Geskiedenis Podcasts

Susanne Hirzel

Susanne Hirzel

Susanne Hirzel, dogter van predikant Ernst Ulmer Hirzel, is gebore in Untersteinbach, Duitsland, op 7 Augustus 1921. As jong meisie het sy leer tjello speel. Sy word deur Richard F. Hanser beskryf as 'blond, mooi en pert'. (1)

Na die verkiesing van Adolf Hitler het sy by die German League of Girls (BDM) aangesluit. Haar groepleier was Sophie Scholl. Hirzel onthou later: "Ek het Sophie Scholl leer ken toe sy my groepleier in die BDM was. Ek het haar bewonder vanweë haar welsprekendheid en haar gedrag en sy het vinnig my beste vriend geword. Ek het gereeld by die ouerhuis van Sophie gebly en om haar broer Hans en haar suster Inge te ken. Die BDM was 'n verkenningsorganisasie vir meisies. Politieke indoktrinasie was slegs een aspek onder vele ander en ek het selfs 'n troepeleier (Scharführerin) geword. " (2)

Sophie se pa, Robert Scholl, was 'n sterk teenstander van die Nazi -party. Sophie se suster, Elisabeth Scholl, het later daarop gewys waarom hulle hul pa se advies verwerp het: "Ons het dit net van die hand gewys: hy is te oud vir hierdie dinge, hy verstaan ​​nie. My pa het 'n pasifistiese oortuiging gehad en hy het dit voorgehou. Dit het beslis 'n rol gespeel in ons opvoeding. Maar ons was almal opgewonde in die Hitler -jeug in Ulm, soms selfs met die Nazi -leierskap. " (3)

Susanne Hirzel was 'n gereelde besoeker aan die Scholl -gesinshuis. Hans Scholl was 'n plaaslike leier van die Hitler -jeug en is gekies as vlagdraer toe sy eenheid die Neurenberg -byeenkoms in 1936 bygewoon het. Sy suster, Inge Scholl, onthou later: "Sy vreugde was groot. Maar toe hy terugkom, kon ons ons het ons oë nie geglo nie. Hy het moeg gelyk en tekens van 'n groot teleurstelling getoon. Ons het geen verduideliking van hom verwag nie, maar geleidelik het ons agtergekom dat die beeld en model van die Hitler -jeug wat daar op hom beïndruk was, heeltemal anders was as sy eie ideaal ... Hans het 'n merkwaardige verandering ondergaan ... Dit het niks met Vader se besware te doen nie; hy kon sy ore daarvoor sluit, dit was iets anders. Die leiers het vir hom gesê dat sy liedjies nie toegelaat is nie. .. Waarom sou dit hom verbied word om hierdie liedjies te sing wat so vol skoonheid was? Slegs omdat dit deur ander rasse geskep is? " (4)

Sophie Scholl was baie na aan Hans en sy het ook ontnugter geraak oor Adolf Hitler. Kort nadat Hans van Neurenberg teruggekeer het, het 'n belangrike BDM -leier uit Stuttgart aangekom om 'n aand van ideologiese opleiding vir die meisies in Ulm te hou. Toe die lede gevra is of hulle voorkeure vir bespreking het, stel Sophie voor dat hulle gedigte van Heinrich Heine, een van haar gunsteling skrywers, lees. Die leier was ontsteld en het daarop gewys dat die linkse, anti-oorlogse, Joodse skrywer sy boeke in 1933 laat verbrand en verban het deur minister van propaganda, Joseph Goebbels. Klaarblyklik het Sophie geantwoord: "Wie Heine nie ken nie, weet nie Duitse letterkunde. " (5)

Susanne Hirzel het ook meer krities geraak oor die Nazi -regering. Sy het later beweer dat Robert Scholl 'n belangrike faktor hierin was. Scholl het liberale opinies gehad en sy kinders toegelaat om hul eie keuses te maak. Volgens Richard F. Hanser: "Hulle kon sê wat hulle wou, en hulle het almal opinies. Dit was ver van die gewone gebruik in die Duitse huishoudings, waar die gesag van die vader deur 'n lang tradisie selde in twyfel getrek of sy uitsprake bevraagteken is. .. