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Wat was die Nazi -rassebeskouing oor Hongare en die Japannese?

Wat was die Nazi -rassebeskouing oor Hongare en die Japannese?

Hongarye en Japan was Nazi-Duitsland se bondgenote tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog, maar daar kan onmoontlik aangevoer word dat die Japannese tot die 'Ariese ras' behoort, en Hongare spreek 'n nie-Indo-Europese taal, wat hulle waarskynlik ook as Ariërs diskwalifiseer. Het die Duitse propaganda dit probeer verantwoord? Was daar uitsprake van die Nazi -amptenare of geleerdes oor die rasse -status van die Hongaarse en Japannese mense?

Aangesien die Nazi-leiers slawerny en daaropvolgende uitwissing van Pole op grond van rasse beplan het, is daar ook analoog verklarings gemaak oor Russe gedurende die tyd wat die Ribbentrop-Molotov-verdrag gehou is? Wat van ander as- of pro-as-Slawiese nasies soos Slowake of Bulgare?


Die Duitse regering beskou die Japannese as 'ere -Ariërs'. Volgens Hitler behoort die Japannese en die Chinese, net soos die Duitsers, aan antieke beskawings. Wikipedia bespreek dit ook.


Daar was geen konsekwente rasseteorie wat die Nazi's as een of ander manier 'amptelik' onderskryf het nie. Alle besluite is van geval tot geval geneem, afhangende van die huidige situasie en Hitler se persoonlike voorkeure.

Die persoonlike voorkeure van Hitler was dat hy Jode, Pole en Russe haat. Hy was redelik neutraal ten opsigte van sommige ander nasies, waaronder Slawies. Hy beskou Oekraïners beter as beide Pole en Russe.

Hy het die Turkmeens (wat Mongoolse is, Turkse taal en Moslems gepraat het) beter geag as Litouwers en Letse, wat wit, Christen en sprekende tale is wat die meeste kenmerke van die ou Indo-Europeërs behou.

Hy verkies Tatare bo Russe en Oekraïners.

Dit alles was heeltemal willekeurig.

Daar moet op gelet word dat daar langs die sogenaamde 'Aryanism'-ideologie mededingende ideologieë van Nordicisme en Germanisme en rassuiwerheidsteorie sowel as ander was. Van die eerste drie blyk dit dat Hitler die meeste van Germanisme gehou het, terwyl Nordicisme die minste daarvan gehou het.

Al hierdie is in verskillende kontekste aangehaal, afhangende van die situasie. Aryanisme is byvoorbeeld gebruik om Jode uit te sluit, Germanisme - om Slawiërs en Nordisme en rassuiwerheid uit te sluit - om die Franse en Italianers sowel as Sigeuners aan te val.

'N Ander teorie was dat' heldhaftige 'nasies, dit wil sê nasies wat hul bure verower en tot slawe gemaak het, verkies moet word bo handelslande wat uitgebrei word deur handel en dat beide die voorkeur moet geniet bo die nasies wat hulself tot slawe gemaak het.

Vanuit hierdie oogpunt is Jode uitgesluit as 'n handelaar en 'n slawerny (tot slawerny so lank gelede as die Bybelse tyd). Russe word as 'natuurlike slawe' beskou omdat hulle die Skandinawiese Varangiërs uitgenooi het om hulle te regeer, omdat die meerderheid van die pre-revolusionêre Russiese adel en die tsaar self van Duitse afkoms was (terwyl die slawe slawe was) en omdat die Nazi's geglo het dat die Die woord "Slaaf" is afgelei van 'Slawies' (in Duits val beide woorde saam). (die afstammelinge van die slawe), oorlogsugtige Kaukasusbewoners, Tsjetsjenen en Kosakke was die voorkeur bo "vreedsame" Russe, ens.


EDIT: Sjoe, ek het nie gesien dat dit uit 2012 was nie. Dit verskyn bo -aan die bladsy met vrae, so ek het dit beantwoord. Dit is vreemd ... ek wonder hoekom dit bo -aan die 'nuutste' afdeling was. Ek sou nie gereageer het as ek die datum gesien het nie.

Ek het dit op die kollege gestudeer (Geskiedenis was my hoofvak).

Die kort antwoord:

Hitler wou die wêreld so vinnig as moontlik verower. Sy aanvanklike plan was om in lyn te kom met 'n paar strategiese groepe en dit later ook te oorwin. 'N Voorbeeld hiervan het verkeerd geloop, is hoe Hitler in lyn was met Rusland en daarna probeer het om die land oor te neem nadat hy van hom wou kry.

Hitler kon duidelik nie 'n stap in die Stille Oseaan maak nie, want Duitsland is nie naby die streek nie, en daarom het hy die Japannese aangesê om te doen wat hulle wil en hy het 'n back -up van hulle gemaak. Sy plan was om hulle die vuil werk te laat doen, en dan sou hy hulle ook oorneem wanneer die Euro -gebied beheer word. Rusland het dit weer deurmekaar geraak omdat hitler van plan was om die Trans-Siberiese Spoorweg te gebruik om troepe en voorrade van Moskou na Vladivostok te stuur om China, Korea en Japan te verower, maar toe sy Russiese veldtog misluk, het hy Japan regtig regeer ... omdat hy het op hierdie stadium geen keuse gehad nie.

Wat Hongarye betref, stem Hitler in met hulle omdat hy die Midde-Ooste en die Balkan wou verower, maar geen aanvanklike middele gehad het om dit uit te voer nie. Hongarye het sy bestemming geword omdat dit strategies tussen Duitsland, die Balkan/Midde-Ooste, Pole en die Oekraïne geleë is. Hongarye was sy sleutel tot die nabye Ooste. Sy planne het begin misluk toe die Hongaarse verset brutaler geword het en sy sake in Hongarye steeds ontwrig het.

Van die begin af was Hitler se doel om almal behalwe Duitsers tot 'n slaaf te maak met suiwer Duitse afkoms wat vir verskeie geslagte gedokumenteer is. Aan almal buite die groep is aanvanklik anders gesê, sodat hy hulle kon gebruik en hulle kon verslaan. Hierdie konsep was ook van toepassing op Vichy Frankryk. In sy Mein Kampf -boek het hy dit alles uitgeskryf. Die hartseer is dat almal, voordat hy bekend geword het, gedink het dat hy 'n lui is en nie die moeite gedoen het om sy boek te lees nie. Hy het byna sy boek se planne tot 'n T gevolg, dus is daar akademies gedebatteer dat die oorlog voorkom kon word, of ten minste voorsien kon word as amptenare na sy boek gekyk het, wat destyds wyd gepubliseer is. Onthou dat die meeste nasies uit vrees by hom aangesluit het. Die Nazi's het destyds die mees gevorderde wapens en taktieke gehad, en lande het letterlik binne enkele ure tot dae na sy aanvalle geval. Toe Pole val en Hitler voortdurend deur lande stoot, het diegene wat in lyn gebring is, dit gedoen om hul mense, kultuur en geskiedenis te beskerm, want onthou, Hitler vernietig ook aktief die geskiedenis en kulture van lande, sodat niemand ooit iets kon weet nie anders as Nazisme toe hy die volle beheer oorgeneem het.

My bron is my universiteitsopleiding en navorsingsagtergrond.

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Nazi -rassisme: 'n oorsig

Rassisme het Nazi -ideologie en beleid aangevuur. Die Nazi's beskou die wêreld as verdeel in mededingende minderwaardige en superieure rasse, wat elkeen sukkel om oorlewing en oorheersing. Hulle het geglo dat die Jode nie 'n godsdienstige denominasie was nie, maar 'n gevaarlike nie-Europese 'ras'. Nazi -rassisme sou moord op 'n ongekende skaal veroorsaak.

Sleutel feite

Rassiste glo dat aangebore, oorerflike eienskappe menslike gedrag biologies bepaal. In die vroeë twintigste eeu is sulke opvattings oor ras in baie dele van die wêreld algemeen aanvaar. In werklikheid is ras nie biologies gebaseer nie, dit is 'n kulturele indeling van groepe.

Volgens Nazi -rasteorieë het Duitsers en ander Europeërs beter fisiese en geestelike eienskappe ondervind. Hulle beskou Europese mense as 'Ariërs', afkomstig van die ou Indo-Europeërs wat hulle regoor die Europese vasteland sowel as in Iran en Indië gevestig het.

Rasse -antisemitisme is die vooroordeel teen of haat van Jode op grond van valse wetenskaplike teorieë. Hierdie aspek van rassisme was altyd 'n integrale deel van Nazisme.

Hierdie inhoud is beskikbaar in die volgende tale

Rassiste is mense wat glo dat aangebore, oorerflike eienskappe menslike gedrag biologies bepaal.

