdie tydperk, net soos St Salvator's Chapel. Op hierdie tydstip was 'n groot deel van die onderrig van godsdienstige aard en is dit uitgevoer deur geestelikes wat met die katedraal verband hou.


Kursusinligting

Die MA (Hons) in Geskiedenis is 'n vierjarige kursus wat deur die Skool vir Geskiedenis aangebied word. In die eerste twee jaar kry u die geleentheid om vanuit 'n breë chronologiese omvang te studeer en modules in ten minste twee verskillende historiese periodes te neem.

Benewens Geskiedenis, in die eerste jaar van u studie, moet u nog een of twee vakke bestudeer. In die tweede jaar gaan u gewoonlik ten minste een van hierdie vakke voort, soms twee. Lees meer oor hoe akademiese jare georganiseer word.

Kennisbreedte en perspektief word sterk aangemoedig, en daar word van alle studente verwag om in die eerste twee jaar modules in ander vakgebiede te volg, byvoorbeeld Engels, kunsgeskiedenis of antropologie.

Die vaardighede wat u opdoen in die ontleding van oorspronklike en sekondêre bronmateriaal, berei u voor om in u derde en vierde jaar 'n wye reeks historiese onderwerpe op 'n meer gevorderde vlak te ondersoek. U sal ook aangemoedig word om gedurende u vierde jaar dieper in 'n spesialisonderwerp van u keuse te duik.

Gegradueerdes in die geskiedenis van St Andrews kan verwag dat hulle 'n wye kennis in die geskiedenis ontwikkel het en verbindings kan maak tussen verskillende tydperke en tussen verskillende kulture.

Die Universiteit van St Andrews werk op 'n buigsame modulêre graadstelsel waarmee grade behaal kan word deur die opbou van krediete. Meer inligting oor die struktuur van die modulesisteem kan gevind word op die webwerf van die buigsame graadstruktuur.


Inhoud

Die vroegste aangetekende naam van die gebied is Cennrígmonaid. Dit is Oud -Gaelies en bestaan ​​uit die elemente cenn (kop, skiereiland), rig (koning) en monaid (moor). Dit het geword Sel Rígmonaid (sel wat kerk beteken) en is vir Skotse aangestel Kilrymont. Die moderne Gaeliese spelling is Skakel Rìmhinn. Dit is waarskynlik dat die Gaeliese naam 'n aanpassing van 'n Piktiese vorm verteenwoordig *Penimond. [10] Die naam St Andrews kom uit die aanspraak van die stad dat dit die rusplek van die bene van die apostel Andreas is. Volgens die legende het St Regulus (of Rule) die oorblyfsels na Kilrymont gebring, waar 'n heiligdom opgerig is vir hul bewaring en verering, terwyl Kilrymont hernoem is ter ere van die heilige. [11] Dit is die oorsprong van 'n derde naam vir die stad Kilrule.

Die eerste inwoners wat hulle tydens die mesolitiese (middelste Steentydperk) op die rand van die riviere Tay en Eden gevestig het, kom tussen die vlaktes in Noord -Europa tussen 10 000 en 5 000 v.G.J. [16] Dit is gevolg deur die nomadiese mense wat hulle ongeveer 4500 vC rondom die moderne stad gevestig het as boere wat die gebied van bosveld skoonmaak en monumente bou. [16]

In die middel van die agtste eeu is 'n klooster gestig deur die Piktiese koning Oengus I, tradisioneel verbonde aan die oorblyfsels van Sint Andreas, 'n aantal bene wat veronderstel was om die arm van die heilige, knieskyf, drie vingers en 'n tand te wees wat na bewering gebring is die stad by St Regulus. [17] In 877 nC het koning Causantín mac Cináeda (Konstantyn I of II) 'n nuwe kerk vir die Culdees in St Andrews gebou en later dieselfde jaar is hy gevange geneem en tereggestel (of miskien gedood in die geveg) nadat hy teen Viking -plunderaars verdedig het. [18]

In 906 nC word die stad die setel van die biskop van Alba, met die grense van die stoel wat uitgebrei word tot grond tussen die River Forth en die Tweedrivier. [19] In 940 het Konstantyn III afstand gedoen en die posisie van abt van die klooster St Andrews ingeneem. [20]

Die oprigting van die huidige stad begin omstreeks 1140 deur biskop Robert op 'n L-vormige dorpie, moontlik op die plek van die verwoeste St Andrews-kasteel. [21] Volgens 'n handves van 1170 is die nuwe burg wes van die katedraalgebou gebou, langs Castlestraat en moontlik sover as wat nou bekend staan ​​as North Street. [17] Dit beteken dat die uitleg moontlik gelei het tot die skepping van twee nuwe strate (Noordstraat en Suidstraat) vanaf die fondamente van die nuwe St Andrews-katedraal wat die gebied in 'n tweesydige driehoek aan die toppunt vul. [17] Die noordelike grens van die burg was die suidekant van die Scores (die straat tussen North Street en die see) met die suidelike by die Kinness Burn en die westelike deur die West Port. [22] Die burg van St Andrews is die eerste keer verteenwoordig in die groot raad in Scone Palace in 1357. [22]

St Andrews, veral die groot katedraal wat in 1160 gebou is, was die belangrikste pelgrimstog in Middeleeuse Skotland en een van die belangrikste in Europa. Pelgrims van regoor Skotland het in groot getalle gekom in die hoop om geseën te word, en in baie gevalle om genees te word, by die heiligdom van Sint Andrew. Die teenwoordigheid van die pelgrims het groter handel en ontwikkeling teweeggebring. [23] Die stad word erken as die kerklike hoofstad van Skotland, en het nou 'n groot ekonomiese en politieke invloed in Europa as 'n kosmopolitiese stad. [24] In 1559 verval die stad nadat die gewelddadige Skotse Hervorming en die oorloë van die drie koninkryke die status van die kerklike hoofstad van Skotland verloor het. [25] Selfs die Universiteit van St Andrews oorweeg dit om te verhuis na Perth omstreeks 1697 en 1698. [24] Onder die magtiging van die biskop van St Andrews, is die stad in 1614 tot 'n baronie geword. Royal Burgh is toe verleen as 'n handves deur koning James VI in 1620. [26] [27] In die 18de eeu was die stad steeds besig om agteruit te gaan, maar ten spyte hiervan het die stad bekend geword omdat dit 'skakels' aan gholfspelers 'ken. [24] Teen die 19de eeu het die stad buite die oorspronklike middeleeuse grense begin uitbrei, met strate van nuwe huise en villa's wat gebou word. [24] St Andrews word vandag bedien deur onderwys, gholf en die toeriste- en konferensiebedryf. [24]

St Andrews word verteenwoordig deur verskeie vlakke van verkose regering. Die Royal Burgh of St Andrews -gemeenskapsraad, wat op die eerste Maandag van die maand in die raadsaal van die stadsaal vergader, vorm die laagste bestuursvlak waarvan die statutêre rol is om die plaaslike mening aan die plaaslike en sentrale regering oor te dra. Die huidige voorsitter is mnr Callum MacLeod. Die voorsitter gebruik die eretitel van priester van St Andrews by amptelike en seremoniële geleenthede, en hierdie antieke titel is herleef ter viering van die 400ste herdenking van die toekenning van Royal Burgh -status aan St.

Die eerste parlement wat in die stad plaasgevind het, was in 1304, toe koning Edward I deur biskop William de Lamberton as die heerskappy van Skotland ontvang is. Sowat 130 grondeienaars het opgedaag om die gebeurtenis te sien, wat wissel van sir John of Combo tot sir William Murray van Fort. [29] In die vroeë dae van die unie van 1707 het St Andrews saam met Cupar, Perth, Dundee en Forfar een parlementslid (LP) verkies. [30] Die eerste verkose parlement is op 17 November 1713 ingestel as St Andrews Burgh, wat saamgesmelt het met Anstruther, die gevolg van 'n hervormingswetsontwerp in 1832. [30] By die hervormingsset in 1855 sou een LP vir St. Andrews Burgh (wat Anstruther Easter, Anstruther Wester, Crail, Cupar, Kilrenny en Pittenweem sou insluit). [30] Voor 1975 word die stad bestuur deur 'n raad, proef en baillies. In 1975 val St Andrews onder Fife Regional Council en North East Fife District Council. Laasgenoemde is afgeskaf toe 'n enkele gesag in 1996 ingestel is as Fife Council in Glenrothes.

