Geskiedenis Podcasts

Kalkpleisterstandbeeld van Ain Al-Ghazal

Kalkpleisterstandbeeld van Ain Al-Ghazal


Dioptase

Tsumeb -myn (Tsumcorp -myn), Tsumeb, Otjikoto -streek (Oshikoto), Namibië © Joseph A. Freilich

Chemiese formule: CuSiO3 · H2O
Plaas: Tsumeb en Cochab, Namibië. Altyn Tube, Rusland.
Naam Oorsprong: Uit die Grieks, dia – “through ” en optomai – “vision. ”

Dioptase is 'n intense smaraggroen tot blougroen koper siklosilikaat mineraal. Dit is deursigtig tot deurskynend. Sy glans is glasagtig tot sub-adamantien. Die formule is CuSiO3 · H2O (ook aangemeld as CuSiO2(OH)2). Dit het 'n hardheid van 5, dieselfde as tandemalje. Die spesifieke swaartekrag daarvan is 3,28–3,35, en dit het twee perfekte en een baie goeie splitsingsrigtings. Boonop is dioptase baie broos en moet monsters met groot omsigtigheid hanteer word. Dit is 'n trigonale mineraal wat 6-kantige kristalle vorm wat deur rhombohedra beëindig word.


Natuurlike boublog

Omstreeks 1846 het kalk gewild geword oor erosie-geneigde modder. Dit was gewild vir pleisters en vir mortel in baie konstruksies tot die koms van Portland-sement gedurende die eerste dekade van die 20ste eeu.

Hierdie eerste voorbeeld van die term "sementstukkie" in die argiewe van die Santa Fe New Mexican verskyn in 1907, maar in die tweede helfte van die 19de eeu was kalk die koning.

Kalkmaak behels 'n reeks stappe. Eerstens verbrand jy stukke kalksteen in 'n warm oond. Die vinnige kalk is baie bytend en kan moontlik ontplof met vog. 'In ou gravures van messelaars sal u ouens sien wat oogklappe dra', het die aannemer Alan Watson gesê, 'want as 'n stukkie kalk dit die vog in u oog tref, klop! dit brand net jou oogappel uit. ”

Die tweede groot stap in die proses was om die kalk kalk in water te "slak" om kalkmortels en pleisters te vervaardig. 'Dit is 'n redelik gesofistikeerde proses,' het Watson gesê. 'Dit is handig omdat dit 'n vaste stof is wat in 'n plastiekmateriaal omskep kan word en dan in vaste toestand kan terugkeer.'

Die tegnologie kan ten minste na die Neolitiese tye aan die einde van die Steentydperk teruggevoer word. In die 1980's is meer as 'n dosyn menslike standbeelde-sommige van hulle tweekoppig-in Jordanië ontdek. Die kalkgipsyfers oorleef uit die 9 000 jaar oue boerdery-nedersetting 'Ain Ghazal.

Watson het gesê dat al die Maya -terreine in Mexiko met kalkpleisters en mortiere gedoen is. 'Die Spaanse het daarvan geweet toe hulle in New Mexico aankom, maar dit was reeds in Mexiko. Sover ek weet, het dit nooit verder noord as Ciudad Juarez gekom totdat die Amerikaners opgedaag het nie. Die eerste bewyse waarvan ek weet, is by Fort Union, wat in die 1850's gestig is. Daar is twee oonde. ”

Alhoewel messelaars vandag klein hoeveelhede van 'n relatief minderwaardige produk, wat gehidreerde kalk genoem word, in hul sementmengsels gebruik om plastisiteit by te voeg, word kalk in sy suiwer vorm nie gereeld vir mortel en gips op geboue gebruik nie, behalwe in bewaringswerk. Kontrakteurs soos Mac Watson en Edward Crocker wat baie werk aan historiese geboue in Santa Fe gedoen het, gebruik wel kalk vir herstelwerk. Hulle is ook gefassineer deur die vind van historiese kalkoonde en putte.

In 2011 is 'n drie eeu oue slenkgat langs die katedraal ontdek tydens argeologiese toetse wat deur die stad vereis word. 'Ek het tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat die kalkgatput uit 1717 dateer en waarskynlik tydens die bou van die tweede gebruik is parroquia [parochiekerk] in daardie jaar, ”sê James L. Moore, Museum of New Mexico Office of Archaeological Studies.

Crocker het gesê dat hoe langer kalk "in 'n stopverf vasgeloop en klam gehou is, hoe meer plastiek en goed gedra." Die kwaliteit van kalk word groter namate dit langer word, en daar is berigte oor vakmanne wat slegs materiaal gebruik wat dekades lank geblus het.

Vakmanne het slenkgate gegrawe naby die geboue waarop die kalk gebruik sou word. Aan die ander kant is kalkoonde by bronne van kalksteen gebou. Soms was oonde ver van die slenkgate.

Watson het gesê: ''n Deel van die ontwerp van die oond is om iets te kry wat mal word omdat jy 'n redelik intense vuur probeer skep, sodat jy dit aanhou voed.'

Die vind van goeie kalkbronne was die sleutel tot kalktegnologie. Een blik op die geskiedenis van Santa Fe kom uit 'n oomblik tydens 'n onderhoud in 1964 met die beeldhouer Eugenie Shonnard wat gepraat het oor die vind van kalksteen en klei op Cerro Gordo.

Kalk gips bind goed met klip - hoe growwer hoe beter - maar hoe gaan dit met die gebruik van kalkpleister op 'n Adobe -gebou? In een van sy rubrieke “Understanding Adobe” het Crocker geskryf dat kalk en Adobe slegs matig verenigbaar is en dat ou tyders 'n rajuelar tegniek wat nie meer bekostigbaar is as gevolg van die betrokke arbeid nie. "Die term rajuelar is 'n Spaanse werkwoord wat die toepassing van klip aandui, of rajuela, ”Het Crocker geskryf. 'In hierdie geval is die toepassing van klein, spatelvormige, verkieslik hoekige en deurlaatbare stukke rots in die mortelverbindings tussen die adobes. Met die rajuelas Byvoorbeeld, 'n driekwart duim buite die vertikale vlak van die muur, is 'n effektiewe lat geskep. Die ingeboude klippe het die kalkpleister ondersteun. ”

'N Ander hulpmiddel om kalk aan adobe vas te hou, is die benatting van die adobe onmiddellik voor toediening, het Watson bygevoeg. Dit was die metode wat by die historiese kerk in Cañoncito gebruik is. 'Ons het die kalkverf op Our Lady of Light gedoen toe ek middel 1990's vir Cornerstones gewerk het,' het hy gesê. 'Dit is een van die min strukture in Noord -New Mexico waarvan ek weet dat dit aan die buitekant met kalkpleister bedek is, en dit is redelik goed gehou.'


Hou hiervan? Verken die hele lys besienswaardighede in Amman voordat u u reis beplan.

Lus vir 'n goeie nagrus na 'n vermoeiende dag? Kyk waar u in Amman kan bly en bespreek 'n akkommodasie van u keuse.

  • Die Jordan Museum -adres: The Jordan Museum, Ali Ben Abi Taleb St. 10, Amman 11183, Jordanië
  • Die Jordan Museum-kontaknommer: +962-64629317
  • Die tyd van die Jordaan -museum: 10:00 tot 14:00
  • Die Jordan Museum -prys: 5 JOD
  • Beste tyd om die Jordan Museum te besoek (voorkeur tyd): 10:00 - 12:00
  • Tyd benodig om die Jordan Museum te besoek: 02:00 uur
  • Probeer die beste aanlyn reisbeplanner om u reisplan te beplan!

44,82% van die mense wat Amman besoek, sluit The Jordan Museum in hul plan in

92,31% van die mense begin hul besoek aan The Jordan Museum omstreeks 10:00 - 11:00

Mense neem gewoonlik ongeveer twee uur om die Jordan Museum te sien

91,43% van die mense verkies om per motor te reis terwyl hulle die Jordan Museum besoek

Mense verenig gewoonlik die Abu Darwish -moskee en die Jordan National Gallery of Fine Arts terwyl hulle hul besoek aan The Jordan Museum beplan.


Kalkpleisterstandbeeld van Ain Al -Ghazal - Geskiedenis

Kalk mortiere

Slegs kalk wat by kalk voorkom, kan elke vestiging of beweging in die muur beter akkommodeer as semente, wat nie kan aanpas by veranderings rondom hulle sodra hulle vasstaan ​​nie. Alhoewel kalkstukkies en kalkspoelmiddels meer asemhaal, het dit ook beter eienskappe om water af te skud.

