Geskiedenis Podcasts

John Wheatley

John Wheatley

John Wheatley, die oudste kind van Thomas Wheatley, 'n arbeider, en sy vrou, Johanna Ryan, is gebore in Bonmahon, Ierland, op 19 Mei 1869. John het nege broers en susters en in 1876 verhuis die gesin na Braehead in Lanarkshire. Op veertien het John 'n mynwerker geword soos sy pa.

Wheatley het die St Bridget's Catholic Parish School in Baillieston bygewoon, waar die plaaslike kerk en sy priesters 'n kragtige invloed op hom gehad het. Volgens Ian S. Wood: "Sy hele lewe lank sou Katolieke oortuigings 'n verwysingspunt vir sy politieke denke en aktivisme wees".

In 1893 verlaat Wheatley die myn en word tollenaar, en later sluit hy by sy broer aan om 'n kruidenierswinkel in Shettleston, 'n myndorp aan die buitewyke van Glasgow, te bestuur. Die onderneming het in 1901 misluk, maar Wheatley, wat jare lank aandklasse bygewoon het, het werk gekry as verslaggewer Glasgow Katolieke Waarnemer, 'n koerant met 'n indrukwekkende oplaag onder Katolieke van Ierse afkoms in die weste en sentrale Skotland.

Wheatley is grootliks beïnvloed deur die onderrig en ondersteuning van sy gemeentepriester, Peter Terken. Wheatley het wyd gelees, insluitend Katolieke sosialisme, 'n boek geskryf deur Francesco Saverio Nitti. In 1906 word Wheatley tot sosialisme bekeer en stig die Katolieke Sosialistiese Vereniging in Glasgow. Die jaar daarna het hy by die Independent Labour Party aangesluit.

In 1907 begin Wheatley 'n drukkery, Hoxton en Walsh. Dit het gereelde kontrakte van die Katolieke kerk en die Arbeidersparty behartig. Hy het ook begin om politieke pamflette uit te gee. Wheatley het 'n groot aantal hiervan geskryf, insluitend Hoe word die mynwerkers beroof? (1907), Die Katolieke werkman (1909) en Mynwerkers, myne en ellende (1909). Wheatley is verkies tot die Lanarkshire County Council en die Glasgow Corporation. Wheatley se groot belangstelling was werkersklasbehuising en hy het 'n plan voorgestel om munisipale kothuise te bou in plaas van huurhuise in Glasgow.

Wheatley het nou saam met ander sosialiste in Glasgow begin werk, waaronder David Kirkwood, Emanuel Shinwell, James Maxton, William Gallacher, John Muir, Tom Johnston, Jimmie Stewart, Neil Maclean, George Hardie, George Buchanan en James Welsh.

Soos baie sosialiste was Wheatley gekant teen die betrokkenheid van Brittanje in die Eerste Wêreldoorlog, en in Augustus 1914 was Wheatley een van slegs twee van Labour se negentien raadslede in Glasgow wat Brittanje se oorlogsverklaring teen Duitsland teenstaan. Hy het gehelp om die tak van Glasgow van die Union of Democratic Control te stig, wat hom beywer het vir 'n onderhandelde vrede. In 1915 het hy 'n groot rol gespeel in die Glasgow Rent Strike. Die jaar daarna het hy 'n belangrike rol gespeel in die stryd teen diensplig.

David Kirkwood het in sy outobiografie aangevoer, My lewe van opstand (1935): "Ek het nog nooit 'n spreker met so 'n eenvoud en krag die saak vir sosialisme gehoor nie. Ek herken in hom 'n ware leier van mense. Ons het vriendelik geword en die gewoonte begin, wat ons jare lank onderhou het, om saam te loop Saterdagmiddag in die land. "

In 1920 het die Labour Party-verteenwoordiging by Glasgow Corporation tot vier-en-veertig toegeneem. Wheatley was nou die leidende politieke figuur in Glasgow en in die algemene verkiesing van 1922 was hy een van die tien Arbeidskandidate wat verkies is om die stad in die Laerhuis te verteenwoordig. Ander wat verkies is, sluit in David Kirkwood, Emanuel Shinwell, James Maxton, John Muir, Tom Johnston, Jimmie Stewart, Neil Maclean, George Hardie, George Buchanan en James Welsh.

Wheatley was 'n passievolle politikus en in Junie 1923 is hy uit die laerhuis geskors omdat hy die konserwatiewe regering se voorgestelde vermindering van toelaes aan kinderwelstandsentrums as moord genoem het. Ramsay MacDonald keur Wheatley se styl af, maar respekteer sy administratiewe vermoë. Toe MacDonald in Januarie 1924 premier word, het hy Wheatley as sy minister van gesondheid aangestel.

CFG Masterman herinner later: "Die huis het 'n nuwe gunsteling gevind by mnr. Wheatley, die voormalige revolusionêre lid van Glasgow, nou minister van gesondheid. Hy was die opvallende sukses in die nuwe parlement. 'N Kort, gehurkte middeljarige man, met 'n mollige gesig wat straal agter groot bril. Hy beskik oor 'n volmaakte parlementêre manier; 'n aangename stem, selfvertroue sonder arrogansie, 'n vinnige wederkomsvermoë, 'n vermoë van oortuigende verklaring en bowenal 'n reddende grasie van humor. "

Na 'n debat in Februarie het Ramsay MacDonald aan George V gesê dat "die toespraak van mnr. Wheatley 'n meesterstuk was. Stil en vloeiend, duidelik in die uiteensetting van feite, logies en presies in die oproep van argumente, sterk in die verdediging, humoristies en deurslaggewend in die aanval. ” Wheatley's Housing Act, wat in Augustus 1924 wet geword het, was een van die min prestasies van die eerste Arbeidsregering. Die wetgewing behels die ontwikkeling van 'n vennootskap tussen politieke partye, plaaslike owerhede en spesiaal aangestelde komitees vir die bou van werknemers en werkgewers. Die plan was om 190 000 nuwe raadshuise teen beskeie huurgeld in 1925 te bou en dat dit geleidelik sou toeneem totdat dit in 1934 450 000 bereik het.

Soos Ian S. Wood opgemerk het: "Wheatley's Housing (Financial Provisions) Act was die enigste groot wetgewende prestasie van die Arbeidsregering van 1924. Totdat sy subsidiebepalings in 1934 deur die nasionale regering herroep is, was 'n aansienlike deel van alle gehuurde plaaslike owerhede behuising in Brittanje is onder sy voorwaardes gebou en sestig jaar later was daar nog mense in Skotland wat oor Wheatley -huise gepraat het. Die wet was 'n komplekse een wat vakbonde, boufirmas en plaaslike owerhede bymekaar gebring het in 'n plan om 'n tekort aan huisvesting aan te pak wat gewaarborg is deur die regering, op voorwaarde dat die boustandaarde wat deur die wet vasgestel is, nagekom word. die regering 'n wye reeks kontroles oor die verskaffing van boumateriaal aan plaaslike rade wat die Wet op Behuising bedryf. "

Op 9 Mei 1924 het H. Wells 'n afvaardiging gelei om hervormings van geboortebeperking te vra. Die afvaardiging het twee dinge gevra: dat instellings onder beheer van die Ministerie van Gesondheid voorbehoedingsadvies moet gee aan diegene wat daarvoor gevra het; en dat dokters by welsynsentrums toegelaat moet word om advies te gee in sekere mediese gevalle. As 'n Rooms -Katolieke het Wheatley 'n sterk standpunt oor geboortebeperking en het hy geweier om hierdie veldtog te ondersteun.

