Geskiedenis Podcasts

Charlotte Perkins Gilman

Charlotte Perkins Gilman

Charlotte Perkins Gilman is op 3 Julie 1860 in Hartford, Connecticut, gebore. Sy het haar bekendste werk geskryf, Geel plakpapier na 'n aanval met postpartem depressie na die geboorte van haar enigste kind.

Nadat sy verneem het dat sy ongeneeslike borskanker het, het sy op 17 Augustus 1935 selfmoord gepleeg deur 'n oordosis chloroform te neem. Dit was 'n doelbewuste daad, in ooreenstemming met haar ondersteuning van genadedood.


Die probleem met Charlotte Perkins Gilman

Toe ek jare gelede die eerste keer The Yellow Wall-Paper gelees het, voordat ek iets van die skrywer daarvan, Charlotte Perkins Gilman, geweet het, was ek mal daaroor. Ek was mal oor die onrusbarende, sarkastiese toon, die grillerige einde, die duidelikheid van sy kritiek op die gewilde geneesmiddel uit die negentiende eeu en die betekenisvolle verlenging van tydsverloop vir depressiewe vroue. Die verhaal het ironie, dringendheid, woede gehad. Op die laaste dag van die behandeling is die verteller heeltemal mal. Sy dink sy is 'n wese wat uit die muurpapier gekom het.

Die res genees het veroorsaak dat die siekte wat hy beweer het uitgeskakel het. Pragtig duidelik.

Die naamlose verteller van die eerste persoon gaan deur 'n geestelike dans wat ek goed geken het en die sirkulariteit en klaustrofobie van 'n toenemende depressie ken, die sinkende gevoel dat iets nie reguit gesê word nie. Die geel muurpapier en rdquo het gevoel soos 'n mengsel van voyeurisme en erkenning, wat tot afgryse verander. Dit was werklik chillend. Dit het agtervolg gevoel.

Die verhaal is gebaseer op ervarings van Gilman en rsquos met dr. Silas Weir Mitchell, laat-negentiende-eeuse geneesheer vir die sterre. Mitchell het hierdie genesing van verlengde bedrus en isolasie toegedien aan intellektuele, aktiewe blanke vroue met 'n hoë sosiale status. Virginia Woolf, Edith Wharton en Jane Addams het almal genees, wat weke, soms maande, kan duur. Gilman was duidelik 'n afsku van haar ervaring, en haar afsku is tasbaar.

Die Yellow Wall-Paper en rdquo was gedurende sy eie tyd nie ikonies nie, en is aanvanklik in 1892 verwerp deur Atlantic Maandeliks redakteur Horace Scudder, met hierdie opmerking: & ldquoIk kon myself nie vergewe as ek ander net so ellendig gemaak het soos ek myself gemaak het nie [deur dit te lees]. & rdquo Gedurende haar leeftyd was Gilman in plaas daarvan bekend om haar politiek en het hy gewild geword met 'n reeks satiriese gedigte met diere. Die geliefde & ldquoSimilar Cases & rdquo beskryf prehistoriese diere wat spog oor watter diere hulle sal ontwikkel, terwyl hul vriende hulle spot met hul hubris. 'N Ander, en 'n konserwatiewe, en rdquo beskryf Gilman as 'n soort gebarste Darwiniaan in haar tuin, skree na 'n deurmekaar, huilende baba -vlinder. Soortgelyke gevalle en rdquo word beskou as een van die beste satiriese verse van die moderne tyd (Amerikaanse skrywer Floyd Dell). Dit klink so:

Daar was eens 'n klein diertjie,
Nie groter as 'n jakkals nie,
En op vyf tone skarrel hy
Oor tersiêre rotse.

Gilman is nou veral bekend vir The Yellow Wall-Paper en rdquo, vanweë Elaine Ryan Hedges, geleerde en stigterslid van die National Women & rsquos Studies Association, wat Gilman opgewek het uit die duisternis. In 1973 publiseer die Feminist Press 'n hoofboek van The Yellow Wall-Paper, met 'n nawoord van Hedges, wat dit 'n klein literêre meesterstuk noem en Gilman en een van die mees oorheersende feministe van haar tyd, hoewel Gilman haarself nooit as 'n feminis beskou het nie ( trouens, uit haar briewe: & ldquoI abominate being called a feminist & rdquo). Sy het ook nie haar werkliteratuur in ag geneem nie. In die inleiding tot die kopie wat ek ontvang het, word daar gesê dat Gilman skryf dat sy aan & ldquopreach & hellip geskryf het As dit literatuur is, het dit net gebeur. & Rdquo Hedges sê in haar nawoord dat Gilman een duisend woorde per maand geskryf en geskryf het terwyl sy aan haar self-gepubliseerde politieke tydskrif werk, Die voorloper.


Vroeë lewe

Charlotte Perkins Gilman is op 3 Julie 1860 in Hartford, Connecticut, gebore as die eerste dogter en tweede kind van Mary Perkins (gebore Mary Fitch Westcott) en Frederic Beecher Perkins. Sy het een broer, Thomas Adie Perkins, gehad wat net meer as 'n jaar ouer as sy was. Alhoewel gesinne destyds veel groter was as twee kinders, is Mary Perkins aangeraai om nie meer kinders te hê wat die gesondheid of selfs haar lewe in gevaar stel nie.

Toe Gilman nog 'n klein kind was, het haar pa sy vrou en kinders in die steek gelaat en hulle in wese gebrek gelaat. Mary Perkins het haar bes gedoen om haar gesin te onderhou, maar sy kon nie self voorsien nie. As gevolg hiervan het hulle baie tyd deurgebring saam met haar pa se tantes, waaronder die opvoedingsaktivis Catharine Beecher, die suffragis Isabella Beecher Hooker en veral Harriet Beecher Stowe, die skrywer van Oom Tom se kajuit. Gilman was grootliks geïsoleer tydens haar kinderjare in Providence, Rhode Island, maar sy was baie gemotiveerd en het baie gelees.

Ondanks haar natuurlike en grenslose nuuskierigheid - of miskien veral as gevolg daarvan - was Gilman dikwels 'n bron van frustrasie vir haar onderwysers omdat sy 'n taamlik arm student was. Sy was egter veral geïnteresseerd in die studie van fisika, selfs meer as geskiedenis of letterkunde. Op 18 -jarige ouderdom, in 1878, het sy haarself ingeskryf by die Rhode Island School of Design, finansieel ondersteun deur haar pa, wat kontak genoeg hervat het om finansies te help, maar nie genoeg om werklik 'n teenwoordigheid in haar lewe te wees nie. Met hierdie opleiding kon Gilman vir haar 'n loopbaan uitoefen as kunstenaar vir handelskaarte, wat sierlike voorlopers was van die moderne besigheidskaartjie, adverteer vir besighede en kliënte na hul winkels lei. Sy het ook as tutor en kunstenaar gewerk.


