Geskiedenis Podcasts

Macdonough III DD- 351 - Geskiedenis

Macdonough III DD- 351 - Geskiedenis

Macdonough III
(DD-351: cpl. 1,395; 1. 341'3 "; b. 34'3"; dr. 15'6 ", B. 36,6 k; cpl. L6O; n. 6 6", 4,30 cal mg., 8 21 "tt .; cl. Farragut.)

Die derde Macdonough (DD-351) is op 15 Mei 1933 deur die Boston Navy Yard neergelê; van stapel gestuur 22 Augustus 1934; geborg deur juffrou Rose Shaler Macdonough, kleindogter van 'Commodore Thomas Macdonough; en in opdrag van 15 Maart 1935, kom dr. Charles S. Alden in bevel.

Na 'n uitgebreide shakedown -vaart na Europa en westelike Suid -Merika, het Macdonough by die Stille Oseaanvloot aangesluit en tot 12 Oktober 1939 uit San Diego vertrek. Daarna het sy na 'n nuwe tuishawe, Pearl Harbor, gevaar as deel van Destroyer Squadron 1. In hawe 7 Desember 1941 het Macdonough een van die Japannese aanvalsvliegtuie gespat voordat hy op pad was om saam met ander te gaan soek na die vyandelike taakspan. Die vernietiger het die volgende drie maande verkenningstake suidwes van Oahu uitgevoer. Voordat sy na Pearl Harbor teruggekeer het om konvooie na en van die westkus -hawens te begelei, het sy tot in Nieu -Guinee gestoom en steun verleen aan lugaanvalle op Bougainville, Salamaua en Lae.

Macdonough het teruggekeer na die westelike Stille Oseaan om voor te berei op die Guadalcanal -inval, saam met Saratoga. Sy het dekking gebied vir die landings op Guadalcanal en Tulagi, 7 Augustus 1942. Sy het in die gebied gebly en aan die Slag van Savo -eiland deelgeneem en vyandelike vliegtuie bestry en gestuur tydens die landing van versterkings op die eiland. Einde September het sy met die begeleiding begin, tussen Nieu -Guinee, Espiritu Santo en Pearl Harbor, totdat sy op 22 Desember by Mare -eiland aangemeld is vir opknapping.

Macdonough het daarna noord gestoom vir die aanranding en besetting van Attu I 31 en in die Aleoetiërs. By die aankoms in Adak, Alaska, 16 April 1943. het die verwoester noordoos van Attu gepatrolleer tot die aanval. Op 10 Mei het sy met Sicard gebots terwyl sy tydens swaar weer beweeg het om die aanvalstransaksies te bewaak. En is gedwing om aftrek te trek. Die skip het tot 23 September in die hersteldok op Mare Island gebly toe sy gereed was om aan die gang te kom vir die Gilbert -eilande. By die inval op Makin -eiland, 20 November, het sy as kontrolevaartuig vir die landingsvaartuie opgetree en na die voltooiing van die fase van die operasie die lagune binnegegaan om Japannese installasies te bombardeer. Op 23 November is Makin veilig verklaar en Macdonough keer terug na Pearl Harbor.

In Januarie 1944 het sy by die Northern Attack Force aangesluit vir die aanval op die Marshalls. As die hoofbestuurder van die vegvliegtuig vir die aanvanklike vervoergroep, het Macdonough eers langs die KwaJalein -atol gery. Op 29 Januarie het sy na die WotJe -atol gegaan en daar aan die oewerbombardement deelgeneem totdat sy op die 31ste teruggekeer het na KwaJalein vir die besetting van Roi en Namur -eilande. Die onontbeerlike verwoester het toe radarpligte aangeneem totdat hy na Eniwetok Atoll gegaan het.

Op 21 en 22 Februarie het Macdonough vyandelike posisies op Parry -eiland by die diep ingang van die Eniwetok -strandmeer akkuraat afgeskiet. 'N Maand later was sy 'n verwysings- en ontmoetingsskip vir die vervoerder TF 68, waarna sy op die Palau -eilande toeslaan. Deur haar gevarieerde tempo voort te sit, was sy in Hollandia, Nieu -Guinee. teen 21 April, wat vuurondersteuning bied vir die landings daar. Aan die einde van die maand stoom sy ooswaarts om radarpaaltjies suid van Truk aan te neem. Tydens hierdie opdrag het Macdonough, saam met Monterry en Stephen Potter, die Japannese duikboot RO-45 op 30 April gesink

Op 4 Mei het die verwoester by Majuro aangekom om saam te werk by die kragte wat bymekaargekom het vir die invalling van 'die Marianas wat die Marshalls 6 Junie vertrek het, en Macdonough het tydens die Saipan -inval saam met die vinnige draermag gewerk. Sy het siftings- en plakkerspligte uitgevoer en was deel van 'die bombardementgroep wat op Japannese installasies aan die westekant van die eiland geskiet het. Daarna neem sy deel aan die Slag van die Filippynse See, 19 tot 20 Junie, en skiet op die paar vyandelike vliegtuie wat deur die gevegspatrollie kom. By die oorwinning keer Macdonough terug na die Marianas. Opdrag aan (Guam, het sy onderwater -sloopspanne bedek wat die strande herken en 'n teisterende vuur verskaf om herstelwerk aan die strandverdediging op die eiland te voorkom. Op 21 Julie het die verwoester die waters van Guam gepatrolleer om die aanvalsvaartuig teen vyandelike duikbote te beskerm en die rol voort te sit tot 10 Augustus na Hawaii vertrek.

Na 'n kort tydjie by Pearl Harbor vertrek Macdonough na die Admiraliteitseiland, sy kom op 15 September by Manus aan en begin met begeleiding. Op 14 Oktober het sy troepevervoer na Leyte vergesel en gebly om haar aanklagte te beskerm deur die stryd om die Leyte -golf. 24 tot 25 Oktober. Daarna stoom sy terug na Manus vir nog 'n konvooi na Leyte, 3 November, en by haar terugkeer na die Filippynse waters patrolleer ek die Golf van Leyte en die suidelike Surigao Strait -gebied. Die volgende maand hervat Macdonough die diensplig. Sy werk uit Ulithi en bewaak vlootoliesmakers tydens hul brandstofaanvullings in die gebiede in die Filippyne, Formosa en die Suid -Chinese See. In Januarie 1946 vaar die vernietiger na Puget Sound en 'n herstelperiode van 3 maande. Toe sy terugkeer na Ulithi, is sy tot 5 Julie op die radarstasie van die eiland af gestuur, toe sy die konvooie hervat het. Vir die res van die oorlog beskerm sy die geallieerde skeepsvaart tussen Ulithi en Okinawa.

In Guam, toe vyandelikhede beëindig is, het Macdonough spoedig bevele ontvang om na die Verenigde State terug te keer. Sy het op 3 September in San Diego aangekom en die volgende week verder na die New York Navy Yard, waar sy op 22 Oktober 1945 uit diens gestel is. Op 20 Desember 1946 is sy verkoop aan George H. Nutman van Brooklyn, NY.

Macdonough het 13 gevegsterre ontvang vir diens in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog.


U.S.S. HULL

USS Romp het sy naam ontvang ter ere van kommodoor Isaac Hull, opgemerk vlootbevelvoerder tydens die oorlog van 1812. Die vloot het haar in diens geneem tydens haar opdrag in Januarie 1935. Nadat sy in Atlantiese waters geskud het, het sy in Oktober van daardie jaar by die Stille Oseaan aangemeld. Sy het die volgende paar jaar aan verskeie operasies langs die weskus deelgeneem. In Oktober 1939 het die vloot haar tuiste na Pearl Harbor herbesorg. Sy was in die hawe toe die Japannese op 7 Desember 1941 aanval.

Vir die eerste paar maande van die oorlog het USS Romp het die vervoerder Lexington in die Suidelike Stille Oseaan begelei. In Augustus 1942 was sy deel van die groep wat gehelp het om Guadalcanal en Tulagi te neem. Die volgende paar maande het sy begeleiding vir slagskepe in die Suidelike Stille Oseaan verskaf. In April 1943 skuif sy noordwaarts om te help met die herstel van Kiska, in die Aleoetiese ketting. Sy skuif terug suidwaarts en help in November daardie jaar met die Gilbert -veldtog. Die Marshall -eilande het begin 1944 gevolg. Sy was daar vir strooptogte by die Carolines, Saipan en Guam. Na 'n geringe opknapping het sy in Oktober 1944 teruggekeer na die Stille Oseaan. Op 18 Desember 1944 het 'n tifoon USS Hull betrap en haar laat sak. Meer as tweehonderd mans het hul lewens verloor.