St Andrews maak deel uit van die kiesafdeling North East Fife, en kies een lid van die parlement (LP) in die laerhuis van die parlement van die Verenigde Koninkryk teen die eerste post. Die kiesafdeling word verteenwoordig deur Wendy Chamberlain, LP van die Skotse Liberale Demokrate. Vir die doeleindes van die Skotse parlement vorm St Andrews deel van die kiesafdeling North East Fife. Die Skotse parlement van North East Fife (of Holyrood) Die kiesafdeling wat in 1999 gestig is, is een van die nege in die kiesgebied van die Midde -Skotland en Fife. Elke kiesafdeling kies een lid van die Skotse parlement (MSP) teen die eerste keer na die posstelsel, en die streek kies sewe addisionele lede om 'n vorm van proporsionele verteenwoordiging te lewer. Die setel is gewen tydens die Skotse parlementsverkiesing van 2016 deur Willie Rennie, vir die Skotse liberale demokrate. [31] [32]

St Andrews vergelyk volgens Britse sensus 2001 [33] [34] [35] [36]
St Andrews Fife Skotland
Totale bevolking 14,209 349,429 5,062,011
Buiteland gebore 11.60% 1.18% 1.10%
Meer as 75 jaar oud 10.51% 7.46% 7.09%
Werkloos 1.94% 3.97% 4.0%

Volgens die 2001 -sensus het St Andrews 'n totale bevolking van 14.209 gehad. [33] Die bevolking het toegeneem tot ongeveer 16,680 in 2008 [37] en 16,800 in 2012 [1] Die demografiese samestelling van die bevolking stem baie ooreen met die res van Skotland. Die ouderdomsgroep van 16 tot 29 vorm die grootste deel van die bevolking (37%). [33] Die gemiddelde ouderdom van mans en vroue wat in St Andrews gewoon het, was onderskeidelik 29 en 34 jaar, vergeleke met 37 en 39 jaar vir diegene in die hele Skotland. [33]

Die geboorteplek van die inwoners was 87,78% van die Verenigde Koninkryk (insluitend 61.80% van Skotland), 0,63% van die Republiek Ierland, 4,18% van ander lande van die Europese Unie en 7,42% van elders in die wêreld. [33] Die ekonomiese aktiwiteit van inwoners tussen 16 en 74 jaar was 23,94% in voltydse werk, 8,52% in deeltydse indiensneming, 4,73% selfstandige, 1,94% werklose, 31,14% studente met werk, 9,08% studente sonder werk , 13,24% is afgetree, 2,91% sorg vir huis of gesin, 2,84% permanent siek of gestrem en 1,67% om ander redes ekonomies onaktief. [35]

St Andrews, wie se ekonomie £ 660 miljoen bedra, steun sterk op toerisme en onderwys. In 2016 hou een uit elke vyf werksgeleenthede in St Andrews verband met toerisme. [38]

St Andrews word dikwels as 'n duur bestemming beskou. In 2016 is na berig word die tuiste van die "duurste straat in Skotland", met die gemiddelde huispryse in The Scores van meer as 2 miljoen pond. [39]


Hoe die Universiteit van St. Andrews van Skotland 'n top -Amerikaanse skool geword het

Dit is 'n gewilde keuse vir studente uit die VSA, en dit is nie net omdat Will en Kate daarheen is nie.

Die lentetemperatuur van die Noordsee aan die ooskus van Skotland is ongeveer 47 grade. Maar toe 'n koue dagbreek op Sondag 30 April kom, was Daniel Congbalay van Northbrook, Illinois, onder honderde studente van die Universiteit van St. 'n ruk.

Ek het gister wakker geword, 18 putjies gholf gespeel, saam met my vriende na die kroeg gegaan om 'n drankie te drink, die aand aangegaan met 'n aandete, dan aangetrek in 'n swart das, na May Ball gegaan en 'n hele nag gehad uit, & rdquo sê Congbalay, 21. & ldquoDaarna was daar 'n na -partytjie, en toe om 05:00 het ek na East Sands gegaan, saam met almal in die see gespring, geswem en toe sewe uur lank flou geword. & rdquo

Hy voeg by, & ldquoDit was waarskynlik die mees dag van St. Andrews & ndashtype waarvoor u moontlik kon vra. Dit is omtrent so St. Andrews soos dit word. & Rdquo

Die middeleeuse stad St. Andrews en die universiteit in die middel daarvan is al lank bekend vir ou tradisies, soos die sogenaamde May Dip. Studente trek soms rooi toga aan en dwaal deur 'n 17de-eeuse klippier. Hulle neem mede -studente aan om uitgestrekte multikulturele akademiese gesinne te skep wat mekaar deur hul studies help. En komitees onder leiding van studente reël gereeld polo -toernooie, swart das -galas en modevertonings.

Volgens die legende was dit op die loopplank by so 'n geleentheid in 2002 dat 'n voorgraadse kunsgeskiedenis met die naam Kate Middleton die eerste keer die aandag van prins William, die toekomstige koning van Engeland, getrek het. Die mees opspraakwekkende verhouding ter wêreld het geblom onder die torings van St. Andrews, aan die rotsagtige Skotse Skotland.

Gedurende die afgelope 20 jaar het Thanksgiving -etes en Super Bowl -partytjies ook geleidelik in die volgepakte sosiale dagboeke van St. Andrews -studente ingekom. Die eerste universiteit van Skotland en rsquos, gestig in 1413, is nou een van die aantreklikste bestemmings ter wêreld vir Amerikaners wat oorsee gaan studeer.

Congbalay, wat onlangs die derde jaar van 'n graad in bestuur voltooi het, is een van 1600 Amerikaanse studente aan St. Andrews, met 'n universiteitsbevolking van 8 800. Die hele stad, insluitend studente, huisves slegs ongeveer 20 000, wat beteken dat een uit elke 12 mense in hierdie burgerlike gemeente in die noorde van Fife die Atlantiese Oseaan oorsteek om skool toe te gaan.

Die toeristewinkels in die stad en rsquos verkoop 'n wye verskeidenheid gholfmemorabilia en mdashSt. Andrews is ook die tuiste van die Royal & amp Ancient gholfklub en die meeste aandenkings is gehul in kenmerkende tartan. Maar die Tesco Metro-winkel in Marketstraat, die hoofweg, het ook Quaker-kitsgrille, bokse Cheez-Its en 'n wye verskeidenheid krakels. Dinge wat ek nooit sou koop as ek eintlik in Amerika was nie, maar aangesien ek dit kan kry, en ek dit sien, wil ek dit hê, & rdquo, sê Ashley Streit, 'n 20-jarige student sielkunde en sosiale antropologie van Cincinnati.

Ongeveer 20 jaar gelede is daar beraam dat daar minder as 200 Amerikaanse studente aan die Universiteit van St. Andrews was. Maar die koninklike konneksie, tesame met 'n aktiewe werwing van die toelatingspan van St.

Die algemene en maklike verhaal vertel dat welgestelde Amerikaanse studente met siniese motivering na St. Maar vir al die aspirasies tot adel van sommige van die studente en mdashor, meer waarskynlik, verkies hul ouers dat die skool self sy streng akademiese geloofsbriewe en toenemende invloed in die wêreld van gegradueerde werwing beklemtoon.