Wheatley het sy setel behou tydens die algemene verkiesing van 1924, maar die Arbeidersparty het sleg gevaar en die konserwatiewes het die volgende regering gevorm. Wheatley het MacDonald se skuif na regs gekritiseer en is gevolglik nie aangestel in die Arbeidsregering wat na die algemene verkiesing van 1929 gevorm is nie.

Soos Philip Snowden daarop gewys het waarom Ramsay MacDonald hom nie gevra het om by die regering aan te sluit nie: 'Gedurende die tyd wat ons in die opposisie was (1925-29), het Wheatley hom van sy voormalige kollegas van die kabinet losgemaak en na die agterste banke gegaan. die maatskappy van die Clydesiders. Ook in die land het hy toesprake gehou oor sy oorlede kollegas. MacDonald was sterk daarteen gekant om hom 'n pos in die nuwe regering aan te bied. Wheatley het ons verlaat en ons beledig, en MacDonald het gedink dat die land sou wees geskok as hy in die kabinet opgeneem word, en dit sal as bewys van rebelle -invloed beskou word. ” Arthur Henderson stem egter nie saam met MacDonald nie. Net so het Snowden, wat aangevoer het: "Arthur Henderson was van mening, en ek was geneig om met hom saam te stem dat dit beter sou wees om hom binne as buite te hê. Ek het hierdie siening aangeneem uit my ervaring van hom as minister. 'n man wat, as hy vry was van die verantwoordelikheid van sy amp, uiterste toesprake sou hou; maar as minister het ek hom altyd redelik en prakties gevind. "

Wheatley het geweier om al die maatreëls wat deur die regering van MacDonald voorgestel is, te ondersteun en het die stryd gelei teen die National Insurance Act wat Margaret Bondfield probeer het om die Parlement te oorreed. Wheatley het egter sy invloed in die Independent Labour Party verloor en op sy konferensie in Januarie 1930 is hy sterk gekritiseer vir sy aanvalle op die regering.

John Wheatley, wat sedert 1924 aan hoë bloeddruk gely het, is op 12 Mei 1930 aan 'n serebrale bloeding dood. Sy begrafnis by die Dalbeth-begraafplaas in Glasgow was die grootste politieke begrafnis wat die stad sedert John Maclean se begrawe het.

Dit was die plig van Katolieke om die revolusionêre konfiskerende anti-godsdienstige metodes van die vroeë, moderne kontinentale sosialiste teë te staan. Maar die metodes en doelwitte van die juridiese evolusionêre sosialisme van Groot -Brittanje verdien nie opposisie nie. Sosialisme in Groot -Brittanje beteken die vervanging van die publiek - die munisipaliteit of die staatsbesit deur privaatbesit.

Toe ek John Wheatley die eerste keer ontmoet, was hy in die moeilikheid. Hy het homself as 'n sosialis verklaar en die Katolieke sosialistiese vereniging gestig. Dit was te veel vir sy medegelowiges en hul geestelike leiers. Daar was min wat hulle kon doen. Hulle het besluit om die bietjie te doen. Hulle kon die ketter nie verbrand nie, en daarom het hulle 'n beeld van hom gemaak wat hulle deur die strate gedra het en te midde van baie vroom blydskap by John Wheatley se voorhek verbrand het. Hy is gewaarsku oor die gevaar om in die huis te wees, want 'n Ier onder die invloed van godsdienstige manie, soos een onder die invloed van alkoholiese drank, is roekeloos. Tot die ontsteltenis van die ondersoekers staan ​​John Wheatley met sy vrou by sy oop deur en glimlag vir die fanatisme asof dit pret was. Die volgende Sondagoggend het hy soos gewoonlik by die mis verskyn, en die moeilikheid het verdwyn.

Nou was hy 'n sosialistiese kandidaat vir die gemeenteraad, een van die nederigste en nuttigste fases van staatsdiens. Die gerug loop dat die fanatici hom 'n moeilike tyd gaan gee. Sommige van ons het besluit om die vergadering by te woon, gereed om billike uitruil te deel vir alles wat kom. Niks het gekom nie. Die vergadering was ordelik en aandagtig.

Ek het nog nooit gehoor dat 'n spreker die saak vir sosialisme so eenvoudig en so sterk noem nie. Ons het vriendelik geraak en die gewoonte begin, wat ons jare lank onderhou het, om Saterdagmiddag saam in die land te stap.

Die huis het 'n nuwe gunsteling gevind in Mr. Hy beskik oor 'n perfekte parlementêre manier; 'n aangename stem, selfvertroue sonder arrogansie, 'n vinnige berou, 'n vermoë van oortuigende uitsprake en bo alles 'n reddende genade van humor.

Wheatley's Housing (Financial Provisions) Act was die enigste belangrike wetgewende prestasie van die 1924 Arbeidsregering. Die wet het weinig daartoe bygedra vir die werklike krotbuurte, maar dit het die reputasie van Wheatley aansienlik verbeter ondanks die verlies van 'n maatreël, die wetsontwerp op boumateriaal, wat die sentrale regering 'n wye reeks kontroles oor die verskaffing van boumateriaal aan plaaslike rade sou gegee het wat die Wet op Behuising bedryf. .

Ek veronderstel nog steeds dat mense die behoefte aan 'n politieke werkersklasorganisasie bevraagteken, mense wat glo dat alliansies tussen werkgewers en werkers industriële en politieke probleme sal oplos. Ek stem nie saam met daardie mense nie.

Omstandighede bring mense en bewegings voort, en geen Arbeidsbeweging sou moontlik gewees het tensy toestande gunstig was vir die geboorte daarvan nie. Dit is ewe waar dat die omstandighede wat dit tot stand gebring het, nie verander het nie. Die kraag op die nek is verlig op plekke waar dit die seerste was, maar die kraag bly.

Dit is 'n redelike aanname dat as die liberale of konserwatiewe party gewillig en in staat was om die werkersklas ekonomiese sekuriteit te gee, die veiligheid al lankal sou gegee word. Elkeen het lang periodes van mag gehad met meerderhede wat in staat was om enige maatreëls te tref wat hy gekies het, en elkeen het jammerlik nie daarin geslaag om selfs 'n ordentlike lewensstandaard vir die grootste deel van die bevolking te bring nie.

Ek veronderstel dat daar altyd rede is om te argumenteer of die program van die Arbeidersparty veiligheid vir die werkersklas kan bring, maar daar is geen ruimte vir argumente oor die bereidwilligheid daarvan nie. Ons ekonomiese teorieë kan misluk, maar 'n party of beweging wat vir geen ander doel as die afskaffing van sosiale onreg geskep is nie, het ten minste die reg om die eerlikheid van sy voornemens te erken. Geen student in die geskiedenis sal die feit betwis dat dit, en slegs dit, die rede was wat die gedagtes van die manne wat die idee van 'n groot onafhanklike politieke Arbeidersparty gedink het, opgewek het nie. 'N Groot deel van die vroeë stryd was ongetwyfeld bloot 'n ongerigte opstand teen sosiale onreg, en sonder 'n vooropgestelde idee oor oorsake en nog minder oor remedies. Die geskiedenis toon een lang reeks opstande, wat blykbaar redelik los van mekaar is, maar tog 'n uitdrukking van dieselfde eis vir menslike vryheid.

Gedurende die tyd wat ons in die opposisie was (1925-29), het Wheatley homself van sy voormalige kabinets-kollegas losgemaak en na die agterbanke gegaan in die geselskap van die Clydesiders. Wheatley het ons verlaat en beledig, en MacDonald het gedink dat die land geskok sou wees as hy in die kabinet ingesluit sou word, en dit sou as 'n bewys van rebelle -invloed beskou word. Arthur Henderson was van mening, en ek was geneig om met hom saam te stem dat dit beter is om hom binne as buite te hê. hy was 'n man wat, as hy nie verantwoordelik was vir die amp nie, uiterste toesprake sou maak; maar as minister het ek hom altyd redelik en prakties gevind.