Macdonough III DD- 351 - Geskiedenis

Na 'n seevaart wat haar na die Azore, Portugal en die Britse Eilande geneem het, Romp sy het via die Panamakanaal op 19 Oktober 1935 by San Diego aangekom. Sy het haar operasies begin met die Stille Oseaan -vloot buite San Diego, met taktiese oefeninge en opleiding. Gedurende die somer van 1936 vaar sy na Alaska en neem in April 1937 deel aan vlootoefeninge in Hawaïese waters. Gedurende hierdie toenemend gespanne vooroorlogse tydperk, Romp het dikwels tydens die perfeksie van taktiek as vliegtuigwag vir die Navy & rsquos Pacific -draers opgetree, wat 'n sentrale faktor sou wees in Amerika se oorwinning in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. Sy het hierdie bedrywighede voortgesit tot en met die uitbreek van die oorlog, en verhuis na haar nuwe tuiste, Pearl Harbor, op 12 Oktober 1939.

Die patroon van vlootprobleme, vliegtuigwagdiens en patrollie is op 7 Desember 1941 onbeskof onderbreek toe die Japannese Pearl Harbor aanval. Romp was langs die tender Dobbin herstelwerk ondergaan, maar het vinnig haar lugafweerbatterye in gebruik geneem en gehelp om verskeie vliegtuie neer te gooi. Aangesien die belangrikste doel van die aanval slagskepe was, het die vernietiger geen treffers gehad nie en het hy die volgende dag vertrek om by die karweier aan te sluit Onderneming en begelei haar na Pearl Harbor. Gedurende die volgende kritieke maande van die oorlog, Romp saam met Admiral Wilson Brown & rsquos Task Force 11, ondersoek Lexington in belangrike stakings op Japannese basisse in die Solomons. Sy keer 26 Maart terug na Pearl Harbor en vaar drie maande lank op konvooi tussen San Francisco en Pearl Harbor. Romp was egter gou terug in die geveg, toe sy op 7 Desember na Suvu, die Fidji -eilande, vaar om voor te berei op die eerste aanvallende landstoot van Amerika en rsquos, die amfibiese aanval op Guadalcanal. Sy vertrek op 26 Julie na die Solomons en op die dag van die landings, 7 Augustus 1942, het sy kruisers tydens die bombardemente op die strand vertoon en daarna die stasie aangeneem as beskerming teen duikboot vir die vervoer. Die volgende dag het sy gehelp om sterk vyandelike bomaanvalle af te weer, verskeie van die aanvallers af te skiet, en daardie aand het sy die droewige plig uitgevoer om vervoer te laat sink George F. Elliott, brand buite beheer. Op 9 Augustus het die vernietiger 'n klein skoenertjie langs Guadalcanal gesink en die aand na Espiritu Santo vertrek. Gedurende die volgende moeilike weke op Guadalcanal, Romp het drie reise met vervoer en oorlogskepe gemaak ter ondersteuning van die troepe, wat op 3 en 14 September lugaanvalle ondergaan het.

Die skip het 20 Oktober na Pearl Harbor teruggekeer en die res van die jaar met 'n slagskip deurgebring Colorado in die Nuwe Hebrides. Sy vaar op 29 Januarie vanaf Pearl Harbor op pad na herstelwerk in San Francisco, en arriveer op 7 Februarie 1943. Na voltooiing verhuis sy na die somber Aleutiërs, kom Adak 16 April aan en begin met 'n reeks opleidingsmaneuvers met slagskepe en kruisers in die noordelike waters. Toe die vloot intrek om Attu in Mei te herower, Romp het haar patrolliepligte voortgesit, en gedurende Julie en vroeg in Augustus het sy aan talle bombardemente van Kiska -eiland deelgeneem. Die skip het ook deelgeneem aan die landings op Kiska op 15 Augustus, net om te sien dat die Japannese hul laaste voet in die Aleoetiese ketting ontruim het.

Romp na die Kiska -operasie teruggekeer na die sentrale Stille Oseaan, met die aankoms in Pearl Harbor 26 September 1943. Sy het drie dae later met die vloot vertrek vir aanvalle op Wake Island, en saam met escort carriers gedra tydens afleidingsaanvalle wat bedoel was om die Navy & rsquos se werklike doelwit die Gilberts te verberg. Romp het Makin gebombardeer tydens hierdie aanranding op 20 November, en met die inval het sy op 7 Desember 1943 in die konvooi by Pearl Harbor aangekom. Van daar af het sy teruggekeer na Oakland 21 Desember vir amfibiese oefeninge.

Volgende op die eilandpad na Japan was die Marshall -eilande, en Romp het op 13 Januarie 1944 met die Task Force 53 vanuit San Diego gevaar. Sy het op 31 Januarie van Kwajalein af gekom, vervoer in die reservaatgebied ondersoek, en tot en met Februarie het sy siftings- en patrolliedienste van Eniwetok en Majuro uitgevoer. Die skip het by 'n slagskip- en draersgroep aangesluit en het op 18 Maart na die Mille -atol verhuis en aan 'n verwoestende bombardement deelgeneem. Romp het ook deelgeneem aan die bombardement van Wotje 22 Maart.

Die veteraanskip het daarna deelgeneem aan die verwoestende aanval op die groot Japannese basis op Truk 29 en 30 April, waarna sy op 4 Mei 1944 by Majuro aangekom het. Daar het sy by Admiral Lee & rsquos slagskepe aangesluit vir die volgende groot inval, die aanval op die Marianas. Romp Saipan op 13 Junie gebombardeer, mynevee -operasies met skietery bedek en tydens die aanvanklike landing op 15 Junie gepatrolleer. Twee dae later Romp en ander skepe stoom uit om by die taakmag van Admiral Mitscher & rsquos -vervoerder aan te sluit, terwyl die Japannese voorbereidings getref het om die Marianas te sluit vir 'n beslissende vlootgeveg. Die groot vloot het mekaar op 19 Junie genader vir die grootste lugvaartbetrokkenheid van die oorlog, en toe vier groot lugaanvalle die Amerikaanse gevegsdekking van die draers van Romp& rsquos Taakgroep 68.2 en oppervlakvuur het die Japannese vliegtuie gedomineer. Met 'n bekwame hulp van Amerikaanse duikbote, het Mitscher daarin geslaag om twee Japannese draers te sink, benewens die dodelike verliese van die Japannese seevliegtuig tydens die Great Marianas Turkey Shoot & rdquo 19 Junie, Romp hulp verleen aan verskeie van hierdie briljante verdragte teen lugvaart.

Gedurende Julie het die verwoester saam met vragmotorgroepe buite Guam gewerk, en na die aanranding het 21 Julie van die eiland af gepatrolleer. In Augustus keer sy terug na Seattle, arriveer die 26ste en ondergaan herstelwerk, wat haar in die Verenigde State gehou het tot 23 Oktober, toe sy by Pearl Harbor anker. Romp het by 'n derde vloot -brandstofgroep aangesluit en op 20 November 1944 vertrek na 'n afspraak met 'n vinnige strydmag in die Filippynse See. Die brandstof het op 17 Desember begin, maar toenemend swaar see het die dag later gekanselleer. Die brandstofgroep het die volgende dag verswelg geraak in 'n tifoon wat nader kom, met barometers wat tot baie lae vlakke gedaal het en die wind bo 90 knope styg. Omstreeks 1100 op 18 Desember, Romp het gesluit & ydquoin -ysters, & rdquo in die trog van die bergagtige see en kon nie stuur nie. Alle hande het koorsagtig gewerk om integriteit te behou en die skip aan die gang te hou tydens die swaar rolle, maar uiteindelik, in die woorde van haar bevelvoerder: & ldquoDie skip het op 'n hoek van 80 grade of meer aan haar sy gebly terwyl die water in haar boonste strukture vloei. . Ek het op die poortvleuel van die brug gebly totdat die water na my toe stroom, toe stap ek in die water terwyl die skip omdraai op pad af. & Rdquo

Die tifoon het baie van die oorlewendes ingesluk, maar dapper reddingswerk deur Tabberer, Bruin en ander skepe van die vloot in die daaropvolgende dae het die lewe van 7 offisiere en 55 aangewese mans gered.


1971 in die Viëtnam -oorlog

Project Copper was 'n onsuksesvolle operasie om drie deur die Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) opgeleide Kambodjaanse onreëlmatige magbataljons te gebruik om die Sihanouk-roete te verbied. Een bataljon het verlate gegaan, een het tydens die opleiding gemuterniseer en die derde het groot ongevalle gely en moes teruggetrek word om te help met die verdediging van Phnom Penh. [4]: 282–4

Die Amerikaanse kongres het die hersiene Cooper-Church-wysiging aanvaar wat die invoering van Amerikaanse grondtroepe of adviseurs in Kambodja verbied en verklaar dat Amerikaanse hulp aan Kambodja nie as 'n verbintenis tot die verdediging van Kambodja beskou moet word nie. [5]

Operation Silver Buckle was 'n offensief van 'n Royal Lao Army (RLA) wat in Militêre Streek 4 van Laos opgevoer is en was die diepste RLA -penetrasie tot nog toe van die Ho Chi Minh -roete. By die Trailside -dorpie Moung Nong het die twee voorgeselskappe op 8 Februarie 1971 die agterkant van die 50.000 man People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) aangeval, net soos Operation Lam Son 719 van stapel gestuur is deur die Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) ) en het minstens ses PAVN -bataljons van die ARVN -aanval weggelei. [4]: 286–90

Die ARVN het Operation Toàn Thắng TT02 geloods wat uitgeloop het op die Slag van Snuol teen PAVN- en Viet Cong (VC) magte in die Snuol -distrik van Kambodja. Die PAVN/VC het 1 043 sterftes verloor terwyl die ARVN 37 sterftes, 74 vermis en meer as 300 gevange geneem het. Die operasie het die geveg van die ARVN 5th Division ondoeltreffend gemaak. [6]: 338–9

Die Amerikaanse minister van verdediging, Melvin Laird, het gesê dat die "Viëtnamisering" van die oorlog vooruit was en dat die gevegsending van die Amerikaanse troepe in die somer van 1971 sou eindig. [7]

Die laaste onkruiddoder wat deur die Verenigde State gespuit is om woude in Suid -Viëtnam te ontblaar en gewasse dood te maak wat gebruik is om kommunistiese soldate en ondersteuners te voed, is in die provinsie Ninh Thuan uitgevoer. Operation Ranch Hand is voltooi. [8]

Die 1ste Bataljon 1st Marines het Operasie Upshur Stream uitgevoer, deurlopende verkenning en infanterie patrolleer en gekonsentreerde lug- en artillerie -aanvalle in 'n poging om te verhoed dat die PAVN/VC die basisgebied van Charlie Ridge gebruik vir aanvalle op Da Nang. [9]: 215

300 ARVN -valskermsoldate met Amerikaanse lugondersteuning en adviseurs het toegeslaan op 'n vermeende kamp waarin Amerikaanse krygsgevangenes in Kambodja gehou is. Geen krygsgevangenes was in die kamp nie, maar 30 PAVN -soldate is gevange geneem. [10]: 275

Die ARVN 4th Armour Brigade en 4th Ranger Group en die 2nd Marine Brigade het saam met die Khmer National Armed Forces (FANK) magte Operasie Cuu Long 44-02 van stapel gestuur om Roete 4 in Kambodja te heropen. Die operasie het daartoe gelei dat 211 PAVN en 16 ARVN dood is. [11]: 197–8

PAVN -sappers het Pochentong -vliegveld naby Phnom Penh aangeval en 69 vliegtuie van Khmer National Aviation (AVNK) vernietig of beskadig en 39 AVNK -personeel doodgemaak en die AVNK effektief vernietig. [12]

NBC het berig dat soldate van die 173ste Airborne Brigade wat by Landing Zone English gestasioneer was, heroïen gekoop het uit 'n Viëtnamese huis op die basis en die Suid -Viëtnamese daarna die huis gesloop het. [13]

Veldtog 74B was 'n PAVN -gekombineerde wapenoperasie wat die strategiese Plain of Jars herower het en die PAVN 316th Division binne artilleriegebied van die belangrikste RLA -basis in Long Tieng gebring het. Die aanval is gestaak deur Thaise huursoldate en Amerikaanse lugondersteuning en die PAVN het teruggetrek toe hulle hul voorraad uitgeput het. [4]: 295–300

In Operasie Hoang Dien 103 het eenhede van III Marine Amphibious Force, Republiek Korea Marine Corps 2de Marine Brigade, ARVN 51ste Regiment, 146ste PF Platoon, 39ste RF Kompanjie en PSDF die Da Nang -laaglande en laeveldgrense gefynkam en 330 PAVN/VC vermoor, terwyl 46 mense dood is, waaronder twee Amerikaners. [6]: 447

Operasie Lam Son 719 (Viëtnamees: Chiến dịch Lam Sơn 719 of Chiến dịch đường 9 - Nam Lào) was 'n inval deur 20 000 soldate van die gewapende magte van Suid -Viëtnam in die suidooste van Laos. Die doel van die operasie was die ontwrigting van die Ho Chi Minh -roete (die Truong Son -pad na Noord -Viëtnam) wat PAVN- en VC -magte in Suid -Viëtnam verskaf het. Alhoewel die ARVN beweer het dat hy die oorwinning behaal het, het hy hom in Laos onttrek aan Laos en het hy 9.000 sterftes gely. Die VSA ondersteun die operasie en laat 253 soldate dood en baie helikopters vernietig. [14]: 70–90

In Operasie Lam Son 719 het 'n gepantserde kolom van die ARVN Ban Dong bereik, 20 kilometer binne Laos en 'n halwe afstand tot Tchepone, die doel van die inval. Die roete, snelweg 9, was maar skaars begaanbaar en die opmars het gestop. Die PAVN het hul weerstand teen 'n aantal klein basisse in Laos gevestig om die operasie te ondersteun. [14]: 75

'N RVNAF UH-1-helikopter met fotojoernaliste Larry Burrows, Henri Huet, Kent Potter en Keizaburo Shimamoto en sewe ander is neergeskiet oor Laos wat almal aan boord doodgemaak het. [15]

Operation Desert Rat was 'n RLA -operasie wat bedoel was om die PAVN te teister toe hulle die ARVN in Operation Lam Son 719 afgeveg het. Die operasie het daartoe gelei dat 121 PAVN gedood en 39 vragmotors vernietig is. [4]: 290–1

Nuwe ARVN I Corps -bevelvoerder, luitenant -generaal Đỗ Cao Trí sterf in 'n helikopterongeluk naby die Bien Hoa -lugbasis. Fotojoernalis François Sully het 23 meter van die brandende helikopter gespring, maar is later aan sy beserings dood. [14]: 61

'N Bom het om 01:32 in die Capitol -gebou van die Verenigde State ontplof en niemand beseer nie, maar $ 300,000 se skade is aangerig. Die Weather Underground het krediet gekry vir die bombardement wat uit protes teen die inval in Laos was. [16]

In Operasie Lam Son 719 begin 'n lugoperasie teen Tchepone, Laos, dit was die grootste aanval in die Viëtnam-oorlog met 120 UH-1 helikopters om twee bataljons te vervoer. Tchepone is gevang sonder groot weerstand. [14]: 85

President Nguyễn Văn Thiệu van Suid -Viëtnam het beveel dat Suid -Viëtnamese troepe uit Laos onttrek moet word. Hy ignoreer die aanbeveling van die Amerikaanse bevelvoerder -generaal Creighton Abrams dat Suid -Viëtnam sy troepe in Laos versterk en sy posisie beklee. Die onttrekking het 'n manier geword waar Suid -Viëtnam swaar ly. [14]: 86–90

Die 198ste Ligte Infanterie Brigade het Operation Finney Hill van stapel gestuur om kommunikasie- en pasifikasie -operasies in die kusgebied van die provinsie Quảng Ngãi te beveilig. Die operasie het daartoe gelei dat 454 PAVN/VC gedood is en agt gevange geneem is, 32 verliese in die VSA. [17]: 29

Die 196ste Ligte Infanterie Brigade het Operation Middlesex Peak geloods, 'n veiligheidsoperasie om PAVN/VC -infiltrasie in die kuslaaglande van die provinsies Quảng Tín en Quảng Ngãi te voorkom. Die operasie het daartoe gelei dat 463 PAVN/VC gedood en 22 gevange geneem is en Amerikaanse verliese van 50 gedood. [17]: 26

PAVN -artillerie het die Khe Sanh Combat Base begin beskut, die hoofbasis wat Operation Lam Son 719 ondersteun. [14]: 92

Nasionale Veiligheidsraadgewer Henry Kissinger het aan president Richard Nixon erken dat Lam Son 719 "duidelik nie 'n sukses was nie". Die mislukking van Lam Son 719 word deur 'n geleerde 'die militêre keerpunt van die oorlog' genoem. [18]: 28

'N PAVN -aanval op die Khe Sanh Combat Base het gelei tot drie Amerikaners wat dood is en verskeie vliegtuie en twee ammunisiehope vernietig is, PAVN -verliese is 14 dood en een gevang. [14]: 96

In Operasie Lam Son 719 het die meeste Suid -Viëtnamese soldate die grens na Suid -Viëtnam oorgesteek en gevegte in Laos het opgehou. [14]: 90

Etlike dosyne PAVN -sappers het die brandsteunbasis Mary Ann in die Quảng Tín -provinsie binnegedring en 30 Amerikaanse soldate doodgemaak. Mary Ann sou na die ARVN oorgedra word en die Amerikaanse magte onttrek. Verskeie Amerikaanse offisiere is gedegradeer of tereggewys vir 'swak prestasie'. [14]: 7–9