St. Andrews is slegs agter Oxford en Cambridge op die drie groot akademiese ligatafels in die Verenigde Koninkryk. Dit vereis 'n B+/A & ndash -gemiddelde op hoërskoolafskrifte van Amerikaners, van wie baie uitdruklik op soek is na 'n ervaring in die buiteland.

Die skool beskou die Universiteit van Edinburgh as sy grootste mededinger vir Amerikaanse studente, en hoewel St. Andrews opnames doen van studente wat toelating geweier het oor waar hulle anders aansoek gedoen het en watter skool hulle uiteindelik gekies het vir die Ivies, NYU en Berkeley, is die mees algemene instellings op daardie lyste. Suksesvolle aansoekers praat van buitengewone diversiteit in 'n hegte en gekonsentreerde studentekorps, soos by min kolleges in die VSA

Dit is 'n soort borrel hier. Dit is maklik om te integreer, en sê rdquo, Sophia Russo, 'n filmstudent uit Los Angeles. U kan mense in dieselfde ruimte ontmoet wat soortgelyk is aan u en ook baie anders is. U deel almal die ervaring in hierdie klein Skotse stad. & Rdquo

St Andrews in die middestad bestaan ​​uit nie veel meer as vier ongeveer parallelle strate, elk ongeveer 'n half kilometer lank, wat effens bymekaar kom aan die oostelike ente langs die ruïnes van 'n katedraal uit die 12de eeu. Die wilde see val vas teen kranse langs die noordelike rand van die stad, terwyl die ses gholfbane wat die St. in die see in die noordweste, omring deur twee myl ononderbroke strand. Die ikoniese openingstoneel van die film Vuurwaens is hier verfilm.

Mense vra my: 'Sal ek die tipiese Amerikaanse kollege -ervaring misloop?' Ek sê: 'Natuurlik!'

Die universiteit het geboue versprei oor die stad, insluitend sommige van die majestueuse graniet-herehuise langs die Scores, 'n bergstraat wat afdraande van die kasteel (ook die 12de eeu) afdraai na die eerste tee van die Old Course. Dit is onlangs vasgestel dat dit die duurste woonstraat in Skotland is. Alhoewel die universiteit moderne wetenskap- en sportfasiliteite aan die buitewyke van die stad het, plus 'n mariene laboratorium naby East Sands, bly die geestelike hart van St. Andrews die St. opvoedkundige instellings.

Op 'n onlangse Woensdag gooi twee studente 'n frisbee op die onberispelike grasperk in die middel van die vierkant. Hulle stemme, wat in die kloosters van die universiteitskapel weerklink het, het duidelike Amerikaanse aksente. & ldquo Die meeste mense sal jou vertel dat die meeste Amerikaners harder, meer opvallend is, en dat Congbalay erken. & ldquo Hulle verberg nie presies in die skare nie. & Streqt en Russo is mede-voorsitters van die St. Andrews-vroue- en rsquosokkerspan, en hulle sê die feit dat die span byna 70 persent Amerikaans is, bly nie opgemerk op die kneusplekke van Glasgow nie en verder as.

St. Andrews het eers in 1984 vir toelating by die Verenigde State begin soek en het nou 'n span van 10 werwers wat op Noord -Amerika fokus, wat elkeen tussen ses en tien weke per jaar in die VSA deurbring. Hulle besoek kollege -feeste en aanvaar uitnodigings na albei openbare en private skole, ontmoet studente en hul ouers en beraders, met 'n toonhoogte wat die akademiese reputasie van die universiteit sowel as die meer kenmerkende eienskappe daarvan beklemtoon.

& ldquo Hulle dryf werklik die avontuur en opwinding om in Skotland te wees en die wonderlike nuwe ervaring op te doen, sê Emma Thompson, 'n 19-jarige uit Washington, DC, wat onlangs haar tweede jaar in internasionale betrekkinge en moderne geskiedenis voltooi het. (Edinburgh, Brown en die Universiteit van Chicago was een van die ander skole waarna sy aansoek gedoen het.) & Ldquo Hulle kan die wêreldomgewing dryf, dat St. Andrews werklik uiteenlopend is en mense van regoor die wêreld kom. & Rdquo

Thomas Marr is 'n lid van die Noord -Amerikaanse werwingspan in die toelatingsafdeling van die universiteit, en hy beklemtoon nog een van die hoogs oortuigende verkoopspunte van St. Andrews en die Amerikaanse mark. & ldquo Die ander belangrike ding is die koste, en rdquo sê hy. & ldquoDit & rsquos baie minder as wat u waarskynlik sou verwag. & rdquo

Alhoewel onderrig alleen by sommige Amerikaanse skole jaarliks ​​$ 50,000 kan beloop, betaal die meeste internasionale studente wat in 2017 St. Andrews binnekom $ 25,093 vir elk van hul vier jaar. (Die mediese skool kos 'n bietjie meer.) Marr gee 'n balpark -syfer vir 'n internasionale student, insluitend onderrig, vlugte, verblyf, sosiale lewe en alle gereelde lewenskoste, van $ 35,000 tot $ 40,000. & ldquo Baie gesinne beskou dit as 'n beduidende besparing, & rdquo Marr sê.

Daar is ook nooit 'n beter tyd om dit by te woon nie. Internasionale studente aan St. Andrews het in 2008 ongeveer £ 10,000 betaal vir onderrig per jaar, wat destyds net meer as $ 20,000 gelyk was. Maar die val van die pond die afgelope dekade, versnel deur Brittanje en die dreigende onttrekking aan die Europese Unie, beteken dat die fooi van $ 20,570 vandag ongeveer $ 26,500 werd is en 'n relatief klein styging oor 10 jaar.

Dit alles is 'n bonus vir die skool self. Aansoekers uit Skotland en die grootste deel van die Europese Unie word gratis in St. Andrews opgelei. Britse studente uit Engeland, Wallis en Noord -Ierland moet betaal, maar hul fooie is minder as die helfte van wat internasionale studente (van buite die EU) betaal. Hierdie afslag het 'n manier om die universiteit en rsquos -hofmakery van Amerikaners te verduidelik.

Slim studente en aangename ouers span dikwels saam om die geld wat deur die lewe in die VK gespaar is, te bestee aan 'n ongelooflike reisplan. Ek kan die wêreld baie makliker uit Skotland sien, en Thompson sê. & ldquo Nie net Europa is meer toeganklik nie, maar soort van die hele wêreld. & rdquo

Thompson het 'n ou koshuisvriend in Kaïro besoek tydens haar eerste lentevakansie wat Streit en Russo tot dusver saam Spanje, Nederland, Denemarke, Kroasië en Italië (& ldquoWe love Italy! & Rdquo) verken het. Congbalay, wat sê dat die meeste van sy hoërskoolvriende by die Big Ten -skole beland het (hy het aansoek gedoen by Wisconsin, George Washington University en Indiana, maar altyd die St. Andrews as sy eerste keuse beskou het), het 22 lande voor sy 22ste verjaardag besoek.

Byna alle vriendskapsgroepe in die stad bevat blykbaar verteenwoordigers van verskeie kontinente, en besprekings in die veral Amerikaanse swaar departement vir internasionale betrekkinge kan soos forums by die Verenigde Nasies klink. Alhoewel dit moeilik is om te bevestig, word berig dat een uit elke 10 studente in St. Andrews trou met iemand wat hy of sy ontmoet het terwyl hy studeer, met transatlantiese vakbonde wat baie ongewoon is.

Kursusstruktuur by St. Andrews verskil effens van die Amerikaanse model. Studente studeer drie vakke in hul eerste twee jaar, en moet dan slegs op een of twee fokus vir hul laaste twee jaar. Daar is egter geen kernleerplan nie, en die fakulteit speel 'n baie minder indringende rol in die ontwikkeling van studente. 'N Aansienlike hoeveelheid werk word toegeken en sal na verwagting afgelewer word, maar daar is minder vasvrae en 'n minder gejaagde rooster vir formele klasse. Studente vertel meermale met groot trots dat hulle as volwassenes in St. Andrews moet funksioneer, met minder hande as wat tuis verwag kan word.