Die leerstelling van rassisme beweer dat bloed nasionale-etniese identiteit bepaal. Binne 'n rassistiese raamwerk word die waarde van 'n mens nie bepaal deur sy of haar individualiteit nie, maar eerder deur lidmaatskap van 'n sogenaamde 'rassekollektiewe nasie'. Baie intellektuele, insluitend wetenskaplikes, het rassistiese denke pseudowetenskaplike steun verleen. Rassistiese denkers uit die negentiende eeu, soos Houston Stewart Chamberlain, het 'n beduidende invloed op baie in die generasie van Adolf Hitler uitgeoefen.

Rassisme, insluitend rasse -antisemitisme (vooroordeel teenoor of haat van Jode op grond van valse biologiese teorieë), was altyd 'n integrale deel van die Duitse Nasionaal -Sosialisme (Nazisme).

Die Nazi's beskou die hele mensegeskiedenis as die geskiedenis van 'n biologies bepaalde stryd tussen mense van verskillende rasse. Die Nazi's was van mening dat politieke bewegings soos marxisme, kommunisme, pasifisme en internasionalisme anti-nasionalisties was en 'n gevaarlike, rasgebaseerde Joodse intellektualisme weerspieël.

In 1931 het die SS (Schutzstaffel die elite -wag van die Nazi -staat) het 'n ras- en vestigingskantoor gestig om rasse -"navorsing" te doen en om die geskiktheid van potensiële eggenote vir lede van die SS te bepaal. Nadat die Nazi's aan bewind gekom het, het hulle in 1935 die raswette van Neurenberg goedgekeur, wat 'n sogenaamde biologiese definisie van Joodsheid gekodifiseer het.

Nazi-rassiste beskou geestelik en liggaamlik siekes as 'n gebrek aan die genetiese landskap van die sogenaamde meesterras en, toe hulle dit voortplant, as 'n biologiese gevaar vir die suiwerheid van die Ariese ras. Na deeglike beplanning en data -insameling gedurende die laaste ses maande van 1939, het Duitse dokters begin om gestremde inwoners van instellings in Duitsland te vermoor in 'n operasie wat hulle eufemisties 'genadedood' genoem het.

Volgens Nazi -rasteorieë was Duitsers en ander Noord -Europeërs 'Ariërs', 'n beter ras. Tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog het Nazi-dokters vals mediese eksperimente uitgevoer om fisiese bewyse van Ariese superioriteit en nie-Ariese minderwaardigheid te identifiseer. Ondanks die doodmaak van talle nie-Ariese gevangenes tydens hierdie eksperimente, kon die Nazi's geen bewyse vind vir hul teorieë oor biologiese rasseverskille tussen mense nie.

Toe die Nazi's aan die bewind gekom het, het rassewette en -beleid geïmplementeer wat Jode, Swartmense en Roma (Sigeuners) van hul regte ontneem het. Gedurende die Tweede Wêreldoorlog het die Nazi -leierskap in die besette oostelike gebiede van Pole en die Sowjetunie 'n 'etniese huisreiniging' genoem. Hierdie beleid het die moord en vernietiging van sogenaamde vyandige 'rasse' ingesluit, insluitend die volksmoord op Europese Jode en die vernietiging van die leierskap van die Slawiese volke.


Die Nazi Party -program

In Februarie 1920 het Hitler 'n 25-punt-program (die Nazi Party Platform) aan 'n vergadering van die Nazi-party aangebied.

In die 25-punt-program het lede van die Nazi-party in die openbaar hul voorneme verklaar om Jode te skei van die "Ariese" samelewing en om Jode se politieke, wettige en burgerregte te herroep. Punt 4 van die program het byvoorbeeld gesê dat

"Slegs 'n nasionale kameraad kan 'n burger wees. Slegs iemand van Duitse bloed, ongeag geloof, kan 'n burger wees. Daarom kan geen Jood 'n burger wees nie."

Die 25 punte bly die party se amptelike doelstelling, alhoewel later jare baie punte geïgnoreer is.


Hitler beskou China en Japan as gelyk aan Duitsland en skryf selfs bewonderend: “Ek erken vry dat hul geskiedenis beter is as ons eie ”

Nadat die Nazi aan bewind gekom het, het Adolf Hitler dit duidelik gemaak dat hy die Verdrag van Versailles as onregverdig teenoor Duitsland beskou en dat dit hersien moet word.

Die Verdrag van Versailles, wat op 28 Junie 1919 onderteken is, het vyf hoofpunte:

  • Duitsland moes die skuld vir die aanvang van die oorlog aanvaar.
  • Die Duitse weermag was beperk tot 100 000 man, en hulle mag nie duikbote of 'n lugmag hê nie.
  • Duitsland moes vergoeding betaal vir die skade wat aangerig is.
  • Duitsland het 13% van sy gebiede verloor, en sy kolonies is aan Frankryk of Brittanje gegee.
  • Duitsland is nie toegelaat om by die Volkebond aan te sluit nie.

Betoging teen die verdrag voor die Reichstag

Amerikaanse kontemporêre siening van die Duitse Eerste Wêreldoorlog -herstel. Politieke tekenprent, 1921

Hitler was van mening dat die verdrag onregverdig was en dat baie Duitsers sy mening gedeel het, dus sy hoofdoel was om dit te vernietig en om van Duitsland weer 'n sterk, hegemoniese mag in Europa te maak. Hy het gesê dat die Duitse nasie meer nodig het Lebensraum (‘leefruimte ’) en die enigste manier om dit te bied, was om uit te brei na Pole, Austra, Tsjeggo -Slowakye.

Na die Verdrag het baie Duitsers in die buiteland gewoon, en daarom was hy vasbeslote om alle Duitssprekende mense in een land te verenig. Hy het die kommunisme ook die skuld gegee vir die nederlaag van Duitsland in die Eerste Wêreldoorlog, en sy plan was onder meer die verslaan van die Sowjetunie en die vernietiging van die kommunisme.

Die Nazi -vestiging van die Duitse Lebensraum het vereis dat die Pole uit Pole geskors moes word, soos dat hulle uit die Reichsgau Wartheland in 1939 uitgestuur is Foto Credit

Die Groter Germaanse Ryk, wat met die beleid van Lebensraum verwesenlik moes word, het grense afgelei van die planne van die Generalplan Ost, die staatsadministrasie en die Schutzstaffel (SS) fotokrediet

Hitler het die buitelandse beleid van Duitsland baie versigtig begin deur hom aan die ontwapeningskonferensie en die Volkebond te onttrek. Hy beweer dat Duitsland slegs vrede wil hê en sal ontwapen as ander state instem om dieselfde te doen.

Deur 'n tien jaar lange nie-aggressie-ooreenkoms met Pole in 1934 te onderteken, het hy onskadelik gelyk in die oë van die ander Europese lande wat besorg was oor die nuwe regering in Duitsland en sy beleid. In dieselfde jaar het Oostenrykse en Duitse Nazi's saam 'n staatsgreep probeer, maar dit was onsuksesvol danksy Mussolini, wat die Duitsers afgewaarsku het.

Die besetting van die Rynland na die oorlog, die stippellyn dui die omvang van die gedemilitariseerde sone aan Foto Krediet

Sy buitelandse beleid het hom gewild onder die Duitse volk gebring, so aangemoedig deur sy sukses besluit Hitler om te dobbel deur troepe na die gedemilitariseerde gebied van die Rynland te stuur. 30 000 liggewapende Duitse soldate het die Rynland beset, en niemand durf hulle keer nie.

Hitler het geweet dat hy alles in gevaar stel deur sy 30 000 troepe in die Rynland te stuur en hy het gesê: “Die agt-en-veertig uur na die opmars na die Rynland was die senutergendste in my lewe. As die Franse die Rynland ingeloop het, sou ons met ons stert tussen ons bene moes terugtrek, want die militêre hulpbronne tot ons beskikking sou heeltemal onvoldoende gewees het vir selfs 'n matige weerstand. ”

Goebbels, Hitler en von Blomberg fotokrediet

Die alliansie, bekend as die Rome-Berlyn-as, onderteken deur Mussolini en Hitler in 1936, het die posisie van Duitsland gekonsolideer. Nazi-Duitsland se buitelandse beleid het 'n stap verder gegaan toe Duitsland en Italië in 1937 die Anti-Komintern-verdrag in 1937 onderteken het en Hitler sy posisie nog meer versterk het.

Hitler was versot op rasegtheid, geskiedenis en#8217 en hy het selfs die Duitse buitelandse beleid gevorm deur die Nazi -rasse -ideologie.

Hy het geglo dat die Duitse “ Ariese ” ras bedreig word deur die inherente minderwaardige rasse: Jode, Roma, Afrikaners en Slawiërs.

