Geskiedenis Podcasts

Belegging van Dibalpur, middel Januarie 1524

Belegging van Dibalpur, middel Januarie 1524

Belegging van Dibalpur, middel Januarie 1524

Die beleg van Dibalpur (moderne Dipalpur) van Januarie 1524 was die tweede en laaste militêre sukses tydens Babur se vierde ekspedisie na Indië, na sy oorwinning vroeër die maand in Lahore. Babur het nie verwag om te veg in Lahore, wat die gebied van Daulat Khan was nie, maar Daulat is deur Ibrahim Lodi, die sultan van Delhi, afgesit. Babur was gedwing om 'n geveg buite die stad te voer en sy eerste oorwinning oor 'n leër uit Delhi te behaal. Nadat hy die stad verower het, draai hy suidwes om Dibalpur aan te val.

In 1524 is Dibalpur omring deur 'n 25 voet hoë muur, self omring deur 'n diep sloot, wat ten minste uit die veertiende eeuse bewind van Firoz Shah Tughluq (sultan van 1351 tot 1388) dateer. Ten spyte van hierdie versterking kon Babur die stad verower deur aanval en die garnisoen aan die swaard gesteek.

Eers na die val van Dibalpur is Babur by sy Indiese bondgenoot Daulat Khan, die afgesette goewerneur van Lahore, aangesluit. Daulat het duidelik verwag dat Babur Lahore vir hom sou herstel, maar Babur het hom Jalandhar en Sultanpur gegee. Op hierdie stadium het Daulat besef dat Babur nie die bondige bondgenoot sou wees waarop hy gehoop het nie, en hy het 'n plan uitgemaak om Babur se leër te verdeel en dit in detail te verslaan. Hierdie plot is deur Daulat se seun Dilawar aan Babur verraai. Daulat is gearresteer en afgesit en sy grond is aan Dilawar gegee. Babur stel toe goewerneurs aan vir sy nuwe verowerings en keer terug na Kaboel om 'n groter leër op te rig.


Tydlyn vir Maine History

Vroeë Maine -inwoners staan ​​bekend as die "Red Paint" -mense as gevolg van die rooi klei wat hulle gebruik om die grafte van hul dooies te voer. Hulle word gevolg deur die Susquehanna -kultuur, wat die eerste is wat erdewerk gebruik het.

Die twee vroegste inheemse Amerikaanse lande van Maine is die Micmac, in die ooste van Maine en die Abenaki. Hierdie stamme beweeg gereeld 'n paar keer per jaar na die voedselvoorraad. In die lente hengel hulle in die riviere en plant hulle mielies, pampoen en boontjies langs die riviere. In die winters waag hulle diep in die woude van Maine om wild te jag.

Teen die tyd dat Europeërs in die streek aankom, woon die Passamaquoddy en Penobscots ook in die omgewing.

Maine, die grootste van die ses state in New England, lê op die noordoostelike hoek van die land. Maine het op 15 Maart 1820 die 23ste staat geword as deel van die Missouri -kompromie, wat Missouri toegelaat het om die unie as 'n slawestaat en Maine as 'n vrystaat te betree. Maine word begrens deur die Kanadese provinsies Quebec en New Brunswick, en deur New Hampshire.

Tydlyn vir die Maine -geskiedenis van die 16de eeu

1524 - Giovanni da Verranzano het die eerste bevestigde Europeër geword om die kus van Maine te verken.

1597 - Simon Ferdinando, 'n Portugese seevaarder, wat vir die Britse kroon werk, land aan die kus van Maine, op soek na skatte.

17de eeu Maine Geskiedenis Tydlyn

1604 - 'n Franse gebeurlikheid onder leiding van Pierre du Guast Sieur de Monts vestig die eerste aangetekende Europese kolonie in Maine aan die monding van die St. Croixrivier.

1604-1605 - Die Franse kartograaf Samuel de Champlain verken en karteer gedeeltes van die kuslyn van Maine en die Penobscot -rivier.

1607 - Die Britte vestig die Fort Popham -kolonie wat nie die wrede winter duur nie.

1622 - Sir Ferdinando Gorges en John Mason kry regte op grond wat bestaan ​​uit die huidige Maine en New Hampshire. Gorges het die eerste persoon geword wat die gebied 'Maine' genoem het.

1623 - Eerste saagmeule in Amerika.

1636 - Vissers op Richmond Island boikot werk (moontlik die eerste staking in die nuwe kolonies!)

1652 - Maine word deur Massachusetts as 'n grensgebied geannekseer. Die strategiese belangrikheid van Maine word gevestig omdat amptenare in Massachusetts dit as die eerste verdedigingslinie beskou het teen moontlike Franse en Indiese invalle.

1658 - Massachusetts neem Casco Bay oor en voltooi die anneksasie van Maine -lande.

1675 - King Phillip's War begin 'n lang en moeisame stryd tussen die Engelse en die Franse en Indiërs om beheer oor die Noord -Amerikaanse gebiede.

1675 - 1763 - Hierdie tydperk word gekenmerk deur voortdurende konflik tussen die Noord -Amerikaanse moondhede. Wat met King Phillip's War begin het, het geëindig met Frankryk wat hul besit in die nuwe wêreld aan die Engelse oorgegee het aan die einde van die Sewejarige Oorlog. Gedurende hierdie tyd het Maine die las van verskeie aanvalle deur die Franse en Indiese magte gehad.

18de eeu Maine Geskiedenis Tydlyn

1759 - Amerika se eerste vroulike romanskrywer, Madam Wood (Sally Sayward Barrell) is in York gebore.

1761 - Eerste stapelbrug in Noord -Amerika wat in York gebou is.

  • Die eerste seestryd van die Revolusionêre Oorlog vind voor die kus van Machias plaas.
  • Benedict Arnold marsjeer 'n groep revolusionêre deur Maine in 'n mislukte poging om Britse vestings in Quebec City en Montreal te verower.

1785 - Die eerste koerant in Maine, Falmouth Gazette, is gestig met die doel om die skeiding van Massachusetts te bevorder.

1794 - Bowdoin College word Maine se eerste post-sekondêre instelling.

Tydlyn vir die Maine -geskiedenis van die 19de eeu

1819 - Massachusetts stem in om die distrik Maine toe te laat om 'n versoek om staatskaping.

  • As gevolg van die Missouri -kompromie word Maine sy eie staat.
  • Maine word deur die Grondwet van die Staat die eerste staat om stemreg en skoolvoorregte aan almal te gee, ongeag ras.

1839 - Goewerneur Fairfield verklaar oorlog teen Engeland oor 'n grensgeskil tussen New Brunswick en die noorde van Maine. Dit is die eerste en enigste keer dat 'n staat oorlog teen 'n vreemde mag verklaar. Die geskil is egter besleg voordat bloed gestort is.

1842 - Die Webster - Ashburton -verdrag van 1842 besleg die grensgeskil tussen Maine en New Brunswick, aangesien beide partye 'n nuwe grens tussen die twee gebiede in gevaar stel.

  • Harriet Beecher Stowe begin skryf aan oom Tom's Cabin in Brunswick, Maine. Hierdie roman sou later dien as 'n bron van inspirasie vir afskaffers voor die burgeroorlog.
  • Eerste staat wat die verkoop van alle alkoholiese drank verbied.

1860 - Hannibal Hamlin, inwoner van Parys, word die vise -president van Abraham Lincoln genoem.

1863 - Inwoner van Brunswick, Joshua Chamberlain, het Little Round Top suksesvol verdedig teen konfederale troepe tydens die Slag van Gettysburg in die Burgeroorlog. Die optrede van Chamberlain het ongetwyfeld gedien as die keerpunt van die geveg.

1866 'N Groot brand vernietig 'n groot deel van die sentrum van Portland in die gebied wat nou bekend staan ​​as die ou hawe.

1876 - Portland word op die vierde Julie deur 'n frats sneeustorm getref.

1884 - Winslow Homer vestig hom in Prouts Neck in Scarborough en James G. Blaine, Republikeinse presidentskandidaat, ly 'n noue nederlaag teen Grover Cleveland.

1888 - Melville W. Fuller, 'n boorling van Maine, word die hoofregter van die Amerikaanse hooggeregshof.