& ldquoWe & rsquore was gelukkig dat ons te doen het met baie gemotiveerde, slim, vasberade, gretige studente, en sê Marr. Hy voeg by dat wanneer werwers die werklikheid van die lewe in 'n klein, kuslike Skotse stad uiteensit, 'n redelik genadelose proses van selfseleksie plaasvind. Juis die aspekte wat by sommige aanklank vind, sal ander onmiddellik afstoot. & ldquoStudente is gewoonlik die tipe mense waar hulle, as iets nie skeefloop nie, net hul hande in die lug gooi en na die lughawe hardloop om die eerste vlug huis toe te kry. Hulle grawe in, veg daarvoor en laat dit werk. & Rdquo

Sonder die nagtelike afleiding van 'n groot stad, word studente meer vindingryk om hul eie pret te skep en smeerbaar deur die byna 30 kroeë in die stad. (Die drinkouderdom in Skotland is 18, 'n feit wat nie deur Amerikaanse studente opgemerk word nie.) Die afgelope vyf of so jaar was daar 'n paar baie beperkte pogings deur sommige Amerikaanse studente om broederskap en meisies te stel, sê Marr. Maar, deur die owerhede ontmoedig, het die Griekse lewe nog nooit posgevat nie.

& ldquoMense vra my, & lsquoSal ek die tipiese Amerikaanse universiteitservaring misloop? & rsquo & rdquo sê Harris LaTeef, 'n student van Great Falls, Virginia, wat gereeld toere aan voornemende studente gee. & ldquo Ek sê, & lsquo Natuurlik! & rsquo & rdquo & mdash laat min twyfel dat hy dit as 'n goeie ding beskou. Vorige geslagte internasionale studente aan St. Andrews het hul loopbaanvooruitsigte moontlik gedink deur die gebrek aan saknetwerke wat Skotland met die Verenigde State verbind, maar loopbaanplasing vir Noord -Amerikaanse studente is nou 'n skerp fokus van die loopbaandiensafdeling, wat personeel het spesifiek toegewy aan die VSA. Hulle lei gereeld studente om groot werwers regoor die land te ontmoet, en hulle bied videokonferensiesessies aan vir studente en potensiële werkgewers en dienste wat in ooreenstemming is met wat verwag word by top Amerikaanse skole.

Dit het sy eie unieke aanbod geword, sê Gloria Bennett, die universiteit in Noord -Amerika, die Midde -Ooste en die bestuurder van alumni -geleenthede. Nou begin ons hoor van ander universiteite in die Verenigde Koninkryk wat bel en sê: 'Ons dink daaraan om dit te doen. Kan ons dit probeer? & Rsquo Ons het almal regtig gefokus op die internasionalisering van loopbaandienste. & Rdquo

Hierdie pogings word versterk deur alumni wat onthou van gelukkige tye in St. Andrews en bereid is om geleenthede by te woon en te werf uit 'n studentekorps wat hul ervaring gedeel het. En die beskerming strek tot by die koninklike egpaar. In Desember 2014, as deel van die 600-jarige viering van die universiteit, het prins William 'n groep van meer as 450 toegespreek tydens 'n geldinsamelingsdinee in die Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, en hy het met liefde gepraat oor die studie en die bier-swilling.

Daar is beslis tonne Amerikaners, en daar is altyd 'n grap dat ons die 51ste staat besoek, en sê rdquo, Joseph Cassidy, wat grootgeword het in Coatbridge, naby Glasgow, en nou met die redaksie van die St. koerant. As daar enige wrok is, is dit geneig om ryk te wees. Dit is nie die feit dat Engelse of Amerikaners hiernatoe kom nie, dit is ook die feit dat baie ryk mense hierheen kom, en dit het die gevolg dat die pryse verhoog word wat studentehuur betref. & Rdquo

Cassidy sê ook dat dit 'n algemene wanpersepsie is dat die Amerikaanse teenwoordigheid in St. Andrews slegs as gevolg van die romantiese beeld daarvan is, as gevolg van William en Kate. & Rdquo uit dat drie ondertekenaars van die Onafhanklikheidsverklaring bande met die universiteit gehad het. Meer onlangs was Bob Dylan en Hillary Clinton een van die vooraanstaande Amerikaners wat eregrade ontvang het.

Cassidy eggo ander deur te beweer dat die teenwoordigheid van Amerikaanse studente grootliks voordelig is, selfs bo die hoër tariewe wat hulle betaal: Amerikaners soek waarde vir geld, en eis beter kliëntediens binne en buite die klas, en hulle is geneig om 'n baie meer aktiewe rol te speel in studenteklubs en verenigings.

Wel, behalwe een. In teenstelling met baie ander Britse universiteite, het St. Andrews geen American Society nie. & ldquo Dit sou sinneloos wees, "sê Cassidy." Daar is so baie van hulle wat soveel verskillende dinge doen, wat sulke uiteenlopende belange het. St. Andrews is byna self 'n samelewing vir Amerikaners. Daar is geen sin daarvoor nie. ”

Hierdie verhaal verskyn in die Augustus 2017 -uitgawe van Town & amp Country.


Inhoud

Foundation Edit

Die universiteit is in 1410 gestig toe 'n groep Augustynse geestelikes, van die Universiteit van Parys verdryf deur die Avignon-skeuring en van die universiteite van Oxford en Cambridge deur die Anglo-Skotse Oorloë, 'n samelewing van hoër onderwys in St Andrews gevorm het, wat aangebied het kursusse in goddelikheid, logika, filosofie en regte. Die biskop van St Andrews, Henry Wardlaw, [16] het op 28 Februarie 1411 'n handves van voorreg aan die genootskap van meesters en geleerdes geskenk. [17] Wardlaw het die Avignon -pous Benedictus XIII daarna suksesvol versoek om die status van die skooluniversiteit te verleen deur die uitreiking van 'n reeks pouslike bulle, wat gevolg het op 28 Augustus 1413. [18] Koning James I van Skotland bevestig die handves van die universiteit in 1432. Daaropvolgende konings ondersteun die universiteit, met koning James V van Skotland "wat die voorregte van die universiteit bevestig" in 1532. [19] [20]

'N Kollege vir teologie en kunste, genaamd St John's College, is in 1418 [21] gestig deur Robert van Montrose en Lawrence van Lindores. St Salvator's College is in 1450 gestig deur biskop James Kennedy. [22] St Leonard's College is in 1511 gestig deur aartsbiskop Alexander Stewart, wat bedoel het dat dit 'n baie meer monastieke karakter sou hê as een van die ander kolleges. St John's College is in 1538 herbou deur kardinaal James Beaton onder die naam St Mary's College vir die studie van goddelikheid en reg. Dit was bedoel om tradisionele Katolieke leerstellings aan te moedig in teenstelling met die opkomende Skotse Hervorming, maar nadat Skotland in 1560 formeel met die pousdom geskei het, het dit 'n onderriginstelling geword vir Protestantse geestelikes. [23] Met die stigting in 1538 was St Mary's bedoel om 'n kollege te wees vir onderrig in goddelikheid, regte en geneeskunde, sowel as in kunste, maar sy loopbaan op hierdie uitgebreide skaal was van korte duur. Onder 'n nuwe fondament en oprigting, wat deur die parlement in 1579 bevestig is, is dit slegs vir die studie van die teologie afgesonder, en dit is sedertdien 'n Divinity College. [24] [25]

Sommige universiteitsgeboue wat uit hierdie tydperk dateer, word vandag nog gebruik, soos St Salvator's Chapel, St Leonard's College Chapel en St Mary's College quadrangle. Op hierdie tydstip was die meerderheid van die onderrig van 'n godsdienstige aard en is dit uitgevoer deur geestelikes verbonde aan die katedraal.