Die jurie by 'n militêre hof het luitenant William Calley skuldig bevind aan die moord op voorbedagte rade van 22 Viëtnamese burgerlikes tydens die My Lai-slagting van 1968. Calley was die enigste soldaat wat skuldig bevind is vir sy rol in die bloedbad. [19]

PAVN/VC -magte het 103 Suid -Viëtnamese burgers doodgemaak en 1500 huise in die Duc Duc -slagting in Duc Duc -distrik, Quảng Nam -provinsie, vernietig. [9]: 231–2

'N Vertroulike opdrag van die Amerikaanse weermag het beveel dat die anti-Viëtnam-oorlog en ander dissidente-materiaal na die Amerikaanse militêre personeel in Suid-Viëtnam gestuur en gekonfiskeer moet word. [20]

Luitenant William Calley is tot lewenslange gevangenisstraf en harde arbeid in Fort Leavenworth gevonnis vir sy rol in die My Lai -slagting. [19]

Die Amerikaanse 101ste Airborne Division (Airmobile) en die ARVN 1st Division het Operation Texas Star teen PAVN -magte in die provinsies Quảng Trị en Thừa Thiên geloods. Die operasie het daartoe gelei dat 1,782 PAVN en 386 VSA dood is. [21]

President Nixon het beveel dat Calley uit die gevangenis in Fort Leavenworth na huisarres oorgeplaas moet word. [10]: 274

Khe Sanh Combat Base, wat heraktiveer is om Operation Lam Son 719 te ondersteun, is weereens laat vaar. [14]: 96

Operasie Xieng Dong was 'n suksesvolle RLA -operasie om die hoofstad Luang Prabang te verdedig teen 'n PAVN -aanval. RLA -magte van regoor die land kom bymekaar in die hoofstad en dwing die PAVN 335ste regiment om terug te trek. [4]: 293–4

Die 3de Marine Amfibiese Brigade is by Camp Jay K. Brooks geaktiveer en III Marine Amphibious Force het alle oorblywende mariene troepe daarheen oorgeplaas. [9]: 238

John Kerry van Vietnam Veterans Against the War het voor die Senaat se komitee vir buitelandse betrekkinge getuig: 'Iemand moet sterf sodat president Nixon - en dit is sy woorde -' die eerste president is wat 'n oorlog verloor '. Hoe vra jy 'n man om die laaste man te wees wat in Viëtnam gesterf het? Hoe vra jy dat 'n man die laaste man is wat weens 'n fout sterf? " [22]

Lede van Vietnam Veterans Against the War het meer as 700 medaljes op die westelike trappe van die Capitol -gebou in Washington weggegooi om teen die oorlog te protesteer. [23] Die volgende dag beweer organiseerders van die oorlog dat 500,000 opgeruk het, wat dit die grootste demonstrasie sedert die optog in November 1969 maak. [24]

Die 196ste Ligte Infanterie Brigade het Operasie Caroline Hill van stapel gestuur om PAVN/VC -magte, kommunikasielyne en basisgebiede op te spoor en te betrek en sekuriteit te bied vir pasifikasieprogramme in die gebied wes en suid van Da Nang na die vertrek van die III Marine Amphibious Force. Die operasie het gelei tot 161 PAVN/VC dood en 11 gevange geneem en Amerikaanse verliese van 15 dood. [17]: 34

Die Katolieke priester Philip Berrigan en sewe ander is aangekla omdat hulle van plan was om Henry Kissinger te ontvoer en om regeringsgeboue op te blaas. [25]

President Nixon het die eerste mariene afdeling terugverwelkom uit Suid -Viëtnam tydens 'n seremonie in Camp Pendleton. [9]: 242

'N Versterkte geselskap van VC -infanterie en sappers het die hoofkwartier van die distrik ội Lộc agter 'n mortier en vuurpyl bestorm. RF/PF-magte het 95 VC doodgemaak en 43 individuele en bemande wapens gevang, teen 'n koste van 15 dood en 43 gewondes. [9]: 243

15 000 soldate en polisie het meer as 7 000 persone gearresteer wat teen die oorlog in Washington protesteer. [20]

1 146 betogers teen die oorlog is in hegtenis geneem op die Amerikaanse Capitol -terrein wat probeer het om die Amerikaanse kongres te sluit. Dit het die totaal wat in hegtenis geneem is tydens die protesoptredes in Mei op 1971 op meer as 12 000 te staan ​​gebring. [26]

Die vredesgesprekke van Parys tussen Noord -Viëtnam, Suid -Viëtnam, die Viet Cong en die Verenigde State gaan hul vierde jaar binne. Min of geen vordering is gemaak nie. [10]: 283

Operasie Phoutah was 'n RLA -verdedigingsaksie teen 'n PAVN -staking van Tchepone. Die RLA het misluk in sy pogings om Moung Phalane te vang. [4]: 289–92

30 Amerikaanse infanteriste, baie van Kompanie A, 1ste Bataljon, 61ste Infanterieregiment, is dood toe 'n PAVN 122mm vuurpyl hul bunker by Charlie 2. tref. [27]

Elemente van die 38ste regiment en 91ste Sapper -bataljon val die Dai Xuyen -distrik, suid van Da Nang, aan waar meer as 80 000 Suid -Viëtnamese burgers, insluitend hoë regeringsamptenare, vergader het vir 'n godsdienstige seremonie. Die geveg het die hele dag en die volgende nag gewoed voordat die PAVN/VC teruggeval het, en meer as 200 sterftes agtergelaat het terwyl die geallieerde verliese vyf gesterf het. 20 burgerlikes is dood in die gevegte en huise in die omgewing het groot skade gely. [9]: 247

Henry Kissinger het in geheime vredesonderhandelinge met Noord -Viëtnam in Parys 'n nuwe voorstel ingedien vir 'n Amerikaanse onttrekking uit Suid -Viëtnam, 'n skietstilstand en 'n uitruil van gevangenes. Die skietstilstand was 'n belangrike toegewing omdat dit PAVN -soldate in staat sou stel om ten minste tydelik in Suid -Viëtnam te bly. [18]: 27–8

Brigadier-generaal John W. Donaldson is aangekla van die moord op ses Viëtnamese burgerlikes tydens operasies in November 1968-Januarie 1969 terwyl hy in sy helikopter oor die Quảng Ngãi-provinsie vlieg. Hy was 'n kolonel ten tyde van die beweerde misdade en was die eerste Amerikaanse generaal wat sedert 1902 van oorlogsmisdade aangekla is en die hoogste Amerikaner wat tydens die oorlog van oorlogsmisdade beskuldig is. Die aanklagte is uiteindelik van die hand gewys weens 'n gebrek aan bewyse. [28]

Die PAVN -aanval op Hill 950, 'n Amerikaanse militêre bystandkommando, die operasionele basis van die Vietnam - Studies and Observations Group en die radio -aflosterrein van die United States Army Security Agency wat uitkyk op die Khe Sanh -plato. Baie van die personeel by die basis is per helikopter ontruim, maar ongeveer 22 het oorgebly om die basis te verdedig en sy geheime kommunikasiestelsel te vernietig en is óf gevang óf in die omliggende gebied ontduik. [29]

In die Slag van Long Khánh, die 3de Bataljon, het Royal Australian Regiment 'n PAVN/VC -basiskamp in die provinsie Long Khánh aangeval. Die geveg het tot gevolg gehad dat vyf VC en drie Australiërs dood is. [30]

Operasie Phiboonpol was 'n offensief deur vier RLA -bataljons om die Bolaven -plato te vang wat uitkyk op die Ho Chi Minh -roete. Gekonfronteer met sterk opposisie van die PAVN, kon die RLA slegs 'n swak posisie op die rand van die plato kry nadat hy groot verliese gely het. [4]: 286–9

Die Mansfield -wysiging, geskryf deur senator Mike Mansfield, is deur die kongres aanvaar. Die wysiging dring daarop aan om Amerikaanse troepe aan die "vroegste praktiese datum" uit Suid -Viëtnam te onttrek - die eerste keer in die Amerikaanse geskiedenis dat die Kongres 'n einde aan 'n oorlog gevra het. [20]

Die laaste eenhede van die 3de Marine Amphibious Brigade het Da Nang verlaat. [9]: 246

Onderhandelaars van Noord-Viëtnam, Le Duc Tho en Xuan Thuy, het op Kissinger se voorstel van 31 Mei gereageer met 'n nege-punt 'bedingingsvoorstel'. Dit was die eerste keer dat die Noord -Viëtnamese aangedui het dat hulle bereid was om te onderhandel eerder as om eensydige eise te stel. [18]: 28