Duitsland se Führer Adolf Hitler (regs) langs Italië en Duce Benito Mussolini (links) Fotokrediet

Een van die interessantste aspekte van die Duitse buitelandse beleid was die ekonomiese en militêre verhouding met China en Japan. Hitler beskou China en Japan as gelykstaande aan Duitsland en het 'n sterk ekonomiese band met hierdie lande, veral met China, gevestig. Chinese en Japannese word gesien as 'n#8220honorary Aryans ” en in Die politieke testament van Adolf Hitler, hy het geskryf:

H. H. Kung en Adolf Hitler in Berlyn

Trots op een wedloop - en dit impliseer nie minagting vir ander rasse nie - is ook 'n normale en gesonde gevoel. Ek het nog nooit die Chinese of die Japannese as minderwaardig as onsself beskou nie. Hulle behoort tot antieke beskawings, en ek erken vrylik dat hul geskiedenis beter is as ons eie.

Hulle het die reg om trots te wees op hul verlede, net soos ons die reg het om trots te wees op die beskawing waaraan ons behoort. Inderdaad, ek glo dat hoe meer standvastig die Chinese en die Japannese in hul trots is, hoe makliker sal ek dit vind om met hulle aan te gaan. ”

'N Afvaardiging van die Hitlerjugend besoek die Meiji-heiligdom in Tokio tydens 'n etlike maande lange vriendskapstoer in 1938

Goeie vriende in drie lande ”: Japannese propaganda -plakkaat uit 1938 wat die samewerking tussen Japan, Duitsland en Italië bevorder

Uiteindelik moes Hitler se twee gunstelingvennote in die Verre Ooste afsonderlike weë loop en die Fuhrer moes noodgedwonge kant kies.

Dit moes 'n moeilike besluit gewees het sedert Duitsland 'n dieper ekonomiese en militêre verhouding met China gehad het, maar aan die ander kant was die Japannese militêre meerdere. Hy het 'n besluit geneem en Japan gekies.

Die Japannese ambassade in Berlyn, beklee met die baniere van die drie ondertekenaars van die drieparty -verdrag in September 1940 Fotokrediet

Sy grootste politieke en militêre sukses tot dusver was egter die Anschluss met Oostenryk in 1938. Hierdie gebeurtenis het die swakheid van Brittanje en Frankryk onthul wat net toeskouers was en niks anders gedoen het as om te protesteer nie.

In Oostenryk 1938 ” kruis Hitler die grens na Oostenryk in Maart 1938 Fotokrediet

Hitler kondig die Anschluss aan op die Heldenplatz, Wene, 15 Maart 1938 Fotokrediet

Aangemoedig deur sy sukses in Oostenryk, fokus Hitler op Duitssprekende Sudetenland en in 1938 onderteken hy die München-ooreenkoms en Sudetenland word deel van die Derde Ryk.

Hy verbreek die ooreenkoms in 1939 en val die res van Tsjeggo -Slowakye binne.

Na die beraad keer die Britse premier Chamberlain terug na die Verenigde Koninkryk waar hy verklaar dat die München -ooreenkoms 'vrede' vir ons tyd beteken ”

Een van sy grootste suksesse op die gebied van buitelandse beleid was die nie-aggressieverdrag met die USSR wat in 1939 onderteken is.

Hulle het ooreengekom om mekaar nie aan te val nie, en ook geen bondgenootskappe teen die ander aan te sluit nie. Na die ondertekening van die nie-aggressie-verdrag is Hitler nog meer aangemoedig om Pole aan te val en op 1 September 1939 het die Duitse troepe in Pole binnegekom. Twee dae later begin die Tweede Wêreldoorlog.


Nazi -rassehiërargie

Die Nazi -rassehiërargie is opgelê deur die Nazi -Duitsland wat voldoen aan 'n aantal reëls en beginsels. Baie Nazisme -teorieë is deur die Nazi's gestig om 'n hiërargie te vorm wat die mense in verskillende gemeenskappe verdeel en behandel word volgens hul gemeenskapstatus. Die wetenskaplike legitimiteit vorm die basis van die Nazi -rassehiërargie. 'N Paar nodige sterilisasies is gebruik om die rasse -netheid en higiëne te verseker.

Volgens die Nazi -hiërargie was die menslike ras versprei oor talle sektore wat gebaseer was op die Ariese ras. Na verneem word, was die meesterras die voortreflike ras en is gevolg deur die Nordiese ras en die hiërargie gaan voort met ander oorblywende Ariese rasse. 'N Kursus met 'n spesifieke beleid is deur hulle ontwerp wat gerig was op mense met 'n lae posisie in die rassehiërargie. Dit sluit Jode, Sigeuners en massas met gestremdhede in.

Die meesterras was bekend as Herrelvolk en word beskou as die beste sosiale mense van die Nazi -rassehiërargie, terwyl Jode as die mense op die laagste vlak van die hiërargie beskou is. Daar was 'n paar tussenrasse soos Volksgemeinschaft, Russe, Romani en persone van kleur.

Die ras word onderskei deur tipiese Ariërs en nie-Ariërs. Die Ariese meesterras bevat die massa soos Duitsers, Nederlanders, Skandinawiërs, Franse en Engelse, terwyl die nie-Ariese ras Kroate, Tsjegge, Russe, Pole, Serwiërs en Oekraïners insluit. Hulle is Slawiërs genoem wat as korrupte mense beskou word. Die ideologie van Nazi's het teenoor die Slawië verander toe hulle militêre magte nodig gehad het, en op die een of ander manier het hulle slegs die opsie oor vir die keuse, en dit was die aanstelling van Slawiërs in hul leërtroepe. Hulle het ook mense gekenmerk deur hul wit of swart kleur. Alle wit mense behalwe diegene wat Joodse voorouers gehad het, het onder die kategorie Ariërs gelieg terwyl alle ander as Slawiërs beskou is.

Die maniere wat die Nazi's gebruik het om die Ou Joodse volk uit te skakel, was baie brutaal, soos sterilisasie, vervolging, gevangenisstraf, mediese eksperimentering en brutaliteit.

'N Nordiese teorie is bekendgestel wat in die volksmond toegepas is en 'n strategie geword het om die Duitsland te regeer. Die ideologieë van Nazi's het egter mettertyd verander met die bekendstelling van nuwe lede in die Nazi -party wat vasberade was en die beleid ten bate van die Nazi's saamgestel het met ander mense wat nie op die regte manier behandel is nie en dus die hoër gesagsposisies in die party.

Die Duitsers uit Duitsland, bekend as Nordiese Duitsers, beklee die hoogste posisie in die Nazi -rassehiërargie, terwyl die tipiese Ariërs en Duitsers van buite bekend as aktiewe etniese rasse -Duitsers tot kategorie 1 en kategorie 2 behoort het. Die passiewe Duitsers, dit wil sê die mense wat kom nie uit Duitsland nie, maar gestremdes en luidrugtige misdadigers word onderskei deur kategorie 3 en kategorie 4. Ander wat diep met Duitsers en Italianers en Spanjaarde verbind was, was ook deel van kategorie 1 en kategorie 2. As gevolg van hierdie kategorisering was baie lae vlak mense volgens die hiërargie is gevang as die slagoffers van Nazi's.


Dr Seuss teken anti-Japannese tekenprente tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog, dan versoen met Horton hoor 'n wie!

Voordat Theodor Seuss Geisel, ook bekend as dr.Seuss, geslagte kinders oortuig het dat 'n kas net in hul sak kan wees, was hy die hoofredaksie -tekenaar van die New York -koerant PM van 1940 tot 1948. Gedurende sy ampstermyn het hy ongeveer 400 tekenprente uitgegee wat onder meer die beleid van FDR geprys het, isolasie -mense soos Charles Lindbergh gekonfronteer het en burgerregte vir swartes en Jode ondersteun het. Hy het ook Amerika se oorlogspoging ten sterkste ondersteun.

Vir hierdie doel het dr. Seuss baie tekenprente geteken wat in vandag se oë asemrowend rassisties is. Kyk na die spotprent hierbo. Dit wys 'n arrogante Hitler langs 'n karikatuur van 'n varkneus met 'n skuins oog van 'n Japannese man. Die prentjie is nie regtig 'n gelykenis van een van die mans wat verantwoordelik was vir die Japanse oorlogspoging nie - keiser Hirohito en generaal Tojo. In plaas daarvan is dit net 'n lelike voorstelling van 'n volk.

In die stryd om die moraal van die vaderland het Amerikaanse propagandamakers Duitsland in 'n heel ander lig as Japan uitgebeeld. Duitsland word beskou as 'n groot nasie wat mal geword het. Die Nazi's was dalk boos, maar daar was nog plek vir die 'Goeie Duitser'. Japan, aan die ander kant, is heeltemal uitgebeeld as 'n wrede monoliet Hirohito en die man op straat was eenvormig boos. Sulke denke het die weg gebaan vir die Amerikaanse bombardement van die Amerikaanse lugmag in Tokio, waar meer as 100,000 burgerlikes dood is, en vir die kernbomaanval op Hiroshima en Nagasaki. En dit het beslis die grondslag gelê vir een van die seerste hoofstukke van die Amerikaanse geskiedenis van die 20ste eeu, die ongrondwetlike opsluiting van Japannese Amerikaners.