Ontwikkeling Redigeer

Gedurende die 17de en 18de eeu het die universiteit gemengde fortuine gehad en word dit dikwels deur burgerlike en godsdienstige steurnisse geteister. In 'n besonder akute depressie in 1747 het ernstige finansiële probleme die ontbinding van die St Leonard's College veroorsaak, wie se eiendomme en personeel saamgevoeg is in St Salvator's College om die United College of St Salvator en St Leonard te vorm. [17] Gedurende hierdie periode was die studentegetalle byvoorbeeld baie laag, toe Samuel Johnson die universiteit in 1773 besoek het, het die universiteit minder as 100 studente gehad en was hy volgens hom in 'n konstante afname. Hy beskryf dit as 'vervalle en sukkel om die lewe'. [26] Die armoede van Skotland gedurende hierdie tydperk het ook St Andrews beskadig, aangesien min mense die universiteit en sy kolleges kon beskerm, en omdat staatsondersteuning onwaarskynlik was, was die inkomste wat hulle ontvang het skaars.

Moderne tydperk Redigeer

In die tweede helfte van die 19de eeu het druk op universiteite opgebou om hoër onderwys vir vroue oop te stel. [27] In 1876 het die universiteits senaat besluit dat vroue 'n opleiding in St Andrews kon ontvang op 'n vlak wat ongeveer gelyk was aan die Master of Arts -graad wat mans destyds kon volg. Die skema staan ​​bekend as die 'LLA -eksamen' (Lady Literate in Arts). Dit vereis dat vroue vyf vakke op 'n gewone vlak en een op honneursvlak geslaag het, en hulle het 'n graad aan die universiteit verwerf. [28] In 1889 het die Wet op Universiteite (Skotland) [29] dit moontlik gemaak om vroue formeel in St. Agnes Forbes Blackadder het die eerste vrou geword wat in Oktober 1894 op dieselfde vlak as mans aan St Andrews studeer het en haar MA behaal het. Sy betree die universiteit in 1892, wat St Andrews die eerste universiteit in Skotland maak wat vroulike voorgraadse studente op dieselfde vlak as mans toelaat. [30] In reaksie op die toenemende aantal vrouestudente wat die universiteit bywoon, is die eerste vrouesaal in 1896 gebou en het die naam University Hall geword. [31]

Up until the start of the 20th century, St Andrews offered a traditional education based on classical languages, divinity and philosophical studies, and was slow to embrace more practical fields such as science and medicine that were becoming more popular at other universities. In response to the need for modernisation and in order to increase student numbers and alleviate financial problems, the university merged with University College, Dundee in 1897, [32] which had a focus on scientific and professional subjects. After the incorporation of University College Dundee, St Andrews' various problems generally receded. For example, it was able to offer medical degrees. Of note is that, up until 1967, many students who obtained a degree from the University of St Andrews had in fact spent most, and sometimes all, of their undergraduate career based in Dundee.

In 1967, the union with Queen's College Dundee (formerly University College Dundee) ended, when that College became an independent institution under the name of the University of Dundee. As a result of this, St Andrews lost its capacity to provide degrees in many areas such as Medicine, Dentistry, Law, Accountancy, and Engineering. As well as losing the right to confer the undergraduate medical degree MBChB, it was also deprived of the right to confer the postgraduate degree MD. St Andrews was eventually able to continue to offer the opportunity to study medicine through a new arrangement with the University of Manchester in England.

In 1972, the College of St Leonard was reconstituted as a postgraduate institute. [33]

Links with the United States Edit

St Andrews' historical links with the United States predate the country's independence. James Wilson, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, attended (but did not graduate from) St Andrews. Wilson was one of six original justices appointed by George Washington to the Supreme Court of the United States and was a founder of the University of Pennsylvania Law School. Other prominent American figures associated with St Andrews include Scottish American industrialist Andrew Carnegie, who was elected Rector in 1901 and whose name is given to the prestigious Carnegie Scholarship, and Edward Harkness, an American philanthropist who in 1930 provided for the construction of St Salvator's Hall. American Bobby Jones, co-founder of the Augusta National Golf Club and the Masters Tournament, was named a Freeman of the City of St Andrews in 1958, becoming only the second American to be so honoured, the other being Benjamin Franklin in 1759. [34] Today a highly competitive scholarship exchange, The Robert T. Jones Scholarship, exists between St Andrews and Emory University in Atlanta. [ aanhaling nodig ] An undergraduate joint degree programme have been in place with the College of William & Mary in Virginia that offers studies in some major areas. [ aanhaling nodig ]

Links with the United States have been maintained into the present day and continue to grow. In 2009, Louise Richardson, an Irish-American political scientist specialising in the study of terrorism, was drawn from Harvard to serve as the first female Principal and Vice Chancellor of St Andrews. [35] She later went on to her next appointment as the Vice Chancellor to the University of Oxford. [36]

Active recruitment of students from North America first began in 1984, with Americans now making up around 1 in 6 of the student population in 2017. [37] Students from almost every state in the United States and province in Canada are represented. [9] [38] This is the highest proportion and absolute number of American students amongst all British universities. [39] [40] Media reports indicate growing numbers of American students are attracted to the university's academics, traditions, prestige, internationalism, and comparatively low tuition fees. [41] [42] [43] [44] The university also regularly features as one of the few non-North American universities in the Fiske Guide to Colleges, an American college guide, as a 'Best Buy'. [45] [46] St Andrews has developed a sizable alumni presence in the United States, with over 8000 alumni spread across all 50 states. [47] Most major cities host alumni clubs, the largest of which is in New York. [48] Both London and New York also host the St Andrews Angels, an alumni led angel investment network, which centres upon the wider university communities in both the United Kingdom and United States. [49] St Andrews has also established relationships with other university alumni clubs and private membership clubs in the United States to provide alumni with social and networking opportunities. For example, alumni are eligible for membership at the Princeton Club of New York, the Penn Club of New York City and the Algonquin Club in Boston. [50] [51] [52]

In 2013, Hillary Clinton, former United States Secretary of State, took part in the academic celebration marking the 600th anniversary of the founding of the University of St Andrews. [53] Clinton received an honorary degree of Doctor of Laws and provided the graduation address, in which she said,

I do take comfort from knowing there is a long tradition of Americans being warmly welcomed here at St Andrews. Every year I learn you educate more than one thousand American students, exposing them to new ideas and perspectives as well as according them with a first class education. I've been proud and fortunate to hire a few St Andrews alumni over the years and I thank you for training them so well. [54]

As with the other ancient universities of Scotland, the governance of the university is determined by the Universities (Scotland) Act 1858. This act created three bodies: the General Council, University Court and Academic Senate (Senatus Academicus).

General Council Edit

The General Council is a standing advisory body of all the graduates, academics and former academics of the university. It meets twice a year and appoints a business committee to manage business between these meetings. Its most important functions are to appoint two assessors to the University Court and elect the university's chancellor.

University Court Edit

The University Court is the body responsible for administrative and financial matters, and is in effect the governing body of the university. It is chaired by the rector, who is elected by the matriculated students of the University. Members are appointed by the General Council, Academic Senate and Fife Council. The President of the Students' Association and Director of Education are ex officio members of the Court. Several lay members are also co-opted and must include a fixed number of alumni of the University.

Senatus Academicus Edit

The Academic Senate (Latin Senatus Academicus) is the supreme academic body for the university. Its members include all the professors of the university, certain senior readers, a number of senior lecturers and lecturers and three elected student senate representatives – one from the arts and divinity faculty, one from the science and medicine faculty and one postgraduate student. It is responsible for authorising degree programmes and issuing all degrees to graduates, and for managing student discipline. The President of the Senate is the University Principal.