Kissinger het die eerste van twee geheime besoeke aan China gemaak wat die weg gebaan het vir Richard Nixon se besoek aan China in 1972. Na hierdie vergadering het Zhou Enlai na Hanoi gereis om die Noord-Viëtnamese leierskap te adviseer oor die verandering in die Sino-Amerikaanse betrekkinge. Die Noord -Viëtnamese was woedend oor hierdie verandering, wat hulle korrek beskou het as 'n poging van die VSA om Chinese steun vir Noord -Viëtnam te ondermyn in ruil vir 'n verandering in die Amerikaanse beleid ten opsigte van Taiwan. [31]

Die Politburo van Noord -Viëtnam het sy onderhandelaars in Parys opdrag gegee om geen verdere toegewings aan die Verenigde State te doen nie. [18]: 29

Kissinger het aangekondig dat die Verenigde State bereid is om $ 7,5 miljard se hulp aan Viëtnam te voorsien, waarvan $ 2,5 miljard na Noord -Viëtnam kan gaan, en om alle Amerikaanse magte binne nege maande terug te trek. [18]: 28

Operasie Sayasila was 'n RLA -operasie om Salavan en Paksong te vang. Die RLA het baie duur geslaag met agt bataljons wat gevegte ondoeltreffend gemaak het. [4]: 304–7

Operasie Phou Khao Kham was 'n RLA -operasie om PAVN/Pathet Lao -magte van roetes 13 en 7 noord van Vientiane te verwyder en Muang Soui te vang. Die RLA het daarin geslaag om Muang Soui terug te kry, maar slaag nie daarin om die naderingsroetes te verwyder nie. [4]: 302

ARVN -generaal Duong Van Minh het getuienis by die Amerikaanse ambassade in Saigon ingedien dat president Thiệu die presidentsverkiesing wat vir Oktober geskeduleer is, besig was. [14]: 104

Die Amerikaanse ambassade in Saigon het Washington ingelig dat indien president Thiệu volhard in sy pogings om die komende presidentsverkiesing 'n optog te maak, dit 'groeiende politieke onstabiliteit in Suid -Viëtnam' kan veroorsaak. [14]: 104

Generaal Minh het hom as presidentskandidaat in die komende presidentsverkiesing in Suid -Viëtnam onttrek. Minh het gesê: "Ek kan nie 'n walglike klug verdra wat al die mense se hoop op 'n demokratiese regime verwyder nie." [14]: 104

Die lewenslange vonnis van William Calley vir sy rol in die My Lai -bloedbad is tot 20 jaar verminder. Calley het drie en 'n half jaar van sy vonnis uitgedien voordat hy vrygelaat is. [32]

Operasie Chenla II was 'n groot militêre operasie van FANK. Die FANK het nie daarin geslaag om die PAVN/VC uit Kambodjaanse gebied te verdryf nie en het groot ongevalle gely.

Nguyễn Cao Kỳ het sy kandidatuur vir president in die komende verkiesing teruggetrek. Die huidige president Thiệu was die enigste kandidaat wat nog in die verkiesing was. [14]: 104

'N PAVN/VC-sapperaanval op die Cam Ranh Base-ammunisieopbergingsgebied met drie dienste vernietig meer as 6000 ton ammunisie met 'n waarde van meer as $ 10 miljoen. [33]

Operasie Jefferson Glenn was die laaste groot grondoperasie waarin Amerikaanse troepe aan die Viëtnam -oorlog deelgeneem het. Drie bataljons van die 101ste lugafdeling het die gebied wes van die stad Huế, die 'vuurpylgordel', gepatrolleer om PAVN/VC -vuurpylaanvalle te voorkom. Die Amerikaners is geleidelik vervang deur ARVN -magte. Die Amerikaners en Suid -Viëtnamese beweer dat hulle 2,026 ongevalle aan die PAVN/VC aangerig het. [34]

'N Bom het in die Tu Do Nightclub in Saigon ontplof en 14 Vietnamees en een Amerikaner is dood en meer as 50 ander gewond. [35]

In die Slag van Nui Le het die 4RAR/NZ (ANZAC) -bataljon PAVN/VC -magte by Núi Lé, distrik Chau Duc, betrek. Die geveg het gelei tot 14 PAVN/VC en vyf Australiërs is dood.

Sersant Charles "Wayne" Turberville, mariene veiligheidswag, is dood in 'n granaataanval in Phnom Penh. [36] [37]

Operation Sourisak Montry VIII was a Thai offensive against Pathet Lao forces along the Mekong River near Xieng Lom, Laos. The operation was indecisive with the Pathet Lao retaining control of the area. [4] : 315–20

The 1971 South Vietnamese presidential election was held. Incumbent President Thiệu garnered 94.3 percent of the vote. All of Thiệu's opponents had dropped out of the race. [14] : 107

Several U.S. soldiers at Firebase Pace near the Cambodian border refused to undertake a patrol outside the perimeter of the firebase. The combat refusal was widely reported by the media as was a letter signed by 65 American soldiers at Firebase Pace to U.S. Senator Edward M. Kennedy protesting that they were being ordered to participate in offensive combat operations despite U.S. policy to the contrary. [10] : 291

President Nixon announced that "American troops are now in a defensive position. the offensive activities of search and destroy are now being undertaken by the South Vietnamese" [14] : 25

Prime Minister Lon Nol of Cambodia suspended the Cambodian National Assembly and announced that he would run the country by executive decree. Lon Nol said that "the sterile game of democracy" was hindering the Cambodian government's fight against the communist forces of the Khmer Rouge and North Vietnamese. [10] : 291

Typhoon Hester made landfall over South Vietnam causing severe damage. At Chu Lai Base Area, Hester damaged or destroyed 75 percent of the structures in the base. Sustained winds and gusts in the base were estimated to have reached 130 km/h (80 mph) and 160 km/h (105 mph) respectively. [38] Four hangars collapsed in the Chu Lai Air Base, with total aircraft losses amounting to 36 destroyed and 87 damaged. [38] The 91st Evacuation Hospital was mostly destroyed and was forced to transfer patients to Qui Nhơn. [39] Nearly 50 percent of the structures at the Marble Mountain Air Facility were damaged by the storm's high winds. Heavy rains accompanying the storm caused considerable flooding in the country, approximately 370 km (230 mi) of coastline between Quảng Trị and Da Nang were inundated. About 90 percent of homes in Da Nang were damaged. [38] Twenty-two people were killed when an RVNAF C-47 transport crashed 5 miles (8.0 km) west Qui Nhơn. [40] Thee Americans were killed due to flying debris during the storm and twenty-one others were injured. [38] On 25 October, thunderstorms associated with Hester were blamed for a CH-47 crash near Nha Trang that killed 10 Americans. [41]

Operation Bedrock was an RLA offensive against the PAVN 46th Battalion near Salavan. The operation succeeded in securing the rice growing area near Salavan. [4] : 304–8

A U.S. Senate sub-committee issued a 300-page report "corruption, criminality, and moral compromise" at U.S. Post Exchanges in South Vietnam. [20]

Operation Thao La was an RLA dry season offensive to capture the Bolaven Plateau. The RLA secure Tha Theng and Ban Phong but lost Salavan and Paksong. The operation resulted in 1,204 PAVN and 399 RLA killed. [4] : 308–9

A US Army CH-47 carrying five crew and 28 soldiers from the 101st Airborne Division on a flight from Da Nang to Phu Bai Combat Base crashed into high ground killing all onboard. [42] [43]

The Vinh wiretap was a CIA espionage operation to intercept North Vietnamese military telephone lines. [4] : 381–6

17 December - 30 January 1972

Campaign Z was a PAVN combined arms operation against the RLA base at Long Tieng. The PAVN used T-34 tanks and 130mm field guns for the first time supported by VPAF fighter jets. The PAVN were able to temporarily seize high ground and shell Long Tieng before being pushed back. [4] : 323–34

President Nixon ordered the initiation of Operation Proud Deep Alpha, an intensive five-day bombing campaign against military targets in North Vietnam just north of the Vietnamese Demilitarized Zone above the 17th parallel north. [18] : 29

30 December - 16 March 1972

Operation Maharat was the RLA defense of the Route 7 and 13 intersection at Sala Phoun Khoun. After being initially pushed out the RLA counterattacked and seized the area. [4] : 331


Inhoud

When Theodosius ascended to the imperial throne in 380, he began on a campaign to bring the Eastern Church back to Nicene Christianity. Theodosius wanted to further unify the entire empire behind the orthodox position and decided to convene a church council to resolve matters of faith and discipline. [5] : 45 Gregory Nazianzus was of similar mind, wishing to unify Christianity. In the spring of 381 they convened the second ecumenical council in Constantinople.