Die volgende keer dat hy meer as gewoonlik prominent in die huis was, was die nag van die Skotse skattings. By hierdie geleentheid is hy en drie Skotse kollegas geskors omdat hulle doelbewus die gesag van die stoel verontagsaam het. Mnr. Maxton het sir Frederick Banbury 'n moordenaar genoem, en ondanks versoeke van Ramsay MacDonald, sy eie leier, het hy geweier om hom terug te trek. Terwyl die rumoer op sy hoogtepunt was, het dit geblyk dat Maxton wankel, toe meneer Wheatley op sy voete spring, die aanklag herhaal en vir MacDonald duidelik sê dat hy hom nie hoef te onttrek nie. Sowel mnr Maxton as mnr Wheatley is onmiddellik geskors, en die pers laat hom los op die wilde manne uit die Clyde. In werklikheid was die manne uit die Clyde nie so wild nie. Die protesaksie is doelbewus teen die feit dat die Huis, soos altyd, die Skotse ramings daardie jaar as van geen belang behandel het nie. Die vier MP's is na Skotland, waar hulle as nasionale helde en martelare ontvang is. Groot betogings is in elke stad in Skotland gehou, en die kwessie van Huisregering vir Skotland het vir die eerste keer 'n lewendige aangeleentheid in die Skotse politiek geword. Ek kan die gesindheid van die ouer manne in die Arbeidersparty tydens hierdie episode onthou. Almal was heeltemal oortuig dat hierdie tonele in die Huis en die revolusionêre praatjies in die land die party sou doodmaak, en ek kan onthou dat een van hulle wat nou in die kabinet is, vir my gesê het dat dit die party vyftig setels sal kos. Vreemd genoeg was mnr Wheatley se vaste oortuiging dat die party gevolglik setels sou kry. Sy argument was dat die werkersklasse vir die eerste keer in die Britse politiek kon voel dat daar 'n party was wat nie bereid was om rustig op hul plekke te sit en die slegte ou toestande te laat heers sonder protes nie. Die algemene verkiesing het binne minder as ses maande gekom. en dan is gevind dat Arbeid, ten spyte van die tonele, of miskien as gevolg van hulle, eintlik meer as vyftig setels gewen het. Miskien is dit meer as 'n toeval dat die konserwatiewe lid, kaptein Elliot, wat in beheer was van die Skotse skattings, verslaan is in wat tot dusver as 'n veilige konserwatiewe setel beskou is. Hoe dit ook al sy, Wheatley se optrede in die Huis het hom as 'n man bestempel wat nie in die politiek geïgnoreer kon word nie, en daarom was ons, wat hom die beste geken het, nie verbaas toe hy is gekies as lid van die eerste Arbeidskabinet.

James Maxton en ek het gepraat oor die noodsaaklikheid om die werk wat Wheatley aan ons oorgelaat het, voort te sit, maar in ons harte het ons geweet dat dit nie gedoen kan word nie. Ons was die manne met wie Wheatley die beskawing in Brittanje kon opgebou het, maar sonder hom - ons kon net hoop om voort te gaan, ongeag die gevolg daarvan.

Op Maxton se kwesbare skouers het die enigste las van leierskap geval, en ek het destyds baie van hom gesien. Ek het nog nooit met 'n vriendeliker, onberispelikder eerlikheid, lojale en moedige man omgegaan nie; maar hy is sonder ambisie, het geen geduld vir detail nie, en 'n vreemde filosofie aangepas by sy inherente luiheid wat hom 'n onmoontlike leier vir enige beweging maak. Sy politiek is sosialisties, maar sy denkgewoontes en temperament is heeltemal anargisties.


John Wheatley - Geskiedenis

Plek: In Grassy Gap ses myl noordwes van Wise half myl suid van Big Laurel.

Eienaars: Arthur Wheatley Frank Kilgore Campbell Gardner.

Beskrywing: Storie en halfgekapte houthuis. Skuinste kombuis agter. Teen die suidweste. Dak van dak. Stoep voor. Skoorsteen aan die noordekant. Venster aan die suidkant.

Geskiedenis: Arthur (Arter) Wheatley was die seun van William Wheatley en 'n broer van John (Jackie) Wheatley wat hom op Grassy Branch gevestig het, twee kilometer oos van Grassy Gap. Hy is gebore in Scott Co., VA, en het met 'n dogter getrou
van Samuel Salyer. Omstreeks 1830 na Rocky Fork gekom en hulle in Grassy Gap gevestig. Sy dogter, Clarinda, trou met Frank Kilgore en erf die tuiste. Na die huwelik van sy dogter, Clarinda, verhuis Arter Wheatley na naby Rock Switch en vestig hom op wat nou bekend staan ​​as Wheatley Branch. Die Kilgores het in 1874 'n nuwe huis net suid van die oorspronklike nedersetting op Poor House Branch gebou, en woon sedertdien daar.

Inligtingsbron: Frank Kilgore, Clarinda Kilgore

Ligging: Vier kilometer noordwes van Wise, een kilometer wes van die Amerikaanse 23 tweehonderd meter suid van State Road 626 op Rocky Fork van Guest River.

Eienaars: John (Jackie) Wheatley

Beskrywing: Klein meul van die tipe onderwiel wat deur waterkrag aangedryf word en omringende setlaars bedien.

Geskiedenis: Omstreeks 1830 kom John (Jackie) Wheatley uit Scott Co. en koop 'n paar honderd hektaar grond op die hoof Rocky Fork and Greasy Branch, 'n sytak. Daar was geen meul in hierdie afdeling nie, die setlaars was afhanklik van handmeulens en mortiere om hul maaltyd vir brood voor te berei. Wheatley het die eerste meule in hierdie afdeling op Rocky Fork gebou. Vier kilometer noordwes van Wise. 'N Klein stroompie het die rivier naby sy meul binnegedring wat oor 'n bodem versprei het, wat die setlaars verhinder het om die meul te bereik. Wheatley het 'n diep sloot gegrawe, ongeveer vyfhonderd meter deur die bodem om 'n kanaal vir die stroom te vorm en 'n droë pad vir sy kliënte te bied.
Omstreeks 1850 gee John Wheatley (of verkoop hierdie stuk) aan sy skoonseun, James Hamilton, wat tydens die burgeroorlog by Prince's Flats vermoor is. Hamilton het die meule tot sy dood bedryf, en sy weduwee,
Mary Hamilton, laat opereer totdat sy plase verruil het met Felix G. Creech, ongeveer 1880, toe dit laat vaar is.
Felix Creech het hierdie grens aan die einde van die 19de eeu aan die Virginia Coal and Iron Company verkoop en sedertdien is die stuk deur huurders beset.
In 1912 het James Taylor Adams 'n poskantoor op hierdie plek gevestig, en Big Laurel -kantoor is eers op die presiese plek bedryf waar die ou John Wheatley -molen bedryf is.
Daar is geen teken meer van die ou meule nie. Slegs die oudste mense onthou toe dit in werking was.

Inligtingsbron: Patton Kilgore en openbare rekords.

Ligging: Vier kilometer noordwes van Wise, driehonderd meter van US 23 af op staatsweg nr. 626.

Eienaars: John Wheatley gekoop van Statebond. Verkoop aan sy skoonseun, James Hamilton. Hamilton se weduwee verkoop aan Felix Creech en Creech verkoop aan die Virginia Coal & amp Iron Company.

Beskrywing: Die oorspronklike huis het ongeveer honderd meter wes van die huidige struktuur gestaan ​​en het 'n houtverdiepinggebou met een verdieping. Twee kamers. Teenoor die noorde. Dak van dak.