Sementstukkies sal waarskynlik kraak onder spanning of beweging, wat 'n roete vir water in die binnekant van die binnekant moontlik maak waar dit vasgevang sal word. Kalkstukkie kan beter aanpas by vroeë bewegings in die gebou, omdat dit nie onmiddellik heeltemal deurloop nie, maar slegs as die binnekant stadiger koolzuur word. Enige klein skeurtjies wat oopgaan, kan weer verseël word namate suur reënwater by die krake inkom en óf 'n deel van die oorblywende kalsiumhidroksied in die skeur trek, óf as die effens suur reënwater kalsiumkarbonaat gedeeltelik oplos langs die rand van die skeur, wat kalsiumbikarbonaat tydelik veroorsaak en weer plaas dit weer na die voorkant van die skeur as kalsiumkarbonaat. Hierdie selfgenesende eienskap van kalk word in die literatuur goed beskryf as & ldquo-outogene genesing. & Rdquo [1]

Kalk gips

Van die keiserlike Rome tot die Maya -stede uit die 11de eeu, is kalk gebruik om vloere te gips ten minste so vroeg as 9 000 v.C., en die tradisie is voortgesit deur ons voorouers in koloniale Amerika. Die feit dat kalkpleisters, renders, pleisterwerk en wasgoed tot vandag toe geduur het, gee 'n 11 000 jaar lange rekord wat die bou van kalk vandag bied. Met die hernieude belangstelling in groen tegnologie, geniet omgewingsvriendelike kalkpleister nuwe gewildheid in moderne huise. "'N Ware kalkpleister het die unieke kwaliteit dat dit veelkleurige nuanses weerspieël, versterk deur die verskillende hoeke van sonlig wat deur die dag weerspieël word. As ons uiteindelik ons ​​impak op aardverwarming besef, bespaar die gebruik van kalkpleister ongeveer 80% van die CO2 vrystelling in vergelyking met gewone pleisterwerk. Een enkele woning sal tussen 5 000 en 10 000 pond CO2-uitstoot bespaar. Elke jaar alleen in die VSA bespaar omgewingsbewuste bouers miljoene CO2 vrystelling deur eenvoudig die gebruik van sementprodukte te vermy, en kies eerder Natural Hydraulic Kalk. " Van Building Green

Kalk was

Binne of buite is kalkwas gebruik vir sentures in hierdie land as afwerking vir mure. Ons gebruik alle kalkstowwe en pas dit op verskillende maniere toe om 'n verskeidenheid effekte te verkry.

Verdere leeswerk

Cedar Rose Guelberth en Dan Chiras, Die Natural Plaster Book: grond-, kalk- en gipspleisters vir natuurlike huise '

J.N. Tubb, Kanaäniete , Londen, The British Museum Press, 1998

Stafford Holmes, Michael Wingate, Bou met kalk: 'n praktiese inleiding , Intermediate Technology Publications Ltd, 2003


Kalkpleisterstandbeeld van Ain Al -Ghazal - Geskiedenis

CAROL A. GRISSOM
Smithsonian Conservation Institute
4210 Silver Hill Road
Suitland, Maryland 20746
telefoon: 301-238-1236
Faks: 301-238-3709
e-pos: [email protected]

BA, kunsgeskiedenis, Wellesley College, 1970
M.A., Art Conservation, Oberlin College, 1974

PROFESSIONELE ONDERVINDING

Senior Objects Conservator, Smithsonian Museum Conservation Institute (voorheen die Smithsonian Center for Materials Research and Education en die Conservation Analytical Laboratory), Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC (1984-hede). Huidige projekte sluit in Zinc Beeldhouwerk in Amerika: 1850 en ndash1950 en dien as boekresensieredakteur vir Studies in Bewaring.

J. Paul Getty Paired Fellow for Research in Conservation and the History of Art and Archaeology vir 'n projek getiteld & ldquo The impact of Berlin on outdoor sink sculpture in Northern Europe and the United States, & rdquo Center for Study of the Visual Arts, National Gallery of Art , Washington, DC (April-Julie 2002)

Konservator van spesiale uitstallings, National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC (1982-1983)

Assistant Sculpture Conservator, Center for Archaeometry, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (1977-1982)

Conservator, Friuli Arts and Monuments, Udine, Italië (1976-1977)

Conservation Fellow, Istituto Centrale di Restauro, Rome, Italië (1976)

Conservation Fellow, Institut Royal du Patrimoine Artistique, Brussel, België (1974-1975)

Conservation Trainee, Intermuseum Conservation Association, Oberlin, Ohio (1971-1974)

Conservation Intern, Detroit Institute of Arts, Detroit, Michigan (Januarie 1972)

Conservation Intern, Cooper-Hewitt Museum of Design and Decorative Art, New York, New York (somer 1972)

PUBLIKASIES

Grissom, Carol A. Sinkbeeldhouwerk in Amerika: 1850 en ndash1950 (word gepubliseer deur die University of Delaware Press)

Grissom, Carol A. en Ronald S. Harvey. Die bewaring van Amerikaanse oorlogsgedenktekens gemaak van sink. & rdquo Tydskrif van die American Institute for Conservation 41 (2003) 21-38.

Grissom, Carol A. & ldquoCache two & rdquo en & ldquoCatalogue of cache two. & Rdquo In Simbole by & lsquoAin Ghazal, & lsquoAin Ghazal Excavation Reports, Vol. 1, geredigeer deur Denise Schmandt-Besserat. Irbid, Jordanië: Yarmouk University Press, komende (nou beskikbaar by http://menic.utexas.edu/menic/ ghazal).

Griffin, Patricia S. en Carol A. Grissom. & ldquoDrie gipsgesigte. & rdquo In Simbole by & lsquoAin Ghazal, & lsquoAin Ghazal Excavation Reports, Vol. 1, geredigeer deur Denise Schmandt-Besserat. Irbid, Jordanië: Yarmouk University Press, komende (nou beskikbaar by http://menic.utexas.edu/menic/ ghazal).

Grissom, C. A., Charola, E. E. en Henriques, M.A. & ldquoOm te verf of nie te skilder nie: 'n moeilike besluit. & rdquo In Beskerming en bewaring van die kulturele erfenis van die Mediterreense stede, Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on the Conservation of Monuments in the Mediterranean Basin, 5-8 April 2000, Sevilla, Spain. Lisse, Nederland: A. A. Balkema Publishers, 2002, pp. 585-592.

Grissom, Carol A. & ldquo Replikasie van neolitiese gipsbeelde: insigte in konstruksie en vorm. & RdquoObjects Specialty Group naafdrukke, Vol. 7. Washington, DC: AIC, 2000, pp. 79-93.

Grissom, Carol A. & ldquo Neolitiese standbeelde van & lsquoAin Ghazal: konstruksie en vorm. & Rdquo Amerikaans Tydskrif vir Argeologie 104 (2000) 25-45.

Grissom, Carol A. & ldquo Boekresensie: Robert Barclay, Andr & eacute Bergeron en Carle Dignard, met illustrasies deur Carl Schlichting, Montering vir museumvoorwerpe. & rdquo JAIC 39 (2000) 280- 282.

Grissom, C. A., A. E. Charola, en M. J. Wachowiak. Meting van ruheid van die oppervlak op klip: terug na die basiese beginsels. & rdquo Studies in Bewaring 45 (2000) 73-84.

Grissom, Carol A., A. Elena Charola, Ann Boulton en Marion F. Mecklenburg. Evaluering oor tyd van 'n etielsilikaatkonsolidant wat op ou kalkpleister toegedien word. & rdquo Studies in Bewaring 44 (1999) 113-120.

Griffin, P. S., C. A. Grissom, en G. A. Rollefson. & ldquoDrie laat agtste millennium gepleisterde gesigte van & lsquoAin Ghazal, Jordanië. & rdquo Vriendelik en skoon 24 (1998) 59-70.

Grissom, C. A. & ldquo Finale behandelingsverslag vir die & lsquoAin Ghazal -beeldhouer wat in 1985 opgegrawe is. & Rdquo Ongepubliseerde Conservation Analytical Laboratory -verslag #4834. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1997.

Grissom, Carol. & ldquoLa conservation des statues n & eacuteolithiques d & rsquoA & iumln Ghazal. & rdquo In Jordanie sur les pas des arch & eacuteologues, geredigeer deur Eric Delpont, pp. 39-45. Parys: Institut du Monde Arabe, 1997.

Grissom, Carol A. & ldquo Bewaring van neolitiese gipsbeelde uit 'Ain Ghazal. & Rdquo In Argeologiese bewaring en die gevolge daarvan, geredigeer deur Ashok Roy en Perry Smith, pp. 70-75. Londen: IIC, 1996.