1898 - Die Amerikaanse slagskip "Maine" is in die hawe van Havana gesink, 'n voorval wat die Spaans-Amerikaanse oorlog help veroorsaak het. 'Onthou die Maine' word 'n oorlogspreuk

Tydlyn van die Maine -geskiedenis van die 20ste eeu

1905 - Eerste bosbrand -uitkykstasie in Amerika gestig op Squaw Mountain, naby Greenville.

1917 - Verenigde State betree die Eerste Wêreldoorlog, die Maine -wetgewer bewillig $ 1 miljoen vir oorlogsdoeleindes.

1918 - Wapenstilstand word verklaar. Maine se bydrae tot die oorlogspoging beloop $ 116 miljoen en 35.000 man.

1920 - Destyds in September is vroue van Maine die eerste om die franchise uit te oefen.

1931 - Goewerneur Percival Baxter begin grond koop in Noord -Maine met die doel om 'n wildreservaat te vestig. In die loop van 30 jaar sou Baxter meer as 90 000 hektaar koop. Hierdie grond is mildelik geskenk vir die stigting van Baxter State Park.

1934 - Staatsverbod word herroep, wat die verkoop van drank vir die eerste keer in 84 jaar wettig maak.

1936 - Die meeste rampspoedige vloede in die geskiedenis van Maine lei tot verliese van altesaam $ 25 miljoen

1941 - President Roosevelt kom aan wal by Rockland nadat hy die Atlantiese Handves onderteken het met die Britse premier, Winston Churchill

1947 - 'n Rampagtige bosbrand vloei deur die kus van Maine, vernietig meer as 1 000 huise, maak sewe gemeenskappe gelyk en veroorsaak nog 50 skade, vernietig 17.000 hektaar Acadia Nasionale Park en maak 200.000 hektaar ekstra bos swart.

1948 - Inwoner van Skowhegan, Margaret Chase Smith, word verkies tot die Amerikaanse senaat, wat haar die eerste vrou is wat ooit in hierdie amp gestem is en ook die eerste vroue wat in albei kongreshuise gedien het.

1955 - Filmmusiek, "Carousel" word in Boothbay Harbour verfilm.

1956 - Die eerste Amerikaanse atoomsubot, USS Swordfish, word gelanseer by Kittery-Portsmouth Naval Shipyard.

1957 - Verkiesingsdag in Maine word van September tot November met die res van die land verskuif.

1958 - Edmund Muskie is die eerste Maine -demokraat wat ooit tot die kongres verkies is.

  • Die eerste Polaris-duikboot, USS Abraham Lincoln, word gelanseer by die Kittery-Portsmouth Naval Shipyard.
  • Die konstruksie van 'Telstar' kommunikasiesatelliet in Andover, Maine, is die begin van die wêreldwye kommunikasie -rewolusie.

1968 - Die Universiteit van Maine -stelsel is ingestel om openbare post -sekondêre instellings in verskillende dele van die staat te skep.

1974 - James Longley word verkies tot goewerneur van Maine. Hy word die eerste volksverkose onafhanklike goewerneur in die geskiedenis van die Verenigde State.

1979 - Inwoner van Rumford, senator Edmund Muskie vervang Cyrus Vance as minister van buitelandse sake van Carter.

1980 - President Carter onderteken die Indiese Grondeise -ooreenkoms.

1984 - Inwoner van die Freeport, Joan Benoit Samuelson, word die eerste goue medaljewenner tydens die eerste vroue se Olimpiese marathonbyeenkoms tydens die Olimpiese Somerspele 1984 in Los Angeles, CA.

1988 - Inwoner van Waterville, senator George Mitchell word aangewys as die leier van die meerderheid in die Amerikaanse senaat.

1994 - Angus King, inwoner van Brunswick, word slegs die tweede volksverkose onafhanklike goewerneur in die geskiedenis van die Verenigde State.

1997 - Inwoner van Bangor, senator William Cohen word ingesweer as president Clinton se minister van verdediging.

Tydlyn vir die Maine -geskiedenis van die 21ste eeu

2000 - Staatswetgewer verbied alle rassistiese of afbrekende dorpsname wat & quotsquaw & quot of & quot Negro & quot;

2002 - John E. Baldacci is tot goewerneur van Maine verkies en in 2006 herkies.

2007 - Die Franse president, Nicolas Sarkozy, het president Bush by sy huis in Maine besoek

2009 - 'n Nuwe rekord -lae temperatuur vir die staat is in Januarie op -50 ° C gestel

2010 - Prospect Harbour se sardienblikkie word gesluit - die laaste sardynblikkie in die VSA

2012 - Senator Olympia Snowe het 'n verrassing aangekondig dat sy sal uittree en nie herverkiesing wil doen nie


Slag van Orsha, 8 September 1514

Die Slag van Orsha het op 8 September 1514 plaasgevind tussen die magte van die Groothertogdom Litaue en die Koninkryk van Pole (minder as 30 000 troepe), onder bevel van Hetman Konstanty Ostrogski, en die leër van Muscovy onder Konyushy (“Tsar & #8217s Equerry ”) Ivan Chelyadnin en Kniaz (Prins) Mikhail Golitsa.

Die Slag van Orsha was deel van 'n lang ketting van oorloë wat gevoer is deur Russiese tsare wat daarna streef om al die Oude Rutheniese lande onder hulle bewind te versamel. bevelvoerder.

Slag van Orsza, deur 'n onbekende skilder onder invloed van Lucas Cranach die Ouer, bekend as “The master of the Battle of Orsza ”. Olie op hout, waarskynlik na 1524 of selfs 1530. Volgens die spesialiste moet die skrywer &# 8217 het self aan die geveg deelgeneem. Die skildery is tans in die Nasionale Museum in Warskou te sien.

Aan die einde van 1512 begin Muscovy 'n nuwe oorlog vir die Rutheniese lande van die huidige Wit-Rusland en Oekraïne, wat deel uitmaak van die Groothertogdom Litaue. Die vesting Smolensk was toe die oostelikste buitepos van die Groothertogdom en een van die belangrikste vestings wat dit uit die ooste bewaak het. Dit het verskeie Moskouse aanvalle afgeweer, maar in Julie 1514 het 'n Moskowitiese leër van 80 000 man en 300 gewere beleër en dit uiteindelik gevang. (Sommige historici beweer dat die grootte van die leër van Muscovy oorbeklemtoon is: sien betwiste data, en#8221 hieronder.)

Aangevuur deur hierdie aanvanklike sukses, beveel die Grootprins van Muscovy Vasili III sy magte verder na Wit -Rusland en beset die dorpe Krychau, Mscislau en Dubrouna.

Intussen het koning Sigismund die ou van Pole ongeveer 35 000 troepe versamel vir oorlog met die oostelike buurman. Hierdie leër was minderwaardig, maar bestaan ​​meestal uit goed opgeleide kavallerie. Die magte van die Groothertogdom Litaue en Koninkryk Pole wat onder die bevel van Hetman Konstanty Ostrogski geplaas is, sluit in:

16 000 perde van die Groothertogdom,

14 000 Poolse kavallerie (lig en swaar), 3 000 huursoldate,

2 500 vrywilligers, meestal uit Bohemen.

Koning Sigismund, wat Wit-Rusland binnegekom het, het die stad Barysau met 'n mag van 4 000 man beveilig, terwyl die hoofmagte die Muskowiete konfronteer. Einde Augustus het verskeie skermutselings by kruisings van die Berezina-, Bobr- en Drutsrivier plaasgevind, maar die Moskouse weermag het 'n groot konfrontasie vermy.

Met geringe verliese het die Muskowiete gevorder na die gebied tussen Orsha en Dubrouna aan die Krapiuna -rivier, waar hulle kamp opgeslaan het. Ivan Chelyadnin, vol vertroue dat die Litaus-Poolse magte een van twee brûe op die Dnepr sou moes oorsteek, het sy eie magte verdeel om die kruisings te bewaak. Ostrogski se leër het egter die rivier verder noord oorgesteek via twee pontbrue. In die nag van 7 September het die voorbereidings begin vir 'n laaste geveg met die Moskowiete. Hetman Ostrogski het die grootste deel van sy 16 000 Litause (Litvin) perd in die middel geplaas, terwyl die grootste deel van die Poolse infanterie en die hulptroepe die flanke beman het. Die Boheemse en Sileziese infanterie is in die middel van die lyn ontplooi, voor reservate uit Litause en Poolse kavallerie.