Geskiedenis: John Wheatley kom van Scott Co., VA. Hy verkoop of gee hierdie stuk van ongeveer 1000 hektaar aan sy skoonseun, James Hamilton. Hamilton is in 1863 deur Samuel Tyree Salyers te Norton vermoor tydens die
Burgeroorlog. 'N Paar jaar later het Mary Hamilton, die weduwee, hierdie grond verkoop of verruil vir eiendom op Indian Creek, en Felix G. Creech het die eienaar geword. Creech het die huidige huis omstreeks 1875 gebou. Dit kyk uit op die pad, stroom en noord. Voorstoep. Gesnyde stompe, twee verhale. Slegs twee vensters in die hoofgebou,
een met trappe en een af. Die kombuis het ook houtblaaie en is slegs een verhaal. Dit word geskei van die hoofgebou deur 'n gang. Baksteen vir skoorstene aan die maklike einde van die huis, en die suide van die kombuis. Baksteen vir
skoorstene is reg op die grond gebrand.


17 Februarie 1927 Geboorte, Tucson (Ariz.).

1947 Verwerf BS in Elektriese Ingenieurswese, Universiteit van Colorado, Boulder, Boulder (Kol.).

1952 Verwerf PhD in Fisika, Universiteit van Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh (Pa.).

1952-1966 Instrukteur vir professor in fisika (1952-1966) en lid, Sentrum vir Gevorderde Studie (1965-1966), Universiteit van Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Urbana (Ill.).

1954 - 1955 Guggenheim -genoot, Universiteit van Leiden.

1966 - 1981 professor in fisika, Universiteit van Kalifornië, San Diego, La Jolla (San Diego, Kalifornië).

1975 Lid, Nasionale Akademie vir Wetenskappe.

1980 - 1981 Guggenheim -genoot, Universiteit van Leiden.

1981-1986 Navorser (1981-1985) en UCLA-Los Alamos Joint Fellow (1985-1986), Los Alamos National Laboratory.

1985 - 1986 professor in fisika en presidentstoel, Universiteit van Kalifornië, Los Angeles.


Perde met 'n geskiedenis

As u op soek is na 'n meer suksesvolle, beproefde, langtermyn-span om 'n span te pak, as die program wat dekades gelede deur David Gill, Joe Murray en Jim Wheatley saamgestel is, en baie geluk daarmee. Die perde met 'n geskiedenis en 'n geskikte manier om talentvolle spanbande te teel, te breek en op te lei, word op alle vlakke van die spel getoets, waar en vertrou. En bo en behalwe goeie perde, het hierdie drie Rodeo-ropers van die National Finals-reputasie 'n goeie reputasie deurstaan.

Gill, Murray en Wheatley kom almal uit boerdery- en cowboy -gesinne in Kalifornië. Die Gills het in die veertigerjare begin om perde groot te maak op die Driftwood- en Hancock -bloedlyne. Die gesin is nou vier generasies diep by beeste, en voer sedert die 1900's vee in die land rondom Madera, Exeter, Porterville en Gustine.

My pa (Will Gill Jr.) het 'n eie seun van Driftwood gekoop. Easy Keeper was 'n 7/8 broer van (Dale Smith ’s ProRodeo Hall of Fame touperd) Poker Chip. Onderweg was ons neefs die eienaar van Pelican, 'n kwartperd waarmee hulle die hele tyd wedrenne kon aanpak wat die volbloedkinders kon klop. Pelican was 'n perd van Joe Hancock. Ons het uiteindelik by Pelican beland en hom met ons Easy Keepers begin kruis. Dit het ons program aan die gang gesit. ”

1948 Die legendariese Pelikaan wen nog 'n wedloop in Arizona vir Gill Cattle Company.  

Die groot perd- en beesbedryf van Will Gill & Sons was die pa van David (een van die seuns uit die naam van die uitrusting, Will Gill Sr., was David ’s se oupa), Will Jr., wat die Oakdale 10 Steer Roping gewen het en ongeveer al die ander dinge was om terug te wen in die dag. Die broers van Will Jr. en#x2019 sluit in David, oom Ernest, wat in 1945 die wêreldkampioen was, en oom Ralph. Baie van die laat, wonderlike ou-cowboys, waaronder 1951 Wêreldkampioen-span Roper Olan Sims en ProRodeo Hall of Famer Clay Carr, wat in 1930 wêreldwye titels gewen het en#x201933, goue gespe in 1930 stuur en �, en die wêreldkampioenskap vir saalbronsry in 1930, het op die Gill Ranch geleef en gewerk en op Gill -perde gery.

Die eerste Horses with a History Sale het plaasgevind in 2001. Die verkoop is sedertdien elke tweede Oktober in 2017 gehou by die Gill -familie se historiese Adobe Ranch in Madera, en die volgende een is vir die herfs van 2019. David ’s Madera Die naaste familie bestaan ​​ook uit sy vrou, Creatia, en die professionele seun van die Rodeo Cowboys Association -span, Landon.

1976 Jim Wheatley draai een op sy grootmerrie Gray Box vir John Bill Rodriguez tydens die NFR van 1976.

Wat ons aan die gang gesit het met die uitverkoping, is dat Joe en Jim albei by ons begin koop en perdry het, en hul programme uit ons program gebou het, het David gesê. Joe het Blue Light Ike by ons gekoop, en ons het Frostys Tops grootgemaak ('n kleinseun van die Pelikaan), wat Gilbert Reynolds was, en die suringstok wat Jim opgelei het en soveel gewen het. Een van die redes waarom ons die eerste keer verkoop het, was dat ek wou terugsny van die 40 merries wat ek destyds gehad het. Dit was 'n prestasie- en produksieverkoping, en ook 'n verminderingsverkoping vir my. ”

Soveel grotes het baie perde uit die Gill-Murray-Wheatley-perdekuddes gewen. Daar was 'n perd wat hulle Cadillac genoem het, wat 'n halfbroer van Frostys Tops was, wat Tee Woolman en Jake Barnes gereeld gery het toe hulle tydens hul primes aan die Weskus deelgeneem het.

Trouens, Jake het in 1985 in die eindstryd in die laaste drie ritte met Cadillac gery, die jaar toe hy en Clay O 𠆛rien Cooper hul eerste van sewe titels in die wêreldspan gewen het. Jimmy Rodriguez en John Miller van die Hall of Fame -span het wêreldkampioenskappe met perde uit dieselfde bloedlyne gewen. Derrick Begay se goeie suurperd, Swagger, wat een jaar die Hoofperd van die BFI -toekenning gewen het, is 'n kleinseun van Frostys Tops.

1985 David Gill wat 'n stuurman vir Jim Petersen by die NFR 1985  

Murray (68) en Wheatley (72) was vriende sedert hulle basies seuns was. Murray se ma, Dorothy, was 'n suster van die Wêreldkampioen -span Ropers Vern en Vic Castro, wat in 1942 saam die wêrelddraf gewen het. Vern slaan in 1955 vir 'n tweede goue gespe. Vic gee Joe en Jim 'n werk waarna hulle gery het etlike jare langs mekaar, van sonop tot sononder.

Ek en Jim het vir my oom Vic gewerk, cowboy op sy plaas in Oakdale, en Murray, wat nog steeds saam met sy vrou, Cathy, daar woon in die oorspronklike Cowboy Capital of the World en twee seuns het, Troy en Lane , wat ook tou. Murray was op pad na drie reguit NFR's vir Gary Gist in 1976, Rickey Green in 1977 en Gary Hemsted in 1978. Ek en#x201CJim het 'n paar duisend beeste per seisoen versorg. Daar was 'n tyd dat ek ook op pad was na die broer van John, John, by die amateur -rodeo's. Ek gaan dus terug met die Wheatleys. Ek het David eers ontmoet tot ongeveer 1976. Hy het waterski toe hy jonk was. ”

Ja, Gill was in sy jeug 'n allesomvattende waaghals.