Charola, A. Elena, Carol A. Grissom, Evin Erder, Melvin J. Wachowiak en Douglas Oursler. & Rdquo: Meting van oppervlakteruwheid: drie tegnieke. & rdquo Verrigtinge, 8ste internasionale kongres oor agteruitgang en bewaring van klip, geredigeer deur Josef Riederer, pp. 1421-1434. Berlyn, Duitsland, 1996.

Tubb, Kathryn Walker en Carol A. Grissom. & ldquoAyn Ghaz

l: 'n vergelykende studie van die beeldhouers van 1983 en 1985. & rdquo In Studies in die geskiedenis en argeologie van Jordanië, Vol. 5, geredigeer deur Khairieh Amr, Fawzi Zayadine en Muna Zaghloul, pp. 437-447. Amman: Departement van Oudhede, 1995.

Grissom, Carol A. & ldquo Die bewaring van buite -beeldhouwerke van sink. & Rdquo In Oud en histories Metale, geredigeer deur David A. Scott, Jerry Podany en Brian B. Considine, pp. 279-304. (Los Angeles): The Getty Conservation Institute, 1994.

Grissom, Carol A. & ldquo Die agteruitgang en behandeling van vulkaniese klip: 'n oorsig van die literatuur. & Rdquo In Lavas en vulkaniese tuffs, onder redaksie van A. Elena Charola, pp. 3-29. Rome: ICCROM, 1994.

Lauffenburger, Julie A., Carol A. Grissom en A. Elena Charola. & ldquo Veranderinge in glans van marmeroppervlaktes as gevolg van metielcellulose poulticing. & rdquo Studies in Bewaring 37 (1992) 155-164.

Grissom, C. A. & ldquo Die agteruitgang en behandeling van vulkaniese klip: 'n oorsig van die literatuur. & RdquoVoorafdrukke van die bydraes tot die internasionale byeenkoms van lavas en vulkaniese tuffs, pp. 103-122. Paaseiland, Chili, 1990.

Grissom, C. A., T. Power en S. West. & ldquoMetyl sellulose omskakeling van 'n groot marmer beeldhouwerk. & rdquo Verrigtinge, VIde Internasionale Kongres oor die agteruitgang en die bewaring van klip, pp. 551-562. Torun, Pole, 1988.

Grissom, Carol A. & ldquoGroen aarde. & Rdquo In Kunstenaars en pigmente: 'n Handboek van hul geskiedenis en Eienskappe, Vol. 1, geredigeer deur Robert L. Feller, pp. 141-167. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, en Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art, 1986.

Grissom, Carol A. & ldquoZink. & Rdquo In Metale vir Conservators, pp. 99-121. AIC Meeting, Washington, DC, 1985.

Grissom, Carol A. & ldquo The conservation of sink sculpture, & rdquo unpublished manuscript for National Museum Act Grant #FC 105379, 1982.

Grissom, Carol A. en Norman R. Weiss. & ldquoAlkoxysilanes in die bewaring van kuns en argitektuur: 1861-1981. & rdquo AATA -aanvulling 18 (1981) 149-204.

Rabin, Bernard en Carol A. Grissom. & ldquo Die opname en behandeling van 'n paar verchroomde houtbeelde wat beskadig is deur aardbewings in die Friuli -streek van Italië. & rdquo In Bewaring van hout in skilderkuns en dekoratiewe kunste, geredigeer deur N.S. Brommelle, Anne Moncrieff en Perry Smith, pp. 103-109. Londen: IIC, 1978.

Schwartzbaum, Paul M. Constance S. Silver en Carol A. Grissom. & ldquoAardbewing beskadig kunswerke in die Friuli -streek van Italië. & rdquo JAIC 17 (1977) 9-16.

Grissom, Carol A. & ldquoA Literature Search for a Pigment Study. & Rdquo Voorafdrukke van die ICOM Komitee vir Bewaring 4de Driejaarlikse Vergadering, 75/21/5. Venesië, 1975.

UITSTALLINGS

Bewaarde 9 000 jaar ou standbeelde vertoon in & ldquo Behoud van antieke standbeelde uit Jordanië, en Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, 28 Julie 1996-6 April 1997 daarna in die Institut du Monde Arabe en Louvre, Parys, Frankryk Roemer- en Pelizaeus Museum, Hildesheim, Duitsland en nou by die Jordaanse argeologiese museum, Amman, Jordanië.


Antony Gormley: Veld vir die Britse Eilande

Met sy wonderlike versameling artefakte uit alle kulture, maak die British Museum 'n dialoog moontlik tussen talle en uiteenlopende manifestasies van die menslike vorm en Gormley se oorspronklike en aangrypende voorstelling. In plaas daarvan om die werk bloot te bekyk, staar die figure terug na die kyker. Kurator Colin Renfrew verklaar,

Hier word 'Field' vir die eerste keer te midde van hierdie ander skeppings getoon in wat beskou kan word as die grootste versameling bestaan ​​van artefakte uit die verskillende kulture van die wêreld. 'Field' reik uit na sy neefs in die museum en nooi u, die besoeker, uit om die vroegste beelde uit die prehistoriese Nabye Ooste of die klei -beeldjies uit die prehispaniese Mexiko te gaan opspoor en dan terug te keer na die intense blik van die ongeveer 40 000 klein terracottafigure wat u konfronteer.

Antony Gormley (b. 1950) is veral bekend vir sy groot beeldhouwerk 'Angel of the North' (1998), naby Gateshead. Afwykend van tradisionele beeldhoumateriaal soos marmer of brons, gebruik hy 'n gips van sy eie liggaam - staan, lê - om 'n liggaamskas te vervaardig wat met lood of yster gegiet is. Sy werke 'ondersoek wat dit is om 'n verstand te hê, wat dit is om ons liggaamlike plek in die wêreld in te neem en deur ervaring 'n wese van volle bewussyn te word'.

Elkeen van die 40 000 figure in die 'Field for the British Isles' is in 1993 in St Helen's, Merseyside, gemaak. Vroeëre weergawes is gemaak in Mexiko (1990), Porto Velho in die Amasone -bekken en in Swede. In elke geval is die syfers geskep in samewerking tussen Gormley en die plaaslike gemeenskap. Hulle is in baksteenwerke in die oond gestook en daarna massaal vertoon. Die onderskeie plaaslike gemeenskappe bestaan ​​uit plaaslike kinders en hul uitgebreide gesinne. Elke persoon het 'n klein bolletjie klei gekry waarmee hulle 'n staande figuur met twee oë gevorm het. Tot 200 syfers kan per persoon op 'n dag gemaak word. Gormley beskryf die proses,

Elkeen van hierdie werke kom uit 'n geleefde oomblik. Dit is 'n materialisering van 'n oomblik van geleefde tyd, op dieselfde manier as wat my ander werk 'n materialisering is van 'n geleefde tydstip, en hulle het elkeen 'n baie spesiale teenwoordigheid.

Die 'voorvaders' van Antony Gormley se werk. Soos die kurator dit beskryf, kan dit in verskillende dele van die British Museum gevind word. 'U kan individuele figure, genaamd' aliens ', uit' Field for the British Isles 'vind in die kamers wat op die plan genommer is.' Die kunstenaar verklaar,

Is dit moontlik om vandag, met ons hedendaagse erkenning van die belangrikheid van streeksidentiteite en -verskil en die koestering daarvan in 'n sin wat die koloniale projek nooit herken het nie, 'n werk te maak met die strewe om 'n reservoir van denke en gevoel hiervoor te wees tyd, maar wat ook aanklank vind by dinge wat sedert die vroegste tye gemaak moes word?

Menslike vorme in die British Museum word beklemtoon deur Gormley se voorstelling: Mexikaanse beeldjies (900 v.C. - 300 n.C.) Bronstydperk Ciprus (1900-1200 v.C.) Mykeneense Griekeland (1400 - 1200 v.C.) klei beeldjies uit neolitiese Griekeland (5300 - 4300 v.C.). Een van die oudste van almal is die kalkgipsbeelde van Ain Ghazal in Jordanië (7200 vC).

Kultuurfigure en beelde het 'n belangrike rol gespeel in godsdienstige rituele. Ander pogings om die menslike liggaam te vorm, hou verband met begrafnisse. Een van die opwindendste ontdekkings van die 20ste eeu was die keiser se onsterflike leër van Xin, in China, wat dateer uit 210 v.C. - lewenslange terracotta -krygers. Dit is dus gepas dat Gormley 'n 'Asian Field', 'n nuwe weergawe van die 'British Field', skep. 'Asian Field' sal drie keer groter wees as die aanbieding by die British Museum. Dit behels die vervaardiging van 120 000 handgrootte kleifigure deur 300 dorpenaars naby Guangzhou in China, en vorm dan 'n reisende uitstalling.