Theological context Edit

The Council of Nicaea in 325 had not ended the Arian controversy which it had been called to clarify. Arius and his sympathizers, e.g. Eusebius of Nicomedia were admitted back into the church after ostensibly accepting the Nicene creed. Athanasius, bishop of Alexandria, the most vocal opponent of Arianism, was ultimately exiled through the machinations of Eusebius of Nicomedia. After the death of Constantine I in 337 and the accession of his Arian-leaning son Constantius II, open discussion of replacing the Nicene creed itself began. Up until about 360, theological debates mainly dealt with the divinity of the Son, the second person of the Trinity. However, because the Council of Nicaea had not clarified the divinity of the Holy Spirit, the third person of the Trinity, it became a topic of debate. The Macedonians denied the divinity of the Holy Spirit. This was also known as Pneumatomachianism.

Nicene Christianity also had its defenders: apart from Athanasius, the Cappadocian Fathers' Trinitarian discourse was influential in the council at Constantinople. Apollinaris of Laodicea, another pro-Nicene theologian, proved controversial. Possibly in an over-reaction to Arianism and its teaching that Christ was not God, he taught that Christ consisted of a human body and a divine mind, rejecting the belief that Christ had a complete human nature, including a human mind. [6] He was charged with confounding the persons of the Godhead, and with giving in to the heretical ways of Sabellius. Basil of Caesarea accused him of abandoning the literal sense of the scripture, and taking up wholly with the allegorical sense. His views were condemned in a Synod at Alexandria, under Athanasius of Alexandria, in 362, and later subdivided into several different heresies, the main ones of which were the Polemians and the Antidicomarianites.

Geopolitical context Edit

Theodosius' strong commitment to Nicene Christianity involved a calculated risk because Constantinople, the imperial capital of the Eastern Empire, was solidly Arian. To complicate matters, the two leading factions of Nicene Christianity in the East, the Alexandrians and the supporters of Meletius in Antioch, were "bitterly divided . almost to the point of complete animosity". [7]

The bishops of Alexandria and Rome had worked over a number of years to keep the see of Constantinople from stabilizing. Thus, when Gregory was selected as a candidate for the bishopric of Constantinople, both Alexandria and Rome opposed him because of his Antiochene background. [ aanhaling nodig ]

Meletian schism Edit

See of Constantinople Edit

The incumbent bishop of Constantinople was Demophilus, a Homoian Arian. On his accession to the imperial throne, Theodosius offered to confirm Demophilus as bishop of the imperial city on the condition of accepting the Nicene Creed however, Demophilus refused to abandon his Arian beliefs, and was immediately ordered to give up his churches and leave Constantinople. [8] [9] After forty years under the control of Arian bishops, the churches of Constantinople were now restored to those who subscribed to the Nicene Creed Arians were also ejected from the churches of other cities in the Eastern Roman Empire thus re-establishing Christian orthodoxy in the East. [10]

There ensued a contest to control the newly recovered see. A group led by Maximus the Cynic gained the support of Patriarch Peter of Alexandria by playing on his jealousy of the newly created see of Constantinople. They conceived a plan to install a cleric subservient to Peter as bishop of Constantinople so that Alexandria would retain the leadership of the Eastern Churches. [11] Many commentators characterize Maximus as having been proud, arrogant and ambitious. However, it is not clear the extent to which Maximus sought this position due to his own ambition or if he was merely a pawn in the power struggle. [ aanhaling nodig ] In any event, the plot was set into motion when, on a night when Gregory was confined by illness, the conspirators burst into the cathedral and commenced the consecration of Maximus as bishop of Constantinople. They had seated Maximus on the archiepiscopal throne and had just begun shearing away his long curls when the day dawned. The news of what was transpiring quickly spread and everybody rushed to the church. The magistrates appeared with their officers Maximus and his consecrators were driven from the cathedral, and ultimately completed the tonsure in the tenement of a flute-player. [12]

The news of the brazen attempt to usurp the episcopal throne aroused the anger of the local populace among whom Gregory was popular. Maximus withdrew to Thessalonica to lay his cause before the emperor but met with a cold reception there. Theodosius committed the matter to Ascholius, the much respected bishop of Thessalonica, charging him to seek the counsel of Pope Damasus I. [13]

Damasus' response repudiated Maximus summarily and advised Theodosius to summon a council of bishops for the purpose of settling various church issues such as the schism in Antioch and the consecration of a proper bishop for the see of Constantinople. [14] Damasus condemned the translation of bishops from one see to another and urged Theodosius to "take care that a bishop who is above reproach is chosen for that see." [15]

Thirty-six Pneumatomachians arrived but were denied admission to the council when they refused to accept the Nicene creed.

Since Peter, the Pope of Alexandria, was not present, the presidency over the council was given to Meletius as Patriarch of Antioch. [16] The first order of business before the council was to declare the clandestine consecration of Maximus invalid, and to confirm Theodosius' installation of Gregory Nazianzus as Archbishop of Constantinople. When Meletius died shortly after the opening of the council, Gregory was selected to lead the council.

The Egyptian and Macedonian bishops who had supported Maximus's ordination arrived late for the council. Once there, they refused to recognise Gregory's position as head of the church of Constantinople, arguing that his transfer from the See of Sasima was canonically illegitimate because one of the canons of the Council of Nicaea had forbidden bishops to transfer from their sees. [17] : 358–9

McGuckin describes Gregory as physically exhausted and worried that he was losing the confidence of the bishops and the emperor. [17] : 359 Ayres goes further and asserts that Gregory quickly made himself unpopular among the bishops by supporting the losing candidate for the bishopric of Antioch and vehemently opposing any compromise with the Homoiousians. [18] : 254

Rather than press his case and risk further division, Gregory decided to resign his office: "Let me be as the Prophet Jonah! I was responsible for the storm, but I would sacrifice myself for the salvation of the ship. Seize me and throw me. I was not happy when I ascended the throne, and gladly would I descend it." [19] He shocked the council with his surprise resignation and then delivered a dramatic speech to Theodosius asking to be released from his offices. The emperor, moved by his words, applauded, commended his labor, and granted his resignation. The council asked him to appear once more for a farewell ritual and celebratory orations. Gregory used this occasion to deliver a final address (Or. 42) and then departed. [17] : 361

Nectarius, an unbaptized civil official, was chosen to succeed Gregory as president of the council. [18] : 255

Seven canons, four of these doctrinal canons and three disciplinary canons, are attributed to the council and accepted by both the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Oriental Orthodox Churches the Roman Catholic Church accepts only the first four [20] because only the first four appear in the oldest copies and there is evidence that the last three were later additions. [21]

The first canon is an important dogmatic condemnation of all shades of Arianism, and also of Macedonianism and Apollinarianism. [20]

The second canon renewed the Nicene legislation imposing upon the bishops the observance of diocesan and patriarchal limits. [20]

The third canon reads:

The Bishop of Constantinople, however, shall have the prerogative of honour after the Bishop of Rome because Constantinople is New Rome. [22] [21] [20]

The fourth canon decreed the consecration of Maximus as Bishop of Constantinople to be invalid, declaring "that [Maximus] neither was nor is a bishop, nor are they who have been ordained by him in any rank of the clergy". [20] [23] This canon was directed not only against Maximus, but also against the Egyptian bishops who had conspired to consecrate him clandestinely at Constantinople, and against any subordinate ecclesiastics that he might have ordained in Egypt. [24]

The fifth canon might actually have been passed the next year, 382, and is in regard to a Tome of the Western bishops, perhaps that of Pope Damasus I. [20]

The sixth canon might belong to the year 382 as well and was subsequently passed at the Quinisext Council as canon 95. It limits the ability to accuse bishops of wrongdoing. [20]

The seventh canon regards procedures for receiving certain heretics into the church. [20]

The third canon was a first step in the rising importance of the new imperial capital, just fifty years old, and was notable in that it demoted the patriarchs of Antioch and Alexandria. Jerusalem, as the site of the first church, retained its place of honor.

Baronius asserted that the third canon was not authentic, not in fact decreed by the council. Some medieval Greeks maintained that it did not declare supremacy of the Bishop of Rome, but the primacy "the first among equals", similar to how they today view the Bishop of Constantinople. Throughout the next several centuries, the Western Church asserted that the Bishop of Rome had supreme authority, and by the time of the Great Schism the Roman Catholic Church based its claim to supremacy on the succession of St. Peter. When the First Council of Constantinople was approved, Rome protested the diminished honor to be afforded the bishops of Antioch and Alexandria. [ aanhaling nodig ] The status of these Eastern patriarchs would be brought up again by the Papal Legates at the Council of Chalcedon. Pope Leo the Great, [25] declared that this canon had never been submitted to Rome and that their lessened honor was a violation of the Nicene council order. At the Fourth Council of Constantinople (869), the Roman legates [26] asserted the place of the bishop of Rome's honor over the bishop of Constantinople's. After the Great Schism of 1054, in 1215 the Fourth Lateran Council declared, in its fifth canon, that the Roman Church "by the will of God holds over all others pre-eminence of ordinary power as the mother and mistress of all the faithful". [27] [28] Roman supremacy over the whole world was formally claimed by the new Latin patriarch. The Roman correctores of Gratian, [29] insert the words: "canon hic ex iis est quos apostolica Romana sedes a principio et longo post tempore non recipit" ("this canon is one of those that the Apostolic See of Rome has not accepted from the beginning and ever since").