Op 8 September 1514, kort na dagbreek, het Ivan Chelyadnin die bevel gegee om aan te val. Die Moskovitiese magte het probeer om die Litouwers en Pole te oorheers deur die flanke aan te val, beman deur Poolse troepe. Een van die knypers van die aanval was persoonlik onder bevel van Chelyadnin, terwyl die ander onder leiding van prins Bulgakov-Golitsa was. Die aanvanklike aanval misluk, en die Moskowiete trek terug na hul beginposisies. Chelyadnin was steeds vol vertroue dat die byna 3: 1 -kans in sy guns hom die oorwinning sou gee. Hy was egter besig met sy eie vleuel van die Moskovitiese magte en verloor die spoor van die ander sektore en kon nie 'n verdediging koördineer teen die teenaanval deur die Litause kavallerie wat tot dan toe in reserwe gehou is nie.

Die Litause ligte perd val die uitgestrekte middel van die Muscovite -lyne aan in 'n poging om dit te skeur. Op die belangrike oomblik lyk dit of die perd van die Groothertogdom wankel en dan terugtrek. Die Moskowiete het met al hul kavalleriereservate agtervolg. Die Litause perd draai, nadat hy 'n paar minute teruggetrek het, agtervolg deur die Moskowiete, skielik na die kante. Die Moskowiese perd word nou gekonfronteer deur artillerie wat in die bos versteek is. Van beide kante het Poolse magte verskyn en die Muscoviete omsingel. Ivan Chelyadnin klink terugtog, wat gou ietwat paniekerig raak. Die Moskowiese magte is vyf kilometer lank deur die leër van die Groothertogdom Litaue agtervolg.

Die Moskoviese nederlaag word dikwels toegeskryf aan herhaalde mislukkings deur Ivan Chelyadnin en Golitsa om hul operasies te koördineer.

Volgens berigte in die Poolse kronieke is 30 000 Moskowiete tydens die Slag van Orsha doodgemaak en nog 3 000 is gevange geneem, waaronder Ivan Chelyadnin en agt ander bevelvoerders. Die magte van die Groothertogdom Litaue en die Koninkryk Pole het die Moskowiese kamp en al 300 kanonne in beslag geneem.

Ontsteld oor die massiewe nederlaag, het die Moskowiese grootprins Vasili III na bewering opgemerk dat die gevangenes net so nuttig soos die dooies was en wou weier om terug te kom. Die Slag van Orsha was een van die grootste gevegte in die 16de-eeuse Europa. Ostrogski se magte het hul strewe na die geleide Muscovite -leër voortgesit en die meeste van die voorheen gevange vestings ingeneem. Die Litause en Poolse magte was egter te uitgeput om Smolensk voor die winter te beleër. Ostrogski het ook eers einde September die hekke van Smolensk bereik, wat Vasili III genoeg tyd gegee het om die verdediging voor te berei.

In Desember 1514 stap Hetman Konstanty Ostrogski triomfantlik Vilnius binne. Ter herdenking van die oorwinning is twee Ortodokse kerke opgerig: die Kerk van die Heilige Drie -eenheid en die Sint Nikolaaskerk, wat nog steeds een van die indrukwekkendste voorbeelde van Ortodokse Kerkargitektuur in Litaue is.

Ondanks die veronderstelde grootheid het die Slag van Orsha nie noodsaaklike politieke gevolge meegebring nie, wat twyfel laat ontstaan ​​oor die tradisionele interpretasie van die verloop en die aantal ongevalle (sien: betwiste gegewens). Dit kon natuurlik nie die strategiese resultate van die voorafgaande Slag van Vedrosha vergoed nie. Die oorlog tussen die Groothertogdom Litaue en Muscovy duur tot 1520. In 1522 is 'n vrede onderteken, ingevolge waarvan die Groothertogdom Litaue ongeveer 'n kwart van sy Rutheniese besittings, waaronder Smolensk, moes afstaan. Laasgenoemde stad is eers byna 'n eeu later, in 1611, uit Rusland teruggeneem.

Betwiste data

As gevolg van die skouspelagtige omvang van die nederlaag, is inligting oor die Slag van Orsha in Muscovite -kronieke onderdruk. Selfs betroubare historici van die Russiese Ryk, soos Sergey Solovyov, maak staat op nie-Russiese bronne. Aan die ander kant wou koning Sigismund I van Pole soveel politieke voordeel as moontlik uit sy oorwinning behaal. Daarom word die getalle wat aangegee is oor die grootte van die onderskeie magte en die getal slagoffers en gevangenes wat deur moderne historici bevraagteken word, bevraagteken.

In die besonder word die grootte van die Moskouse weermag (80 000) ernstig oordryf. Selfs Ivan die Verskriklike, wat oor 'n groter gebied as sy vader beskik het, kon nooit meer as 40 000 troepe bymekaarskraap nie, waarvan 20% pas verowerde Tatare en Finne was. As gevolg hiervan word die aantal vermoorde (30 000) ook bevraagteken.

Indirekte bewys van oordrywing kan wees dat koning Sigismund vir pous Leo X en ander Europese heersers geskryf het dat sy leër 30 000 Moskowiete doodgemaak het en 46 bevelvoerders en 1500 adellikes gevange geneem het. In bestaande Poolse en Litause dokumente word al die gevange adellikes op hul naam gelys, maar slegs 611 mans.


Januarie

Hierdie illustrasie wat die beleg van Bexar uitbeeld-vandag se San Antonio-is uit 'n boek uit die middel van die 19de eeu onder die besittings van die Texas State Archives. Tydens die beleg, in 1835, het 'Texiaanse' magte Mexikaanse troepe drie maande later suksesvol uit San Antonio verdryf, het die Mexikaanse magte die stad teruggeneem in die gevierde beleg van die Alamo. Die besittings van die Texas State Archives bevat miljoene amptelike rekords van die Texas -regering uit die Spaanse koloniale era tot vandag, sowel as boeke en tydskrifte, manuskripte, kaarte, foto's en ander visuele bronne en artefakte. Die argiewe word saam met ander versamelings staats- en federale dokumente, familiegeskiedenismateriaal en verwysingsitems bestuur deur die Texas State Library and Archives Commission. Fotokrediet: Argiefafdeling-Texas State Library.

Ed. let wel: hierdie beeld is digitaal verander om aan te pas by die omslag van C & ampRL News.


Belegging van Dibalpur, middel Januarie 1524 - Geskiedenis

CV-23: dp. 13,000 (v.) 1. 622'6 & quot, b. 71'6 & quot, ew. 109'2 & quot dr. 26's. 31 k. kpl. 1 569 a. 22 40 mm., 16 20 mm. ae. 45 cl. Onafhanklikheid)

'N Geskiedenis
Die vierde Princeton is neergelê as Tallahassee (CL-61) deur die NewYork Shipbuilding Corp., Camden, NJ, 2 Junie 1941, herklassifiseer CV-23 op 16 Februarie 1942, herdoop tot Princeton 31 Maart 1942 wat op 18 Oktober 1942 gelanseer is, geborg deur mev Harold Dodds, en in opdrag by Philadelphia 25 Februarie 1943, kaptein George R. Henderson in bevel.

Na afskud in die Karibiese Eilande en herklassifikasie na CVL-23 op 15 Julie 1943, het Princeton, met die aanvang van Air Group 23, aan die gang gegaan na die Stille Oseaan. By die aankoms by Pearl Harbor op 9 Augustus het sy op 25 op TF 11 gesorteer en na Baker Island gegaan. Daar het sy as vlagskip gedien, TG 11.2 en lugversorging verskaf tydens die besetting van die eiland en die bou van 'n vliegveld daar, 1-14 September. Gedurende daardie tyd het haar vliegtuie Japannese verkenningsvliegtuie neergesak en, nog belangriker, die vloot toegerus met foto's daarvan.