Charlotte Perkins Gilman

Vandag het ek om 06:00 wakker geword om te gaan werk. Toe ek by die huis kom, was ek, was ek, my pa het aandete gemaak, en dan moes ek die res van die nag oppas. Dit was 'n redelik gemiddelde dag vir my, behalwe dat ek moes oppas. Voor hierdie klas was nie so oplettend vir geslagsrolle nie. Hierdie spesifieke dag by die werk nadat ek 'n kliënt klaar gehelp het, het sy weggestap en hierdie man het voor haar gesny en haar gedwing om skielik te stop. Sy sê toe ietwat onder haar asem: 'Natuurlik, hou u nie daarvan as mans net voor u inloop nie?' Dit het my aandag getrek, dit was 'n opmerking wat ek moontlik ook nie voorheen opgemerk het nie, maar dit was so belangrik!

Individuele menslike bewussyn is 'n sosiale produk wat ontwikkel is deur sosialisering, taal en interaksie. Gilman glo dat mense die wêreld nie direk leer ken nie, maar deur hul idee daarvan. (Lengermann 115) Die manier waarop hierdie vrou op die voorval kommentaar gelewer het, is asof sy daaraan gewoond is om deur die man as onsigbaar beskou te word en dat mans net van die vrou verwag om vir hulle te sorg.

Charlotte Perkins Gilman wil aantoon dat die tradisionele arbeidsverdeling (broodwinner-eggenoot/tuisbly-vrou) inherent problematies is. Vroue is ekonomies afhanklik van mans en daarom word hulle vryheid ontneem. (Edles & ampAppelrouth 242) In my lewe is dit heeltemal anders. Vandag het my stiefpa aandete gekook, wat nie ongewoon was nie. In my huis kook my stiefpa altyd aandete en doen die meeste van die tyd baie skoonmaak. Maar toe my pa grootgeword het, was hy in die lugmag en was hy nie gereeld tuis nie, en my ma het die meeste kook, skoon gemaak en vir my en my broers en susters gesorg. Ek het grootgeword met die stereotipiese gesin.

Wat die werk en my spesifieke dag betref, was die geslagsrolle redelik stereotipies. By my werk is al die hoë bestuurders mans, ons het baie vroue in bestuursposisies, net nie op die hoogste vlak nie. My dag was wasgoed en oppas, dinge het aangeneem dat 'n vrou dit sou doen.

Appelrouth, Scott en Laura Desfor Edles. 2010. Sosiologiese teorie in die klassieke era. 2de uitg. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge.

Lengermann, Patricia Madoo en Gillian Niebrugge. 2007. The Women Founders: Sociology and Social Theory 1830-1930. 1ste uitg. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press


Charlotte Perkins Gilman - Geskiedenis

Charlotte Perkins Gilman
- Afdeling Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs

Op 3 Julie 1860 is Charlotte Anna Perkins (Charlotte Perkins Gilman) in Hartford, Connecticut, gebore. Gilman het 'n produktiewe skrywer geword wie se onderwerp wissel van die verskille tussen vroue en mans tot kougom wat in die openbaar kou. Sy was ook 'n dosent en ondersteuner van die stemreg vir vroue en die ekonomiese onafhanklikheid van vroue in die vroeë 20ste eeu. Gilman se oupagrootjie aan vaderskant was dr. Lyman Beecher, die bekende Calvinistiese prediker, en Gilman vereer haar beroemde groot-tantes, Harriet Beecher Stowe, Catharine Beecher en Isabella Beecher Hooker.

Gilman is veral bekend vir haar semi-outobiografiese verhaal "The Yellow Wallpaper", wat losweg gebaseer was op die resmiddel wat sy onder mediese toesig gekry het. Die verhaal beeld 'n vrou uit wat gestuur is om te "rus" in die slaapkamer van 'n gehuurde somerhuis waar sy uiteindelik in waansin neerdaal.

In 1932 het Gilman ontdek dat sy nie -werkbare borskanker het en verhuis na Kalifornië om naby haar dogter te wees. Gilman, 'n voorstander van genadedood, beëindig haar lewe op 75 -jarige ouderdom met 'n oordosis chloroform wat sy in haar dagboek en selfmoordbrief gesê het dat sy "chloroform verkies het bo kanker".

Alhoewel Gilman se literêre reputasie in die jare voor haar dood afgeneem het, het die koms van die vrouebeweging in die sestigerjare 'n herlewing van die aandag aan haar werk teweeggebring. In 1993 noem 'n peiling in opdrag van die Sienna Research Institute Gilman die sesde invloedrykste vrou van die 20ste eeu, en in 1994 word sy opgeneem in die National Women's Hall of Fame in Seneca Falls, New York.


Verwysings

Allen, J.A. (2009). Die feminisme van Charlotte Perkins Gilman: seksualiteite, geskiedenis, progressiwisme. Chicago: Universiteit van Chicago Press.

Charlotte Gilman, kop-en-skouersportret, na links, ca. 1900. Library of Congress. Ontvang op 21 Oktober 2019 van: https://www.loc.gov/resource/cph.3c06490/.

Dock, J.B. (1998). Charlotte Perkins Gilman se "The Yellow Wall-paper" and the History of its Publication and Reception: A Critical Edition and Documentary Casebook. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press.

Afdeling Manuskripte en Argiewe, The New York Public Library. (1886 – 1914). Gilman, Charlotte Perkins. Opgehaal van http://digitalcollections.nypl.org/items/576aff30-1333-0135-8c42-794bb6ef969a.

Scharnhorst, G. (1985). Charlotte Perkins Gilman. Boston: Twayne Uitgewers.


Hysterie, hekse en die swerwende baarmoeder: 'n kort geskiedenis

Ek leer “The Yellow Wallpaper ” omdat ek glo dat dit mense kan red. Dit is een rede. Daar is meer. Ek het Charlotte Perkins Gilman se 1891 -verhaal vir byna twee dekades lank geleer, en die afgelope herfs was nie anders nie. Die herfs in die verlede was egter heeltemal anders.

In ons voorgraadse seminaar by die School of the Art Institute van Chicago, het ons “The Yellow Wallpaper ” bespreek in die konteks van die byna 4000 jaar lange geskiedenis van die mediese diagnose van histerie. Hysterie, uit die Grieks histerie of baarmoeder. Ons het hierdie asblikdiagnose ondersoek wat 'n stortingsterrein was vir almal wat voorgestel kan word dat dit verkeerd was met vroue van ongeveer 1900 vC tot die 1950's. Die diagnose was nie net algemeen in die Weste onder veral wit vroue nie, maar het sy voorgeskiedenis in die ou Egipte, en is ook in die Verre Ooste en die Midde-Ooste gevind.

Die kursus het die titel “The Wandering Uterus: Journeys through Gender, Race, and Medicine ” en kry sy naam van een van die antieke oorsake van histerie. Daar word geglo dat die baarmoeder soos 'n dier, spermhonger, deur die liggaam ronddwaal. As dit in die verkeerde rigting dwaal en na die keel kom, is daar verstikking, hoes of verlies van stem, as dit in die ribbekas vassteek, is daar pyn op die bors of kortasem, ens. Die meeste simptome wat aan 'n vroulike liggaam behoort het, kan toegeskryf word aan die swerwende baarmoeder. Behandelings, insluitend vaginale berokings, bitter drankies, balsems en pessaries gemaak van wol, is gebruik om die baarmoeder terug te bring na die regte plek. Gesondheidsmassering, en uitgevoer deur 'n bekwame dokter of vroedvrou, is dikwels in mediese geskrifte genoem. Die triade van huwelik, omgang en swangerskap was die uiteindelike behandeling vir die spermhonger baarmoeder. Die baarmoeder was 'n moeilikheidmaker en was die beste versadig tydens swangerskap.