As die 'veld' 'n morele noodsaaklikheid het, is dit om ons as kykers daaraan te herinner dat ons 'aktiewe makers, die agente van die toekoms' is. Die aangrypende stelling van die kunstenaar is net so uitdagend soos die uitstekende uitstalling van sy werk,

Hier is die geeste van die voorouers en die geeste van die ongeborenes. U is die bewuste laag in hierdie gemoedstratifikasie wat ons mense noem - wat gaan u daaraan doen?


Kalkpleisterstandbeeld van Ain Al -Ghazal - Geskiedenis

Sluit by ons aan YOUTUBE | WEN KRISTALE | Leer kristalle!

Winkel KRISTALE by LAE PRYSE

Krag en voordele van Dioptase:

Dioptase word beskou as 'n uitstekende energieleiding en het 'n dramatiese uitwerking op die menslike energieveld. Dit moedig u aan om in die huidige oomblik te lewe. Dit het 'n aansienlike uitwerking op die menslike energieveld. Dit leer dat pyn en probleme in verhoudings die skeiding van die self weerspieël.

Geestelike en emosionele invloed:

Dioptase word dikwels gebruik as 'n kristal vir die agteruitgang van vorige lewens, wat probleme uit die verlede verlig. Dit is voordelig vir geestelike afstemming en metafisiese visie. Dit vergemaklik geestelike afstemming.

Dit bring oorvloed, vitaliteit en balans. Help om verandering te begin, idees te vernuwe en om in die oomblik te wees. Dit is 'n klip wat 'n positiewe lewenshouding ondersteun en op alle lewensterreine werk om negatief in positief te verander.

Kom meer te wete oor KRISTALE en KRISTALGESONDHEID - Ontvang ons GRATIS boek!

Die fisiese verband:

Daar word vermoed dat dioptase goed is vir die longe, immuunstelsel, sirkulasie, hart en maag. Daar word gesê dat dit moegheid verminder en help om skok te oorkom. Daar word ook gedink dat dit pyn en migraine kan verlig. Daar word geglo dat dit harttoestande help. Daar word ook gedink dat dit goed is vir die ontwikkeling van babas. Daar word gesê dat dit help met naarheid, maagsere, Meniere se siekte, duiseligheid, vigs, spatare en angina.

Die chakras wat gekoppel is aan Dioptase:

Derde oog (wenkbrou) chakra, hartchakra. Dit bring alle chakras tot 'n groter funksioneringsvlak.

Gevindes en geskiedenis:

Chili, Iran, Demokratiese Republiek van die Kongo, Namibië, Zaïre, Noord -Afrika, Peru, Rusland, VSA. Dioptase was 'n kristal wat gebruik is om kalkbeelde uit te lig wat op die neolitiese argeologiese terrein, Ain Ghazal, Jordanië, ontdek is. Die ou beelde dateer uit ongeveer 7200 vC. Deposito's van Dioptase kom meestal voor in woestyngebiede met groot hoeveelhede koper in die grond.

Selde, waarde en variasies:

Skitterend smaraggroen of diepblougroen. Dit word gekleur deur koperafsettings, wat die klip 'n intense smarag of blougroen kleur gee. Prismatiese kristalle, gewoonlik op 'n matriks, of nie-kristallyne massa. Redelik skaars en duur. Deursigtig tot deurskynend. Dit het 'n Mohs -hardheid van 5.

Plaas Dioptase bo die hoër hartchakra. Dit is uitstekend om te gebruik as 'n edelsteen. Die kristalle is redelik broos en moet versigtig hanteer word om te voorkom dat dit skeur.


Inhoud

Die Natufiese kultuur is deur die Britse argeoloog Dorothy Garrod ontdek tydens haar opgrawings van die Shuqba -grot in die Judaese heuwels in die Wes -oewer van die Jordaanrivier. [10] [11] Voor die dertigerjare was die meerderheid van die argeologiese werk wat in die Britse Palestina plaasgevind het, Bybelse argeologie gefokus op historiese tydperke, en min was bekend oor die voorgeskiedenis van die streek. In 1928 is Garrod deur die British School of Archaeology in Jerusalem (BSAJ) uitgenooi om die Shuqba -grot op te grawe, waar prehistoriese klipgereedskap vier jaar tevore deur 'n Franse priester met die naam Alexis Mallon ontdek is. Sy het 'n laag ontdek tussen die bo -paleolitiese en bronstydperkafsettings wat gekenmerk word deur die teenwoordigheid van mikroliete. Sy identifiseer dit met die Mesolitiese, 'n oorgangstydperk tussen die Paleolitiese en die Neolitiese wat goed verteenwoordig is in Europa, maar nog nie in die Nabye Ooste gevind is nie. 'N Jaar later, toe sy soortgelyke materiaal op el-Wad Terrace ontdek, het Garrod die naam "die Natufiese kultuur" voorgestel, na Wadi an-Natuf wat naby Shuqba geloop het. Gedurende die volgende twee dekades het Garrod Natufia-materiaal gevind by verskeie van haar baanbrekende opgrawings in die Mount Carmel-streek, waaronder el-Wad, Kebara en Tabun, net soos die Franse argeoloog René Neuville, wat die Natufiese kultuur stewig gevestig het in die streeks prehistoriese chronologie. Reeds in 1931 vestig sowel Garrod as Neuville die aandag op die teenwoordigheid van steensekels in Natufiaanse gemeentes en die moontlikheid dat dit 'n baie vroeë landbou verteenwoordig. [11]

Radiokoolstofdatering plaas die Natufiese kultuur op 'n tydperk van die terminale Pleistoseen tot aan die begin van die Holoseen, 'n tydperk tussen 12 500 en 9 500 vC. [13]

Die tydperk word gewoonlik in twee subperiodes verdeel: Vroeg -Natufiaans (12 000–10 800 v.C.) en Laat -Natufian (10 800–9 500 v.C.). Die laat Natufiaan het heel waarskynlik saam met die jonger Dryas (10 800 tot 9 500 vC) plaasgevind. Die Levant huisves meer as honderd soorte graan, vrugte, neute en ander eetbare plantdele, en die flora van die Levant gedurende die Natufiese tydperk was nie die droë, dorre en netelige landskap van vandag nie, maar eerder bosveld. [10]

Die Natufian ontwikkel in dieselfde streek as die vroeëre Kebaran -industrie. Dit word oor die algemeen gesien as 'n opvolger, wat ontstaan ​​het uit elemente in die vorige kultuur. Daar was ook ander nywerhede in die streek, soos die Mushabiese kultuur van die Negev en Sinai, wat soms van die Kebaran onderskei word of vermoedelik betrokke was by die ontwikkeling van die Natufian.

Meer algemeen is daar besprekings oor die ooreenkomste tussen hierdie kulture en dié wat in die kus van Noord -Afrika voorkom. Graeme Barker merk op dat daar: "ooreenkomste is in die onderskeie argeologiese verslae van die Natufiese kultuur van die Levant en van hedendaagse veehouers in die kus van Noord -Afrika oor die laat Pleistoseen- en vroeë Holoseense grens". [14] Volgens Isabelle De Groote en Louise Humphrey het Natufians die Iberomaurusiese en Capsiaanse gewoonte beoefen om soms hul maksillêre sentrale snytande (boonste voortande) te onttrek. [15]

Ofer Bar-Yosef het aangevoer dat daar tekens is van invloede wat uit Noord-Afrika na die Levant kom, met verwysing na die mikroburintegniek en "mikrolitiese vorms soos geboë blare en La Mouillah-punte." [16] Maar onlangse navorsing het getoon dat die teenwoordigheid van geboë blaaie, La Mouillah -punte en die gebruik van die mikroburientegniek reeds in die Nebekiaanse industrie van die Oostelike Levant duidelik was. [17] En Maher et al. verklaar dat: "Baie tegnologiese nuanses wat dikwels tydens die Natufian altyd as beduidend beklemtoon is, was reeds teenwoordig tydens die vroeë en middelste EP [Epipalaeolithic] en verteenwoordig in die meeste gevalle nie 'n radikale afwyking van kennis, tradisie of gedrag nie. " [18]

Skrywers soos Christopher Ehret het voortgebou op die min beskikbare bewyse om scenario's te ontwikkel vir intensiewe gebruik van plante wat eers in Noord -Afrika opgebou is, as 'n voorloper van die ontwikkeling van ware boerdery in die vrugbare halfmaan, maar sulke voorstelle word as hoogs spekulatief beskou tot meer Noord -Afrikaanse argeologiese bewyse kan versamel word. [19] [20] Trouens, Weiss et al. het getoon dat die vroegste intensiewe gebruik van plante 23 000 jaar gelede op die Ohalo II -terrein in die Levant was. [21] [22] [23]