Na voltooiing van die missie het Princeton met TF 15 vergader, aanvalle op vyandige installasies op Makin en Tarawa uitgevoer en daarna teruggegaan na Pearl Harbor. In die middel van Oktober vaar sy na die Espiritu Santo -hoer wat sy op die 20ste by TF 38 aangesluit het. Met hierdie krag stuur sy haar vliegtuie teen die vliegvelde Buka en Bonis op Bougainville (1-2 November) om die Japannese lugweerstand te verminder tydens die landings by keiserin Augustabaai. Op die 5de en 11de het die vliegtuie op Rabaul toegeslaan en op die 19de, met TF 50, gehelp om die vliegveld by Nauru te neutraliseer. Princeton stoom dan noordoos, bedek die garnisongroepe wat onderweg is na Makin en Tarawa, en na die uitruil van operasionele vliegtuie vir beskadigde vliegtuie van ander draers aan die gang vir Pearl Harbor en die weskus.

Beskikbaarheid by Bremerton het gevolg en op 3 Januarie 1944 het Princeton in die weste gestoom. By Pearl Harbor het sy weer by die vinnige draers van TF 50, nou TF 58 aangesluit. Op die 19de het sy met TG 58.4 gesorteer vir stakings by Wotje en Taroa (29-31 Januarie) om amfibiese operasies teen Kwajalein en Majuro te ondersteun. Haar vliegtuie neem die volgende foto aanvalsdoelwit, Eniwetok, 2 Februarie en op die 3de keer terug op 'n meer vernietigende opdrag-die sloping van die vliegveld op Engebi. Vir drie dae is die atol gebombardeer en bestook. Op die 7de het Princeton teruggetrek na Kwajalein om eers weer op die 10de-13de en 16de-28de na Eniwetok terug te keer, toe haar vliegtuie die strande vir die invalsmag versag, en dan lugdekking verskaf tydens die aanval en die daaropvolgende geveg.

Van Eniwetok af trek Princeton terug na Majuro, vandaar na Espiritu Santo vir aanvulling. Op 23 Maart het sy begin met die aanvalle op vyandige installasie en skeepvaart in die Carolines. Nadat Wolesi en Yapthe -mag die Palaus getref het, het hulle by Majuro aangevul en weer op 13 April gesorteer. Die lugrederye het na Nieu-Guinee gestoom en lugdekking verskaf vir die Hollandia-operasie (21-29 April), en daarna teruggekeer oor die International Date Line na raidTruk (29-30 April) en Ponape (1 Mei).

Op 11 Mei het Princeton teruggekeer na Pearl Harbor om eers weer die 29ste na Majuro te vertrek. Daar het sy weer by die vinnige draers aangesluit en haar boog na die Marianas gewys om die aanval op Saipan te ondersteun. Van 11-18 het Juneshe haar vliegtuie gestuur teen teikens op Guam, Rota, Tinian, Pagan en Saipan, waarna hulle na die weste gestoom het om 'n Japannese vloot te ondervang wat na bewering van die Filippyne na die Marianas was. In die daaropvolgende Slag van die Filippynse See het Princeton se vliegtuie 30 doodgemaak en haar gewere nog 3, plus 1 hulp, bygedra tot die verwoestende tol wat Japan se vlootarm toegedien het.

By die terugkeer na die Marianas het Princeton weer Pagan, Rota en Guam getref en daarna by Eniwetok aangevul. Op 14 Julie is sy weer aan die gang toe die snelwaens hul eskaders terugstuur na die Marianas om lugbedekking te verskaf vir die aanranding en besetting van Guam en Tinian. Op 2 Augustus het die mag teruggekeer na Eniwetok, aangevul en daarna na die Filippyne geseil. Onderweg het sy vliegtuie deur die Palaus getrek, en op 9 tot 10 September het die vliegvelde in die noorde van Mindanao getref. Teen die middel van die maand het die mag terugbeweeg na die Stille Oseaan-skaakbord om die offensief van Palau te ondersteun, en daarna teruggekeer na die Filippyne om Luzon te tref, met die klem op Clark en Nichols-veldtogte. gestuur in die Nansei Shoto en Formosaarea ter voorbereiding op die inval in die Filippyne.

Op die 20ste is daar geland by Dulag en San Pedrobaai, Leyte. Princeton, in TG 38.3, vaar van Luzon af en stuur haar vliegtuie daarheen teen vliegvelde om te voorkom dat Japannese vliegtuigaanvalle op die geallieerde skepe in die Golf van Leyte plaasvind. Op die 24ste het vyandvliegtuie van Clark en Nichols -veld egter TG 38.3 gevind en teruggegee. Kort voor 1000 kom 'n eensame vyand se duikbom uit die wolke bokant Princeton. Op 1500 voet het die vlieënier sy bom losgelaat. Dit tref tussen die hysbakke, val deur die vliegdek en die hanger en ontplof. Aanvanklike brande het gou uitgebrei namate verdere ontploffings swart rook van die vliegdek laat afrol en rooi vlamme langs die sye van die eiland na die agterstewe. Die vaartuie wat bedek is, het reddings- en brandbestrydingshulp verleen en die geteisterde draer beskerm teen verdere aanval. Teen 1524 blaas nog 'n baie swaarder ontploffing, moontlik die bomtydskrif van die agterkant van die draer af en daarmee die na -vlugdek. Birmingham, saam met brande, het groot skade en ongevalle gely.

Pogings om Princeton te red, het voortgegaan, maar teen 1604 het die brande gewen. Bote is versoek om die oorblywende personeel af te neem en Irwin het kort na 1706 begin om torpedo's op die brandende hulk af te vuur. Teen 1746 verlig Reno Irwinand in 1749, die laaste en grootste ontploffing. Vlamme en rommel steek 1000-2000 voet op. Princeton se voorste afdeling was weg. Haar na -afdeling verskyn kort -kort deur die rook. Teen 1750 het sy verdwyn, maar 1,361 van haar bemanning het oorleef. Kapt. John M. Hoskins, wat voornemende bevelvoerder van CVL-23 was en by haar die regtervoet verloor het, was ondanks die verlies die eerste bevelvoerder van die vyfde Princeton (CV-37) .

Verliese en skade aan hulpvaardige vaartuie was swaar: Birmingham-85 vermoor 300 gewondes, 'n swaar beskadigde bokant en verlies van 2 5 & quot, 2 0 mm. en2 20 mm. gewere, -voorste verlore, hawe langs Irwin -voorwaartse 5 & quot mountsand direkteur uit, stuurboord stukkend en 40mm. verpletter.


Die Hof van Gayumars

Sultan Muhammad (toegeskryf), Die Hof van Kayumars (Safavid: Tabiz, Iran), c. 1524–1525, van die Shah Tahmasp Shahnameh, ongeveer. 1524–35, ondeursigtige waterverf, ink en goud op papier, 45 x 30 cm (Aga Khan Museum, Toronto) spreker: Dr. Michael Chagnon, kurator, Aga Khan Museum en dr.Steven Zucker

Sultan Muhammad (toegeskryf), Die Hof van Kayumars (Safavid: Tabiz, Iran), c. 1524–1525, van die Shah Tahmasp Shahnameh, ongeveer. 1524–35, ondeursigtige waterverf, ink en goud op papier, 45 x 30 cm (Aga Khan Museum, Toronto) sprekers: Dr. Filiz Çakir Phillip, kurator, Aga Khan Museum en dr.Steven Zucker

Hele bladsy links, en detail, regs: Sultan Muhammad, Die Hof van Gayumars, c.1522, 47 x 32 cm, ondeursigtige waterverf, ink, goud, silwer op papier, folio 20v, Shahnameh van Shah Tahmasp I (Safavid), Tabriz, Iran (Aga Khan Museum, Toronto)

Die Shahnama

Hierdie weelderige bladsy, The Court of Gayumars (ook gespel Kayumars - sien bo -aan bladsy, besonderhede hieronder en groot beeld hier), kom uit 'n verligte manuskrip van die Shahnama (Book of Kings) - 'n epiese gedig wat die geskiedenis van koningskap in Persië beskryf (wat nou Iran is). Vanweë die vermenging van skilderstyle van Tabriz en Herat (sien kaart hieronder), sy helder pigmente, fyn detail en komplekse beelde, val hierdie kopie van die Shahnama op in die geskiedenis van die artistieke produksie in Sentraal -Asië.

Die Shahnama is omstreeks 1000 deur Abu al-Qāsim Ferdowsi geskryf en is 'n meesterlike voorbeeld van Persiese poësie. Die epos beskryf konings en helde wat die bekendstelling van Islam in Persië voorafgegaan het, sowel as die menslike ervarings van liefde, lyding en dood. Die epos is ontelbaar kere gekopieer - dikwels met uitgebreide illustrasies (sien 'n ander voorbeeld hier).