Die geel plakpapier ” is duisende jare later, in die Victoriaanse era, bedink toe die diagnose van histerie sy bloeitydperk bereik het. Mediese aandag het van die honger baarmoeder af gekom en is op 'n sogenaamde swakker senuweestelsel van 'n vrou geplaas. Die dokter van die negentiende eeu, Russell Thacher Trail, het benader dat driekwart van alle mediese praktyke toegewy is aan die siektes van vroue, en daarom moet dokters dankbaar wees vir bedrieglike vroue (lees swak wit vroue van sekere middele) ) omdat hy 'n ekonomiese geskenk vir die mediese professie was.

Daar word geglo dat histerie, ook bekend as neurasthenie, veroorsaak kan word deur 'n magdom slegte gewoontes, insluitend die lees van romans (wat erotiese fantasieë veroorsaak het), masturbasie en homoseksuele of biseksuele neigings, wat lei tot 'n aantal simptome soos verleidelike gedrag, kontrakture funksionele verlamming, irrasionaliteit en algemene probleme van verskillende aard. Daar is bladsye en bladsye van mediese geskrifte wat histeries uitbeeld as groot leuenaars wat gewilliglik bedrieg. Dieselfde ou behandelings is aangewend - genitale massering deur 'n goedgekeurde verskaffer, huwelik en omgang - maar 'n paar nuwes sluit ovariektomie en cauterisasie van die klitoris in.

Dit is nie toevallig dat so 'n diagnose opgeduik het nie, net soos sommige van dieselfde vroue baklei het om toegang tot universiteite en verskillende beroepe in die VSA en Europa te verkry. 'N Afname in huwelike en dalende geboortesyfers het saamgeval met hierdie mediese diagnose wat die New Woman kritiseer en haar fokus op intellektuele, artistieke of aktivistiese strewes in plaas van moederskap. Dit was die ondergang van die verteller van Gilman in die geel plakpapier.

Daar word geglo dat die baarmoeder soos 'n dier rondloop deur die baarmoeder, spermhonger. ”

Die kans is goed dat u die verhaal op skool gelees het, maar as u dit nie gedoen het of vergeet het nie, hier is 'n opsomming. Na die geboorte van haar eerste kind, sê die verteller dat sy siek voel, maar haar doktersman het haar klagtes as 'n hedendaagse senuweetoestand afgemaak - 'n effense histeriese neiging. rus in die voormalige kwekery. Sy verduidelik,

Dus neem ek fosfate of fosfiete — wat dit ook al is, en tonika, en reise, en lug, en oefen, en is absoluut verbied om te werk totdat ek weer gesond is.

Persoonlik stem ek nie saam met hul idees nie.

Persoonlik glo ek dat vriendelike werk, met opwinding en verandering, my goed sal doen.

Die werk van die verteller is die van 'n skrywer. Sy sluip hier en daar paragrawe af as sy nie deur haar man of sy suster waargeneem word wat 'n perfekte en entoesiastiese huishoudster is nie, en hoop op geen beter beroep nie. het behandeling genoem en haar man besluit dat sy net meer wil en selfbeheersing moet uitoefen om beter te kan word. “ ‘ Seën haar hartjie! ’ het gesê dat hy met 'n groot drukkie sal wees, sy sal so siek wees as wat sy wil. '”

Ons sien hoe die verteller geleidelik agteruitgaan namate sy al hoe meer behep raak met die gruwelike muurpapier in die kamer: die opgeblase krommes en floreer - 'n soort Romaanse basis wat gebaseer is op delirium tremens—gaan op en af ​​in afgesonderde kolomme van moedeloosheid. ” Gilman - 'n produktiewe skrywer van fiksie, poësie en diepgaande en progressiewe boeke, insluitend Vroue en ekonomie, 'n vrou wat groot skare getrek het toe sy in haar tyd die nasionale lesingbaan bereik het - is meesterlik om ons te wys hoe dinge uitmekaar val vir haar protagonis. In die laaste toneel van die verhaal kruip die verteller langs die rande van die voormalige kwekery te midde van stukke muurpapier en stap oor haar verfrommelde man wat flou geword het toe hy sy vrou in so 'n toestand ontdek het.

'N Aantal praktisyns uit die 19de eeu het bekendheid verwerf as histeriedokters. S. Weir Mitchell, 'n prominente Philadelphia -dokter, was een van hulle. Hy was 'n voorstander van wat hy genoem het vir die res. " moet ontlas en urineer in 'n bedpan terwyl dit geneig is. Mitchell was so bekend dat hy sy eie Kersfees -kalender gehad het.

Mitchell was Charlotte Perkins Gilman se dokter. Sy rusmiddel is voorgeskryf aan sommige van die destydse grootkoppe, waaronder Edith Wharton en Virginia Woolf. Talle wit vrouekunstenaars en -skrywers is as histeries gediagnoseer in 'n tydperk toe opstandigheid, skaamteloosheid, ambisie en “over onderwys ” as waarskynlike oorsake beskou is. Daar gaan te veel energie na die brein toe in plaas daarvan om in die voortplantingsorgane te bly en die vroulike liggaam te help doen wat hy veronderstel was om te doen. Soos Mitchell geskryf het: Die vrou se begeerte is om op 'n vlak van kompetisie met die man te wees en sy pligte te aanvaar, is ongetwyfeld 'n onheil, want dit is my oortuiging dat daar nie 'n lengte van geslagte se verandering in haar opleiding en aktiwiteitswyses sal haar eienskappe ooit regtig verander. ”

Die oortreding van voorgeskrewe rolle sou vroue siek maak. Britse suffragette is byvoorbeeld as 'n histerie in die gevangenis behandel. Uitgesproke voorstanders vir vroueregte word dikwels gekenmerk as die kragtige susterskap. In ons seminaarbespreking het ons die vergelyking getref met die aantal Afro -Amerikaanse mans wat as skisofrenies gediagnoseer is in 'n staatshospitaal vir die kriminele kranksinnige in Ionia, Michigan in die 1960's en 70's soos aangetoon in die kragtige boek van die psigiater Jonathan Metzl Die protespsigose: hoe skisofrenie 'n swart siekte geword het. 'N Diagnose kan 'n wapen wees wat die opstand van 'n hele demografie beheer en dissiplineer.