Geisel self was tydens die oorlog vokaal anti-Japannees en het geen moeite gehad om 'n hele bevolking van Amerikaanse burgers bymekaar te maak en in kampe te plaas nie.

Maar op die oomblik, as die Jappe hul bylae in ons skedels plant, lyk dit na 'n helse tyd vir ons om te glimlag en te gril: "Broers!" Dit is 'n taamlik slap gevegskreet. As ons wil wen, moet ons Japs doodmaak, of dit John Haynes Holmes terneergedruk het of nie. Ons kan agterna verlam raak met diegene wat oor is.

Geisel was skaars alleen in sulke oortuigings, maar dit is nogal ontstellend om lelike tekenprente soos hierdie in dieselfde hand geteken te sien as wat dit gedoen het Die Kat in die hoed.

In 1953 besoek Geisel Japan waar hy met sy mense vergader en daaroor gesels het en was hy getuie van die gruwelike nagevolge van die bombardement op Hiroshima. Hy het gou begin om sy anti-Japannese heftigheid te heroorweeg. Dus het hy om verskoning gevra op die enigste manier waarop dr. Seuss kon.

Hy het 'n kinderboek geskryf.

Horton hoor 'n wie!, wat in 1954 gepubliseer is, handel oor 'n olifant wat 'n stukkie stof moet beskerm wat deur klein klein mensies bevolk word. Die hoopvolle, inklusiewe refrein van die boek - ''n Persoon is 'n mens, hoe klein ook al' — is so ver as wat u kan kom van sy onbeskofte woorde oor die Japannese 'n dekade vroeër. Hy het die boek selfs opgedra aan “My Great Friend, Mitsugi Nakamura van Kyoto, Japan.”

Verwante inhoud:

Jonathan Crow is 'n skrywer en filmmaker in Los Angeles wie se werk in Yahoo !, The Hollywood Reporter en ander publikasies verskyn het. U kan hom volg by @jonccrow. En kyk na sy blog Veeptopus, met 'n nuwe tekening van 'n vise -president met 'n seekat op sy kop daagliks.

Ons hoop om op ons lojale lesers staat te maak eerder as onwettige advertensies. Om die voortgesette werking van Open Culture ’ te ondersteun, oorweeg dit om 'n skenking te maak. Ons bedank u! />

Kommentaar (40)

Walt Disney ook! Slegte, slegte manne omdat hulle die mense demonstreer wat net ander mense wou slag, en dit wel gedoen het! Hierdie artikel was in 'n swak smaak en die skrywer en redakteurs toon 'n goeie begrip van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog en hoe die wêreld werk. Volgende: Hoe Bugs Bunny in drag gehelp het om die homofobie van 'n generasie te vorm.

Die feit dat Japan Amerika probeer verkrag en plunder het, gee ons nie die reg om ons eie burgers van Japannese afkoms in die tronk te sit nie. Wat Disney betref, hy was 'n groot tekenaar en het baie goeie eienskappe as mens, maar hy was ook 'n rassistiese SOB. hy is op rekord as baie antisemities en volgens my beste kennis het hulle nog nooit probeer om ons te bombardeer nie

Nie -opvolger -dwaling, maar ek sal dit laat gaan. Ford was 'n Nazi -simpatiseerder, ook Bush en Kennedy. LBJ was so rassisties as wat hulle kan, 'die nigg ** s sal vir die komende 200 jaar 'n Demokraat stem' en die besluit van FDR ’ om die Japannese tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog in te neem, was die regte oproep. nDit is die regte wêreld vir my seuntjie. Jou pa het ook nie geweet nie, so ek dink jy kry 'n pas, maar jy sal in grappe uitvind of jy jonger is as 30. As jy 'n Amerikaner is (miskien), is dit beter om gou jou kak bymekaar te kry. en hou op met al hierdie kinderlike, gevoelige nonsens.

Ek is 47 my seuntjie en ek weet baie goed hoe die wêreld werk. Die Japannese is geïnterneer sodat hul gulsige bure die belangrikste eiendom kon kry wat hulle besit. Ek is regtig onseker hoe ek moet reageer op die res van u vae, betekenislose gebabbel, so ek sal dit maar laat staan.

Ja, dit is redelik oud om vas te hou aan die ou kante van die linkerkant en die leuens van die wedloopaas. Jy het die res gemis omdat jy wou. Ek neem aan dat u slim genoeg is om u eie dwaasheid na u toe te herken. Ek sal wed dat LBJ jou held was. Jammer oor dit.

ernstig? LBJ het amper ondanks homself 'n paar ordentlike dinge gedoen, maar hy is beslis nie my held nie. As u my 'n linkse persoon noem, moet dit beteken dat almal regs van Reagan, maar links van Lyndon Larouche. Jy moet pret wees by die clan rallysn

Walt Disney ook! Slegte, slegte manne omdat hulle die mense demonstreer wat net ander mense wou slag, en dit wel gedoen het! Hierdie artikel het 'n swak smaak en die skrywer en redakteurs toon 'n tiener begrip van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog en hoe die wêreld werk. Volgende: Hoe Bugs Bunny in drag gehelp het om die homofobie van 'n generasie te vorm.

Ogden Nashn nn Die Japannese (1938) n nnHoe hoflik die Japannese is Hy sê altyd, u201cVerskoon dit asseblief.u201dnn Hy klim in sy buurman se tuin in die jaar, nn En glimlag, en sê, u vra om verskoning, hy buig en glimlag 'n vriendelike grynslag, nn En roep sy honger gesin innn Hy glimlag en buig 'n vriendelike geboë u201c So jammer, dit is nou my tuin. U201d

Dit is menslike gedrag om die vyand in tye van oorlog te demoniseer. Was die kenmerke van die Japannese akkuraat of regverdig? Natuurlik nie, maar Amerikaners veg teen 'n volk wat besluit het om 'n groot deel van die wêreld te regeer, en die emosionele reaksie het tot hierdie soort beelde gelei.

Ons neem net (maak asof) ons aanstoot neem omdat ons die oorlog gewen het.

Welgedaan aan dr Seuss omdat hy oop was vir 'n nuwe begrip en dit reggekry het.

'Die prentjie is nie regtig 'n voorbeeld van een van die mans wat verantwoordelik was vir die Japanse oorlogspoging nie, keiser Hirohito en generaal Tojo in 2013. Dit is in plaas daarvan net 'n lelike voorstelling van 'n volk. ” Wel, op beide terreine lyk dit regtig baie soos Hitler en Tojo [om een ​​of ander rede het die skrywer bygevoeg in Hirohito, hoewel hy nie in die tekenprent was nie, en Hitler (soos hy in die vorige sin genoem het, is, maar hey, hoekom wysig?)] en is alles MAAR generies. Net omdat jy probeer om 'n punt te druk, maak dit nie goed om die werklikheid na jou voorkeur te verander nie.

So amusant om die morele verontwaardiging van joernaliste te lees wat 70 jaar lank van die gruwels van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog geskei is. Miskien moet u die veterane van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog wat deur die Bataan -doodsmars gegaan het, ondervra, was krygsgevangenes van die Japannese, die Chinese en Filippyne wat soveel onder die Japannese besettings gely het as wat die Jode onder die Nazi's gedoen het. Miskien moet u hulle vra hoe "aanstootlik" hierdie kenmerke is.

Ek het Steve en jy het BAIE reg. Ook die Japannese tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog was BAIE meer rassisties as wat ons ooit was!