Safavid beskerming

Hierdie spesifieke manuskrip van die Shahnama is gedurende die eerste jare van die 16de eeu begin vir die eerste Safavid -dinastiese heerser, Shah Ismail I, maar is voltooi onder leiding van sy seun, Shah Tahmasp I in die noordelike Persiese stad Tabriz (sien kaart hieronder). Die Safavid -dinastiese heersers beweer dat hulle afstam van Soefi -shaikhs - mistieke leiers uit Ardabīl, in die noordweste van Iran. Die naam “Safavid ” kom van een spesifieke voorouer Sufi, genaamd Shaykh Safi al-Din (letterlik vertaal as “reinheid van die godsdiens ”). Meer as 'n tydperk van tweehonderd jaar vanaf 1501, het die Safavids groot dele van die huidige Iran en Azerbeidjan beheer (sien kaart hieronder). Die Safavids het aktief die bou van openbare argitektoniese komplekse soos moskees (foto hieronder) opdrag gegee, en hulle was beskermhere van die kunste van die boek. In werklikheid was die verligting van manuskripte sentraal in die koninklike beskerming van die kunste in Safavid.

Die Imam-moskee (voorheen Masjed-e Shah) is gedurende die 17de eeu, Isfahan, Iran, gebou vir 'n latere Safavid-heerser. foto: Ladsgroup, GNU Free Documentation License

Syfers uitbeeld

Daar word dikwels aanvaar dat beelde wat menslike en dierlike figure bevat, soos in die detail hieronder gesien word, verbied is in Islam. Onlangse geleerdheid beklemtoon egter dat daar gedurende die hele geskiedenis van Islam periodes was waarin ikonoklastiese neigings toegeneem en afgeneem het. 1 Dit wil sê, op spesifieke oomblikke en plekke is die voorstelling van menslike of dierlike figure in verskillende mate geduld.

Detail, Sultan Muhammad, The Court of Gayumars, c. 1522, 47 x 32 cm, ondeursigtige waterverf, ink, goud, silwer op papier, folio 20v, Shahnameh van Shah Tahmasp I (Safavid), Tabriz, Iran (Aga Khan Museum, Toronto)

Daar is 'n lang figuurlike tradisie in Persië - selfs na die bekendstelling van Islam - wat miskien die duidelikste blyk uit boekillustrasies. Dit is ook belangrik om daarop te let dat die Safavids, in teenstelling met die naburige Ottomaanse Ryk in die weste wat Sunni en in sommige opsigte meer ortodoks was, die Sji'i -sekte van Islam ingeskryf het.

Twee kultuursentrums

Alhoewel algemeen erken word dat die konvensies van wat soms 'klassieke' 2 Persiese skilderye genoem word, teen die veertiende eeu gevestig was, het ons tydens die bewind van Shah Tahmasp I die mees dramatiese vooruitgang in beligting en kunste van die boek meer algemeen. 3 Sy beskerming van hierdie spesifieke kunsvorm is deels te wyte aan sy eie skilderstudies in Herat (in die westelike deel van die huidige Afghanistan) en Tabriz (in die noordwestelike streek van die huidige Iran), onder Bihzad en Sultan Muhammad, onderskeidelik. Beide stede was die belangrikste sentrums vir die vervaardiging van manuskripverligte. Terwyl die hele manuskrip van die Shahnameh van Shah Tahmasp I bestaan ​​uit ongeveer 759 geïllustreerde folio's en 258 miniaturen wat almal oor 'n paar jaar vervaardig is. 6 In 1568 is hierdie weelderige Shahnameh as 'n geskenk deur Shah Tahmasp I aan die Ottomaanse sultan, Selim II, gegee. 7

Nasta’liq (detail), Sultan Muhammad, The Court of Gayumars, c. 1522, 47 x 32 cm, ondeursigtige waterverf, ink, goud, silwer op papier, folio 20v, Shahnameh van Shah Tahmasp I (Safavid), Tabriz, Iran (Aga Khan Museum, Toronto)

Koning van die wêreld

Daar is verskeie interpretatiewe kwessies wat in gedagte gehou moet word by die ontleding van Persiese skilderye. As with many of the workshops of early modern West Asia, producing a page such as the Court of Gayumars often entailed the contributions of many artists. It is also important to remember that a miniature painting from an illuminated manuscript should not be thought of in isolation. The individual pages that we today find in museums, libraries, and private collections must be understood as but one sheet of a larger book—with its own history, conditions of production, and dispersement. To make matters even more complex, the relationship of text to image is rarely straightforward in Persianate manuscripts. Text and image, within these illuminations, do not always mirror each other. 8 Nevertheless, the framed calligraphic nasta’liq ( hanging)—the Persian text at the top and bottom of the frame (image above) can be roughly translated as follows:

When the sun reached the lamb constellation , 9 when the world became glorious,
When the sun shined from the lamb constellation to rejuvenate the living beings entirely,
It was then when Gayumars became the King of the World.
He first built his residence in the mountains.
His prosperity and his palace rose from the mountains, and he and his people wore leopard pelts.
Cultivation began from him, and the garments and food were ample and fresh. 10

King Gayumars (detail), Sultan Muhammad, The Court of Gayumars, c. 1522, 47 x 32 cm, opaque watercolor, ink, gold, silver on paper, folio 20v, Shahnameh of Shah Tahmasp I (Safavid), Tabriz, Iran (Aga Khan Museum, Toronto).

Dense with detail

In this folio (page), we can see some parallels between the content of the calligraphic text and the painting itself. Seated in a cross-legged position, as if levitating within this richly vegetal and mountainous landscape, King Gayumars rises above his courtiers, who are gathered around at the base of the painting. According to legend, King Gayumars was the first king of Persia, and he ruled at a time when people clothed themselves exclusively in leopard pelts, as both the text and the represented subjects’ speckled garments indicate.

King Gayumars, Siyamak, and Hushang (detail), Sultan Muhammad, The Court of Gayumars, c. 1522, 47 x 32 cm, opaque watercolor, ink, gold, silver on paper, folio 20v, Shahnameh of Shah Tahmasp I (Safavid), Tabriz, Iran (Aga Khan Museum, Toronto)

Perched on cliffs beside the King are his son, Siyamak (left, standing), and grandson Hushang (right, seated) . 11 Onlookers can be seen to surreptitiously peer out from the scraggly, blossoming branches onto King Gayumars from the upper left and right. The miniature’s spatial composition is organized on a vertical axis with the mountain behind the king in the distance, and the garden below in the foreground. Nevertheless, there are multiple points of perspective, and perhaps even multiple moments in time—rendering a scene dense with details meant to absorb and enchant the viewer.

Sutra Box with Dragons amid Clouds, c. 1403-24 (Yongle period, Ming dynasty), 14 x 12.7 x 40.6 cm, red lacquer with incised decoration inlaid with gold damascened brass lock and key (The Metropolitan Museum of Art)

One might see stylistic similarities between the swirling blue-gray clouds floating overhead with pictorial representations in Chinese art (image above) this is no coincidence. Persianate artists under the Safavids regularly incorporated visual motifs and techniques derived from Chinese sources. 12 While the intense pigments of the rocky terrain seem to fade into the lush and verdant animal-laden garden below, a gold sky canopies the scene from above. This piece—in all its density color, detail, and sheer exuberance—is a testament to the longstanding cultural reverence for Ferdowsi’s epic tale and the unparalleled craftsmanship of both Sultan Muhammad and Shah Tahmasp’s workshops.

1. See Christiane Gruber, “Between Logos (Kalima) and Light (Nūr): Representations of the Prophet Muhammad in Islamic Painting,” Muqarnas 16 (2009), pp. 229-260 Finbarr B. Flood, “Between Cult and Culture: Bamiyan, Islamic Iconoclasm, and the Museum,” The Art Bulletin 84, 4 (December 2002), pp. 641-659 Christiane Gruber, “The Koran Does Not Forbid Images of the Prophet,” Nuusweek (January 9, 2015).

2. For a helpful analysis of the historiographic ascription of the term ‘classical’ to Persian painting and the cultural hierarchy that was established largely by scholar-collectors in the nineteenth and early twentieth century, see Christiane Gruber, “Questioning the ‘Classical’ in Persian Painting: Models and Problems of Definition,” in the Journal of Art Historiography 6 (June 2012), pp. 1-25.