Office of the Principal Edit

The Principal is the chief executive of the university and is assisted in that role by several key officers, including the Deputy Principal, Master of the United College and Quaestor. The principal has responsibility for the overall running of the university and presides over the University Senate. [55]

Rector Edit

In Scotland, the position of rector exists at the four ancient universities (St Andrews, Glasgow, Aberdeen and Edinburgh) – as well as the University of Dundee. The post was made an integral part of these universities by the Universities (Scotland) Act 1889. The Rector of the University of St Andrews chairs meetings of the University Court, the governing body of the university and is elected by the matriculated student body to ensure that their needs are adequately considered by the university's leadership. Through St Andrews' history a number of notable people have been elected to the post, including the actor John Cleese, industrialist and philanthropist Andrew Carnegie, author and poet Rudyard Kipling and the British Prime Minister Archibald Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery. [56]

Kolleges Redigeer

The university encompasses three colleges: United College, St Mary's College and St Leonard's College. The purpose of the colleges at St Andrews is mainly ceremonial, as students are housed in separate residential halls or private accommodations. United College is responsible for all students in the faculties of arts, sciences and medicine, and is based around St Salvator's Quadrangle. [57] St Mary's College is responsible for all students studying in the Faculty of Divinity, and has its own dedicated site in St Mary's Quadrangle. [58] St Leonard's College is now responsible for all postgraduate students. [59]

Faculties and schools Edit

The four academic faculties collectively encompass 18 schools. A dean is appointed by the Master of the United College to oversee the day-to-day running of each faculty. Students apply to become members of a particular faculty, as opposed to the school within which teaching is based. The faculties and their affiliated schools are:

  • Faculty of Arts: art history, classics, economics, English, film studies, history, international relations, management, modern languages, philosophy, social anthropology. [60] : divinity. [61] : medicine. [62]
  • Faculty of Science: biology, chemistry, computer science, geography and geosciences, mathematics, physics and astronomy, psychology and neuroscience. [63]

Certain subjects are offered both within the Faculties of Arts and Sciences, the six subjects are: economics, geography, management, mathematics, psychology and sustainable development. The content of the subject is the same regardless of the faculty. [64]

Semesters Edit

The academic year at St Andrews is divided into two semesters, Martinmas and Candlemas, named after two of the four Scottish Term and Quarter Days. Martinmas, on 11 November, was originally the feast of Saint Martin of Tours, a 4th-century bishop and hermit. Candlemas originally fell on 2 February, the day of the feast of the Purification, or the Presentation of Christ. Martinmas semester runs from early September until mid-December, with examinations taking place just before the Christmas break. There follows an inter-semester period when Martinmas semester business is concluded and preparations are made for the new Candlemas semester, which starts in January and concludes with examinations at the end of May. Graduation is celebrated at the end of June. [65]

Rankings and reputation Edit

Rankings
National rankings
Complete (2022) [66] 4
Voog (2021) [67] 2
Times / Sunday Times (2021) [68] 3
Global rankings
ARWU (2020) [69] 301–400
CWTS Leiden (2020) [70] 175
QS (2022) [71]
91
DIE (2021) [72] 198
British Government assessment
Teaching Excellence Framework [73] Gold

In a ranking conducted by Die voog, St Andrews is placed 5th in the UK for national reputation behind Oxford, Cambridge, Imperial & LSE. [74] When size is taken into account, St Andrews ranks second in the world out of all small to medium-sized fully comprehensive universities (after Brown University) using metrics from the QS Intelligence Unit in 2015. [75] The 2014 Research Excellence Framework ranked St Andrews 14th in the UK, and first in Scotland, amongst multi-faculty institutions for the research quality (GPA) of its output profile. [76] St Andrews was ranked 9th overall in Die Sunday Times 10-year (1998–2007) average ranking of British universities based on consistent league table performance, [77] and is a member of the 'Sutton 13' of top ranked Universities in the UK. [78]

Nearly 86% of its graduates obtain a First Class or an Upper Second Class Honours degree. [79] The ancient Scottish universities award Master of Arts degrees (except for science students who are awarded a Bachelor of Science degree) which are classified upon graduation, in contrast to Oxbridge where one becomes a Master of Arts after a certain number of years, and the rest of the UK, where graduates are awarded BAs. These can be awarded with honours the majority of students graduate with honours.

In 2017, St Andrews was named as the university with the joint second highest graduate employment rate of any UK university (along with Warwick), with 97.7 per cent of its graduates in work or further study three and a half years after graduation. [80] St Andrews is placed 7th in the UK (1st in Scotland) for the employability of its graduates as chosen by recruiters from the UK's major companies [81] with graduates expected to have the best graduate prospects and highest starting salaries in Scotland as ranked by The Times and Sunday Times Good University Guide 2016 and 2017. [82] According to data released by the Department for Education in 2018, St Andrews was rated as the 5th best university in the UK for boosting male graduate earnings with male graduates seeing a 24.5% increase in earnings compared to the average graduate, and the 9th best university for females, with female graduates seeing a 14.8% increase in earnings compared to the average graduate. [83] An independent report conducted by Swedish investment firm, Skandia found that despite its small undergraduate body, St Andrews is the joint-5th best university in the UK for producing millionaires. [84] A study by High Fliers confirmed this by reporting that the university also features in the top 5 of UK universities for producing self-made millionaires. [85] According to a study by the Institute of Employment Research, St Andrews has produced more directors of FTSE 100 companies in proportion to its size than any other educational institution in Britain. [86]

In the 2019 Complete University Guide, 24 out of the 25 subjects offered by St Andrews rank within the top 10 nationally, making St Andrews one of only three multi-faculty universities (along with Cambridge and Oxford) in the UK to have over 95% of their subjects in the top 10. [87] The Times and Sunday Times Good University Guide 2017 revealed that 24 of the 26 subjects offered by St Andrews ranked within the top 6 nationally with 10 subjects placing within the top 3 including English, Management, Philosophy, International Relations, Italian, Physics and Astronomy and Classics and Ancient History. [88] The Guardian University Guide 2019 ranked Biosciences, Computer Science, International Relations, Physics and Psychology first in the UK. Earth and Marine Sciences, Economics, English, Management, Mathematics, Philosophy and Theology placed within the top three nationally. [89] In the 2015-16 Times Higher Education World University Rankings, St Andrews is ranked 46th in the world for Social Sciences, [90] 50th in the world for Arts and Humanities [91] and 74th in the world for Life Sciences. [92] The 2014 CWTS Leiden rankings, which "aims to provide highly accurate measurements of the scientific impact of universities", placed St Andrews 39th in the world, ranking it 5th domestically. [93] The philosophy department is ranked 6th worldwide (3rd in Europe) in the 2020 QS World University Rankings [94] whilst the graduate programme was ranked 17th worldwide (2nd in the UK) by the 2009 Philosophical Gourmet's biennial report on Philosophy programs in the English-speaking world. [95]

Position of the University of St Andrews in the National University Rankings for the last 3 years
Year/Ranking The Guardian University Guide The Times & Sunday Times Good University Guide The Complete University Guide
2021 2 Not published 3
2020 2 3 3
2019 3 3 5

Admissions Edit

Undergraduate Admission Statistics [96]
2017 2016 2015 2014 2013
Applications 18,790 17,785 16,010 15,505 15,875
Offer Rate (%) 42.3 44.8 46.7 53.0 41.2
Enrols 1,915 1,955 1,835 2,115 1,770
Yield (%) 24.1 24.5 24.5 25.7 27.1
Applicant/Enrolled Ratio 9.81 9.11 8.73 7.32 8.97
Average Entry Tariff [97] [a] nvt 206 525 520 516

The university receives applications mainly through UCAS and the Common Application with the latest figures showing that there are generally 12 applications per undergraduate place available. [98] Overall, the university is one of the most competitive universities in the UK, with 2016-17 having an acceptance rate of 8.35% and offer rate of 22.5% for Scottish/EU applicants where places are capped by the Scottish Government. [99] [100] In 2017, the most competitive courses for Scottish/EU applicants were those within the Schools of International Relations, Management, and Economics and Finance with offer rates of 8.0%, 10.9% and 11.5% respectively. [99] [101] The standard offer of a place tends to require five best Highers equivalent to AAAAB, three best A-levels equivalent to AAA or a score of at least 38 points on the International Baccalaureate. [102] Successful entrants have, on average, 525 UCAS points (the equivalent of just above A*A*AA at A Level) ranking it as the 5th highest amongst higher education institutions in the UK for the 2015 admissions cycle [103] with The Telegraph naming it as the hardest university into which to gain admission in Scotland. [104]