It has been asserted by many that a synod was held by Pope Damasus I in the following year (382) which opposed the disciplinary canons of the Council of Constantinople, especially the third canon which placed Constantinople above Alexandria and Antioch. The synod protested against this raising of the bishop of the new imperial capital, just fifty years old, to a status higher than that of the bishops of Alexandria and Antioch, and stated that the primacy of the Roman see had not been established by a gathering of bishops but rather by Christ himself. [30] [31] [note 1] Thomas Shahan says that, according to Photius too, Pope Damasus approved the council, but he adds that, if any part of the council were approved by this pope, it could have been only its revision of the Nicene Creed, as was the case also when Gregory the Great recognized it as one of the four general councils, but only in its dogmatic utterances. [33]

Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed Edit

Traditionally, the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed has been associated with the Council of Constantinople (381). It is roughly theologically equivalent to the Nicene Creed, but includes two additional articles: an article on the Holy Spirit—describing Him as "the Lord, the Giver of Life, Who proceeds from the Father, Who with the Father and the Son is worshipped and glorified, and Who spoke through the prophets"—and an article about the church, baptism, and the resurrection of the dead. (For the full text of both creeds, see Comparison between Creed of 325 and Creed of 381.)

However, scholars are not agreed on the connection between the Council of Constantinople and the Niceno–Constantinopolitan Creed. Some modern scholars believe that this creed, or something close to it, was stated by the bishops at Constantinople, but not promulgated as an official act of the council. Scholars also dispute whether this creed was simply an expansion of the Creed of Nicaea, or whether it was an expansion of another traditional creed similar but not identical to the one from Nicaea. [34] In 451, the Council of Chalcedon referred to this creed as "the creed . of the 150 saintly fathers assembled in Constantinople", [35] indicating that this creed was associated with Constantinople (381) no later than 451.

Christology Edit

This council condemned Arianism which began to die out with further condemnations at a council of Aquileia by Ambrose of Milan in 381. With the discussion of Trinitarian doctrine now developed, the focus of discussion changed to Christology, which would be the topic of the Council of Ephesus of 431 and the Council of Chalcedon of 451.

Shift of influence from Rome to Constantinople Edit

David Eastman cites the First Council of Constantinople as another example of the waning influence of Rome over the East. He notes that all three of the presiding bishops came from the East. Damasus had considered both Meletius and Gregory to be illegitimate bishops of their respective sees and yet, as Eastman and others point out, the Eastern bishops paid no heed to his opinions in this regard. [36]

The First Council of Constantinople (381) was the first appearance of the term 'New Rome' in connection to Constantinople. The term was employed as the grounds for giving the relatively young church of Constantinople precedence over Alexandria and Antioch ('because it is the New Rome').

The 150 individuals at the council are commemorated in the Calendar of saints of the Armenian Apostolic Church on February 17.


HCPCS Background Information

Each year, in the United States, health care insurers process over 5 billion claims for payment. For Medicare and other health insurance programs to ensure that these claims are processed in an orderly and consistent manner, standardized coding systems are essential. The HCPCS Level II Code Set is one of the standard code sets used for this purpose. The HCPCS is divided into two principal subsystems, referred to as level I and level II of the HCPCS. Level I of the HCPCS is comprised of CPT (Current Procedural Terminology), a numeric coding system maintained by the American Medical Association (AMA). The CPT is a uniform coding system consisting of descriptive terms and identifying codes that are used primarily to identify medical services and procedures furnished by physicians and other health care professionals. These health care professionals use the CPT to identify services and procedures for which they bill public or private health insurance programs. Decisions regarding the addition, deletion, or revision of CPT codes are made by the AMA. The CPT codes are republished and updated annually by the AMA. Level I of the HCPCS, the CPT codes, does not include codes needed to separately report medical items or services that are regularly billed by suppliers other than physicians.

Level II of the HCPCS is a standardized coding system that is used primarily to identify products, supplies, and services not included in the CPT codes, such as ambulance services and durable medical equipment, prosthetics, orthotics, and supplies (DMEPOS) when used outside a physician's office. Because Medicare and other insurers cover a variety of services, supplies, and equipment that are not identified by CPT codes, the level II HCPCS codes were established for submitting claims for these items. The development and use of level II of the HCPCS began in the 1980's. Level II codes are also referred to as alpha-numeric codes because they consist of a single alphabetical letter followed by 4 numeric digits, while CPT codes are identified using 5 numeric digits.


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NASA’s Apollo 9 mission launches on March 3 News Events. The purpose of the mission was to prepare for an eventual manned lunar landing later that year. It was the first space test of a complete Apollo spacecraft including the lunar module and Saturn V launch rocket. The included James McDivitt, David Scott, and Russell Schweickart. They performed the first docking and extraction of a lunar module and the first crewed flight of a lunar module. The crew also performed several test on the lunar module systems and a two person space walk. The Apollo 9 space mission returned to Earth successfully after 10 days in space.

  • Woodstock attracts more than 350,000 rock-n-roll fans, Atlanta International Pop Festival on 4th July attracts 100,000 fans, Isle of Wight Festival attracted an audience of approximately 150,000

Property Records & Documents Online

Real Estate Property Records (ook public property records, property ownership records) is public information in the United States of America, which means anyone can access it. County Recorder of deed and Courthouse and Property (Tax) Assessor's offices maintain real estate records.

Only a few years ago, researching property information or running a title search intended going to the local recorder's office, filling out forms and paying a fee for each copy of a property record or a document. Advancements in high-speed and secure e-commerce have made it possible to search and deliver millions of real property records via the Internet. Nowadays researching and retrieving property information, generating property reports, or uncovering hidden real estate assets takes only minutes.

In addition to property reports, localized radius searches, and custom property research, HomeInfoMax also offers free links to maps, county officials and demographic information, and several options for filtering, storing, saving, downloading and printing property reports, documents, and marketing leads. Our conventional research is limited to County and State, or City and State, or ZIP Code. We also developed Asset Finder option that works Statewide and Nationwide. Those are high-level methods designed to search and locate real estate assets throughout the state or the entire country. Asset search is possible with a current Owner Name or a Mailing Address.

Flexible search does not require the exact property address. Using a property owner name or a business name is one of the possibilities available to our subscribers. Searching with a formatted Assessor's Parcel Number (Tax Number) is another excellent method. We are ideally suited to establish the property owner location and mailing address, as well as verify the residency. To assist our subscribers, we allow “wildcard” entry in certain search fields, and the quality and consistency of property reports remains uncompromised. We have also incorporated free State/County/City/ZIP Search tools for looking up Counties and Cities throughout the United States and review county demographics.

Having access to diverse real estate data presents certain technological challenges, as well as unique opportunities. We are monitoring and capturing most updates and title transfers within days. Regrettably, some counties still are not modernized enough to offer up-to-the-minute information, yet we do monitor all available sources and promptly incorporate most recent updates. Our State/County Coverage area of property records is the largest in the nation and includes virtually all types of Real Estate properties, such as residential, commercial, industrial, agricultural, vacant lands, time-shares, and others. We offer property information throughout all 50 states and cover over 98.8% of real property owners in the United States – that makes us the largest provider of real estate records, documents, liens, and parcel maps in the country.

In addition researching property profiles, our users can obtain Property Title History, Voluntary Liens, Involuntary Liens, and Property Legal & Vesting reports. Real estate reports may consist of many elements we also offer digital copies of actual recorded documents (Deeds) as Document Images and Parcel Maps reflecting the legal boundaries and dimensions of each parcel. Our Basic or Detailed Property Reports do not contain title history, lien records or Legal & Vesting descriptions. The property Title History report (also called Transaction History Report) is moderately different and principally deals with chronological events of financial transactions (mortgages) and ownership (title) transfers. The property Voluntary Liens report (also called Debt Report) is a more comprehensive report made up of chosen liens with chronological events of financial and ownership transactions on a property, such as the status of secured financial interests, releases, assignments and foreclosures. The Involuntary Liens Report shows liens on a property to secure money owned to the third party by the property owner. In includes Mechanic's Liens, HOA Liens, Bankruptcy Liens, Judgment Liens, Federal Tax and IRS Liens, State, County, City other municipality Liens, Support Judgment, and Divorce. The Legal & Vesting report in essence consists of 2 distinct factors – the Legal part deals with property legal description, and the Vesting part deals with property ownership and status and manner in which title of ownership is held (title vesting). Our instant Legal & Vesting report also includes the latest property tax. As an extra service, we also offer Property Building Permit Records providing construction records that may also include recent and previous remodeling or other property improvements requiring permits.