Terwyl ons bespreek het “The Yellow Wallpaper ” en die historiese konteks daarvan, kon ek sien dat Allie al hoe meer woedend word. Sy het gelyk asof sy van haar klaskamer sit. Haar hand skiet op, “ Sou jy glo dat my hoërskool Engelse onderwyser ons vertel het, ‘ As hierdie vrou haar man se instruksies gevolg het, sou sy nie mal geword het nie! "”

As ek 'n mond vol iets gehad het, sou ek 'n spit geneem het. In al my jare wat ek die storie geleer het, kan ek nie onthou dat ek ooit hierdie oorweldigende verduideliking gehoor het nie. Maar Allie maak die vloedhekke oop. Bec steek haar hand op, en ons lees dit in graad 8. Ons was almal bekommerd en verward, veral die meisies. En versteur deur die einde. Niemand het verstaan ​​wat fout is met die vrou nie. Die storie het blykbaar geen sin nie. ”

Max het bygevoeg, “ In my AP -sielkunde -klas het ons onderwyser ons gevra om die DSM 4 te gebruik om die vrou te diagnoseer in “The Yellow Wallpaper. , sowel as OCD, skisofrenie en bipolêr met skisotipale neigings. ”

Noëlle het gesê dat sy onthou dat 'n mede -hoërskoolleerling die verteller beskryf het as '#8220 animalistic' en die onderwyser wat dit op die bord geskryf het. Daar was geen bespreking van wat “hysteria ” eintlik beteken nie.

Keeta het die verhaal teëgekom tydens 'n seminaar oor kollege -letterkunde met die titel “Going Mad. ” Klasbespreking fokus op die kranksinnige en onbetroubare verteller. Ek het die geleentheid vir my misgeloop om iets te leer wat baie werklik en aktueel is, en op sommige maniere voel ek daardeur verkeerd, ” het Keeta gesê. Hulle het verduidelik dat hulle 'n soortgelyke gevoel gehad het toe hulle na die film gekyk het Geliefde in die middelbare skool. Hier is u erfenis, en dit val in u skoot, en u het geen idee waarom hierdie slaaf haar kind vermoor het nie. As u meer inligting het oor die geskiedenis van slawerny en reproduktiewe weerstand, sou u beter kon verstaan ​​wat u sien. ”

Sogenaamde hekse word daarvan beskuldig dat hulle mans hul penisse onmoontlik laat verdwyn het, en daar word beweer dat hekse genoemde penisse in 'n nes in 'n boom sou hou. ”

Cristina het die Yellow Wallpaper nog nie voorheen gelees nie, maar gesê: 'In die vierde klas in my Katolieke skool vir meisies in Bogotá het my godsdiensonderwyseres vir die klas gesê dat ons net ons liggaam aan ons mans en dokters moet wys . Dit beteken dat hulle die enigste is wat ons liggame kan aanraak. Ek dink daar is 'n verband hier, nee? ”

Ek is altyd beïndruk met die assosiasies wat studente maak tussen die geskiedenis van histerie en hul eie lewens en omstandighede. Ons het bespreek hoe dit verstommend is om te leer oor byna vier millennia van hierdie vroulike dubbelband, van mediese geskrifte wat koue, beroofde, brose, gebreklike, kwade, seksueel buitensporige, irrasionele en bedrieglike vroue meen, terwyl hulle beweer dat dit nodig is om hul wangedrag te dissiplineer met verskillende “behandelings. ”

“ Wat van Hillary? ” Bec het ingeskakel.

Dit was nie net 'n herfs semester nie. Daar kon nie 'n meer geskikte tyd gewees het om die geskiedenis van histerie te oorweeg as September 2016 nie, die week nadat Hillary Clinton tydens die 9/11 seremonies ineenstort van longontsteking, 'n gebeurtenis wat #HillarysHealth in 'n nasionale obsessie laat beland het. Rudolph Giuliani het gesê dat sy siek lyk en mense aangemoedig om die siekte van Hillary Clinton te gaan google. & Trump fokus op haar hoes of “hacking ” asof die baarmoeder nog tot by die keel kom.

Vir baie maande was Hillary patologies as die skril skelm wat aan die een kant te hard en uitgesproke was, en aan die ander kant die swak siek persoon wat nie die krag of uithouvermoë gehad het om president te wees nie. Ons bespreek joernalis Gail Collins se beoordeling van die verskillende vlakke van seksisme in die veldtog. Oor die onderwerp van Hillary se gesondheid, het Collins geskryf: "Dit is mal, maar nie noodwendig seksisties nie." Maar in September het ons nie begryp hoe diep hierdie onheilspellende mitologieë reeds veranker was nie.

Ons het teruggekeer na die Middeleeue om ons te help verstaan ​​wat ons tydens die veldtog sien afspeel het. By wyse van die kerk het die mite floreer dat vroue boos is. Wellus en vleeslike plesier was die probleem met vroue wat van nature wulpse en bedrieglike mense was. Vroulike seksualiteit was weereens die probleem. Sogenaamde hekse word daarvan beskuldig dat hulle mans hul penisse onmoontlik laat verdwyn het en daar word beweer dat hekse die penisse in 'n nes in 'n boom sou hou. Onheilige geeste was die oorsaak van betowering, 'n toestand wat baie soos vroeëre beskrywings van histerie klink. Sy behandeling het gelei tot die dood van duisende vroue. In hul baanbrekende verhandeling van 1973, Hekse, vroedvroue en verpleegsters, Barbara Ehrenreich en Deirdre English voer aan dat die eerste beskuldigings van heksery in Europa ontstaan ​​het uit kerkverwante manlike dokters ’ angs oor mededinging deur vroulike genesers. Die geweld wat deur die kerk bevorder word, het die opkoms van die Europese mediese professie moontlik gemaak.

In die klas het ons voortgegaan om die konstruksie van 'n duiwel, onstuimige Crooked Hillary te bespreek, wat ekstremiste met hashtags soos #Hillabeast en #Godhilla en #Witch Hillary bespreek het. Hoe kon ons nie die veldtogseisoen vergelyk met die heksejag toe mense by saamtrekke haar in die strate begin sing het nie, en ook die destyds bekende en haar toe sluit? Kortom, ons was getuie van 'n verskuiwing van die kwaadwillige diagnose van 'n enkele individu na 'n algehele massiewe histeriese heksejag teen 'n vrou wat dit gewaag het om 'n presidensiële amp te neem. Ons het die briljante literêre kritikus Elaine Showalter bespreek wie se boek Histories, wat in die 1990's geskryf is, fokus op massahisteria aan die einde van die millennium. Voor die bestaan ​​van sosiale media, het Showalter op voorhand geskryf, en#8220 histeriese epidemies. . . bly skade berokken: deur ons af te lei van die werklike probleme en krisisse van die moderne samelewing, om respek vir bewyse en waarheid te ondermyn en om 'n atmosfeer van sameswering en agterdog te ondersteun. ”

Ons bespreek die feit dat sosiale media hierdie vinnige verspreiding van Hillary -mitologieë moontlik gemaak het. Ek het verduidelik dat die heksejagte in die vroeë moderne Europa toevallig ooreenstem met die uitvinding van die sosiale media van hulle tyd. Die eerste keer gepubliseer in 1486, Malleus Maleficarum of Die hamer van hekse deur dominee Heinrich Kramer en James Sprenger het die alomteenwoordige handleiding geword wat die kerk se metodes om hekse te identifiseer deur middel van ondervraging en marteling grotendeels versprei het deur middel van die moderne uitvinding van die drukpers. Byna twee eeue lank is hierdie hekshandboek telkens herdruk en sinne versprei wat later die anti-Hillary-speelboek sou inspireer, en sy is 'n onvolmaakte dier wat altyd mislei. ” “ As 'n vrou alleen dink, dink sy kwaad. ”

Teen middeltermyn-aanbiedings het ons gepraat oor die maniere waarop histerie met ander vrouekandidate viraal geword het, soos Zephyr Teachout, 'n regsprofessor en aktivis wat vir die kongres hardloop, wat aan die ontvangs was van aanvaladvertensies met 'n close-up van haar gesig met 'n rooi letters CRAZY daarop gestempel.