Ek het my hele lewe lank cowboy geword en die meeste van die tyd in die voerkraal gewerk, het David gesê. Maar ek het my nie veel daaraan gesteur om te tou totdat ek ongeveer 25 was nie. Toe het 'n paar van die ouens by die voerkraal meegebring dat ek saam met hulle 'n ou, ou nikkelpotjie wou gaan, ek het 'n bietjie geld gewen, en die res is geskiedenis.

𠇊 cowboy wat 'n baie goeie hand was en hier op die plaas gewerk het, Tom Harsh, het my baie gehelp met my tou, net soos ouens soos Ron Goodrich, John Miller en Tom Flenniken. Tom het skool geleer in Chowchilla, en het elke aand na my toe gekom en vir my stuur gestuur. Hy het my geleer hoe om te wen, en het my oor die weg geruim. ”

Wheatley is 'n sesmalige NFR-kop, net soos seun Wade. Jim het tydens die eindronde van 1973-76 saam met John Bill Rodriguez, wie se broer Jimmy was en in 1978, en in 1978 en saam met wyle Stan Melshaw gehardloop.

1987 Joe Murray draai 'n bestuurder op Blue Light Ike vir Sam Williams, wat 'n seun van Blue Light Ike bestuur het.

My pa (John Wheatley Sr., wat met sy een arm in sy tande tou en#x2014 nadat hy die ander in 'n jeugongeluk verloor het) het in 1954 met perde begin grootmaak, en#x201D het gesê Wheatley, wat in Hughson woon , Kalifornië, en saam met sy vrou het Terry ook 'n dogter, Katie. Ons het begin met een merrie, Rubia Linda, en omtrent al die perde wat ons grootmaak, gaan terug na haar. Een jaar by die NFR in die sewentigerjare was daar drie perde uit haar wat deur my, Jim Rodriguez en John Deaton, gery is.

Ons het ons eie perdelyn gehad, en toe begin ek hulle oorsteek met 'n paar van David se bloedlyne. Ons verhoog die tipe perde wat ons graag wil ry, mooi atletiese perde met 'n goeie ingesteldheid waarmee u kan ry om u koeie bymekaar te maak, die kalwers op te merk, dan na die tou of rodeo te neem en op die hoogste vlak mee te ding .

Die perde wat ek en Wade by die eindronde gery het, was perde wat ons grootgemaak het (Wade se bekende palomino -perd, Woody, was uit 'n Frostys Tops -merrie en sy goeie suurperd -koekie was deur Frostys Tops). Toe ek op Frostys Tops ry, ry Tee hom by die finale. Ek het 14 perde gehad wat ek tydens die eindronde grootgemaak en/of opgelei het deur ouens soos Tee, Jake, Bobby Hurley en Walt Rodman. ”

Murray se wêreldkampioen -span Roper -ooms het dwarsdeur hul legendariese loopbane op dryfhoutperde gery, en die sterk invloed is soos 'n erfstuk van 'n familie oorgedra.

𠇍ie perde wat David, Jim en ek grootmaak, gaan van ver af terug na beproefde bloedlyne, ” het Joe gesê. Hierdie perde het al baie jare baie sukses behaal, en dit maak my trots dat hulle nog steeds die soort perde is waarop jy vandag kan wen. Hulle is regtig perde met 'n geskiedenis, hulle is baie opgelei en hulle het goed gemaak met hul werk.

Ons was almal ou vriende en NFR-spanwagters wat perde vir ons en ons kinders grootgemaak het. Toe ons by die plek kom waar ons meer gehad het as wat ons nodig gehad het vir ons gesinne, het ons besluit om bymekaar te kom om dit aan die publiek te bied. Ons doel is om 'n hoër vlak rodeo en jackpot-tipe perd op te tel wat u gedurende die week op die plaas kan gebruik, net soos 60 jaar gelede. Ons het vasgehou waarmee ons begin het, want ons het oor die jare baie geluk gehad met hierdie perde. Hulle is groter en meer beenagtig as die gemiddelde perd. Hulle is gebou om op te tou. ”

Murray noem nog 'n paar suksesvoetverhale uit hierdie reeks perde, waaronder Spencer Mitchell wat op die 2012 NFR gery het. David het Doyle Gellerman se goeie baaiperd Badger grootgemaak. Cody Cowden se superster baai perd Shot is deur Murray ’s stoetery Blue Light Ike (wat Murray by Gill gekoop het as 'n baba vul, en uit 'n Frostys Tops merrie was wat 'n dubbel geteelde Lucky Blanton was) en uit 'n Frostys Tops dogter.

En hierdie suksesverhaal is nie beperk tot spanpaaie nie. Beide die huidige Wêreldkampioen Barrel Racer Nellie Williams Miller se NFR -perde, Blue Duck en Sister, is uit 'n merrie wat haar pa, Sam Williams, Reba noem, 'n dogter van Murray se Blue Light Ike. Suster het haar in Julie nogmaals gewys hoe sy Cheyenne in 'n haelstorm gewen het. Levi Rudd also won the steer wrestling at the 2018 Daddy of 𠆞m All riding a horse out of Murray’s stud that was sold at the 2017 Horses with a History Sale, and is now owned by hazer Jeff Green.

Barrie Beach Smith has had a lot of success over the years at the barrel futurities riding Gill-branded horses, as has her World Champion Heeler husband, Brad Smith. Barrie and Brad’s son, Sterling Smith, has made the NFR riding Gill-bred horses in the tie-down roping.

“It’s all about getting good horses into good hands,” Gill said. “You can breed and break them right, but if you put the best horse in the world into the wrong hands, they’ll be just another hay-burning plug. It’s all about who does what with horses to give them the best chance to succeed. I’m not saying our horses are better than everybody else’s horses, but we do try to do right by them, and do what’s best for them. Bringing horses along slowly is a big key. Patience and taking the time to let them progress at their own pace is very important.

2001 Jim Wheatley branding on his great stud Trapper Bar Drop. 

“We all ranch on these horses, which puts such a strong foundation on them. We use them, and we cowboy on them before we take them to the arena. Ninety percent of rodeo horses today are just arena broke. But giving them a job besides just running steers or barrels is better for their minds. Our horses enjoy getting out there on the ranch, and so do we.”

Gill starts his 2-year-olds, then turns them out until they’re 3. Then he and son Landon ranch on them awhile before they ever see the inside of an arena.

“I like a well-muscled horse with good bone and good feet, with a nice, big hip,” Gill said. “We’ve tried to class up our horses over the years, because everybody wants to ride a good looking horse now. The old Pelicans were ugly. We like our horses to have a lot of cow, ample speed, and intensity, and the mind to handle it. When you’re talking specifically about team roping horses, we want a horse that scores and finishes, and can take the pressure.

“It’s important to me to have a horse that’s really willing, and enjoyable to train. Those horses learn fast, and you don’t have to slug it out with them. Horses who like their jobs are a lot more likely to fit the next guy who rides them, too. I sell a lot of horses to businessmen who rope at World Series ropings. Those guys can win so much money. Horses I’ve raised and trained have won the Perry Di Loreto (now the Reno Million John Paboojian won it one year on a horse David raised and Jim trained) and the BFI (Rocky Carpenter won it with Tom Flenniken Jr. in 1990), and $100,000 at the World Series Finale in Vegas.”