One of the advantages of modern technology is our ability to manipulate, categorize and organize property data in highly optimized ways to make it exceptionally beneficial to our users. For example, property search via a street address range will produce owner names, addresses and parcel numbers of all properties within that specified range. Similarly, searching by owner or business name will generate all properties owned by a specified individual or a business within your selected area. All our subscribers get Homeowners Lists program at no additional cost. This program contains not only residential homeowners' lists, but also all other types of real property owners.

If you have unique property search requirements or are interested in target marketing with customized search variables, we offer two choices: our exclusive Property Research & Lead Generation and Radius Search programs are available to all our subscribers. For highly customized and personalized property searches and concise Single-Line Property Reports our Property Research & Lead Generation program is one of the most modernized systems used by professionals who look for ways to custom-tailor and fine-tune their marketing needs. If you research within the boundaries of a neighborhood, the Radius Search program originally designed for Real Estate "farming" will identify immediate properties and property owners within a close proximity from the target property.

Custom property research and radius searches would not have been possible without sophisticated and highly synchronized search algorithms. All these programs also include most types of real estate properties throughout all 50 states.

Eiendom Rekords Restrictions

The amount of property information available within a particular geographic area varies depending upon what each state legislates to the property recorders to make it public. For instance, the following states: Idaho, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, New Mexico, Texas, Utah, and Wyoming are non-disclosure states, meaning they do not have to make certain property data public, such as property sale price and/or sale date. Other key states, such as California, Florida, New York and most others, make virtually all Real Estate records accessible to public. A few states, such as California also may impose public restrictions on the availability of property records of elected officials.

Hoe om Retrieve Property Records

Today, Real Estate property records are easily obtainable from the Internet, and HomeInfoMax provides secure, convenient and instant access to the leading nationwide property records' databases.

ABRIDGED DEFINITIONS

Wat is Property?
  • the rights that one individual has in land or goods to the exclusion of all others rights gained from the ownership of wealth.
  • Real Estate.

Property includes all those things and rights which are the object of ownership. Real property consists of land or anything attached to or a part of the land such as a house. Real property is commonly known as Real Estate. Property that becomes an integral part of a building such as heating and air conditioning units is also considered to be real property.

All other property such as stocks, bonds, jewelry is called personal property - our Website deals wholly with general real estate, and particularly with real estate property records.

Wat is Eiendom Property Records?

Real Property Records contain all of the recorded data associated with a particular Real Estate. Real Property definition includes many different types of properties such as residential, condominium, commercial, industrial, vacant land, mobile home, and time-shares - virtually everything that can be developed and used for residential or commercial purposes.

Tipes of Real Estate
  • Residential Property:In real estate brokerage terminology, owner-occupied housing in income taxation terminology, rental units used for dwelling purposes, not of a transient (hotel, motel) nature. To qualify as residential, at least 80% of a building's income should be derived from dwelling units.
  • Condominium:A form of property ownership in multi-unit structures can be residential, industrial or commercial. Each unit is owned individually and all common areas (sidewalks, hallways, stairs, pools, etc.) are owned in undivided interest ownership with all unit owners having an equal share.
  • Commercial Property:Property designed for use by retail, wholesale, office, hotel/motel, or service users.
  • Industrial Property:Property used for industrial purposes, such as factories, industrial yards, or developmental parks.
  • VacantLand:Land not currently being used may have utilities and off-site improvements. Contrast with raw land.
  • Mobile Home:A dwelling unit manufactured in a factory and designed to be transported to a site and semi-permanently attached.
  • Time-Share:A form of property ownership under which a property is held by a number of people, each with the right of possession for a specified time interval. Time-sharing is most commonly applied to resort and vacation properties.
What is Property Title?

Evidence that the ownership of Real Estate is in lawful possession thereof evidence of ownership. It is the owner's right to possess and use the property.

Forms of Eiendom Eienaarskap

Real property can be held in several different methods, which affect income tax, estate tax, continuity, liability, survivorship, transferability, disposition at death and at bankruptcy. Most recognizable property ownership types are:

  • Tenancy in severalty: Ownership of property by one person or one legal entity.
  • Joint tenancy with right of survivorship: Two or more persons own a property. A joint tenant with the common law right of survivorship means the survivor inherits the property without reference to the decedent's will. Creditors may sue to have the property divided to settle claims against one of the owners.
  • Tenancy by the entireties: A husband and wife own the property with the common law right of survivorship so, if one dies, the other automatically inherits.
  • Tenancy in common: Two or more persons own the property with no right of survivorship each has an undivided interest. If one dies, his interest passes to his heirs, not necessarily the co-owner. Either party, or a creditor of one, may sue to partition the property.

Other Real Estate forms of ownership are business kinds such as Corporation, Limited Partnership, Partnership, Real Estate Investment Trust, and Subchapter S Corporation. Practically all types of real estate can be held under virtually all forms of ownership.

What is Property Deed?

A written document, properly signed and delivered, that conveys title to the real property. There are several types of deeds: General Warranty Deed, Quitclaim Deed, Special Warranty Deed, Grant Deed, Trustee's Deed and others.

Wat are Counties?

A County is district into which a state is divided. It is a sub-division of regional self-government within an autonomous jurisdiction. The United States in addition to being divided into states are also divided into counties counties are divided into civil townships, boroughs, towns, etc. The term graafskap in the U.S. is used in 46 states in addition of county boundaries servicing as local subdivisions of the state government, they are also used for local property records upkeep, including most, but not necessarily all real estate records. The exceptions are Alaska and Louisiana – they call each such division a “borough” and a “parish” respectively. For practicality, HomeInfoMax does not distinguish between alternate names or definitions – searching for property records is always available within a county and a state, or statewide as well as nationwide with an owner name throughout all 50 states, Washington DC and U.S. Virgin Islands. There are at present over 3,140 counties in the United States of America.

Several samples of Property Records are available for review for Basic and Detailed Property Profiles, Title History, Property Voluntary Liens, Involuntary Liens, Property Legal & Vesting reports, Assessor Parcel Maps, Deeds and other Recorded Documents you can also evaluate our Property Research & Lead Generation and Homeowners Lists retrieval programs. Some real property reports, such as vacant lands, are usually obtainable by searching with County/State only, yet searches in City/State or a ZIP Code can also be productive. HomeInfoMax in addition to governmental property information also provides a smaller percentage of property records from reliable commercial and private sources.

To make clear sense of so many different types of property records and accompanying fees, we have assembled a well-organized chart that lists all pricing plans along with their associated types of property reports. Everything that relates to our pricing schedule and subscriptions is found on PLANS page - it is easy to compare.

Terms of Usage & Liability Disclaimer

This site does not assert any type of confidentiality between our firm and those visiting our site and is not meant to communicate any legal advice to a viewer. As such, we are not responsible for any decisions that an individual or entity might make after viewing this site. Unauthorized use, tampering with or modification of this system - or its supporting hardware or software - may violate federal or other statutes and may subject the violator to criminal and civil penalties. In the event of unauthorized intrusion, all relevant information regarding possible violation of law may be provided to law enforcement officials. Questions regarding this policy may be sent to us via email.


Specifications for a 4 Cylinder Hercules Diesel Engine

Hercules was a manufacturer of diesel engines until 1999. Due to economic downturns and losing government contracts, it no longer manufactures engines. The company, however, is far from defunct. As of 2010, it supplies all the parts for its original engines, and is heavily involved with engine re-manufacturing for various brands. The company still sells engines, and makes available to the general public the specifications for its current line of re-manufactured engines.

The G1600 is a four-cylinder engine displacing 163 cubic inches. Its horsepower rating is a minimum of 20 to a maximum of 65 horsepower. Hercules states this engine is used on pallet trucks (also called hi-los), generators, some Jeeps, and wood chippers.

The D2300 displaces 226 cubic inches. Its horsepower rating is from 27 to 84 horsepower through its rpm range. Some uses for this engine include shredders, small buses, and aircraft support vehicles, such as baggage carriers. Hercules states that some customers that use this engine include Chance Coach, Ingersol Rand, and the Ford Motor Co.

The D198ER is designed for military applications. It has a displacement of 198 cubic inches, and produces 58 horsepower at 2,600 rpm. It is 32 inches long, 24 inches wide, and 31 inches tall. It weighs 695 lbs. If you are designing a piece of equipment that uses this engine, Hercules recommends contacting the company in the early design stages for engineering assistance.

Tony Oldhand has been technical writing since 1995. He has worked in the skilled trades and diversified into Human Services in 1998, working with the developmentally disabled. He is also heavily involved in auto restoration and in the do-it-yourself sector of craftsman trades. Oldhand has an associate degree in electronics and has studied management at the State University of New York.


Kyk die video: FULL BUILD - Academy JU-87G-1 Stuka Tank Buster 1:72 Scale Model Aircraft (Januarie 2022).