Antropoloog C. Loring Brace (1993) het die kraniometriese eienskappe van Natufiaanse monsters gekruisanaliseer met dié van verskillende antieke en moderne groepe uit die Nabye Ooste, Afrika en Europa. Die laat -pleistoseen -epipalaeolitiese Natufiese monster is beskryf as problematies vanweë die klein grootte (bestaande uit slegs drie mannetjies en een wyfie), asook die gebrek aan 'n vergelykende monster van die vermeende afstammelinge van die Natufians in die Neolitiese Nabye Ooste. Brace het opgemerk dat die Natufiese fossiele tussen dié van die Niger-Kongo-sprekende bevolkings en die ander monsters lê, wat volgens hom dui op 'n invloed suid van die Sahara in hul grondwet. [24] Daaropvolgende antieke DNA -analise van Natufiaanse skeletreste deur Lazaridis et al. (2016) het bevind dat die monsters in plaas daarvan 'n mengsel was van 50% Basale Eurasiese voorvaderlike komponent (sien genetika) en 50% West-Eurasiese onbekende Hunter Gatherer (UHG) bevolking wat verband hou met Europese Western Hunter-Gatherers. [25]

Volgens Bar-Yosef en Belfer-Cohen, "blyk dit dat sekere vooraf aanpasbare eienskappe, wat reeds ontwikkel is deur die Kebaran- en Geometriese Kebaran-bevolkings binne die Mediterreense parkwoud, 'n belangrike rol gespeel het in die opkoms van die nuwe sosio-ekonomiese stelsel bekend as die Natufiese kultuur . " [26]

Nedersettings kom voor in die bosveldgordel waar eik en Pistasie spesies oorheers. Die onderbos van hierdie oop bos was gras met hoë graanfrekwensies. Die hoë berge van Libanon en die Anti-Libanon, die steppegebiede van die Negev-woestyn in Israel en Sinai, en die Siro-Arabiese woestyn in die ooste was baie minder bevoorreg vir die Nedufiese nedersetting, vermoedelik vanweë hul laer drakrag en die geselskap van ander groepe voerders wat hierdie streek uitgebuit het. [27]

Die woonplekke van die Natufian was semi-ondergronds, dikwels met 'n droë klip fondament. Die bobou is waarskynlik van borselhout gemaak. Daar is geen spore van moddersteen gevind nie, wat algemeen geword het in die volgende Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA). Die ronde huise het 'n deursnee tussen drie en ses meter, en dit bevat 'n sentrale ronde of subrektangulêre kaggel. In Ain Mallaha is spore van postgate geïdentifiseer. Dorpe kan meer as 1000 vierkante meter beslaan. Kleiner nedersettings is deur sommige navorsers as kampe geïnterpreteer. Traces of rebuilding in almost all excavated settlements seem to point to a frequent relocation, indicating a temporary abandonment of the settlement. Settlements have been estimated to house 100–150 people, but there are three categories: small, medium, and large, ranging from 15 sq. m to 1,000 sq. m. There are no definite indications of storage facilities. [ aanhaling nodig ]

Lithics Edit

The Natufian had a microlithic industry centered on short blades and bladelets. The microburin technique was used. Geometric microliths include lunates, trapezes, and triangles. There are backed blades as well. A special type of retouch (Helwan retouch) is characteristic for the early Natufian. In the late Natufian, the Harif-point, a typical arrowhead made from a regular blade, became common in the Negev. Some scholars [ who? ] use it to define a separate culture, the Harifian.

Sickle blades also appear for the first time in the Natufian lithic industry. The characteristic sickle-gloss shows that they were used to cut the silica-rich stems of cereals, indirectly suggesting the existence of incipient agriculture. Shaft straighteners made of ground stone indicate the practice of archery. There are heavy ground-stone bowl mortars as well.

Kuns wysig

Die Ain Sakhri lovers, a carved stone object held at the British Museum, is the oldest known depiction of a couple having sex. It was found in the Ain Sakhri cave in the Judean desert. [28]

Burials Edit

Natufian grave goods are typically made of shell, teeth (of red deer), bones, and stone. There are pendants, bracelets, necklaces, earrings, and belt-ornaments as well.

In 2008, the 12,400–12,000 cal BC grave of an apparently significant Natufian female was discovered in a ceremonial pit in the Hilazon Tachtit cave in northern Israel. [29] Media reports referred to this person as a shaman. [30] The burial contained the remains of at least three aurochs and 86 tortoises, all of which are thought to have been brought to the site during a funeral feast. The body was surrounded by tortoise shells, the pelvis of a leopard, forearm of a wild boar, wingtip of a golden eagle, and skull of a stone marten. [31] [32]

Long-distance exchange Edit

At Ain Mallaha (in Northern Israel), Anatolian obsidian and shellfish from the Nile valley have been found. The source of malachite beads is still unknown. Epipaleolithic Natufians carried parthenocarpic figs from Africa to the southeastern corner of the Fertile Crescent, c. 10,000 BC. [33]

Other finds Edit

There was a rich bone industry, including harpoons and fish hooks. Stone and bone were worked into pendants and other ornaments. There are a few human figurines made of limestone (El-Wad, Ain Mallaha, Ain Sakhri), but the favorite subject of representative art seems to have been animals. Ostrich-shell containers have been found in the Negev.

In 2018, the world's oldest brewery was found, with the residue of 13,000-year-old beer, in a prehistoric cave near Haifa in Israel when researchers were looking for clues into what plant foods the Natufian people were eating. This is 8,000 years earlier than experts previously thought beer was invented. [34]

A study published in 2019 shows an advanced knowledge of lime plaster production at a Natufian cemetery in Nahal Ein Gev II site in the Upper Jordan Valley dated to 12 thousand (calibrated) years before present [k cal BP]. Production of plaster of this quality was previously thought to have been achieved some 2,000 years later. [35]

The Natufian people lived by hunting and gathering. The preservation of plant remains is poor because of the soil conditions, but wild cereals, legumes, almonds, acorns and pistachios may have been collected. Animal bones show that gazelle (Gazella gazella en Gazella subgutturosa) were the main prey. Additionally deer, aurochs and wild boar were hunted in the steppe zone, as well as onagers and caprids (ibex). Water fowl and freshwater fish formed part of the diet in the Jordan River valley. Animal bones from Salibiya I (12,300 – 10,800 cal BP) have been interpreted as evidence for communal hunts with nets, however, the radiocarbon dates are far too old compared to the cultural remains of this settlement, indicating contamination of the samples. [36]

Development of agriculture Edit

A pita-like bread has been found from 12,500 BC attributed to Natufians. This bread is made of wild cereal seeds and papyrus cousin tubers, ground into flour. [37]

According to one theory, [30] it was a sudden change in climate, the Younger Dryas event (c. 10,800 to 9500 BC), which inspired the development of agriculture. The Younger Dryas was a 1,000-year-long interruption in the higher temperatures prevailing since the Last Glacial Maximum, which produced a sudden drought in the Levant. This would have endangered the wild cereals, which could no longer compete with dryland scrub, but upon which the population had become dependent to sustain a relatively large sedentary population. By artificially clearing scrub and planting seeds obtained from elsewhere, they began to practice agriculture. However, this theory of the origin of agriculture is controversial in the scientific community. [38]

Bovine-rib dagger, HaYonim Cave, Natufian Culture, 12,500–9500 BC

Stone mortars from Eynan, Natufian period, 12,500–9500 BC

Stone mortar from Eynan, Natufian period, 12,500–9500 BC

Domesticated dog Edit

Some of the earliest archaeological evidence for the domestication of the dog comes from Natufian sites. At the Natufian site of Ain Mallaha in Israel, dated to 12,000 BC, the remains of an elderly human and a four-to-five-month-old puppy were found buried together. [39] At another Natufian site at the cave of Hayonim, humans were found buried with two canids. [39]