3. David J. Roxburgh, “Micrographia: Toward a Visual Logic of Persianate Painting,” RES: Anthropology and Aesthetics , geen. 43 (Spring 2003), pp. 12-30.

4. Sheila Canby affirms Stuart Cary Welch’s estimate that it took Sultan Muhammad and his workshop three years to complete the Court of Gayumars illustration. Sheila Canby, The Golden Age of Persian Art, 1501-1722 (New York: Abrams, 2000), p. 51.

5. David J. Roxburgh, “On the Brink of Tragedy: The Court of Gayumars from Shah Tahmasp’s Shahnama (‘Book of Kings’), Sultan Muhammad,” in Christopher Dell, ed., What Makes a Masterpiece: Artists, Writers and Curators on the World’s Greatest Works of Art (London New York: Thames & Hudson, 2010), pp. 182-185 182. The text was subsequently possessed by Baron Edmund de Rothschild and then sold to Arthur A. Houghton Jr, who in turn sold pages of the book individually.

6. Roxburgh, “Micrographia: Toward a Visual Logic of Persianate Painting,” p. 19. “In the Persianate painting, however, image follows after word in a linear sequence the text introduces and follows after the image, but it is not actually read when the image is being viewed…In the Persian book the act of seeing is initiated by a process of remembering the narrative just told. Moreover, that text does not prepare the viewer for what will be seen in the painting.”

7. This expression denotes the beginning of spring.

8. I am grateful to Dr. Alireza Fatemi for generously providing this translation.


Initial moves (1521&ndash22)

In June, Imperial armies under Henry of Nassau invaded north-eastern France, razing the cities of Ardres and Mouzon and besieging Tournai. They were delayed by the dogged resistance of the French, led by Pierre Terrail, Seigneur de Bayard and Anne de Montmorency, during the Siege of Mezieres, which gave Francis time to gather an army to confront the attack. On October 22, 1521, Francis encountered the main Imperial army, which was commanded by Charles V himself, near Valenciennes. Despite the urging of Charles de Bourbon, Francis hesitated to attack, which allowed Charles time to retreat. When the French were finally ready to advance, the start of heavy rains prevented an effective pursuit and the Imperial forces were able to escape without a battle. Shortly afterwards, French troops under Bonnivet and Claude of Lorraine seized the key city of Fuenterrabia, at the mouth of the Bidasoa River on the Franco-Spanish border, following a protracted series of maneuvers, providing the French with an advantageous foothold in northern Spain that would remain in their hands for the next two years.

By November, the French situation had deteriorated considerably. Charles, Henry VIII, and the Pope signed an alliance against Francis on November 28. Odet de Foix, Vicomte de Lautrec, the French governor of Milan, was tasked with resisting the Imperial and Papal forces he was outmatched by Prosper Colonna, however, and by late November had been forced out of Milan and had retreated to a ring of towns around the Adda River. There, Lautrec was reinforced by the arrival of fresh Swiss mercenaries but, having no money available to pay them, he gave in to their demands to engage the Imperial forces immediately. On April 27, 1522, he attacked Colonna's combined Imperial and Papal army near Milan at the Battle of Bicocca. Lautrec had planned to use his superiority in artillery to his advantage, but the Swiss, impatient to engage the enemy, masked his guns and charged against the entrenched Spanish arquebusiers. In the resulting melee, the Swiss were badly mauled by the Spanish under Fernando d'Avalos, Marquess of Pescara, and by a force of landsknechts commanded by Georg Frundsberg. Their morale broken, the Swiss returned to their cantons Lautrec, left with too few troops to continue the campaign, abandoned Lombardy entirely. Colonna and d'Avalos, left unopposed, proceeded to besiege Genoa, capturing the city on May 30.


Siege of Dibalpur, mid January 1524 - History

Chronology, Volume 1
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A Collection of 50 Short Essays Within the Timeline of American History.

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Chronology from the staff of Americasbesthistory.com is a collection of fifty articles written about subjects throughout the history of the United States.

Review - "Chronology" offers a fascinating series of snapshots throughout American history, including things I really haven't thought about, such as. what was life like here before the European explorers showed up? Some of the chapters are essays about specific topics or time periods, and others are the actual text of documents from our history. Even if you think you know American history, I'll bet you'll find something you didn't know, or an aspect you never thought about!" - Ruth Brown, Gettysburg Historian.

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More About Chronology, the Book

Spanning the period of time from Columbus to the present, the articles in Chronology, with supporting documents and letters written by participants and Congress, cover a variety of topics, including what America was like on the last day of the year prior to European discovery, . "America Prior to Columbus" - December 31, 1491, to the time when Benjamin Franklin poked the lion of mother country England with two essays about the plight of the colonists, . "Franklin Muses Against British Empire" - September 11, 1773, to George Washington's final letter before leaving office to the American people, warning against political parties, something both Democrats and Republicans should consider today, . "Washington and His Warnings for Democracy" - September 19, 1796, to the first time South Carolina wanted to leave the Union with its Nullification Act thirty years prior to the Civil War, . "The First Problem with South Carolina" - March 2, 1833, and the desire of Americans to head west in the first major wagon train to California in, . "Westward Ho" - May 1, 1841.

These articles continue forward through history until the present day on topics of the history of race relations, voting rights, bad compasses, the National Football League, the Internet, and the Supreme Court.




Article Index

America Prior to Columbus - December 31, 1491
Treaty of Tordesillas - June 7, 1494
The Verrazzano Expedition - January 17, 1524
The Valladolid Debate Over Treatment of American Indians - 1550-1551
History of Jamestown Continues with Pocahontas Marriage to John Rolfe - April 5, 1614
New Netherlands Seized by British - September 8, 1664
Colonists Declared Rights - October 7, 1765
Franklin Muses Against British Empire - September 11, 1773
France and United States Form Alliance - February 6, 1778
The United States Needs a Bank - May 26, 1781

Whiskey and Washington's Proclamation - September 1, 1794
Washington and His Warnings for Democracy - September 19, 1796
From the Shores of Tripoli - April 27, 1805
Congress Corrects One Small Part of the U.S. Constitution Regarding Slavery - March 2, 1807
Got a Mule and Her Name is Sal - July 4, 1817
Arikara Indian War - August 9, 1823
First Attempt by Texas to Become a Republic - December 21, 1826
The First Problem with South Carolina - March 2, 1833
Women's Rights, Property Style - February 15, 1839
Westward Ho - May 1, 1841

California and Its Short Republic - June 10, 1846
MSNBC Dismays, but Gets Programming - February 28, 1854
Northwest Tribes Cede Territory - July 1, 1855
The Pony Express Begins - April 3, 1860
Civil War Leads to Civil Rights - March 13, 1866
Voting Rights and Race - March 30, 1870
The World is Amazed at the Centennial - May 10, 1876
Race and Education - July 4, 1881
Polygamy Outlawed - March 22, 1882
Carnegie Hall Opens - May 5, 1891




Cuba becomes U.S. Protectorate - March 2, 1901
Panama, Its Independence, and a Canal - November, 3, 1903
Alaska Erupts Volcano Style - June 6, 1912
A Telegram and World War I - February 3, 1917
Women Finally Given Right to Vote - August 18, 1920
Men Given the NFL - September 17, 1920
Arms Reduction Treaty Doesn't Work - April 22, 1930
Wrong Way Corrigan - July 18, 1938
United States Occupies Iceland - July 7, 1941
Truman Ends Segregation in the Military - July 26, 1948

Brown Versus Board of Education - May 17, 1954
I Have a Dream - August 28, 1963
The Internet is Born - November 21, 1969
Arab Oil Embargo - October 19, 1973
Borked - October 23, 1987
Illegal Immigration and Amnesty - May 4, 1988
Better Late Than Never - May 7, 1992
Iraq War - September 29, 1998
Microsoft and Anti-Trust - April 3, 2000
USA/Cuba Relations - July 20, 2015


Clement VII and the sack of Rome

Giulio de’ Medici, who finally emerged as Pope Clement VII in November 1523, was not only a tried administrator but a prelate hardened by much experience of armed conflict. As a youth in 1497 he had taken part in an attempt to restore the family to power in Florence indeed, Guicciardini, commenting on this, remarked that he was more suited to arms than to the priesthood. He entered the crusading Order of Knights Hospitaller of St John, and joined the household of his cousin, Cardinal Giovanni de’ Medici, accompanying him – and unlike him, avoiding capture – at the Battle of Ravenna in 1512. After Giovanni’s accession as Leo X Giulio was promoted to the cardinalate and office of Vice-Chancellor, and – as already mentioned – served as papal legate to the army in the campaign against Francis I in Lombardy in 1515 and in the war of Urbino. He took part in crusade planning in 1517 and in the Marche campaign in 1520, and was again legate to the army in the war in Lombardy in 1521. He continued to be active under Adrian VI, and in April 1522 was credited with defeating an attempted Bentivoglio coup at Bologna. The English ambassador at Rome reported (quoted here in his own words with archaic spelling),

Cardinal de Medicis, as legat of the said citie, made soche provision… that, the armye being within, with the aid of the peple issued out and slewe diverse of ther enemys…and put the whole [French and Bentivoglio] armye to flight so that the said Citie by the wisdom and diligence of the said Cardinall is savid for the Churche.