By nadere ondersoek was hierdie vorm van politieke lastering nie beperk tot die huidige verkiesingsseisoen of die VSA nie. In Pole is vroue wat teen 'n onlangse aborsieverbod opgeruk het, feminazis, prostitute, hoere, hekse en mal vroue genoem. Terwyl Russiese nuusberigte in 2013 voorgestel het dat lede van die band Pussy Riot heksies was in 'n wêreldwye sataniese sameswering met die minister van buitelandse sake, Hillary Clinton. ” Dit moes 'n idee gewees het van wat sou volg.

Gedurende die weke voor die verkiesing het ons van die onderwerp histerie afgewyk en die geskiedenis van ginekologie en slawevroue bespreek as eksperimentele vakke, seksuele anatomie en seksuele ontwikkelingstoornisse en queer- en transgesondheidsorg, maar ons het nog steeds elke klas begin met deel onlangse verwikkelinge uit die veldtog: Moslem -registers, gryp/seksuele aanranding en afknouery. Ons het Trump se opmerkings bespreek dat soldate wat aan PTSS leef, nie sterk genoeg is nie, en dat mediese en militêre houdings uit die vorige eeu weerspieël wat manlike histerie verband hou met WWI en “ skulpskok. ”

Die Sondag voor die verkiesing is ek uitgenooi deur studente van die skoolfeministiese groep, Maverick, om bymekaar te kom by die Hull-House Museum. Ons sit op die vloer van die Jane Addams-slaapkamer met haar Nobelprys vir Vrede in 1931, asook haar dik FBI-lêer, 'n bewys van die eenmalige moniker en die gevaarlikste vrou in Amerika. die Settlement House, dat Addams geweet het dat betekenisvolle werk belangrik was vir hierdie eerste generasie wit vroue wat universiteitsopleiding ontvang het. In die Hull-House het Addams en ander jong vrouebewoners saam met van die armste immigrante saamgewerk om lewensomstandighede te verbeter, kinderarbeidswette te bevorder en speelgronde te bou. Hulle vier verskillende immigrantetradisies tydens groot gedeelde maaltye en Italiaanse opera en Griekse tragedie.

Ek het aan die groep vertel dat Charlotte Perkins Gilman die Hull-House verskeie kere besoek het. Dit was in die Hull-huis dat sy 'n paar van haar idees oor vroue en ekonomie, oor groepskombuise en gedeelde huishoudelike verantwoordelikhede ontwikkel het. Ek het hulle vertel hoe verbaas ek was om te verneem dat Addams, sowel as 'n aantal inwoners van Hull-House, as jong vrou ook onder die sorg van die beroemde dokter Mitchell was.

Ek het die uittreksels van Addams ’ -geskrifte tydens die Eerste Wêreldoorlog gelees toe sy op die swartlys geplaas is omdat sy vrede bevorder het, maar haar gesondheid het misluk, en sy het die dieptes van depressie getref. Sy skryf oor die lyding van haar kollegas en skryf: 'Die groot aantal sterftes onder die ouer pasifiste in al die strydende nasies kan waarskynlik in 'n mate herlei word na die besondere spanning wat so 'n wanaanpassing impliseer. Meer as die normale hoeveelheid senuwee -energie moet verbruik word om een ​​in 'n vyandige wêreld te besit. ”

Toe ons klas twee dae na die verkiesing vergader, het ons gepraat oor deportasies, haatmisdade teen Moslem, LGBTQ-kwesbaarhede en klimaatsverandering. 'N Paar van ons het erken dat ons fisies siek was toe ons kyk hoe die opbrengs binnekom. Ek het een vriend genoem wat vir my geskryf het dat hy voel asof hy gif drink. Twee ander vriende is op die verkiesingsaand getref deur aanvalle van diarree en droë rasse. Toe hulle na hul dokter gaan, het sy gesê dat sy 'n buitengewone aantal siek mense gesien het. Iets gaan rond.

Vir baie van hierdie studente was die uitslag van die verkiesing net 'n bykomende spanning vir die van 'n jarelange burgeroorlog by die huis, 'n gesin sonder papiere, verliese as gevolg van geweergeweld of 'n doelwit wanneer hulle in die straat loop as gevolg van ras en /of geslagsaanbieding en/of seksualiteit en ouderdom. Vir sommige van ons sou hierdie volgende administrasie nog 'n ding wees om deur te kom. Vir meer van ons het ons eers begin besef dat ons demokrasie en ons regte brose dinge is.

Ek het hulle nie vertel dat ek elke oggend wakker word met 'n gevoel van naarheid nie, en dat my buik uitgestrek is. Ek het geweet dat ek my ingewande toemaak asof ek met 'n vuis geslaan is. Hierdie knyp en baie adrenalienstorms het 'n ou bekende pyn in my galblaas veroorsaak. 'N Vriend het my vertel van sy nekpyn. 'N Ander een het gesê dat haar heuppyn teruggekeer het. Ek is weer aan Showalter herinner: ons moet die interafhanklikheid tussen gees en liggaam aanvaar en histeriese sindrome as 'n psigopatologie van die alledaagse lewe erken, voordat ons hul stigmatiserende mitologieë kan ontmantel. ware siekte? Pyn is nie fiksie nie.

Die lesings vir die klas onmiddellik na die verkiesing was Billye Avery oor haar skepping van die National Black Women ’s Health Project. Sy het geskryf oor die belangrikheid om werklik na mekaar te luister, dat kwessies soos kindersterfte nie mediese probleme is nie, maar sosiale probleme. We also discussed an excerpt from Audre Lorde’s Cancer Journals, words that were remarkably fresh some 30 years later: “I’ve got to look at all my options carefully, even the ones I find distasteful. I know I can broaden the definition of winning to the point where I can’t lose. . . We all have to die at least once. Making that death useful would be winning for me. I wasn’t supposed to exist anyway, not in any meaningful way in this fucked-up whiteboys’ world. . . Battling racism and battling heterosexism and battling apartheid share the same urgency inside me as battling cancer.” We took heart in Lorde’s reference to, “The African way of perceiving life, as experience to be lived rather than as a problem to be solved.”

Our syllabus continued to portend current events even though it had been composed back in August before the start of the semester. At the escalation of the Standing Rock water protectors’ protests, we discussed Andrea Smith’s “Better Dead than Pregnant,” in her book Conquest: Sexual Violence and American Indian Genocide, about how the violation of indigenous women’s reproductive rights is intimately connected to “government and corporate takeovers of Indian land.” We discussed Katsi Cook’s “The Mother’s Milk Project” and the notion of the mother’s body as “first environment” in First Nations cultures, which led environmental health activists to the understanding that “the right to a non-toxic environment is also a basic reproductive right.”

“For some of us, this next administration would be yet another thing to get through. For more of us, we were only beginning to understand that our democracy and our rights were fragile things.”