Ek onthou dat ek oorlogseffekte in die eerste graad 1946 verkoop het .. die wêreld het pas 'n hoofstuk afgesluit wat vir altyd as die Tweede Wêreldoorlog bekend sou staan ​​... ek het my gesin onlangs vergesel na Union Station in Indianapolis, waar ons gewag het op die trein wat my oom huis toe geneem het. 8230 Ek onthou dat ek die eerste keer die geskree van my ma, tantes en grootouers gehoor het toe hy hom sien aankom het voor ek die volwassenes kon sien. Hy was op 'n vliegtuigherstelhouer in die Stille Oseaan gestasioneer. Hy het ons vertel van 'n skeepsmaat wat op 'n dekgeweer was en wat gesterf het toe 'n Japannese vliegtuig naby die dek van die skip neergestort het. Ek het vroeg geleer om te lees, en na 'n paar jaar het my gesin 'n reeks boeke gekoop wat oor die oorlog gepubliseer is, dink ek, deur Collier ’s … Die boeke bevat baie foto's wat oorlogskorrespondente en ander geneem het. foto was onuitwisbaar in my gedagtes geëts …'n mollige baba, gesig nat van trane, mond wyd, huilend. Alleen sit die baba te midde van puin en niks wat die gevolg was van die atoombom in Hiroshima se kernbom wat my land op duisende burgerlikes, vroue en kinders laat val het. Die verwoesting was tasbaar. Met verloop van jare en ek was getuie van die ongelooflike vernietiging en moord wat mense oor die hele wêreld op hul medemens kan reën, weet ek dat godsdiens 'n baie groot rol speel in hoe aktief 'n kultuur die aggressor aanvaar. hul bure. Wat duidelik is, is dat daar tans drie is wat enige geweld wat hul volgelinge kies, regverdig. Die ironie is dat die drie eintlik een slang is met drie koppe, Judaïsme, Christendom en Islam. Tans word Islam as die gewelddadigste beskou, maar dit is eintlik net die mees rou. Die ander twee is meer in staat om hul optrede te ontsmet en hulle minder te laat lyk ‘barbaarse ’ … Oumas het die hoender daardeur gedraai, die nek gedraai voordat hy dit van vere verwyder het en dit beweeg het deur die proses wat dit op die tafel geplaas het vir verbruik. We are “civilized” now …we let the process be done in an even less humane way (grandmother’s chickens had a relatively good life prior to the fateful moment). Today’s process, sanitized for our sensibilities, is horrific and brutal..and the life of the chickens are worse than the death that awaits them. We, who select the well packaged, clean and ready for pot offering in the meat department of the supermarket ..convince ourselves that we are not barbaric..that we are more civilized. War is like that. We have learned how to do our killing away from our backyards…out of sight…so that we do not lose a beat in our daily lives. We are disturbed when we are reminded by a legless young man in a wheelchair…or one who has just taken their own life out of total desperation.. We do no good or provide no hope for the future by living in denial and claiming that we are the ‘good’ guys and the other people are the ‘bad’ ones. The three Abrahamic beliefs are constructs of men..and are easily manipulated to fit whatever is desired to be qualified and validated as ‘acceptable’… There is no ‘good’ belief.. There are humans who are humane and compassionate and do not rely on the adage, ‘well they did it’, or, ‘they are worse’… rather they rely on their own inner compass that seeks to find the good apples in the barrel …and even when there is a bad one, do not throw the others out with it. We will only survive on this planet if we can contain and manage our primal instincts…as hairless apes..chimpanzees who are warlike by nature …Religions are double edged swords …Kali…”goddess” who is at one…the good and the bad..destroyer…restorer.. If we need myths, we should choose the ones that are more honest about their worth…and not the ones that give total control over all…with a disclaimer in the fine print.. (can do these things under certain circumstances ..no refunds given)

Well, how many US citizens didn’t hold racist views of the Japanese at the time? Just watch cartoons from the era: they contain some of the nastiest depictions of the Japanese (and they weren’t much better when it came to other non-white ethnicities).

Dr. Seuss deserves credit for having a change of heart later on. It’s too bad that the US went on to have politicians like Strom Thurmond, Jesse Helms, Trent Lott, Jan Brewer, Dov Hikind, not to mention entertainers like Mel “the Jews started all the wars” Gibson.

The racial venom in the cartoons is inexcusable, regardless of the war context. Same things goes for the cartoons he drew mocking Africans and black Americans. Mr. Geisel/Seuss deserves his kudos for his children’s books, but these early works cannot be simply erased, and they are not above critique just because he is a “beloved” children’s book author.

His earlier work is deplorable. But he turned it around and isn’t that what we want from people who espouse racist views? We want them to change? And instead of applauding that, I’m reading comments making excuses for the earlier work and saying “Well, THEY were more racist than US, so there!” It’s just silly. The point of the article was to show people can change, and Dr. Seuss did, for the better, for which I am grateful. We as a society should be able to forgive someone who made amends.

I’ve kept this tab open for hours just to keep coming back to this excellent comment. Well-stated.

I totally agreeAmerica is not honoring it mantra its doing the exact oppisite. How dare we tell the world such a bold face lie. Look how MEAN we are to each other…. The World is watching The youths are saying you guy’s are effed up!

Blah blah blah. The Japanese Internment was spearheaded by racism and hysteria brought on by the attack on Pearl Harbor. It was a shameful chapter of American history in blatant violation of the laws that govern the United States. To say otherwise at this late date with decades of hindsight to examine the situation is the pathetic delusions of a racist hiding in their own little warped version of history. If I-Right-I insists on living with that view, that’s his (or her) decision. But it isn’t the writers or editors demonstrating a foolish understanding of WW2 or how the real world works.

You are absolutely right Steve. It is disturbing how our Country shoves the crimes of the Japanese against humanity under the carpet to fund our own Agenda against China and Russia by using the Japanese and South Koreans as a pawn.

THREE WORDS, The Niihau Incident.
I just explained the whole incident, but the page didn’t save it, I don’t think, so type “Niihau Incident” in your search engine. You’ll only have to read a small amount of it to understand why there was fear for a “Fifth Column.”
This event, in my opinion, not only makes the drawing of the “Honorable Fifth Column” painting very appropriate, but accurate as well.
War had not even been declared yet, it was the attack on Pearl Harbor when an Imperial Japanese Pilot crashed on Niihau Island in Hawaii, where is was held by Native Hawaiians. Only 3 Japanese-American people lived on the island. One born in Japan, Ishimatsu Shintani, and two who were Hawaiian born Japanese Americans, Yoshio and Irene Harada. All 3 immediately started to help him escape. Shintani tried via bribery, when that failed Yoshio resorted to violence, even shooting his neighbor of years, 3 times then killing himself when the pilot was killed attempting to shoot his way out.

The rapid decision to help Japan despite no sign of being loyalty to them, was a major factor in the decision for internment camps, if it wasn’t the main one. 2 even being born citizens.

The greatest generation? What a pile of garbage.

Only people with COMPLETE IGNORANCE of Japan in the late 20’s til The Bombs could masked the statement Suess was racist.

Japanese committed MULTIPLE genocides of complete cultures…

Tortured, raped and annihilated the human race all across Asia committing attrocitirs they were PROUD of. YouTube Rape of Nanking if google hasn’t already wiped out their own records of their crimes against the world.

If you aren’t familiar with the Hawaiian website site that catalogs genocide, you need to look for it.

Estimates range from 8-12 MILLION people wiped off the face of the earth by the Japanese.

It wasn’t about oil or the islands physical needs. Murdering possibly 12 million people, doing unspeakable acts before killing them was an ideology of one of the most xenophobic people on earth.

NEVER HAS ANYONE CRITICIZED A CHARICATURE OF HITLER.

The Japanese raped, mutilated, tortured and killed ALMOST TWICE the number of human beings for racist reasons than Hitler did.

Context is so important in this debate. No one in any of the Allied countries who lived through WWII would point a finger of shame at the anti-Axis propaganda cartoons of the time. Those who were not “there” should be careful how they weigh in with their sanctimonious opinions.

During WWII, the Japanese Army occupied Guam & Saipan Islands with brutality that would make ISIS of today proud.
I lived on Guam in 1970’s. A native Chamorro woman who survived the WWII horror described one event:

“I the Japanese took several women from our village, and a few young girls including me. We were marched into a cave, and told to wait.

A grenade was thrown into the cave and blew up. Some were hit, the women shielded us girls. Then bullets came in, and more grenades.

The bodies fell on top of me. Japanese came into the cave, stabbing the bodies, missing me on the bottom of the pile.

I waited for them to leave, then pulled myself free from the bodies. I went back to my village to report the deaths of the others. I was 6 years old.” (Mrs. Rosa Garrido)

Guam Liberation Day (1941) is still celebrated, though most of that generation has now passed.

Google Japanese Hell Ships also.

The two Atomic bombs dropped at Hiroshima and Nagasaki were effective to stop the fanatic madness of the Japanese war machine, we cannot be sorry for that, they just would not give up, ever.

What a shame, the Japanese farmers in California had made great strides in “truck crops” and were respected. After WWII, many families did lose valuable farm land.

No-one is born racist– “You’ve got to be taught to hate and fear,” as the song from “South Pacific” says. Look at nearly any culture in history and you’ll find evidence of racism, bigotry, even genocide, because people are people and sometimes our fears of ‘the other’ are irrational and we can find all kinds of reasons for justifying treating them badly.

We can unlearn our hatreds and fears but we have first of all to recognize how irrational they are. We have to stop dehumanizing people whose cultures we don’t understand and teach children what Dr. Seuss taught: “A person’s a person no matter how small.”


Damage Control

Public domain Ford assembly line workers in Highland Park, Michigan. 1913.

A lawsuit brought by San Francisco Lawyer and farm organizer Aaron Sapiro led Ford to close Die Dearborn Independent in December 1927.

Ford wrote a letter to the Anti-Defamation League on January 7, 1942, attempting to clarify his earlier remarks and writings. He concluded the message with “My sincere hope that now in this country and throughout the world when the war is finished, hatred of the Jews and hatred against any other racial or religious groups shall cease for all time.”

Privately, though, Ford’s anti-semitic views remained intact.

Henry Ford died at home in 1947. His son, Edsel died in 1943 from gastric cancer. As a result, the Ford Motor Corporation was passed to Henry Ford II, who did his best to repair its reputation throughout the 1950s.