As is the case with the Gills and the Wheatleys, the Murray family is all hands on deck with their horse program. Joe halter breaks all the babies himself, and from there, everyone saddles up. They stand three studs�h with his own story on how he ties back to this bloodline—including Four Gill, Espuela Tom, and Azultis. Like Murray’s old Blue Light Ike horse, Espuela Tom is out of a double-bred Lucky Blanton mare. Azultis, which means “little blue,” is out of a half-sister to Sam Williams’s mare Reba, who, again, has blessed Nellie so richly in the barrel racing arena. Four Gill was raised by the Haythorn Land and Cattle Company in Arthur, Nebraska, and when the Haythorns sold out, the Murrays made the trek to Arthur, because Four Gill was the only full brother to Blue Light Ike who was still a stallion.

This Horses with a History program—which offers horses ranging 𠇏rom weanlings to finished jackpot and rodeo horses you can go win money on” at the biennial sale—is based on a bond of trust and respect. And though their herds get a little smaller as these living-legend cowboys get a little older�vid’s down to 10 mares and three studs, Joe has 22 mares in addition to his three studs, and Jim’s cut his herd back to five mares—that bond goes for both the humans and the horses. Quality has never been sacrificed for quantity, and𠅋ottom line—these are good horses in good hands.


Struggles in Later Life

Wheatley had traveled to London to promote her poems and received medical treatment for a health ailment that she had been battling. After her return to Boston, Wheatley&aposs life changed significantly. While ultimately freed from slavery, she was devastated by the deaths of several Wheatley family members, including Susanna (d. 1774) and John (d. 1778).

In 1778, Wheatley married a free African American from Boston, John Peters, with whom she had three children, all of whom died in infancy. Their marriage proved to be a struggle, with the couple battling constant poverty. Ultimately, Wheatley was forced to find work as a maid in a boarding house and lived in squalid, horrifying conditions. 

Wheatley did continue to write, but the growing tensions with the British and, ultimately, the Revolutionary War, weakened enthusiasm for her poems. While she contacted various publishers, she was unsuccessful in finding support for a second volume of poetry.


John Wheatleigh

John Wheatleigh, Esq. of Tingsboro, Somerset, 1) May 31, 1547, m Dorothy Willoughby of Derbyshire, youngest daughter of Arctic explorer, Hugh Willoughby.

She probably died before 1609, for no mention is made of her in his will. He was one of the 164 gentlemen and sailors who accompanied Sir Francis Drake on his free booting expedition to Spanish America and around the world, home via Cape of Good Hope, arriving at Plymouth November 1580.

"Will of John "Wheatleigh Esq.. of Tingsboro, filed at Carew, P. C. C. and dated May 7, 1609, is as follows:

The chain of gold dsposed of my father. John Wheatley V will, shall succeed to our heirs. 'I'n my four younger sons, Israel, Samuel, Philip and Andrew during their lives each ꍐ by the year, out of the rents of Lindenboro and Glenolden.

To my daughters Elizabeth, Mary and Margery 򣠀, to be raised out of the rents of my manors, Sidglen and Maiden Newton. To my daughter Mary, her mother's wedding ring.

To my brother, Frank Wheatleigh, the remission of a tenement in Maiden Newton. To my brother, Samuel Wheatleigh, the continuation for life of the living at Tingsboro. To my cousin, Edmund AVingate, my books on law and mathematics.

Nathaniel my son and heir executor. John Skinner, clerk.

John Wheatleigh, Esq. of Tingsboro, Somerset, 1) May 31, 1547, m Dorothy Willoughby of Derbyshire, youngest daughter of Arctic explorer, Hugh Willoughby.

She probably died before 1609, for no mention is made of her in his will. He was one of the 164 gentlemen and sailors who accompanied Sir Francis Drake on his free booting expedition to Spanish America and around the world, home via Cape of Good Hope, arriving at Plymouth November 1580.

"Will of John "Wheatleigh Esq.. of Tingsboro, filed at Carew, P. C. C. and dated May 7, 1609, is as follows:

The chain of gold dsposed of my father. John Wheatley V will, shall succeed to our heirs. 'I'n my four younger sons, Israel, Samuel, Philip and Andrew during their lives each ꍐ by the year, out of the rents of Lindenboro and Glenolden.

To my daughters Elizabeth, Mary and Margery 򣠀, to be raised out of the rents of my manors, Sidglen and Maiden Newton. To my daughter Mary, her mother's wedding ring.

To my brother, Frank Wheatleigh, the remission of a tenement in Maiden Newton. To my brother, Samuel Wheatleigh, the continuation for life of the living at Tingsboro. To my cousin, Edmund AVingate, my books on law and mathematics.

Nathaniel my son and heir executor. John Skinner, clerk.

Sources 1.Hannibal P. (Hannibal Parish) Wheatley. Genealogy of the Wheatley or Wheatleigh family. A history of the family in England and America .. online. (page 1 of 11)


Descendants of John Wheatley and Elizabeth Wright

Note: the names of persons born after 1900 are not shown.

John Wheatley (1758-1840) m. Elizabeth Wright (1764-1828)

  • 1 Mary Wheatley (1785-?)
  • 2 Mary Wheatley (1786-?)
  • 3 Frances Wheatley (1788-?)
  • 4 William Wheatley (1792-?)
  • 5 Alfred Wheatley (1794-?) m. Martha (c.1805-?)
    • 5.1 Joseph Wheatley (c.1831-1903)
    • 5.2 Elizabeth Wheatley (c.1833-?)
    • 6.1 Rachael Ann Wheatley (1825-?) m. William T. Forsyth (c.1823-?)
      • 6.1.1 William Forsyth (c.1852-?) m. Frances Dandas Priestley (1852-?)
      • 6.1.2 John Wheatley Forsyth (?-1859)
      • 6.1.3 James Forsyth (c.1857-?)
      • 6.1.4 Francis Forsyth (c.1858-?)
      • 6.1.5 Mame (c.1860-?) m. Edwin Musser Herr (c.1860-c.1932)
      • 6.1.6 Katherine Forsyth (c.1862-1893) m. Edwin Musser Herr (c.1860-c.1932)
      • 6.1.7 Bessie (c.1864-c.1872)
      • 6.2.1 William Edwin Wheatley (1859-1859)
      • 6.2.2 John Wright Wheatley (1861-1931) m. Mary Helen Vandevander (?-?)
        • 6.2.2.1 Ricarda Elizabeth Wheatley (1887-?) m. George Allen Bacchus (?-?)
          • 6.2.2.1.1 privaat
            • 6.2.2.1.1.1 privaat
            • 6.2.2.1.1.2 privaat
            • 6.2.2.2.1 privaat
              • 6.2.2.2.1.1 privaat
                • 6.2.2.2.1.1.1 privaat
                • 6.2.2.2.1.1.2 privaat
                • 6.2.2.2.1.2.1 privaat
                • 6.2.2.2.2.1 privaat
                • 6.2.4.1 Richard Bishop (1897-1898)
                • 6.2.7.1 Frances Harriet Williams (1899-1962) m. Robert Cedric Binkley (1897-1940)
                  • 6.2.7.1.1 privaat
                  • 6.2.7.1.2 privaat
                    • 6.2.7.1.2.1 privaat
                    • 6.2.7.1.2.2 privaat
                    • 6.2.7.1.2.3 privaat
                    • 6.2.7.1.2.4 privaat
                    • 6.2.7.1.3.1 privaat
                    • 6.2.7.1.3.2 privaat
                    • 6.2.7.1.3.3 privaat
                    • 6.2.7.1.3.4 privaat
                    • 6.2.7.3.1 privaat
                    • 6.2.7.5.1 privaat
                    • 6.2.7.5.2 privaat
                    • 6.2.7.5.3 privaat
                    • 6.2.9.1 privaat
                    • 6.4.1 Callie D. Wheatley (?-1903) m. Cliff Smith (?-?)
                    • 6.4.2 John Wheatley (?-?) m. Emma Prince (?-?)
                    • 6.4.3 George Wheatley (?-?) m. Mag Gallaway (?-?)
                      • 6.4.3.1 May Wheatley (?-?)
                      • 6.4.4.1 John Huntington Wheatley (?-?)
                      • 6.4.4.2 Charles Wheatley (?-?)
                      • 6.5.1 Flora Maxwell Wheatley (1872-?) m. George Williams Bacot (1862-?)
                        • 6.5.1.1 Louise Bacot (?-1930)
                        • 6.5.1.2 Flora Bacot (?-?) m. Willard Foster (?-?)
                          • 6.5.1.2.1 privaat
                          • 6.5.1.2.2 privaat
                          • 6.5.3.1 privaat
                          • 6.5.3.2 privaat
                          • 6.6.1 Jessie Coursen (?-?)
                          • 6.7.1 Walter Wheatley (?-?)
                          • 6.7.2 Alice Wheatley (?-?)
                          • 6.7.3 Elizabeth Kendrick Wheatley (?-1936) m. Charlesworth Hunter (?-?)
                          • 8.1 Catherine Wheatley (1833-?)
                          • 8.2 Mary Harriet Wheatley (1842-?) m. Abraham Stewart (?-?)