The week the students were to begin their final presentations, we discussed the Comet Ping Pong Pizza conspiracy, that a man actually stormed a DC pizza parlor with an assault weapon because of fake news claiming that this establishment was the locus of Hillary’s child sex slave ring. I would not have been surprised if the fake news writers had taken inspiration from the Malleus Maleficarum and reported that the parlor also served Hillary the blood of unbaptized children.

Emma said she was tired of Facebook and where was the best place to get news?

A good deal of the election’s fake news had been dependent on the power of a nearly 4,000-year-old fictional diagnosis. Both news and medical diagnosis masqueraded as truth, but they were far from it. How to make sense of this fake diagnosis in relation to the idea that illness can be born from our guts and hearts and minds? Is there anything truer? And yet, psychosomatic illness continues to be deemed an illegitimate fiction.

We know that the social toxins of living in a racist, misogynist, homophobic, and otherwise economically unjust society can literally make us sick, and that sickness is no less real than one brought on by polluted air or water. In actuality, both social and environmental toxins are inextricably intertwined as the very people subject to systemic social toxins (oppression, poverty) are usually the same folks impacted by the most extreme environmental toxins. And the people who point fingers and label others “hysterical” are the ones least directly impacted by said toxins.

Then there are the lies leveled at fiction. What of the fake criticism students had encountered during their former studies of “The Yellow Wallpaper”? Our histories provide us with scant access to the so-called hysteric’s words or thoughts. But Gilman was outspoken about her experience. She wrote about it in letters, in diaries, in the ubiquitous “The Yellow Wallpaper” and in a gem of a 1913 essay titled “Why I Wrote ‘The Yellow Wallpaper.'” In this 500-word piece, required reading for anybody assigning”The Yellow Wallpaper,” Gilman describes her experience with a “noted specialist in nervous diseases,” who, following her rest cure, sent her home with the advice to “‘live as domestic a life as far as possible,’ to ‘have but two hours intellectual life a day,’ and ‘never to touch pen, brush, or pencil again’ as long as I lived.” She obeyed his directions for some months, “and came so near the borderline of utter mental ruin that I could see over.” Then she went back to work—”work, the normal life of every human being in which is joy and growth and service”—and she ultimately recovered “some measure of power” leading to decades of prolific writing and lecturing. She explains that she sent her story to the noted specialist and heard nothing back. The essay ends,

But the best result is this. Many years later I was told that the great specialist had admitted to friends of his that he had altered his treatment of neurasthenia since reading”The Yellow Wallpaper.”

It was not intended to drive people crazy, but to save people from being driven crazy, and it worked.

I teach “The Yellow Wallpaper” because it is necessary to know and to revisit. I teach “The Yellow Wallpaper” because a deep consideration of this story in relation to its historical and medical context teaches us how much more we can learn about every other narrative we think we already know, be it fact or fiction. I teach this story because I believe it can save people.

The semester is over and New Year’s Day 2017 has passed. I am struck with a nasty flu that lingers for weeks. There is a pulling pressure in my head, a stuck feeling in my ears, unpredictable flushes. I can’t focus. I can barely write the sentences required to finish the letters of recommendations that are due.

Surfing online scratches some productivity itch. Like an obsessed survivalist chipmunk, I stock up on nuts and canned goods and vitamins that will line basement shelves. I donate to a hodgepodge of organizations and causes. . . NRDC, Standing Rock, IRC, African Wildlife Foundation, and more. I sign online petitions as quickly as they enter my inbox. I cough my way through calls to my members of Congress, imploring them to reject various cabinet picks. I come across an article about the surge of visits to therapists for “post-election stress disorder” and “post-election depression syndrome.” The fever continues and still there is that loss of appetite, all laced with a deep sense of foreboding. I sleep through President Obama’s farewell speech.

I wake up the next morning from a fever-induced delirium and am convinced that it is of the utmost importance to locate PVC-free window film. Once the right product is identified, I will affix these decorative wallpaper-like opaque sheets to the bottom sashes in the kitchen so that pedestrians on the nearby sidewalk cannot see in. Suddenly, I must have more privacy. But I want privacy en lig. I look at various patterns. One pattern is called “atomic energy.” It is lovely but would probably prove monotonous. I finally land on “rhythm” for its non-descript pattern. In the end, I decide that the wood blinds that are already there work just fine.

I blow my nose and steam my head through more news of Russian election intervention and continued nasty tweets, this time aimed at civil rights legend John Lewis. As Inauguration Day inches closer, I lie on the couch under a blanket, looking out my Chicago window at the rain that should be snow.

A friend on the phone tells me that a fever is the releasing of anger. I feel semi-human. I am haunting my own couch. I leave the house only twice in 17 days to see Frank, the acupuncturist, who tells me that he is treating scores of people with the same upper respiratory thing. He has seen an uptick in ailments since the election. Maybe things will be better after the inauguration, he says hopefully, maybe the anticipation is worse.

I hear myself say aloud to my body, “Please work with me here.”

I read about Jan Chamberlin, a member of the Mormon Tabernacle Choir who refuses to sing at the inauguration. A CNN anchor says that her comparison of Trump to Hitler sounds “kind of hysterical. . . ”

I recall one student from a few years ago. She raised her hand and said that the diagnosis of hysteria was like being called a “crazy girl.” “I am called that all the time,” she said. I was confused. Crazy girl? But as she continued on about that label, many of her classmates nodded emphatically. “If I get upset about something said in conversation or on social media,” she said, “I’m dismissed as ‘crazy girl.'”

Class projects are piled on the floor of my office. There is Max’s poem about the horrifying beating he experienced as a teenager, a hate crime at a mall witnessed by his boyfriend and dismissed by the police. There is Virginia’s small book that she made for her teenage nieces, advice for being a young Latinx person in this country. There is Sylvie’s project, an artist’s book collaboration with her dead mother’s journal writing. Noëlle’s educational coloring book for kids with diabetes that she made with her eight-year-old brother as adviser. I imagine that most, if not all, of these amazing young people would have qualified at one time or another as hysterics because of gender presentation and/or sexuality, and their artistic, scholarly, or activist pursuits. Me too. We are all part of a long history, members of tribes that have been, at times, misinterpreted, misunderstood, or worse.

The misunderstandings have not stopped. Each semester that I teach this class, a few students share stories of bodily symptoms, their own or a family member’s, that could not be explained by organic causes according to conventional Western medicine. Inevitably they were told by a healthcare provider that the problem is all in their heads. These stories contribute to conversations about the power of the mind and how many great ideas and possibilities arise from the very “irrational” place that has been and continues to be so often undervalued.

That is another reason I teach “The Yellow Wallpaper.” Gilman’s text reminds us that we must defy Mitchell’s treatment we must use our minds, our critical faculties, and our imaginations more than ever to question and to act.

The fever has lifted, but I still cancel my trip to DC. Standing in the cold for hours would be a bad idea given what my body has been through. I know I must rest. But I can finally focus again. And write. I am so grateful. As Gilman says, “work, the normal life of every human being in which is joy and growth and service.”