According to ancient DNA analyses conducted by Lazaridis et al. (2016) on Natufian skeletal remains from present-day northern Israel, the Natufians carried the Y-DNA (paternal) haplogroups E1b1b1b2 (xE1b1b1b2a, E1b1b1b2b) (2/5 40%), CT (2/5 40%), and E1b1 (xE1b1a1, E1b1b1b1) (1/5 20%). [25] [40] Haplogroup E1b1 is found primarily among North Africans, Sub-Saharan Africans, and among non-Arab Levantines such as Samaritans, also it was found in Egypt (40%), Jordan (25%), Palestine (20%), and Lebanon (17.5%). [41] In terms of autosomal DNA, these Natufians carried around 50% of the Basal Eurasian (BE) and 50% of Western Eurasian Unknown Hunter Gatherer (UHG) components. However, they were slightly distinct from the northern Anatolian populations that contributed to the peopling of Europe, who had higher Western Hunter Gatherer (WHG) inferred ancestry. Natufians were strongly genetically differentiated [42] from Neolithic Iranian farmers from the Zagros Mountains, who were a mix of Basal Eurasians (up to 62%) and Ancient North Eurasians (ANE). This might suggest that different strains of Basal Eurasians contributed to Natufians and Zagros farmers, [43] [44] [45] as both Natufians and Zagros farmers descended from different populations of local hunter gatherers. Contact between Natufians, other Neolithic Levantines, Caucasus Hunter Gatherers (CHG), Anatolian and Iranian farmers is believed to have decreased genetic variability among later populations in the Middle East. The scientists suggest that the Levantine early farmers may have spread southward into East Africa, bringing along Western Eurasian and Basal Eurasian ancestral components separate from that which would arrive later in North Africa. In the study no affinity of Natufians to sub-Saharan Africans was found in the genome-wide analysis, as present-day sub-Saharan Africans do not share more alleles with Natufians than with other ancient Eurasians. However the scientists state that they were unable to test for affinity in the Natufians to early North African populations using present-day North Africans as a reference because present-day North Africans owe most of their ancestry to back-migration from Eurasia. [25] [46]

Ancient DNA analysis has confirmed ancestral ties between the Natufian culture bearers and the makers of the Epipaleolithic Iberomaurusian culture of the Maghreb, [47] the Pre-Pottery Neolithic culture of the Levant, [47] the Early Neolithic Ifri n'Amr or Moussa culture of the Maghreb, [48] the Savanna Pastoral Neolithic culture of East Africa, [49] the Late Neolithic Kelif el Boroud culture of the Maghreb, [48] and the Ancient Egyptian culture of the Nile Valley, [50] with fossils associated with these early cultures all sharing a common genomic component. [48]

A 2018 analysis of autosomal DNA using modern populations as a reference, found The Natufian sample consisted of 61.2% Arabian, 21.2% Northern African, 10.9% Western Asian, and 6.8% Omotic-related ancestry (related to the Omotic peoples of southern Ethiopia). It is suggested that this (6.8%) Omotic component may have been associated with the spread of Y-haplogroup E (particularly Y-haplogroup E-M215, also known as "E1b1b") lineages to Western Eurasia. [51]

While the period involved makes it difficult to speculate on any language associated with the Natufian culture, linguists who believe it is possible to speculate this far back in time have written on this subject. As with other Natufian subjects, opinions tend to either emphasize North African connections or Asian connections. The view that the Natufians spoke an Afroasiatic language is accepted by Vitaly Shevoroshkin. [52] Alexander Militarev and others have argued that the Natufian may represent the culture that spoke the proto-Afroasiatic language, [53] which he in turn believes has a Eurasian origin associated with the concept of Nostratic languages. The possibility of Natufians speaking proto-Afroasiatic, and that the language was introduced into Africa from the Levant, is approved by Colin Renfrew with caution, as a possible hypothesis for proto-Afro-Asiatic dispersal. [54]

Some scholars, for example Christopher Ehret, Roger Blench and others, contend that the Afroasiatic Urheimat is to be found in North Africa or Northeast Africa, probably in the area of Egypt, the Sahara, Horn of Africa or Sudan. [55] [56] [57] [58] [59] Within this group, Ehret, who like Militarev believes Afroasiatic may already have been in existence in the Natufian period, would associate Natufians only with the Near Eastern pre-proto-Semitic branch of Afroasiatic. [ aanhaling nodig ]

The Natufian culture has been documented at dozens of sites. Around 90 have been excavated, including: [60]


Lime Plaster Statue from Ain Al-Ghazal - History

Rollefson G. O. 'Ain Ghazal (Jordan) : ritual and ceremony III. In: Paleoriënt, 1998, vol. 24, n°1. pp. 43-58.

'Ain Ghazal (Jordan) : ritual and ceremony iii

: Levant, Neolithic, Ritual, Temple, Shrine. Mots clefs : Levant, Néolithique, Rites, Temple, Sanctuaire.

Inleiding

Two earlier reports have provided a summary of information concerning ritual and ceremonial practices at 'Ain Ghazal1, but much has happened since the last article appeared. In the first place, the previous descriptions dealt almost exclusively with Middle PPNB material, particularly with burials, human and animal figurines, and lime plaster human statuary. By 1985, when the more recent article was written, very little was known about the post-MPPNB events at 'Ain Ghazal.

After the seasons of 1988 and 19892, which were directed principally to continue exploration of the newly defined PPNC cultural ensemble3 and to investigate the circumstances of the Yarmoukian Pottery Neolithic developments at 'Ain Ghazal, a break in the field work ensued during which laboratory work concentrated on analysis of stratigraphy, artifacts, and architecture. In 1 992 it was learned that the privately owned property on which 'Ain Ghazal existed was in immediate threat of sale

for commercial and residential development, and in consequence four subsequent seasons of emergency salvage archaeology excavations were undertaken in 1993-1 996 4.

The field work in the 1990s was particularly informative about ritual and ceremony, as well as other aspects of so- cioeconomic life at 'Ain Ghazal, because two new areas of the settlement were intensively sampled, including the North Field and East Field (fig. 1). In contrast to the Central and South Fields, where PPNC residents had virtually destroyed Late PPNB strata, the North Field revealed intact LPPNB deposits, including impressive two-story architecture5 from the latter half of the 7th millennium. In the East Field, scratched by two tiny probes in 1 984 6 , deep deposits of LPPNB underlay thinner PPNC accumulations, and PPNC domestic presence was not a major feature of this part of 'Ain Ghazal across the Zarqa River from the main site. Yarmoukian presence in the East Field (and the North Field) was negligible7. In die

1. Rollefson, 1983 1986. 2. Rollefson, Kafafi and Simmons, 1990 1993. 3. Rollefson and Simmons, 1986 Rollefson, 1990.

4. Rollefson and Kafafi, 1994 1996 1997 Kafafi and Rollefson, 1995. 5. Rollefson and Kafafi, 1996: 13-14. 6. Rollffson and Simmons, 1986. 7. Rollefson and Kafafi, 1997.


Verwysings

Baird, Douglas, Eleni Asouti, Laurence Astruc, Adnan Baysal, Emma Baysal, Denise Carruthers, Andrew Fairbairn, Ceren Kabukcu, Emma Jenkins, and Kirsi Lorentz. 2013. Juniper smoke, skulls and wolves’ tails. The Epipalaeolithic of the Anatolian plateau in its south-west Asian context insights from Pınarbaşı. Levant 45 (2): 175–209.

Bar-Yosef, Ofer 1970. The Epipalaeolithic Cultures of Palestine. Ph.D. Dissertation. The Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

Bar-Yosef, Ofer. 1991. The archaeology of the Natufian layer at Hayonim cave. In The Natufian culture in the Levant, red. Ofer Bar-Yosef and François R. Valla, 81–92. Ann Arbor: International Monographs in Prehistory.

Bar-Yosef, Ofer, and François R. Valla, eds. 1991. The Natufian culture in the Levant. Ann Arbor: International Monographs in Prehistory.

Bar-Yosef, Ofer, and François R. Valla, eds. 2013. Natufian foragers in the Levant: Terminal Pleistocene social changes in western Asia. Ann Arbor: International Monographs in Prehistory.

Belfer-Cohen, Anna, and Nigel Goring-Morris. 2002. Recent developments in near eastern Neolithic research. Paleoriënt 28 (2): 143–148.

Betts, Alison. 1983. Black Desert survey, Jordan: First preliminary report. Levant 15 (1): 1–10.

Betts, Alison. 1984. Black Desert survey, Jordan: Second preliminary report. Levant 16 (1): 25–34.

Bocquentin, Fanny 2003. “Pratiques funéraires, paramètres biologiques et identités culturelles au Natoufien: une analyse archéo-anthropologique.” Université de Bordeaux 1.

Boyd, Brian. 2002. Ways of eating/ways of being in the later Epipalaeolithic (Natufian) Levant. In Thinking through the body: Archaeologies of corporeality, red. Yannis Hamilakis, Mark Pluciennik, and Sarah Tarlow, 137–152. New York: Kluwer/Plenum.

Boyd, Brian. 2006. On ‘sedentism’ in the later Epipalaeolithic (Natufian) Levant. Wêreld argeologie 38 (2): 164–178.

Boyd, Brian. 2016. Abu Hureyra 1 in Northwest Syria: ‘Periphery’ no more. In Fresh fields and pastures new. Papers presented in honour of Andrew M.T. Moore, red. Katina T. Lillios and Michael Chazan, 21–39. Leiden: Sidestone Press.