Unquestionably, Henry Ford was a great industrialist and a revolutionary businessman. However, those attributes remain overshadowed by the depth of his bigotry, a sad footnote in the annals of American history.

After this look at Henry Ford and his ties to anti-semitism and Nazism, check out this article about Hermann Göring, the second-most powerful man in Nazi Germany. Then, take a look at the story of the Nuremberg Trials, when the world tried to bring the Nazis to justice – and failed.


Women in the Resistance

Women played an important role in various resistance activities. This was especially the case for women who were involved in Socialist, Communist, or Zionist youth movements. In Poland, women served as couriers who brought information to the ghettos. Many women escaped to the forests of eastern Poland and the Soviet Union and served in armed partisan units. Women played an important role in the French (and French-Jewish) resistance. Sophie Scholl, a student at the University of Munich and a member of the White Rose resistance group, was arrested and executed in February 1943 for handing out anti-Nazi leaflets.

Some women were leaders or members of ghetto resistance organizations. Among them was Haika Grosman in Bialystok. Others engaged in resistance inside the concentration camps. In Auschwitz I, five Jewish women deployed at the Vistula-Union-Metal Works detachment—Ala Gertner, Regina Safirsztajn (aka Safir), Ester Wajcblum, Roza Robota, and one unidentified woman, possibly Fejga Segal—had supplied the gunpowder that members of the Jewish Sonderkommando (Special Detachment) at Auschwitz-Birkenau used to blow up a gas chamber and kill several SS men during the uprising in October 1944.

Other women were active in the aid and rescue operations of the Jews in German-occupied Europe. Among them were Jewish parachutist Hannah Szenes and Zionist activist Gisi Fleischmann. Szenes parachuted into Hungary in 1944. Fleischmann, the leader of the Working Group (Pracovna Skupina) operating within the framework of the Jewish council in Bratislava, attempted to halt the deportations of Jews from Slovakia.


The Horrifying American Roots of Nazi Eugenics


But the concept of a white, blond-haired, blue-eyed master Nordic race didn't originate with Hitler. The idea was created in the United States, and cultivated in California, decades before Hitler came to power. California eugenicists played an important, although little known, role in the American eugenics movement's campaign for ethnic cleansing.

Eugenics was the racist pseudoscience determined to wipe away all human beings deemed "unfit," preserving only those who conformed to a Nordic stereotype. Elements of the philosophy were enshrined as national policy by forced sterilization and segregation laws, as well as marriage restrictions, enacted in twenty-seven states. In 1909, California became the third state to adopt such laws. Ultimately, eugenics practitioners coercively sterilized some 60,000 Americans, barred the marriage of thousands, forcibly segregated thousands in "colonies," and persecuted untold numbers in ways we are just learning. Before World War II, nearly half of coercive sterilizations were done in California, and even after the war, the state accounted for a third of all such surgeries.

California was considered an epicenter of the American eugenics movement. During the Twentieth Century's first decades, California's eugenicists included potent but little known race scientists, such as Army venereal disease specialist Dr. Paul Popenoe, citrus magnate and Polytechnic benefactor Paul Gosney, Sacramento banker Charles M. Goethe, as well as members of the California State Board of Charities and Corrections and the University of California Board of Regents.

Eugenics would have been so much bizarre parlor talk had it not been for extensive financing by corporate philanthropies, specifically the Carnegie Institution, the Rockefeller Foundation and the Harriman railroad fortune. They were all in league with some of America's most respected scientists hailing from such prestigious universities as Stamford, Yale, Harvard, and Princeton. These academicians espoused race theory and race science, and then faked and twisted data to serve eugenics' racist aims.

Stanford president David Starr Jordan originated the notion of "race and blood" in his 1902 racial epistle "Blood of a Nation," in which the university scholar declared that human qualities and conditions such as talent and poverty were passed through the blood.

In 1904, the Carnegie Institution established a laboratory complex at Cold Spring Harbor on Long Island that stockpiled millions of index cards on ordinary Americans, as researchers carefully plotted the removal of families, bloodlines and whole peoples. From Cold Spring Harbor, eugenics advocates agitated in the legislatures of America, as well as the nation's social service agencies and associations.

The Harriman railroad fortune paid local charities, such as the New York Bureau of Industries and Immigration, to seek out Jewish, Italian and other immigrants in New York and other crowded cities and subject them to deportation, trumped up confinement or forced sterilization.

The Rockefeller Foundation helped found the German eugenics program and even funded the program that Josef Mengele worked in before he went to Auschwitz.

Much of the spiritual guidance and political agitation for the American eugenics movement came from California's quasi-autonomous eugenic societies, such as the Pasadena-based Human Betterment Foundation and the California branch of the American Eugenics Society, which coordinated much of their activity with the Eugenics Research Society in Long Island. These organizations--which functioned as part of a closely-knit network--published racist eugenic newsletters and pseudoscientific journals, such as Eugenical News en Eugenics, and propagandized for the Nazis.

Eugenics was born as a scientific curiosity in the Victorian age. In 1863, Sir Francis Galton, a cousin of Charles Darwin, theorized that if talented people only married other talented people, the result would be measurably better offspring. At the turn of the last century, Galton's ideas were imported into the United States just as Gregor Mendel's principles of heredity were rediscovered. American eugenic advocates believed with religious fervor that the same Mendelian concepts determining the color and size of peas, corn and cattle also governed the social and intellectual character of man.

In an America demographically reeling from immigration upheaval and torn by post-Reconstruction chaos, race conflict was everywhere in the early twentieth century. Elitists, utopians and so-called "progressives" fused their smoldering race fears and class bias with their desire to make a better world. They reinvented Galton's eugenics into a repressive and racist ideology. The intent: populate the earth with vastly more of their own socio-economic and biological kind--and less or none of everyone else.

The superior species the eugenics movement sought was populated not merely by tall, strong, talented people. Eugenicists craved blond, blue-eyed Nordic types. This group alone, they believed, was fit to inherit the earth. In the process, the movement intended to subtract emancipated Negroes, immigrant Asian laborers, Indians, Hispanics, East Europeans, Jews, dark-haired hill folk, poor people, the infirm and really anyone classified outside the gentrified genetic lines drawn up by American raceologists.

Hoe? By identifying so-called "defective" family trees and subjecting them to lifelong segregation and sterilization programs to kill their bloodlines. The grand plan was to literally wipe away the reproductive capability of those deemed weak and inferior--the so-called "unfit." The eugenicists hoped to neutralize the viability of 10 percent of the population at a sweep, until none were left except themselves.

Eighteen solutions were explored in a Carnegie-supported 1911 "Preliminary Report of the Committee of the Eugenic Section of the American Breeder's Association to Study and to Report on the Best Practical Means for Cutting Off the Defective Germ-Plasm in the Human Population." Point eight was euthanasia.

The most commonly suggested method of eugenicide in America was a "lethal chamber" or public locally operated gas chambers. In 1918, Popenoe, the Army venereal disease specialist during World War I, co-wrote the widely used textbook, Applied Eugenics, which argued, "From an historical point of view, the first method which presents itself is execution… Its value in keeping up the standard of the race should not be underestimated." Applied Eugenics also devoted a chapter to "Lethal Selection," which operated "through the destruction of the individual by some adverse feature of the environment, such as excessive cold, or bacteria, or by bodily deficiency."

Eugenic breeders believed American society was not ready to implement an organized lethal solution. But many mental institutions and doctors practiced improvised medical lethality and passive euthanasia on their own. One institution in Lincoln, Illinois fed its incoming patients milk from tubercular cows believing a eugenically strong individual would be immune. Thirty to forty percent annual death rates resulted at Lincoln. Some doctors practiced passive eugenicide one newborn infant at a time. Others doctors at mental institutions engaged in lethal neglect.

Nonetheless, with eugenicide marginalized, the main solution for eugenicists was the rapid expansion of forced segregation and sterilization, as well as more marriage restrictions. California led the nation, performing nearly all sterilization procedures with little or no due process. In its first twenty-five years of eugenic legislation, California sterilized 9,782 individuals, mostly women. Many were classified as "bad girls," diagnosed as "passionate," "oversexed" or "sexually wayward." At Sonoma, some women were sterilized because of what was deemed an abnormally large clitoris or labia.

In 1933 alone, at least 1,278 coercive sterilizations were performed, 700 of which were on women. The state's two leading sterilization mills in 1933 were Sonoma State Home with 388 operations and Patton State Hospital with 363 operations. Other sterilization centers included Agnews, Mendocino, Napa, Norwalk, Stockton and Pacific Colony state hospitals.

Even the United States Supreme Court endorsed aspects of eugenics. In its infamous 1927 decision, Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes wrote, "It is better for all the world, if instead of waiting to execute degenerate offspring for crime, or to let them starve for their imbecility, society can prevent those who are manifestly unfit from continuing their kind…. Three generations of imbeciles are enough." This decision opened the floodgates for thousands to be coercively sterilized or otherwise persecuted as subhuman. Years later, the Nazis at the Nuremberg trials quoted Holmes's words in their own defense.