I refuse to tune in for the inauguration. I cannot bear to watch it by myself. After it is over, I read the transcript of the apocalyptic “carnage” speech and witness comparison photos between the last inauguration and this one, proving the small number of people in attendance, a fact that will become the focus of more lies. These “alternative facts” are aided and abetted by Trump’s adviser Kellyanne Conway who will be increasingly subject to strikingly familiar misogynist bitch and witch-based attacks of her own. Hysteria is a bipartisan weapon.

The following day, I watch videos and livestream of millions of participants assembled for Women’s Marches all over the world. A proliferation of photos collect online in a blink. My stomach releases a bit.

From my couch, I work on my syllabi for spring semester while reading Hannah Arendt on tyranny, Michel Foucault on defending society, and bell hooks on love. I am not teaching “The Yellow Wallpaper” this semester. But it will be on my syllabus next fall. And the following fall. And again. And again.


Charlotte Perkins Gilman - History

Charlotte Perkins Gilman, writer, lecturer, social critic and feminist, lived at a time of tremendous upheaval in this country's history. From the Civil War to Reconstruction and Industrial Revolution, and from the Women's Movement to the development of the major schools of the social sciences, Gilman witnessed events that had a profound effect on the development of the American society as we live and understand it today. Unwilling to watch these events go by without scrutiny, she became a commentator on the evolving social order, especially of its effects on the status of women. "She used her energies and her gifts in an effort to understand the world and her place in it and to extend that knowledge and those insights to others" (Lane, 1990, p. 229). Furthermore, "she saw the submergence of women as a critical handicap retarding the best development of society" (Lane, 1990, p. 232). Thus, although she was never trained in the methods of social science research and critique, Gilman should be recognized for her contribution to our knowledge in this area in addition to her recognition as an utopian author and a feminist.

In order to understand Charlotte Perkins Gilman as writer and intellectual, we must first know something of her personal life. For, although Gilman tried to keep the two personae separate in her own lifetime, we inevitably see conflict in the reality of her experience. For example, in creating her autobiography The Living of Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Gilman painted a public image she felt women should emulate while the diaries she left behind reveal the frailties of common human existence (Hill, 1980, p. 6-7).

(Biographical information compiled from: Kessler, Carol Farley (1995). Charlotte Perkins Gilman: Her progress toward Utopia with selected writings. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press. pages 14-40). Charlotte Perkins was born on July 3, 1860 to Frederick Beecher Perkins and Mary A. Fitch. It is with her parents that these dueling personae began to take shape as each was from a prominent Rhode Island family with conflicting worldviews. Frederick sprung from the Beecher family, one well known for its radicals including Isabella Beecher Hooker, a famous suffragist and Harriet Beecher Stowe, an abolitionist and the renowned author of Oom Tom se kajuit. The Fitches, on the other hand, were a founding family of Rhode Island and well known for their conservatism. Dus,

Frederick Perkins left the family in 1859, despite his public espousal of the sacredness of the family, and provided only sporadic support for his estranged family. This forced Mary to be Charlotte's sole support emotionally and physically, but would prove to be only moderately successful in both regards. To provide money and shelter, she took on jobs when possible and relied on the kindness of relatives who offered housing during visits of various lengths. Because her own experience taught her of the dangers a soft constitution pose to a woman, Mary withheld affection and emotional displays from Charlotte and wanted the girl under her strict control.

In spite of the adversity she faced in girlhood and the inadequacies of her early education of which she described as, "four years among seven different institution, ending when I was fifteen," Charlotte managed to attended the Rhode Island School of Design from 1878 through 1883 (Kessler, 1995, p. 18). To finance her education, Charlotte gave drawing lessons, sold watercolors and painted advertisements for soap companies and continued to do so to support herself after the completion of her studies.

During this time, Charlotte's friends were predominantly young women, a theme that would continue throughout her life. She shared an especially intimate relationship with Martha Luther. Gilman describes their relationship in her autobiography:

This time after her separation and divorce proved fruitful. Charlotte published "The Yellow Wallpaper," a fictional short story based on her experience with the rest cure, in 1892. In addition her first book, In This Our World, was published in 1893 and she finished writing Women and Economics during this period as well. Furthermore, she became a journalistic advocate of the radical Nationalist Party as well as world-renowned lecturer. At the same time, Charlotte remained close to her ex-husband who had married her best friend, a fact that gained her the disdain of the press, who also criticized her for giving up the care of her daughter to the couple. The press were not the sole critics, though. Katharine Beecher Stetson, as she grew older, came to resent her mother for what she saw as her abandonment. Likewise, Charlotte was critical of herself for this decision as well, as part of her wanted to fulfill the motherly role successfully, to give Katharine all the love she had never received from her own mother. However, her aspirations as a writer and lecturer superseded any goal of traditional womanhood.

Before long, though, Charlotte was not able to evade the call of marriage. In George Houghton Gilman, she found the best of both worlds. Here was a man supportive of her career goals and willing to accept them. The two were married on June 11, 1900. Continuance of her lecture tours and evidence of her prolific writing from this time indicate that Charlotte found in Houghton "the support and collaboration of a caring companion" which gave her the freedom she needed to work (Kessler, 1995, p. 33). Consequently, during her second marriage, Charlotte remained quite productive as she began a magazine in 1909, The Forerunner, for which she was the sole writer. In 1925, she finished her autobiography, The Living of Charlotte Perkins Gilman, which was to be published after her death. In addition, she continued to lecture, advocating the release of women from the economic imprisonment that comes from the roles of unpaid wife and mother.

In 1934, Charles Houghton Gilman died and Charlotte was living with a diagnosis of breast cancer. Thus, in 1935, Gilman ended her life covered her face with a rag soaked in chloroform on August 17, 1935. In her suicide note Gilman wrote, "I have preferred chloroform to cancer" (Kessler, 1995, p. 40).

Fortunately, we did not lose Gilman's work when she died. Her writings, both fictional and non-fictional, still offer a critique of society that still ring true in today's "kinder, gentler" structure. In her work, Gilman dedicated herself to raising the standard of life for women of her time by deconstructing institutions such as the home and the economy through her non-fiction and by creating new worlds for women in her fiction. Lane describes Gilman's goal as this, "to draw upon anthropology, biology, history, sociology, ethics and philosophy to comprehend the contours of human evolution and human society in order to create a humane social order" (Lane, 1990, p. 230). Her true understanding of the underlying structures of society comes out bitingly in her work making it valuable to the social sciences despite her lack of formal training in the area.

In her book The Grounding of Modern Feminism, Nancy Cott describes the efficacy of Gilman's work,

Through her Utopian fiction, Gilman described the kind of world she envisioned for women. In "The Yellow Wallpaper" (1892), although not Utopian, she depicts the escape of a women from the pressures of seemingly a seemingly unwanted marriage and consequent marriage into a new self housed in the wallpaper of her bedroom. Gilman's disdain for the state of forced marriage facing women of the time comes across vividly in this harrowing story. The Utopian stories such as Herland (1915) en With Her in Ourland (1916) create a new world based on the principles of equity she promoted in her non-fiction and lectures.

Thus through popular fiction as well as intellectual writing and speaking, Gilman attempted to reach a wide variety of people with her social commentaries, especially women, in an attempt to awaken them to her revolutionary ideas. These concepts continue to intrigue feminists in the social sciences as can be attested by her inclusion in many books on early feminism and her inclusion in women's studies courses. Although she was well known in her time, her radical ideas failed to truly take root. With the "third-wave" of feminism now working for many of the same social changes Gilman advocated, her life and work are an inspiration to feminists young and old.