                          Wisdom Higher Than a Fool Can Reach: The Amazing Life of Poetess Phillis Wheatley

                          Phillis Wheatley was an amazing and intriguing woman who became a famous and noteworthy poetess in the latter eighteenth century. And what is most intriguing is that in an age of slavery and discrimination she was black. Here, Christopher Benedict tells her story…

                          The frontispiece to Phillis Wheatley's Poems on Various Subjects.

                          On Being Brought from Africa to America

                          “Twas mercy brought me from my Pagan land,

                          Taught my benighted soul to understand

                          That there’s a God, that there’s a Savior too,

                          Once I redemption neither sought nor knew.

                          Some view our sable race with scornful eye,

                          ‘Their colour is a diabolical die.’

                          Remember, Christians, Negroes black as Cain,

                          May be refin’d and join th’ angelic train”

                          This eight line poem was written in 1768 by a young woman of fourteen named Phillis Wheatley. That it, and some 145 others she composed, would alternately subject her to the chaotic complexities of renown and acclaim, the attention of British nobility and America’s Founding Fathers, a tribunal before Boston’s most esteemed magistrates, ministers, and men of letters, not to mention the dismissive scorn of later, more enlightened and less subordinate generations can be best understood by taking the very nature of her blurred identity into consideration.

                          Her forename was gleaned from Timothy Finch’s schooner the Phillis, which deposited the seven year-old “slender, frail female child” on the Boston wharf at Beach Street on July 11, 1761 after plundering Guinea’s Isles de Los, Sierra Leone, and Senegal (where she is believed to have lived) of its inhabitants for use as human merchandise in America’s slave trade. The assignation of Phillis’ last name would result from her having been purchased, sickly and nearly naked but for a bit of soiled carpet, by Susanna Wheatley “for a trifle” (fewer than £10) to serve as housemaid.

                          The home, owned by affluent tailor and merchant John Wheatley, was located near Massachusetts’ original State House and within easy earshot, in years soon to come, of the Stamp Act riots and later the Boston Massacre, claiming the life of the Revolution’s first known black martyr Crispus Attucks, which Phillis would document in verse with On the Affray in King Street, on the Evening of the 5th of March, 1770.

                          Phillis achieved literacy through a combination of Susanna’s encouragement, the tutelage of the Wheatley’s teenaged children Nathaniel and Mary, and Phillis’ own natural desire for extracting sustenance from their English, Latin, Greek, and biblical lessons with an insatiable hunger for knowledge.

                          Such an impression did Phillis make on John Wheatley that he attested to her phenomenal scholarly advancement, noting that, “she, in sixteen months’ time from her arrival, attained the English language, to which she was an utter stranger before” and “as to her writing, her own curiosity led to it.”

                          In 1765, she had already committed to paper her first poem, To the University of Cambridge in New England, and had another, On Messrs Hussey and Coffin, submitted by Susanna to the Newport Mercury, published only two years later, the first by a black woman in America.

                          Susanna, who by this time had excused Phillis from her previously appointed chores to perfect her chosen craft, would facilitate the collection of her early works into a proposed book containing 28 titles through advertisements that ran through the February to April 1772 editions of the Boston Censor, a Tory newspaper. Owing to the popular misapprehension that a simple slave girl could have been in no way responsible for these supposedly original creations, few offers for the requested 300 subscriptions to fund the project came forth.

                          “I cease to wonder, and no more attempt

                          Thine height t’ explore, or fathom thy profound

                          But, O my soul, sink not into despair,

                          Virtue is near thee, and with gentle hand

                          Would now embrace thee, hovers o’er thine head”

                          It is impossible to imagine the emotional state of Phillis, not yet twenty years old, only a little more than half of which had been spent as a kidnapped stranger in a strange land and even fewer familiar with its linguistic peculiarities, being asked to appear before a committee of eighteen of the colony’s most prestigious citizens to verify the authenticity of her writings and, in essence, become a spokesperson (quite literally) of her entire race.

                          In October 1772, at the urging of John Wheatley, Phillis was interrogated at length (most likely at Boston’s Town Hall) by an assemblage which included among its celebrated quilled pens and powdered wigs, those of Governor Thomas Hutchinson, Lieutenant-Governor Andrew Oliver, John Hancock, James Bowdoin, Joseph Green, and the Reverends Charles Chauncy, Samuel Cooper, and Samuel Mather (son of Cotton Mather, who played a fringe role in the 1692 Salem Witch Trials).

                          Though there is no surviving transcript with which to flesh out the details of how they arrived at their conclusion, the matter was resolved to the satisfaction of all present, to the degree that when Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral was finally published the following year, Phillis’ book was printed with the following testimonial, bearing the signatures of all eighteen of her questioners:

                          We whose Names are under-written, do assure the World, that the Poems specified in the following Page, were (as we verily believe) written by Phillis, a young Negro Girl, who was but a few Years since, brought an uncultivated Barbarian from Africa, and has ever since been, and now is, under the Disadvantage of serving as a Slave in a Family in this Town. She has been examined by some of the best Judges, and is thought qualified to write them.

                          With skepticism rampant throughout the colonies, Susanna had gotten a copy of the manuscript in the hands of London publisher Archibald Bell by employing as a courier the captain of her husband John’s England-bound commercial trade ship. Phillis had already established a readership across the Atlantic thanks to the success of the widespread 1770 publication of On the Rev. Mr. George Whitefield, her requiem for the recently deceased evangelical preacher, beloved both in the United Kingdom and its colonies. She would soon be accepted and treated as a celebrity, rubbing shoulders with royalty, having accolades and gifts heaped upon her by icons even in their own time and whose books today line our shelves and whose portraits adorn our currency.

                          An Hymn to the Evening

                          “Majestic grandeur! From the zephyr’s wing,

                          Exhales the incense of the blooming spring.

                          Soft purl the streams, the birds renew their notes,

                          And through the air, their mingled music floats.”

                          So that she could personally supervise the publication of her book, Susanna sent Phillis, chaperoned by the Wheatley’s son Nathaniel, to London whereupon she was squired about town to see the sights, including a tour of the Tower of London with Granville Sharp, one of the first English abolitionists.

                          She was received by the Earl of Dartmouth, who gave her the five guineas necessary to purchase the collected works of Alexander Pope, and was presented with a folio edition of Milton’s paradys verlore by one-day Lord Mayor Brook Watson.