Only after eugenics became entrenched in the United States was the campaign transplanted into Germany, in no small measure through the efforts of California eugenicists, who published booklets idealizing sterilization and circulated them to German officials and scientists.

Hitler studied American eugenics laws. He tried to legitimize his anti-Semitism by medicalizing it, and wrapping it in the more palatable pseudoscientific facade of eugenics. Hitler was able to recruit more followers among reasonable Germans by claiming that science was on his side. While Hitler's race hatred sprung from his own mind, the intellectual outlines of the eugenics Hitler adopted in 1924 were made in America.

During the '20s, Carnegie Institution eugenic scientists cultivated deep personal and professional relationships with Germany's fascist eugenicists. In Mein Kampf, published in 1924, Hitler quoted American eugenic ideology and openly displayed a thorough knowledge of American eugenics. "There is today one state," wrote Hitler, "in which at least weak beginnings toward a better conception [of immigration] are noticeable. Of course, it is not our model German Republic, but the United States."

Hitler proudly told his comrades just how closely he followed the progress of the American eugenics movement. "I have studied with great interest," he told a fellow Nazi, "the laws of several American states concerning prevention of reproduction by people whose progeny would, in all probability, be of no value or be injurious to the racial stock."

Hitler even wrote a fan letter to American eugenic leader Madison Grant calling his race-based eugenics book, The Passing of the Great Race his "bible."

Hitler's struggle for a superior race would be a mad crusade for a Master Race. Now, the American term "Nordic" was freely exchanged with "Germanic" or "Aryan." Race science, racial purity and racial dominance became the driving force behind Hitler's Nazism. Nazi eugenics would ultimately dictate who would be persecuted in a Reich-dominated Europe, how people would live, and how they would die. Nazi doctors would become the unseen generals in Hitler's war against the Jews and other Europeans deemed inferior. Doctors would create the science, devise the eugenic formulas, and even hand-select the victims for sterilization, euthanasia and mass extermination.

During the Reich's early years, eugenicists across America welcomed Hitler's plans as the logical fulfillment of their own decades of research and effort. California eugenicists republished Nazi propaganda for American consumption. They also arranged for Nazi scientific exhibits, such as an August 1934 display at the L.A. County Museum, for the annual meeting of the American Public Health Association.

In 1934, as Germany's sterilizations were accelerating beyond 5,000 per month, the California eugenics leader C. M. Goethe upon returning from Germany ebulliently bragged to a key colleague, "You will be interested to know, that your work has played a powerful part in shaping the opinions of the group of intellectuals who are behind Hitler in this epoch-making program. Everywhere I sensed that their opinions have been tremendously stimulated by American thought.…I want you, my dear friend, to carry this thought with you for the rest of your life, that you have really jolted into action a great government of 60 million people."

That same year, ten years after Virginia passed its sterilization act, Joseph DeJarnette, superintendent of Virginia's Western State Hospital, observed in the Richmond Times-Dispatch, "The Germans are beating us at our own game."

More than just providing the scientific roadmap, America funded Germany's eugenic institutions. By 1926, Rockefeller had donated some $410,000 -- almost $4 million in 21st-Century money -- to hundreds of German researchers. In May 1926, Rockefeller awarded $250,000 to the German Psychiatric Institute of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute, later to become the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Psychiatry. Among the leading psychiatrists at the German Psychiatric Institute was Ernst Rüdin, who became director and eventually an architect of Hitler's systematic medical repression.

Another in the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute's eugenic complex of institutions was the Institute for Brain Research. Since 1915, it had operated out of a single room. Everything changed when Rockefeller money arrived in 1929. A grant of $317,000 allowed the Institute to construct a major building and take center stage in German race biology. The Institute received additional grants from the Rockefeller Foundation during the next several years. Leading the Institute, once again, was Hitler's medical henchman Ernst Rüdin. Rüdin's organization became a prime director and recipient of the murderous experimentation and research conducted on Jews, Gypsies and others.

Beginning in 1940, thousands of Germans taken from old age homes, mental institutions and other custodial facilities were systematically gassed. Between 50,000 and 100,000 were eventually killed.

Leon Whitney, executive secretary of the American Eugenics Society declared of Nazism, "While we were pussy-footing around…the Germans were calling a spade a spade."

A special recipient of Rockefeller funding was the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Heredity and Eugenics in Berlin. For decades, American eugenicists had craved twins to advance their research into heredity. The Institute was now prepared to undertake such research on an unprecedented level. On May 13, 1932, the Rockefeller Foundation in New York dispatched a radiogram to its Paris office: JUNE MEETING EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE NINE THOUSAND DOLLARS OVER THREE YEAR PERIOD TO KWG INSTITUTE ANTHROPOLOGY FOR RESEARCH ON TWINS AND EFFECTS ON LATER GENERATIONS OF SUBSTANCES TOXIC FOR GERM PLASM.

At the time of Rockefeller's endowment, Otmar Freiherr von Verschuer, a hero in American eugenics circles, functioned as a head of the Institute for Anthropology, Human Heredity and Eugenics. Rockefeller funding of that Institute continued both directly and through other research conduits during Verschuer's early tenure. In 1935, Verschuer left the Institute to form a rival eugenics facility in Frankfurt that was much heralded in the American eugenic press. Research on twins in the Third Reich exploded, backed up by government decrees. Verschuer wrote in Der Erbarzt, a eugenic doctor's journal he edited, that Germany's war would yield a "total solution to the Jewish problem."

Verschuer had a long-time assistant. His name was Josef Mengele. On May 30, 1943, Mengele arrived at Auschwitz. Verschuer notified the German Research Society, "My assistant, Dr. Josef Mengele (M.D., Ph.D.) joined me in this branch of research. He is presently employed as Hauptsturmführer [captain] and camp physician in the Auschwitz concentration camp. Anthropological testing of the most diverse racial groups in this concentration camp is being carried out with permission of the SS Reichsführer [Himmler]."

Mengele began searching the boxcar arrivals for twins. When he found them, he performed beastly experiments, scrupulously wrote up the reports and sent the paperwork back to Verschuer's institute for evaluation. Often, cadavers, eyes and other body parts were also dispatched to Berlin's eugenic institutes.

Rockefeller executives never knew of Mengele. With few exceptions, the foundation had ceased all eugenic studies in Nazi-occupied Europe before the war erupted in 1939. But by that time the die had been cast. The talented men Rockefeller and Carnegie financed, the institutions they helped found, and the science it helped create took on a scientific momentum of their own.

After the war, eugenics was declared a crime against humanity--an act of genocide. Germans were tried and they cited the California statutes in their defense. To no avail. They were found guilty.

However, Mengele's boss Verschuer escaped prosecution. Verschuer re-established his connections with California eugenicists who had gone underground and renamed their crusade "human genetics." Typical was an exchange July 25, 1946 when Popenoe wrote Verschuer, "It was indeed a pleasure to hear from you again. I have been very anxious about my colleagues in Germany…. I suppose sterilization has been discontinued in Germany?" Popenoe offered tidbits about various American eugenic luminaries and then sent various eugenic publications. In a separate package, Popenoe sent some cocoa, coffee and other goodies.

Verschuer wrote back, "Your very friendly letter of 7/25 gave me a great deal of pleasure and you have my heartfelt thanks for it. The letter builds another bridge between your and my scientific work I hope that this bridge will never again collapse but rather make possible valuable mutual enrichment and stimulation."

Soon, Verschuer once again became a respected scientist in Germany and around the world. In 1949, he became a corresponding member of the newly formed American Society of Human Genetics, organized by American eugenicists and geneticists.

In the fall of 1950, the University of Münster offered Verschuer a position at its new Institute of Human Genetics, where he later became a dean. In the early and mid-1950s, Verschuer became an honorary member of numerous prestigious societies, including the Italian Society of Genetics, the Anthropological Society of Vienna, and the Japanese Society for Human Genetics.

Human genetics' genocidal roots in eugenics were ignored by a victorious generation that refused to link itself to the crimes of Nazism and by succeeding generations that never knew the truth of the years leading up to war. Now governors of five states, including California have issued public apologies to their citizens, past and present, for sterilization and other abuses spawned by the eugenics movement.

Human genetics became an enlightened endeavor in the late twentieth century. Hard-working, devoted scientists finally cracked the human code through the Human Genome Project. Now, every individual can be biologically identified and classified by trait and ancestry. Yet even now, some leading voices in the genetic world are calling for a cleansing of the unwanted among us, and even a master human species.

There is understandable wariness about more ordinary forms of abuse, for example, in denying insurance or employment based on genetic tests. On October 14, America's first genetic anti-discrimination legislation passed the Senate by unanimous vote. Yet because genetics research is global, no single nation's law can stop the threats.