Boyd, Brian 2017, in press. “Ecologies of fiber-work: animal technologies and invisible craft practices in prehistoric Southwest Asia.” Kwartêr Internasionaal. In press.

Braidwood, Robert J. 1956. The earliest village materials of Syro-Cilicia. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 21: 72–76.

Cauvin, Jacques. 1972. Religions Néolithiques de Syro-Palestine. Paris: Jean Maisonneuve.

Cauvin, Jacques. 1977. Les fouilles de Mureybet (1971-1974) et leur signification pour les origines de la sédentarisation au Proche-Orient. Annual of the American Schools of Oriental Research 44: 19–48.

Cauvin, Jacques. 1994. Naissance Des Divinités, Naissance de L’agriculture: La Révolution Des Symboles Au Néolithique. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Childe, V. Gordon 1934. New Light on the Most Ancient East: The Oriental Prelude to European Prehistory. K. Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co., ltd.

Copeland, Lorraine. 1991. Natufian sites in Lebanon. In The Natufian Culture in the Levant, reds. Ofer Bar-Yosef and François R. Valla, 27–42. Ann Arbor: International Monographs in Prehistory.

Delage, Christophe 2004. The Last Hunter-Gatherers in the Near East. British Archaeological Reports International Series. Oxford: John and Erica Hedges.

Duday, Henri, and Claude Masset, eds. 1987. Anthropologie Physique et Archéologie: Méthodes D’étude Des Sépultures, Actes Du Colloque, Toulouse, 4–6 Novembre 1982. Paris: Editions du CNRS.

Duday, Henri, Patrice Courtaud, Eric Crubezy, Pascal Sellier, and Anne-Marie Tillier. 1990. L’Anthropologie «de terrain»: reconnaissance et interprétation des gestes funéraires. Bulletins et Mémoires de la Société d’Anthropologie de Paris 2 (3): 29–49.

Edwards, Phillip C. 1991. Wadi Hammeh 27: An early Natufian site at Pella, Jordan. In The Natufian culture in the Levant, red. Ofer Bar-Yosef and François R. Valla, 123–148. Ann Arbor: International Monographs in Prehistory.

Erdal, Yilmaz Selim. 2015. Bone or flesh: Defleshing and post-depositional treatments at Körtik Tepe (southeastern Anatolia, PPNA period). European Journal of Archaeology 18 (1): 4–32.

Garrard, A., and C. Yazbeck. 2003. Qadisha Valley prehistory project, northern Lebanon: Summary of first two seasons investigations. Bulletin d’Archéologie et d’Architecture Libanaises 7: 7–14.

Garrard, Andrew N., and Corinne Yazbeck. 2013. The Natufian of Moghr el-Ahwal in the Qadisha Valley, northern Lebanon. In Natufian foragers in the Levant: Terminal Pleistocene social changes in western Asia, red. Ofer Bar-Yosef and François R. Valla, 17–27. Ann Arbor: International Monographs in Prehistory.

Garrod, Dorothy A.E. 1928. Excavation of a Palaeolithic cave in western Judaea. Palestine Exploration Quarterly 60 (4): 182–185.

Garrod, Dorothy A.E. 1929. Excavations in the Mugharet El-wad, near Athlit. April-June, 1929. Palestine Exploration Quarterly 61 (4): 220–222.

Garrod, Dorothy A.E. 1930. Note on three objects of Mesolithic age from a cave in Palestine. Man 30: 77–78.

Garrod, Dorothy A.E. 1931. Excavations in the caves of the Wady-el-Mughara, 1929-1930. Bulletin of the American School of Prehistoric Research 7: 5–11.

Garrod, Dorothy A.E. 1932. A new Mesolithic industry: The Natufian of Palestine. The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 62: 257–269.

Garrod, Dorothy A.E. 1934. The stone age of Palestine. Antiquity 8 (30): 133–150.

Garrod, Dorothy A.E. 1936. A summary of seven seasons’ work at the Wady el-Mughara. Bulletin of the American School of Prehistoric Research 12: 125–131.

Garrod, Dorothy A.E. 1942. Excavations at the cave of Shukbah, Palestine, 1928. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 8: 1–20.

Garrod, Dorothy A.E. 1957. The Natufian culture: The life and economy of a Mesolithic people in the near east. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Garrod, Dorothy A.E., and Dorothea M.A. Bate. 1937. The stone age of Mount Carmel. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Goring-Morris, A. Nigel. 1987. At the edge: Terminal Pleistocene hunter-gatherers in the Negev and Sinai. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports International Series 361.

Goring-Morris, A. Nigel. 1991. The Harifian of the southern Levant. In The Natufian culture in the Levant, red. Ofer Bar-Yosef and François R. Valla, 173–216. Ann Arbor: International Monographs in Prehistory.

Goring-Morris, A. Nigel. 2005. The quick and the dead: The social context of Aceramic Neolithic mortuary practices as seen from Kfar HaHoresh. In Life, death and the emergence of differential status in the near eastern Neolithic: Evidence from Kfar HaHoresh, lower galilee, Israel, red. Ian Kuijt, 103–136. New York: Springer.

Grissom, Carol A. 2000. Neolithic statues from ‘Ain Ghazal: Construction and form. Amerikaanse Tydskrif vir Argeologie 104 (1): 25–45.

Grosman, Leore. 2013. The Natufian chronological scheme: New insights and their implications. In Ofer bar-Yosef and François R. Valla (eds.), Natufian Foragers in the Levant. Terminal Pleistocene Social Changes in Western Asia, 622–637. Ann Arbor: International Monographs in Prehistory.

Henry, Donald O. 1973. The Natufian of Palestine: Its Material Culture and Ecology. Ph.D. dissertation, Southern Methodist University, Dallas.

Henry, Donald O. 1974. The utilization of the microburin technique in the Levant. Paleoriënt 2 (2): 389–398.

Hodder, Ian. 1990. The domestication of Europe. Oxford: Blackwell.

Hodder, Ian. 2010. Religion in the emergence of civilization: Çatalhöyük as a case study. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hodder, Ian, and Lynn Meskell. 2011. A ‘curious and sometimes a trifle macabre artistry’: Some aspects of symbolism in Neolithic Turkey. Huidige Antropologie 52 (2): 235–263.

Kenyon, Kathleen M. 1952. Excavations at Jericho, 1952. Palestine Exploration Quarterly 84 (2): 62–82.

Kenyon, Kathleen M. 1959. Earliest Jericho. Antiquity 33 (129): 5–9.

Lechevallier, Monique, and François R. Valla. 1974. Mallaha (Eynan) (1974). Paleoriënt 2 (1): 193–193.

Maher, Lisa A., Jay T. Stock, Sarah Finney, James J.N. Heywood, Preston T. Miracle, and Edward B. Banning. 2011. A unique human-fox burial from a pre-Natufian cemetery in the Levant (Jordan). PLoS One 6 (1): e15815.

Maher, Lisa A., Tobias Richter, Danielle Macdonald, Matthew D. Jones, Louise Martin, and Jay T. Stock. 2012. Twenty thousand-year-old huts at a hunter-gatherer settlement in eastern Jordan. PLoS One 7 (2): e31447.

Mallon, Alexis. 1925. Quelques Stations Préhistoriques de Palestine. Mélanges de l’Université de Saint-Joseph 10: 181–214.

Molist, Miquel, Xavier Clop, Emma Guerrero, Josep Anfruns, Ignacio Montero-Ruiz, and Salvador Rovira. 2009. New metallurgy findings from the pre-pottery Neolithic: Tell Halula (Euphrates Valley, Syria). Paleoriënt 35 (2): 33–48.

Moore, Andrew M.T., G.C. Hillman, and A.J. Legge. 1975. The excavation of tell Abu Hureyra in Syria: A preliminary report. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 41: 50–77.

Moore, Andrew M.T., Gordon C. Hillman, and Anthony J. Legge. 2000. Village on the Euphrates: From foraging to farming at Abu Hureyra. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Nadel, Dani, Gyorgy Lengyel, Teresa Cabellos Panades, Fanny Bocquentin, Danny Rosenberg, Reuven Yeshurun, Rachael Brown-Goodman, Guy Bar-Oz, and Sagi Filin. 2009. The Raqefet cave 2008 excavation season. Journal of the Israel Prehistoric Society 39: 21–61.

Nadel, Dani, Avinoam Danin, Robert C. Power, Arlene M. Rosen, Fanny Bocquentin, Alexander Tsatskin, Danny Rosenberg, et al. 2013. Earliest floral grave lining from 13,700-11,700-y-old Natufian burials at Raqefet cave, Mt. Carmel, Israel. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110 (29): 11774–11778.