                          Even Benjamin Franklin, who was in London grieving the case for peaceful independence on behalf of the American colonies before the classes of the British citizenry, from the highest to most humble, deviated from his schedule of oratory and article writing to spend time with Phillis. She thought highly enough of him that she intended to dedicate her next book to the bespectacled diplomat.

                          A momentous meeting with King George III, for whom she had written To the King’s Most Excellent Majesty in 1766 following his repeal of the Stamp Act, unfortunately did not occur as Susanna Wheatley’s health suffered a sudden decline, necessitating the immediate return of Phillis and Nathaniel. Susanna improved physically (for the time being) and, though Phillis would continue to live with them, she and John emancipated her shortly after her abrupt homecoming. A shipment of her books arrived at the New Haven customs office from London which she solicited by subscription, even imploring local publishers not to use them as a template from which to print and distribute copies of their own and, thus, undercutting her independent endeavor.

                          As heady as 1773 was for Phillis, the following year would prove just as sobering, bringing as it did the British occupation of Boston, the death of Susanna, and the resulting grief-stricken flight of John to points unknown. Phillis left for a time as well, living with the Wheatley’s daughter Mary and her husband in Providence until just before the Redcoats had been driven out of Boston.

                          A handwritten letter was sent by Phillis in October 1775 to Continental Army headquarters in Cambridge, MA addressed to the subject of her poem His Excellency General Washington, a copy of which was enclosed, “though I am not insensible of its inaccuracies”.

                          Four months later arrived a personal reply wherein George Washington apologized for “the seeming but not real neglect” of his delayed response while self-deprecatingly worrying over “however undeserving I may be of such encomium and panegyric”. His effusive praise is augmented by an invitation for Phillis to call upon him, adding that “I shall be so happy to see a person so favored by the Muses”.

                          She did, weeks later, journey to from Boston to Cambridge where the General and his officers lavished their attentions upon her and Washington pledged to reprint her poem, a promise he made good on when it appeared in the March 1776 Virginia Gazette. Thomas Paine followed suit, publishing her ode to General Washington in the April edition of the Pennsylvania Gazette.

                          An Hymn to the Morning

                          “Ye shady groves, your verdant gloom display

                          To shield your poet from the burning day,

                          Calliope awake the sacred lyre,

                          While thy sisters fan the pleasing fire.”

                          Voltaire lent his endorsement to Phillis Wheatley’s work and she was sent a package from John Paul Jones, just prior to his embarking for Paris aboard the warship Ranger, containing praise of her writing along with hand selected copies of his own.

                          Francois, the Marquis de Barbe-Marbois, whose request for statistical information on the American colonies inspired Thomas Jefferson’s Aantekeninge oor die staat Virginia, had read Phillis’ verses, “in which there is imagination, poetry, and zeal”.

                          Jefferson, a slaveholding Francophile who would later be lionized by no less than Frederick Douglass, bristled at this praise being accorded the talents of an indentured servant (a black one, anyway-and heaven forbid, a woman - as he pointedly excused from the conversation former European slaves and prisoners Epictetus, Terence, and Phaedrus) who could never qualify as the white man’s cerebral equal.

                          Misery is often the parent of the most affecting touches in poetry. Religion, indeed, has produced a Phillis Whatley (his spelling), but it could not produce a poet.

                          She is thereby reduced to a functional automaton capable of reading and, perhaps, comprehending Milton and Pope, the Athenians and Romans, but, creatively, of no better than their soulless mimicry.

                          Blacks, whether originally a distinct race, or made distinct by time and circumstances,” supposed Jefferson’s vile but not unoriginal claim, “are inferior to the whites in the endowments both of body and mind.

                          It is noteworthy, illustrates Henry Louis Gates Jr., Harvard professor and author of The Trials of Phillis Wheatley, that “Wheatley’s freedom enslaved her to a life of hardship.” Fame brought no fortune to Phillis, who married John Peters, a free black man whom Gates describes as a “small-time grocer and sometime lawyer”, in 1778. Their years together were ones of financial and personal strife compounded by the deaths of two infants and the failures of Peters’ business ventures, landing him in debtor’s prison and stranding Phillis at home with another unwell child.

                          Although a handful of New England newspapers did publish some of her last poems, she was unable to gather subscriptions sufficient to cover the printing costs of her second book and, to add to her humiliation, was forced to take work as a scullery maid.

                          Phillis Wheatley, only thirty years old, died on December 5, 1784 and was followed a little over three hours later by her infant son. Her own widowed husband was the first to soil her literary legacy by selling the only copy of her manuscript, which to this day has never been found.

                          Her reputation was called severely into question by black radicals during the Civil Rights struggle of the 1950s and 1960s, when Wheatley was denigrated as “an early Boston Aunt Jemima”, “a colonial handkerchief head”, and reflective of “the nigger component of the Black Experience”.

                          The spark of this controversy ignited a contemporary reevaluation of her life, beliefs, and writings. Although her prestige is still open to debate and her physical remains are in an unmarked grave somewhere in Boston, Phillis Wheatley was selected in 1993 for inclusion in the Boston Women’s Memorial on the Commonwealth Avenue Mall along with Abigail Adams and Lucy Stone, whose bronze sculptures thoughtfully consider one another from a triangular formation.


                          Phillis Wheatley (1754-1784)


                          Enslaved in Senegal [in a region that is now in Gambia] at age eight and brought to America on a schooner called the Phillis (for which she was apparently named), was purchased by Susannah and John Wheatley, who soon recognized her intellect and facility with language. Susannah Wheatley taught Phillis to read not only English but some Latin. While yet in her teens, Phillis Wheatley became the first African American woman to publish a book of poetry, and the third woman in the American colonies to do so. That book, Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral, became controversial twice.

                          Wheatley was alive to defend herself during the first controversy in 1772, when she was summoned before an august group of white Bostonians to prove that she had actually composed her poetry, since common thought of the day denied the possibility of intellectual or aesthetic gifts in Africans. The second time Wheatley and her poetry became controversial was during the 1960s, when her blithe and sometimes glorified treatment of slavery was identified as a hindrance to historical truth and to the Civil Rights Movement. One poem in particular brought Wheatley into a shadowy view: “On Being Brought from Africa to America.” In the poem, she speaks of the “pagan land” of her birth and her “benighted soul” which was saved when was enslaved. Echoing common folklore of the day which held that Africans were the seed of Cain, Wheatley’s poem says, “Remember, Christians, Negroes black as Cain / May be refin’d, and join th’ angelic train.”

                          Although she remains a controversial figure among African American writers, the significance of her place in American history is uncontested. Phillis Wheatley met or received correspondence from the most famous leaders of the American Revolution, including John Paul Jones, George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, and John Hancock. (Thomas Jefferson was aware but dismissive of Wheatley’s work.) She remains the matriarch of African American literature, and was certainly the most famous African American woman of her day.

                          Wheatley was emancipated after the publication of her first book of poetry. She married John Peters, a free black grocer who ultimately abandoned her. They had three children, but all three died in infancy, the last just a few hours after Wheatley’s own death at age 31.

                          Wheatley had completed and tried to publish a second book of poetry by the time she died, but failed to find enough subscribers. Although her work would later be resurrected by abolitionists of the Nineteenth Century, Phillis Wheatley died in a poor dwelling, having fallen from the heights of fame as a poet to the depths of poverty, employed as a seamstress and a common servant.


                          Catalogue description WHEATLEY, Dora: Murder of John WHEATLEY (son)

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                          WHEATLEY, Dora: Murder of John WHEATLEY (son)

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                          Kyk die video: Meet The Faculty: Episode 7: Professor Jon Wheatley (Januarie 2022).