Yet after he became pope in November 1523 Giulio was for ever stamped – thanks to contemporary writers such as Guicciardini and Giovio, who observed him closely – with the reputation of timidity and vacillation. This was the pope who in May 1527 would have to face the sack of Rome, the gravest, most terrifying and humiliating challenge of armed force faced by any pope throughout the whole history of the papal monarchy, worse than in 1084, 1112, 1303, 1413, 1494 or indeed 1798 or 1870.

It could be argued that Clement lacked several of the indispensable qualities to be an effective Renaissance pope, and could do little about it. Of these essentials, he lacked first large resources of money. Second he lacked an aspiring and dependable son, nephew or other close male relative anxious to make a career in the Church or the papal state. His second cousin Giovanni Salviati, on whom Leo had conferred the red hat in 1517, was to prove quite able as a diplomatist, but he was probably too Florentine and parentally dominated to be potentially a Machiavellian new prince. It is worth noting, however, that Machiavelli had sent him a copy of his Art of War, about which the young cardinal wrote appreciatively in September 1521, assuring the author that the defects in organisation of modern armies, including the army of the Church, could be overcome by adopting his precepts. Another second cousin, Ippolito, who would become a cardinal in 1529, was altogether too young and too headstrong to fill the role of a prince within the papal state, and even he yearned in preference for power in Florence. Third, and most important of all Clement’s deficiencies, the second Medici pope lacked fortuna.

This third deficiency was most evident from the course of war in Italy in 1524–25 between the forces of Charles V and Francis I. Having at first continued cautiously to support the imperial cause, Clement, much influenced by Gianmatteo Giberti, his former secretary now promoted to a major post (‘datarius’) in the papal chancery, wavered and switched to France. How can this fatal step be explained? The Pope had of course pro-French tendencies going far back in his career, and may have been dazzled by Francis I’s successes in Lombardy in the autumn of 1524. He may even have had hopes, in spite of its dangers, about the foolhardy expedition to the south of James Stuart, Duke of Albany, or at least wanted to avoid exposing Rome to any threat from Albany’s large army. If only that adamant Swiss, Cardinal Schiner, had still been around, maybe Clement would have been dissuaded from switching to France, but Schiner had died at Rome in December 1522, a year before his former partner in anti-French campaigns became pope. An official agreement was signed with Francis in January 1525, but the timing could not have been worse, on account of the sensational defeat and capture of Francis in the Battle of Pavia at the end of February. This left Clement, by a stroke of extraordinarily bad luck, in a position of weakness from which it would take long to recover. Giberti, falling back on the argument that it was all a miraculous demonstration of God’s will, encouraged the cardinal legate, Giovanni Salviati, to send a note of congratulation to Charles V and express the Pope’s hope that peace would follow, that this was what he had always desired. In fact, a treaty negotiated with the Emperor and signed on his behalf by Lannoy, viceroy of Naples, seemed to give Clement almost all he could want. It included the guaranteed integrity of the papal state, with Reggio and Rubiera, which had been seized again by Alfonso d’Este during the long papal vacancy in autumn 1523, handed back, and Francesco II Sforza accepted as Duke of Milan. Unfortunately for Clement, nothing was done to implement this treaty.

After the Peace of Madrid, in January 1526, when Francis I was released from captivity, and in turn proceeded to break the terms that had been agreed, Clement again needed to act decisively. In a long letter or harangue addressed to him in March Guicciardini reproached him for not being as firm and astute as he had been as a cardinal, and insisted that decisive action could still save the situation and ‘liberate the Apostolic See and Italy from this atrocious and disgraceful servitude’. The Pope should act boldly, Guicciardini complained for instance, he should retake Reggio ‘or play some trick on Cardinal Pompeo Colonna’, who was certainly the most aggressive, pro-imperial and ambitious member of the Sacred College. He (Clement) could yet emerge as ‘the most glorious pope in two hundred years’.

For brief periods Clement appeared to muster some strength. The signing in May 1526 of the Holy League of Cognac with Francis I, an avowedly aggressive alliance, seemed to signify a new beginning. In a letter of self-justification sent to the Emperor in June 1526 the Pope was emphatic that Charles should withdraw from Italy, reproaching him for the non-fulfilment of treaty obligations and his violations of papal territory including Parma, and his forcing Clement to seek other allies and to take arms in self-defence. In July Guicciardini, now commissary general of the papal army, saw that immediate action was imperative: a rapid move to capture Milan had every chance of victory over the unpaid, unprepared, numerically inferior imperial forces in Lombardy. That this did not happen seems to have been mainly the fault of the Duke of Urbino, who first hesitated because the Swiss troops had not arrived, and then, having made in July several unsuccessful attempts to attack Milan, retreated in August and September he lost more time, in spite of receiving French reinforcements, by carrying on the fairly pointless siege of Cremona, then held by imperial forces.

Perhaps it would have made a difference if Clement VII had appointed a resolute cardinal legate to the army and applied himself with furious vigour, as Julius II would have done, to rallying the coalition and insisting on action. The blame, it has to be repeated, falls on the Duke of Urbino, that same Francesco Maria della Rovere who had failed his uncle Julius II in 1511 and been ousted from Urbino by Leo X, only to be reinstated in his dukedom under Adrian VI and – in spite of his known resentment against the Medici for the way they had treated him – reappointed Captain of the Church by Clement. Meanwhile, as well as losing the military initiative, Clement received a crushing reply to his ‘justification’, aimed at depriving him also of the moral high ground. This reply, handed to Castiglione on 18 September 1526, took the argument back to fundamentals, even playing the Lutheran card. The Pope, the Emperor insisted, had drawn the sword that Christ ordered Peter to put up. It was beyond belief for the vicar of Christ to acquire worldly possessions at the cost of even one drop of human blood. No one was coming to attack the Holy See, so there was no need of weapons or troops.

As for Guicciardini’s suggestion to play a clever trick on Cardinal Pompeo Colonna, Clement was instead the victim of an outrageous demonstration by that overpowerful dissident, who in spite of the above assurance did come to attack the Holy See, and moreover did so in the Emperor’s name. Pompeo had nearly been elected pope himself in 1523 but was finally persuaded to switch his votes (rather reminiscent of Ascanio Sforza in 1492) in exchange for the vice-chancellorship and other compensations his fury at Clement’s desertion of the Emperor in 1525 and signing later of the League of Cognac led him to call an armed march on Rome by the Colonna and their supporters in September 1526. Here was a cardinal – not only that, but the Vice-Chancellor of the Church, head of the whole machinery of papal government – declaring war on the Pope: it was one of the most bizarre and anarchic episodes in a long trend of violent behaviour on the part of a secularised minority in the Sacred College. According to Paolo Giovio, whose biography of Pompeo was highly partisan and stressed his love of family and military honour, 8000 knights and 3000 infantry commanded by Pompeo’s brother were involved in this expedition, with artillery drawn by buffaloes and men, helped at difficult points by Pompeo himself.63 When they reached Rome the cardinal shut himself up in his palace, leaving his followers do as much damage as they could, looting and terrifying the inhabitants of Rome, though they did not succeed in laying hands on Clement.