Bibliografie

    Cott, Nancy F (1987). The Grounding of Modern Feminism. New Haven: Yale University Press.


The Trouble with Charlotte Perkins Gilman

When I first read &ldquoThe Yellow Wall-Paper&rdquo years ago, before I knew anything about its author, Charlotte Perkins Gilman, I loved it. I loved the unnerving, sarcastic tone, the creepy ending, the clarity of its critique of the popular nineteenth-century &ldquorest cure&rdquo&mdashessentially an extended time-out for depressed women. The story had irony, urgency, anger. On the last day of the treatment, the narrator is completely mad. She thinks she&rsquos a creature who has emerged from the wallpaper.

The rest cure caused the illness it claimed to eliminate. Beautifully clear.

The unnamed first-person narrator goes through a mental dance I knew well&mdashthe circularity and claustrophobia of an increasing depression, the sinking feeling that something wasn&rsquot being told straight. Reading &ldquoThe Yellow Wall-Paper&rdquo felt like a mix of voyeurism and recognition, morphing into horror. It was genuinely chilling. It felt haunted.

The story is based on Gilman&rsquos experiences with Dr. Silas Weir Mitchell, late-nineteenth-century physician to the stars. Mitchell administered this cure of extended bed rest and isolation to intellectual, active white women of high social standing. Virginia Woolf, Edith Wharton, and Jane Addams all took the cure, which could last for weeks, sometimes months. Gilman was clearly disgusted with her experience, and her disgust is palpable.

&ldquoThe Yellow Wall-Paper&rdquo was not iconic during its own time, and was initially rejected, in 1892, by Atlantic Maandeliks editor Horace Scudder, with this note: &ldquoI could not forgive myself if I made others as miserable as I have made myself [by reading this].&rdquo During her lifetime, Gilman was instead known for her politics, and gained popularity with a series of satirical poems featuring animals. The well-loved &ldquoSimilar Cases&rdquo describes prehistoric animals bragging about what animals they will evolve into, while their friends mock them for their hubris. Another, &ldquoA Conservative,&rdquo describes Gilman as a kind of cracked Darwinian in her garden, screaming at a confused, crying baby butterfly. &ldquoSimilar Cases&rdquo was considered to be among &ldquothe best satirical verses of modern times&rdquo (American author Floyd Dell). It sounds like this:

There was once a little animal,
No bigger than a fox,
And on five toes he scampered
Over Tertiary rocks.

Gilman is best known for &ldquoThe Yellow Wall-Paper&rdquo now, due to Elaine Ryan Hedges, scholar and founding member of the National Women&rsquos Studies Association, who resurrected Gilman from obscurity. In 1973, the Feminist Press released a chapbook of &ldquoThe Yellow Wall-Paper,&rdquo with an afterword by Hedges, who called it &ldquoa small literary masterpiece&rdquo and Gilman &ldquoone of the most commanding feminists of her time&rdquo though Gilman never saw herself as a feminist (in fact, from her letters: &ldquoI abominate being called a feminist&rdquo). Nor did she consider her work literature. In the introduction to the copy I received, Gilman was quoted as saying she wrote to &ldquopreach &hellip If it is literature, that just happened.&rdquo She considered her writing a tool for promoting her politics, and herself a one-woman propaganda machine. Hedges notes in her afterword that Gilman wrote &ldquotwenty-one thousand words per month&rdquo while working on her self-published political magazine, The Forerunner.


Algemene oorsigte

The essays Berkin 1992, Degler 1956, and Hill 1980 listed below are excellent introductions to Gilman’s life and career. The Charlotte Perkins Gilman Society website contains biographical sketches of Gilman and links to other sites, including e-texts of her major works. The monographs Knight 1997 and Scharnhorst 1985 survey wide swaths of her writings.

Berkin, Carol Ruth. “Private Woman, Public Woman: The Contradictions of Charlotte Perkins Gilman.” In Critical Essays on Charlotte Perkins Gilman. Edited by Joanne Karpinski, 17–42. New York: Hall, 1992.

Oorspronklik gepubliseer in Women in America: A History, 1979. A psycho-biographical sketch of Gilman through the age of 40 that emphasizes the influence of her parents on her character. Defends the dubious proposition, promulgated by Gilman in her autobiography, that she remained a psychological cripple for most of her life.

Includes a biographical sketch of Gilman and information about the Gilman Society, the Gilman listserv, and Gilman works and resources online.

Degler, Carl N. “Charlotte Perkins Gilman on the Theory and Practice of Feminism.” American Quarterly 8 (Spring 1956): 21–39.

The pioneering article that sparked the modern revival of interest in Gilman, “the major intellectual leader of the struggle for women’s rights . . . during the first two decades of the twentieth century” (p. 22). Particularly valuable on Women and Economics en The Man-Made World.

Hill, Mary A. “Charlotte Perkins Gilman: A Feminist’s Struggle with Womanhood.” Massachusetts Review 21 (1980): 503–526.

A thoroughly documented sketch of Gilman’s life through the end of the 19th century that situates her major ideas in intellectual context.

Knight, Denise D. Charlotte Perkins Gilman: A Study of the Short Fiction. New York: Twayne, 1997.

Comprehensive critical survey of Gilman’s short stories 1886–1916. Discusses her feminism and her ideological stances, including reform Darwinism, with particular reference to “The Yellow Wall-Paper” and other early tales, her imitations of other authors in the Impress, and several stories in the Forerunner. Also reprints selections of Gilman’s essays on writing and a sheaf of reviews.

Scharnhorst, Gary. Charlotte Perkins Gilman. Boston: Twayne, 1985.

A groundbreaking and succinct critical study of Gilman’s entire life and major works based on both primary and secondary sources.

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Verdere leeswerk

The best way to become familiar with Charlotte Perkins Gilman's work is to begin with her books in print: Women and Economics (reprinted 1966), Die huis (reprinted 1972), The Living of Charlotte Perkins Gilman (reprinted 1975), and Herland (1979). "The Yellow Wallpaper" is available in pamphlet form published by The Feminist Press. It is also included in a collection of fiction by Gilman entitled The Charlotte Perkins Gilman Reader, edited by Ann J. Lane (1980). The Forerunner, Gilman's monthly journal which ran from 1909 to 1916, was reprinted by Greenwood Press in 1968.

There are also manuscript collections of Gilman letters, diaries, lectures, and notes. The largest collection is at the Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America, at Radcliffe College, Cambridge.

There is as yet no complete published biography of Charlotte Gilman. The early years of her life are covered in Mary A. Hill, Charlotte Perkins Gilman: The Making of a Radical Feminist 1860-1896 (1980). Carl N. Degler wrote the biographical essay on Gilman in Notable American Women. For further critical assessment consult Carl N. Degler, "Charlotte Perkins Gilman on the Theory and Practice of Feminism," American Quarterly (Spring 1956), and Ann J. Lane's introductions to Herland (1979) en The Charlotte Perkins Gilman Reader (1980). □


Kyk die video: The Life of Charlotte Perkins Gilman (Januarie 2022).