The university has one of the smallest percentages of students (13%) from lower income backgrounds, out of all higher education institutions in the UK. [105] [106] Around 40% of the student body is from independent schools [107] and the university hosts the highest proportion of financially independent students (58%) in the UK. [108] The university participates in widening access schemes such as the Sutton Trust Summer School, First Chances Programme, REACH & SWAP Scotland, and Access for Rural Communities (ARC) in order to promote a more widespread uptake of those traditionally under-represented at university. [109] In the seven-year period between 2008 and 2015, the number of pupils engaged with annual outreach programmes at the university has increased by about tenfold whilst the number of students arriving at St Andrews from the most deprived backgrounds has increased by almost 50 per cent in the past year of 2015. [110] The university has a higher proportion of female than male students with a female ratio of 59.7% in the undergraduate population. [111]

Lecture series Edit

To commemorate the university's 600th anniversary the 600th Lecture Series was commissioned in 2011, which brought diverse speakers such as former Prime Minister Gordon Brown, naturalist David Attenborough and linguist Noam Chomsky to St Andrews. [112]

As part of the celebration of the 400th establishment of the King James Library, the King James Library lectures were initiated in 2009 on the subject of 'The Meaning of the Library'. [113]

The Andrew Lang Lecture series was initiated in 1927, and named for alumnus and poet Andrew Lang. The most famous lecture in this series is that given by J. R. R. Tolkien in March 1939, entitled 'Fairy Stories', but published subsequently as 'On Fairy-Stories'. [114]

The computing Distinguished Lecture Series was initiated in 1969 by Jack Cole. [115]

Exchange programmes Edit

St Andrews has developed student exchange partnerships with universities around the globe, though offerings are largely concentrated in North America, Europe, and Asia. Exchange opportunities vary by School and eligibility requirements are specific to each exchange program. [116]

In North America, the highly competitive Bachelor of Arts International Honours program, run in conjunction with The College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia, allows students studying Classical Studies, Film Studies, International Relations, English, History, or Economics to spend two years at each institution and earn a joint degree from both. [117] The Robert T. Jones Memorial Trust funds the Robert T. Jones Jr. Scholarship, which allows select St Andrews students to study, fully funded, for a year at Emory University in Atlanta, and Western University and Queen's University in Canada. [118] The Robert Lincoln McNeil Scholarship allows students to study at the University of Pennsylvania. One of the largest North American exchanges is with the University of California System, in which students can study at UC Berkeley, UC Los Angeles (UCLA), UC Santa Cruz (UCSC) and UC San Diego (UCSD). Other North American partners offering multiple exchanges include the University of Virginia, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Washington University in St. Louis, Washington and Lee University, Elon University, and the University of Toronto. [116] Some exchanges are offered within specific research institutes at St Andrews, rather than across entire Schools. For example, the Handa Centre for the Study of Terrorism and Political Violence (CSTPV), within the School of International Relations, offers student exchanges in partnership with the School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University. [119]

St Andrews participates in the Erasmus Programme and has direct exchanges with universities across Europe. [116] For example, in France exchanges are offered at the Sorbonne, Sciences Po, and University of Paris VI. In the Netherlands students can study at Leiden University and Utrecht University. Narrower exchanges include those with the University of Copenhagen, the University of Oslo, and Trinity College Dublin. Exchanges are also available for postgraduate research students, such as the opportunity for social scientists to study at the European University Institute in Florence, Italy.

More recently, St Andrews has developed exchanges with partners in Asia and Australia. [116] Notable partners include the University of Hong Kong and Renmin University of China, National University of Singapore, and the University of Melbourne in Australia.

The University of St Andrews is situated in the small town of St Andrews in rural Fife, Scotland. The university has teaching facilities, libraries, student housing and other buildings spread throughout the town. Generally, university departments and buildings are concentrated on North Street, South Street, The Scores, and the North Haugh. The university has two major sites within the town. The first is the United College, St Andrews (also known as the Quad or St Salvator's) on North Street, which functions both as a teaching space and venue for student events, incorporating the Departments of Social Anthropology and Modern Languages. The second is St Mary's College, St Andrews, based on South Street, which houses the Schools of Divinity, Psychology and Neuroscience, as well as the King James Library. Several schools are located on The Scores including Classics, English, History, Philosophy, the School of Economics and Finance, and International Relations, as well as the Admissions department, the Museum of the University of St Andrews, and the Principal's residence, University House. North Street is also the site of several departments including, the Principal's Office, Younger Hall, Department of Film Studies, and the University Library. The North Haugh is principally home to the Natural Sciences such as Chemistry, Physics, Biology, as well as Mathematics, Computer Science, Medicine and the School of Management.

Libraries and museums Edit

The University of St Andrews maintains one of the most extensive university library collections in the United Kingdom, which includes significant holdings of books, manuscripts, muniments and photographs. The library collection contains over a million volumes and over two hundred thousand rare and antique books. [120]

The university library was founded by King James VI in 1612, with the donation of 350 works from the royal collection, at the urging of George Gledstanes, the then chancellor of St Andrews, although the libraries of the colleges of St Leonard's College, St Salvator's College and St Mary's College had existed prior to this. [121] [122] From 1710 to 1837 the library functioned as a legal deposit library, and as a result has an extensive collection of 18th-century literature. [123]

The library's main building is located on North Street, and houses over 1,000,000 books. [124] The library was designed by the architects Faulkner-Brown Hendy Watkinson Stonor based in North East England at Killingworth. [125] Faulkner-Brown specialised in libraries and leisure facilities and also designed the National Library of Canada in Ottawa and the Robinson Library at Newcastle University [126] [127] In 2011 the main library building underwent a £7 million re-development. [128] The historic King James library, built in 1643, houses the university's Divinity and Medieval history collections. [129]

In 2012 the university purchased the vacant Martyrs' Kirk on North Street, with the purpose of providing reading rooms for the Special Collections department and university postgraduate research students and staff. [130]

The university maintains several museums and galleries, open free to the public. [131] The Museum of the University of St Andrews (MUSA) opened in 2008 and displays some highlights of the university's extensive collection of over 100,000 artefacts. [132] It displays objects relating both to the history of the university, such as its collection of 15th-century maces, [133] and also unrelated objects, such as paintings by John Opie, Alberto Morrocco and Charles Sims. [134] Several of the university's collections have been recognised as being of 'national significance for Scotland' by Museums Galleries Scotland. [135]

The Bell Pettigrew Museum houses the university's natural history collections. Founded in 1912, it is housed in the old Bute Medical School Building in St. Mary's Quad. Among its collections are the remains of several extinct species such as the dodo and Tasmanian tiger as well as fossilised fish from the nearby Dura Den, Fife, which when found in 1859 stimulated the debate on evolution. [136]


In memory of Paul Kravar

Interestingly, as recently as September 2016, a plaque was unveiled in the town, by the Ambassador of the Czech Republic in memory of Kravar.

Lindores had considerable academic success with his commentaries on Aristotle being widely read on mainland Europe, influencing Nicholas Copernicus the father of modern astronomy and developing his understanding of physics.

At St Andrews the arts curriculum was composed almost exclusively of Aristotle’s logic, physics, natural philosophy and metaphysics after a foundation of elementary logic. To obtain degrees students had to study and copy out the required texts.

James I, finally released after 18 years captivity, returned to Scotland in 1424. The following year, anxious to make his mark, he made ambitious plans to develop Perth in a similar way to Oxford and as part of that vision he attempted unsuccessfully to move the university from St Andrews to Perth.