The Pope took his revenge on the Colonna in November 1526 with a punitive campaign worthy of Alexander VI, demolishing their fortresses and devastating their lands. According to the papal bull condemning Pompeo, which was published in February 1527, the latter’s purpose had been to seize Clement, alive or dead, and to rule as pope in his place, apparently without election by his peers, or any other of the normal formalities. It is hard to imagine how on earth Pompeo can have justified to his conscience and his confessor this treasonable presumption, or justified using force in a manner more calculated to endanger than defend the Church. Though formally deprived of his cardinalate and other offices, he was not punished for long. In fact, he was soon needed to intercede on Clement’s behalf with much more fanatical enemies than himself, and give refuge to fellow cardinals and others in danger.

Meanwhile in September 1526 the Job-like Clement had also had to bear the shock of the Turkish victory at Mohács in Hungary, and news of the loss to Christendom of that country. Like Adrian and Leo before him when such tidings of disaster arrived, Clement declared that he himself would take part in a military expedition and as vicar of Christ was prepared to lay down his life. It was no clearer than the avowals of previous popes, whether he meant by this simply to be ready for martyrdom, or was prepared even to fall in combat. A war-planning council of five cardinals was set up, but it is fairly clear that the Pope’s distractions in Italy, quite apart from his shortage of money, meant that nothing would be done.

Worse than the Colonna raid was to come in the spring of 1527, with the League of Cognac coalition not only continuing to do nothing, but even failing to protect Rome from the mainly Spanish army advancing under the Duke of Bourbon’s command and the horde of Lutheran ‘landsknechts’ under George von Frundsberg. The latter were mercenary foot soldiers, first raised by the Emperor Maximilian in the early years of the century from the south German lowlands. Less disciplined than the Alpine Swiss on whom they were supposedly modelled, landsknechts were a brutal new phenomenon in European warfare. Armed with huge pikes and swords, swaggering in feathered hats and slashed breeches, inspired by Lutheran slogans but furious for want of food and wages, Frundsberg’s undisciplined troops were a terrifying prospect for Rome, even if the Spaniards, demoralised after Bourbon’s death, proved to be equally brutal and avaricious.

For all his military experience, Clement did not strike a heroic pose as he cowered in the Castel Sant’Angelo amid the horrors of the sack and the passive experience of hearing and watching Spanish sappers undermining it one correspondent in Rome wrote in horrified anticipation of seeing ‘a pope and a whole flock of cardinals blown into the air by fire’. Most of the cardinals, those not with the Pope in the safety of the castle, fared much worse in the terrible months of May and June 1527, suffering torture and mockery to extort from them money and valuables, not only from the landsknechts but also from the Spanish captains whom some had paid handsomely for protection. Few offered physical resistance, in spite of their well-stocked armouries, guards and military retainers. An exception may have been Cardinal Giovanni Piccolomini, who probably considered himself untouchable, having a solidly pro-imperial and pro-German family background from his great uncle Pius II onwards. Nevertheless, according to one of the most reliable accounts – a letter of Cardinal Scaramuccia Trivulzio of Como to his secretary, sent later from Civitavecchia – Piccolomini suffered twice over. After he had bought off the Spaniards, the cardinal’s palace was then assaulted by landsknechts. Since the latter were said to have kept up the attack for four hours before the cardinal surrendered, it sounds as though there was counter-fire from within, and the dead piled up on both sides. Cardinal Piccolomini was paraded through the streets, bareheaded and in a shabby garment, kicked and punched and forced to make another ransom payment, before gaining refuge with Cardinal Pompeo Colonna.

In December 1527 Clement eventually bought his escape to Orvieto, and by then could again pin some hope on relief by the forces of the League of Cognac. For a French army, led by Odette de Foix, Vicomte de Lautrec, had gained much success in Lombardy and Emilia early in 1528 it advanced down the Adriatic coast it won many more victories before laying siege to Naples in April. There Lautrec was deadlocked. The city, defended by imperial forces, was still holding out in August when Lautrec himself died of disease the remnants of his army had to withdraw northwards. Once again fortuna had been cruel to the Pope. Or had the papacy met its deserts as the victim of military force, hoist by its own petard after itself sponsoring so much war and slaughter?

The debate about the sack of Rome – whether it represented scandalous sacrilege and disaster or a providential judgement of God on a corrupted body – was only just beginning. One writer in the court of Charles V, Erasmus’s friend Juan de Valdés, made a pretty clear case for the latter point of view, in a polemical dialogue that attacked the whole concept of papal war and deplored all the horrors it had perpetrated. The protagonist, called Lactancio, is answered by an apologetic archdeacon, who uses the old argument of necessary defence of the Church at one point he concedes, ‘I agree that all those things are very cruel, but the people of Italy would look down on a pope who didn’t wage war. They would think it a great insult if a single inch of Church land were lost.’

Whether or not there was any truth in the fictitious archdeacon’s assertion, it is paradoxical that, relatively soon after Clement VII’s return to Rome in October 1528 and reconciliation with Charles V in the Treaty of Barcelona (29 June 1529), the Pope seems to have recovered more purpose than he had shown for years. Charles, not without a tinge of remorse for what had happened, now stood as guarantor of both the papal lands in Italy and of a Medici principate in Florence, to replace the popular republic that had been set up there in 1527. After the successful imperial siege of Florence (1529–30) and final overthrowal of the republic, Clement endeavoured to take a strong line with cities in the papal state that had again tried to throw off papal rule during the period of crisis. Ancona was one example. On the strength of allegations that Ancona was threatened by Turkish naval attack – allegations strongly denied by the city’s own ambassadors – he sent a force to take it in 1532, suppressed the ancient civic constitution and appointed as cardinal legate and governor Benedetto Accolti. Archbishop of Ravenna and a papal secretary since 1523, Accolti had been made a cardinal in 1527, and commanded a troop of 4000 Spanish infantry in the siege of Florence. At Ancona he supervised the building of a new fortress complete with its own gun foundry, and his government was reputedly so oppressive that he was eventually removed and put on trial under Clement’s successor. His interests appear to be neatly expressed by the inventory of his possessions, drawn up after his arrest in 1535, where scarcely any devotional objects, books or works of art are listed (one of the few exceptions was a portrait of Julius II), but several swords and daggers and six or seven handguns.

Perugia also had to be dealt with. Clement appointed as legate in Umbria his second cousin Ippolito de’ Medici, the bastard son of Giuliano, Duke of Nemours, who had been raised to the purple at the age of eighteen in January 1529. The purpose of his legation was to dispossess Malatesta Baglioni of Perugia, who was then serving the republic of Florence as military commander against the besieging imperial and papal army. Ippolito never went there, and delegated the administration to a series of vice-legates, the first of whom in 1529–30 was Ennio Filonardi, Bishop of Veroli, but the condition of Perugia deteriorated and reached a point of crisis under Clement’s successor.

Ippolito de’ Medici’s opportunity for greater glory came in 1532 when he was sent as papal ambassador to Charles V’s brother Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria and King of Hungary. Ippolito arrived in Ratisbon (modern Regensburg) with a retinue of five prelates, ten secretaries and an armed guard of thirty to forty gentlemen, most of whom were former military captains, and with 5000 ducats in hand with which to enrol troops. His office was extended to that of papal legate to Ferdinand’s army against the Turks in Hungary, and the Venetian ambassador reported on 1 September that he had set off by boat down the Danube accompanied by ten gunners (arquebusieri). Ippolito was described as ‘dressed like Jupiter’ – modified in a subsequent letter to ‘wearing military habit’. Unfortunately, a portrait by Titian showing him in full armour does not survive Vasari mentions it in his life of the artist as painted at Bologna at the same time as the well-known portrait of the Cardinal in the costume of a Turkish warrior (which it seems unlikely that he was wearing on the above occasion). Ippolito intended to select horses at Vienna and proceed at once to the battlefront, but when he reached the imperial army, which was on full alert, the Turks on the other side of the river made no move. Eventually the campaign was called off and Ippolito was said to have expressed his disappointment with such rage that Ferdinand imprisoned him for a day. The Mantuan agent in Rome, Fabrizio Peregrino, whose graphic and opinionated dispatches will frequently be quoted in the following pages, heard of this episode and commented that Ippolito had wanted madly to play the part of a war captain (‘voleva pazzamente fare il capitano di guerra’). After the papal election in 1534 he quickly left the Apostolic Palace and planned to leave Rome altogether, according to Peregrino, to reduce the expense of maintaining so many military captains and bravi.


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