Neuville, Rene. 1934. Le préhistoire de Palestine. Revue Biblique 43 (2): 237–259.

Neuville, René. 1951. Le Paléolithique et Le Mésolithique Du Désert de Judée. Vol. 24. Archives de l’Institut de Paléontologie Humaine. Paris: Masson.

Olszewski, Deborah I. 2010. On the margins: Early Natufian in the Wadi al-Hasa region, Jordan. Eurasian Prehistory 7 (1): 85–97.

Olszewski, Deborah I., and Maysoon Al-Nahar. 2016. Persistent and ephemeral places in the early Epipaleolithic in the Wadi al-Hasa region of the western highlands of Jordan. Kwartêr Internasionaal 396: 20–30.

Peake, Harold, and Herbert John Fleure. 1927. The corridors of time III: Peasants and potters. Vol. 1. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Perles, Catherine, and James L. Phillips. 1991. The Natufian conference—Discussion. In The Natufian culture in the Levant, international monographs in prehistory, red. Ofer Bar-Yosef and François R. Valla, 637–644. Ann Arbor: International Monographs in Prehistory.

Perrot, Jean. 1960. Excavations at 'Eynan ('Ain Mallaha): Preliminary report on the 1959 season. Israel Exploration Journal 10 (1): 14–22.

Perrot, Jean. 1966. Le gisement Natoufien de Mallaha (Eynan), Israel. L’anthropologie 70 (5–6): 437–484.

Perrot, Jean. 1974. Mallaha (Eynan), 1975. Paleoriënt 2 (2): 485–486.

Perrot, Jean, and Daniel Ladiray. 1988. Les Hommes de Mallaha, Eynan, Israël. Paris: Association Paléorient.

Peters, Joris, and Klaus Schmidt. 2004. Animals in the symbolic world of pre-pottery Neolithic Göbekli Tepe, South-Eastern Turkey: A preliminary assessment. Anthropozoologica 39 (1): 179–218.

Peterson, Jane. 2002. Sexual revolutions: Gender and labor at the Dawn of agriculture. Lanham: Rowman Altamira.

Richter, Tobias, Jay T. Stock, Lisa Maher, and Caroline Hebron. 2010. An early Epipalaeolithic sitting burial from the Azraq oasis, Jordan. Antiquity 84: 321–334.

Richter, Tobias, Amaia Arranz, Michael House, Adnan M. Rafaiah, and Lisa Yeomans. 2014. Preliminary report on the second season of excavation at Shubayqa 1. Neo-Lithics 14 (1): 3–10.

Rodriguez, Amelia Rodriguez, Maya Haıdar-Boustani, Jesús Emilio González Urquijo, Juan José Ibánez, Michel Al-Maqdissi, Xavier Terradas, and Lydia Zapata. 2013. The early Natufian site of Jeftelik (Homs gap, Syria). In Natufian foragers in the Levant: Terminal Pleistocene social changes in western Asia, red. Ofer Bar-Yosef and François R. Valla, 61–72. Ann Arbor: International Monographs in Prehistory.

Samuelian, Nicolas. 2006. La notion de sol au Natoufien: méthodes et problemes. Le cas de Eynan-Mallaha au Natoufien final (Israël). In Des Trous. Structures En Creux Pré-et Protohistoriques, red. Marie-Chantal Frere-Sautot, 97–108. Montagnac: Monique Mergoil.

Schmidt, Klaus, and Mirko Wittwar. 2012. Göbekli Tepe: A stone age sanctuary in south-eastern Anatolia. Berlin: Ex Oriente eV.

Schroeder, Bruce. 1991. Natufian in the central Béqaa Valley, Lebanon. In The Natufian culture in the Levant, red. Ofer Bar-Yosef and François R. Valla, 43–80. Ann Arbor: International Monographs in Prehistory.

Simmons, Tal, Nigel Goring-Morris, and Liora Kolska Horwitz. 2007. What ceremony else?’ Taphonomy and the ritual treatment of the dead in the pre-pottery Neolithic B mortuary complex at Kfar HaHoresh, Israel. In Faces from the past: Diachronic patterns in the biology of human populations from the eastern Mediterranean: Papers in honour of Patricia smith, red. Marina Faerman, Liora Kolska Horwitz, Tzipi Kahana, and Uri Zilberman, 100–126. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports S1603.

Smith, Pamela Jane, Jane Callander, Paul G. Bahn, and Genevi Pinçlon. 1997. Dorothy Garrod in words and pictures. Antiquity 71 (272): 265–270.

Snir, Ainit, Dani Nadel, Iris Groman-Yaroslavski, Yoel Melamed, Marcelo Sternberg, Ofer Bar-Yosef, and Ehud Weiss. 2015. The origin of cultivation and proto-weeds, long before Neolithic farming. PLoS One 10 (7): e0131422.

Stekelis, Moshe, and Tamar Yizraely. 1963. Excavations at Naḥal Oren: Preliminary report. Israel Exploration Journal 13 (1): 1–12.

Stordeur, Danielle, Gérard Der Aprahamian, Michel Brenet, and Jean-Claude Roux. 2000. Les bâtiments communautaires de Jerf el Ahmar et Mureybet horizon PPNA (Syrie). Paleoriënt 26 (1): 29–44.

Turville-Petre, Francis. 1932. Excavations in the Mugharet el-Kebarah. The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 62: 271–276.

Valla, François R. 1975. Le Natoufien: Une Culture Préhistorique En Palestine. Paris: J. Gabalda.

Valla, François R. 1981. Les industries de silex de Nahal Oren et les stades du natoufien. In Troisième colloque sur la terminologie de la préhistoire au Proche-Orient, red. Fred Wendorf. UISSP: Mexico.

Valla, François R. 1984. Les Industries de Silex de Mallaha (Eynan) et Du Natoufien Dans Le Levant. Paris: Association Paleorient.

Valla, François R. 1987. “Chronologie absolue et chronologies relatives dans le natoufien.” In Aurenche Olivier , Evin Jacques and Hours Francis (eds.), Chronologies Du Proche-Orient/Chronologies of the Near East: Relative Chronologies and Absolute Chronology 16 000–4 000 B.P. British Archaeological Reports International Series 379. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports.

Valla, François R. 1988. Aspects du sol de l’abri 131 de Mallaha (Eynan). Paleoriënt 14 (2): 283–296.

Valla, François R. 1991. Les Natoufiens de Mallaha et l’espace. In The Natufian culture in the Levant, red. Ofer Bar-Yosef and François R. Valla, 111–122. Ann Arbor: International Monographs in Prehistory.

Valla, François R. 1995. The first settled societies-Natufian (12,500-10,200 BP). In The archaeology of Society in the Holy Land, red. Thomas E. Levy, 169–187. London: Sheffield University Press.

Valla, François R., ed. 2012. Les Fouilles de La Terrasse d’Hayonim (Israël): 1980–1981 et 1985–1989. Paris: De Boccard.

Valla, François R., Ofer Bar-Yosef, Patricia Smith, Eitan Tchernov, and Jean Desse. 1986. Un nouveau sondage sur la terrasse d’El Ouad, Israel. Paleoriënt 12 (1): 21–38.

Valla, François R., Hamoudi Khalaily, Samuelian Nicolas, R. March, Fanny Bocquentin, Boris Valentin, Ofer Marder, et al. 2001. Le Natoufien final de Mallaha (Eynan), deuxième rapport préliminaire: les fouilles de 1998 et 1999. Journal of the Israel Prehistoric Society 31: 43–184.

Valla, François R., Hamoudi Khalaily, Hélène Valladas, Nadine Tisnérat-Laborde, Nicolas Samuelian, Fanny Bocquentin, Rivka Rabinovich, et al. 2004. Les fouilles de Mallaha en 2000 et 2001: 3ème rapport préliminaire. Journal of the Israel Prehistoric Society 34: 49–244.

Verhoeven, Marc. 2002. Ritual and ideology in the pre-pottery Neolithic B of the Levant and Southeast Anatolia. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 12 (2): 233–258.

Weinstein-Evron, Mina. 1991. New radiocarbon dates for the early Natufian of el-wad cave, Mt. Carmel, Israel. Paleoriënt 17 (1): 95–98.

Weiss, Ehud, Mordechai E. Kislev, Orit Simchoni, Dani Nadel, and Hartmut Tschauner. 2008. Plant-food preparation area on an upper Paleolithic brush hut floor at Ohalo II, Israel. Tydskrif vir Argeologiese Wetenskap 35 (8): 2400–2414.

Zeder, Melinda A. 2011. The origins of agriculture in the near east. Huidige Antropologie 52 (S4): S221–S235.


Kyk die video: Five Statues form Ain Ghazal, Jordan - No Music (Januarie 2022).