This article was first published in the San Francisco Chronicle and is reprinted with permission of the author.


Historical Background: The Jews of Hungary During the Holocaust

After Adolf Hitler rose to power in 1933, the Hungarian government became interested in making an alliance with Nazi Germany. The Hungarian Government felt that such an alliance would be good for them, in that the two governments maintained similar authoritarian ideologies, and the Nazis could assist Hungary in retrieving land it had lost in World War I. Over the next five years, Hungary moved closer to Germany.

A Hungarian gendarme checks a woman entering the Munkács ghetto

German soldiers supervising the deportation of Jews, Hungary, 1944

The Munich Conference of September 1938 allowed Germany to annex the Sudeten region of Czechoslovakia. In November, Germany carved a piece of Czechoslovakia &mdash territory that had formerly belonged to Hungary &mdash and handed it back to Hungary in order to cement the relations between the two nations. In August 1940, Germany gave Hungary possession of northern Transylvania. In October 1940, Hungary joined Germany, Italy, and Japan in the Axis alliance.

Hungary was awarded more land in March 1941 when, despite its alliance with the Yugoslav government, Hungary joined its new ally, Germany, in invading and splitting up Yugoslavia. By that time, with all its new territories, the Jewish population in Greater Hungary had reached 725,007, not including about 100,000 Jews who had converted to Christianity but were still racially considered to be &ldquoJews.&rdquo Approximately half of Hungary's Jewish population lived in Budapest, where they were very acculturated and a part of the middle class.

Deportation of the Budapest Jews to the Ghetto

Deportation of Jews from Dunaszerdahely, Hungary, to Auschwitz, June 15, 1944

Hungary commenced issuing anti-Jewish legislation soon after the Anschluss in March 1938. Hungary passed a law whereby Jewish participation in the economy and the professions was cut by 80 percent. In May 1939, the Hungarian Government further limited the Jews in the economic realm and distinguished Jews as a "racial," rather than religious group. In 1939 Hungary created a new type of labor service draft, which Jewish men of military age were forced to join (see also Hungarian Labor Service System). Later, many Jewish men would die within the framework of the forced labor they performed pursuant to this draft. In 1941 the Hungarian Government passed a racial law, similar to the Nuremberg Laws, which officially defined who was to be considered Jewish.

Budapest, Hungary, A homeless Jewish man in the ghetto

Soltvadkert, Hungary, Jewish deportees before boarding the deportation train, June 1944

Although these anti-Jewish laws caused many hardships, most of the Jews of Hungary lived in relative safety for much of the war. Despite this relative safety, however, tragedy struck in the summer of 1941. Some 18,000 Jews randomly designated by the Hungarian authorities as "Jewish foreign nationals" were kicked out of their homes and deported to Kamenets-Podolsk in the Ukraine, where most were murdered. In early 1942, another 1,000 Jews in the section of Hungary newly acquired from Yugoslavia were murdered by Hungarian soldiers and police in their "pursuit of Partisans.&rdquo

As the war progressed, the Hungarian authorities became more and more entrenched in their alliance with Germany. In June 1941, Hungary decided to join Germany in its war against the Soviet Union. Finally, in December 1941, Hungary joined the Axis Powers in declaring war against the United States, completely cutting itself off from any relationship with the West.

However, after Germany's defeat at Stalingrad and other battles in which Hungary lost tens of thousands of its soldiers, the Regent of Hungary, Miklos Horthy, began trying to back out of the alliance with Germany. This, of course, was not acceptable to Hitler. In March, 1944, German troops invaded Hungary, in order to keep the country loyal by force. Hitler immediately set up a new government that he thought would be faithful, with Dome Sztojay, Hungary's former ambassador to Germany, as Prime Minister.

Jews saved from deportation at the last minute in Budapest, Hungary, November 1944

Jews accompanied by Hungarian gendarmes before boarding the transport to Auschwitz-Birkenau, Soltvadkert, Hungary, June 1944

Accompanying the German occupation forces was a Sonderkommando unit headed by Adolf Eichmann, whose job was to begin implementing the &ldquoFinal Solution&rdquo within Hungary. Additional anti-Jewish decrees were passed in great haste. Judenräte were established throughout Hungary, with a central Judenrat genoem die Zsido Tanacs established in Budapest under Samu Stern. The Nazis isolated the Jewish population from the outside world by restricting their movement and confiscating their telephones and radios. Jewish communities were forced to wear the Yellow Star. Jewish property and businesses were seized, and from mid to late April the Jews of Hungary were forced into ghettos. These ghettos were short-lived. After two to six weeks the Jews of each ghetto were put on trains and deported. Between May 15th and July 9th, about 430,000 Hungarian Jews were deported, mainly to Auschwitz, where most were gassed on arrival. In early July, Horthy halted the deportations, still intent on cutting Hungary's ties with Germany. By that time, all of Hungary was "Jew-free," except for the capital, Budapest. Throughout the spring of 1944 Israel Kasztner, Joel Brand, and other members of the Relief and Rescue Committee of Budapest began negotiating with the SS to save lives. These negotiations are discussed in greater depth below. Many Jews (perhaps up to 8,000) fled from Hungary, mostly to Romania, many with the help of Zionist youth movement members.

The Munkács brick factory where the Jews of the town were brought before their deportation to Auschwitz-Birkenau.

Deportation of Jews from the town Koszeg, Hungary, 1944

From July to October, 1944, the Jews of Budapest still lived in relative safety. However, on October 15 Horthy announced publicly that he was done with Hungary's alliance with Germany, and was going to make peace with the Allies. The Germans blocked this move, and simply toppled Horthy's Government, giving power to Ferenc Szalasi and his fascist, violently antisemitic Arrow Cross Party. The Arrow Cross immediately introduced a reign of terror in Budapest. Nearly 80,000 Jews were killed in Budapest itself, shot on the banks of the Danube River and then thrown into the river. Thousands of others were forced on death marches to the Austrian border. In December, during the Soviet siege of the city, 70,000 Jews were forced into a ghetto. Thousands died of cold, disease, and starvation.

During the Arrow Cross's reign of terror, tens of thousands of Jews in Budapest were saved by members of the Relief and Rescue Committee and by other Jewish activists, especially Zionist youth movement members, who forged identity documents and provided them with food. These Jews worked together with foreign diplomats such as the Swedish Raoul Wallenberg, the Swiss Carl Lutz, and others who provided many Jews with international protection.

Hungary was liberated by the Soviet army by April 1945. Up to 568,000 Hungarian Jews had perished during the Holocaust.

The Kasztner Controversy

Dr. Israel (also known as Rudolf or Rezso) Kasztner was a Hungarian Zionist leader in his native Transylvania and then in Budapest after Transylvania was annexed by Hungary in 1940. In late 1944 he helped found the Relief and Rescue Committee of Budapest. Until spring 1944, the committee successfully smuggled refugees from Poland and Slovakia into Hungary.

Once Germany invaded Hungary in March 1944, Kasztner came to believe that the best way to save Hungarian Jewry &ndash the last Jewish community in Europe &ndash was to negotiate with the German authorities. Thus, the Rescue Committee contacted the SS officers in charge of implementing the "Final Solution" in Hungary. Soon thereafter, Adolf Eichmann made his offer to exchange "Blood for Goods," whereby a certain number of Jews would be spared in exchange for large amounts of goods, including trucks. Kasztner negotiated directly with Eichmann and later with Kurt Becher, a Nazi official.

Hungarian Jews from Carpatho-Ruthenia undergoing selection on the ramp at Birkenau.

In late June 1944, Kasztner convinced Eichmann to release some 1,700 Jews. Kasztner and other Jewish leaders drew up a list of Jews to be released, including leading wealthy Jews, Zionists, rabbis, Jews from different religious communities, and Kasztner's own family and friends. They were transported out of Hungary on what came to be known as the "Kasztner Train." After being detained in Bergen-Belsen, the members of the "Kasztner Train" eventually reached safety in Switzerland.

Kasztner and Becher continued negotiating for an end to the murder and later for the surrender of various Nazi camps to the Allies. These negotiations may have led to the order to stop the murder in Auschwitz and to stop the deportations from Budapest in fall 1944.

After the war, Kasztner moved to Palestine and became a civil servant working in the Israeli government. He was accused of collaborating with the Nazis by a journalist named Malkiel Grunwald. The Israeli government sued Grunwald on Kasztner's behalf in order to clear Kasztner's name, but Grunwald's lawyer turned the trial into an indictment of Kasztner. The judge summed up the trial by saying that Kasztner had "sold his soul to the devil" &ndash by negotiating with the Nazis, by favoring his friends and relatives on the Kasztner Train, and by not doing enough to warn Hungarian Jews about their fate.

Kasztner appealed this verdict and, ultimately, the Israeli Supreme Court cleared Kasztner of all wrongdoing. However, before the new decision could be announced, Kasztner was assassinated by extreme right-wing nationalists.