Among the other colleges, St Salvator’s, the college of the Holy Saviour, is the oldest, founded in 1450 by Bishop James Kennedy, the nephew of James I and second chancellor of the university, as a college of Arts and Theology. There are no visible signs of this building today. In its place is the United College of St Salvator and St Leonard.

What does remain, although much changed, is the beautiful St Salvator’s Chapel. Described as the, “hub of life in Scotland’s oldest University,” St Salvator’s Chapel, part of Bishop Kennedy’s college, serves both as a college chapel and a collegiate church open to the wider community.

The chapel suffered badly during the Reformation and if a reminder of these tumultuous times is needed the initials “PH” carved in the cobbles underneath the bell tower do just that. In 1528, at a nearby spot Patrick Hamilton was burned at the stake for his Protestant faith. He was the first martyr in the Scottish Reformation.


Course information

The MLitt in Early Modern History is a one-year taught postgraduate programme run by the School of History.

Hoogtepunte

  • Work with a significant number of scholars of early modern history who can provide a high level of specialised supervision and advanced training in the history of the early modern European and Atlantic worlds.
  • Benefit from broad and deep preparation, offering you the chance to explore and critically evaluate both historiography and primary sources.
  • Pursue high-level skills training to build up to your MLitt dissertation.
  • Preparation for students who are interested in subsequent doctoral research.

Teaching format

The MLitt course lasts for one calendar year taught modules run from September to April, followed by dissertation research and writing over the late spring and summer.

Teaching methods typically include fortnightly seminars, practical classes and tutorials. Class sizes range from individual supervision up to 12 students. The modules are assessed by coursework only there is no final exam.

The early modern cohort is typically close-knit and friendly, but comprises a diverse, international group with a range of intellectual interests. Students work closely with each other, with early modern research staff, and also with students in parallel MLitt degrees such as Reformation Studies, Intellectual History, and Book History.


Modules

In the first two years of your degree (known as sub-honours) you will take the required modules in History alongside modules in at least one other subject.

Typically, you will take three modules per semester during your first two years, and two modules per semester during your third and fourth year (known as Honours). Find out more about the modular Scottish degree system.

Students will take at least three from the following selection of first-year modules:

  • Greek History to Alexander the Great: provides a broad survey of ancient Greek history and looks at the political development of Athens and Sparta, the impact of the Athenian Empire, and Greek culture in its heyday.
  • Roman History from Foundation to Empire: considers the rise of Rome to world power from humble beginnings, examining the political, cultural and economic consequences of her imperialism.
  • The Fall of Rome and the Origins of Europe (400-1000): examines how political, cultural and social life changed in the worlds of Byzantium, Islam and the ‘barbarian’ West in response to major upheavals.
  • Scotland and the English Empire 1070-1500: compares and relates the societies of the English crown and the kingdom of Scotland in the aftermath of the Norman Conquest of England.
  • The Early Modern Western World (c. 1450-1770): looks at continental European history in the early modern period, and the expansion of Europe.
  • Themes in Late Modern History (c. 1776-2001): provides a thematic coverage of major political and social developments in the Western world during the 19 th and 20 th centuries.

Students will take at least three from the following selection of second-year modules:

  • The Roman Empire: studies the Roman empire with particular reference to social, religious and economic changes as well as to political and military history.
  • Mediterranean Communities: deals with the human settlement and material culture of the entire Mediterranean World throughout classical antiquity.
  • Mediaeval Europe (1000-1400): examines key themes that helped to shape Western Europe from the 11 th to 14 th centuries, a period known as the ‘High Middle Ages’.
  • Introduction to Middle Eastern History: provides an introduction to Middle Eastern History from the dramatic reconfiguration of the Middle East in late Antiquity to its contested and contentious recent past.
  • Scotland, Britain and Empire (c. 1500-2000): provides an introduction to how and why the British nation state evolved from the separate kingdoms of England, Scotland and Ireland and how and why it has survived over the last three centuries.
  • History as a Discipline: Development and Key Concepts: provides an introduction to key theoretical and methodological approaches which have characterised the emergence of History as a discipline since the Middle Ages.

If you decide to take History in your third and fourth years, you choose modules from a wide variety of advanced options.

Here is a sample of Honours modules which have been offered in previous years:

  • The Mediaeval Castle
  • Heretics and Social Outcasts in Western Europe
  • Age of Conquest: Edward I - Scotland and Wales (1239-1307)
  • The Formation of Islamic Iran: From the Arab Conquests to the Seljuq Empire (600-1200)
  • The Decline and Fall of the French Old Regime (1715-1789)
  • Power without Responsibility? The British Press and Politics (1850-1939).

Some modules at Honours level are intended to build your portfolio and provide you with career experience. For example, the Recording the Past module allows you to submit a multimedia historical project in the form of a radio programme, video documentary, website or another appropriate medium.

In fourth year, students may also undertake a 10,000-word dissertation on a topic of their choice. This independent project enables you to develop key research skills which are desired by both prospective employers and by graduate schools offering postgraduate degrees.

The sub-honours modules listed here are the compulsory modules that students must take in order to graduate in this subject. However, most students at St Andrews take additional modules, either in their primary subject or from other subjects they are interested in. For Honours-level, students choose from a range of Honours modules, some of which are listed above. A full list of all modules available for the current academic year can be found in the module catalogue.


History and archaeology

The graph shows median earnings of graduates who achieved a degree in this subject area one, three and five years after graduating from here.

Note: this data only looks at employees (and not those who are self-employed or also studying) and covers a broad sample of graduates and the various paths they've taken, which might not always be a direct result of their degree.

Explore these similar courses.

Share this page

This is what the university has told Ucas about the criteria they expect applicants to satisfy some may be compulsory, others may be preferable.

Have a question about this info? Learn more here

This is the percentage of applicants to this course who received an offer last year, through Ucas.

Have a question about this info? Learn more here

This is what the university has told Ucas about the course. Use it to get a quick idea about what makes it unique compared to similar courses, elsewhere.

Have a question about this info? Learn more here

Course location and department:

This is what the university has told Ucas about the course. Use it to get a quick idea about what makes it unique compared to similar courses, elsewhere.

Have a question about this info? Learn more here

Teaching Excellence Framework (TEF):

We've received this information from the Department for Education, via Ucas. This is how the university as a whole has been rated for its quality of teaching: gold silver or bronze. Note, not all universities have taken part in the TEF.

Have a question about this info? Learn more here

This information comes from the National Student Survey, an annual student survey of final-year students. You can use this to see how satisfied students studying this subject area at this university, are (not the individual course).

This is the percentage of final-year students at this university who were "definitely" or "mostly" satisfied with their course. We've analysed this figure against other universities so you can see whether this is high, medium or low.

Have a question about this info? Learn more here

This information is from the Higher Education Statistics Agency (HESA), for undergraduate students only.

You can use this to get an idea of who you might share a lecture with and how they progressed in this subject, here. It's also worth comparing typical A-level subjects and grades students achieved with the current course entry requirements similarities or differences here could indicate how flexible (or not) a university might be.

Have a question about this info? Learn more here

Post-six month graduation stats:

This is from the Destinations of Leavers from Higher Education Survey, based on responses from graduates who studied the same subject area here.

It offers a snapshot of what grads went on to do six months later, what they were earning on average, and whether they felt their degree helped them obtain a 'graduate role'. We calculate a mean rating to indicate if this is high, medium or low compared to other universities.

Have a question about this info? Learn more here

Graduate field commentary:

The Higher Education Careers Services Unit have provided some further context for all graduates in this subject area, including details that numbers alone might not show

Have a question about this info? Learn more here

The Longitudinal Educational Outcomes dataset combines HRMC earnings data with student records from the Higher Education Statistics Agency.

While there are lots of factors at play when it comes to your future earnings, use this as a rough timeline of what graduates in this subject area were earning on average one, three and five years later. Can you see a steady increase in salary, or did grads need some experience under their belt before seeing a nice bump up in their pay packet?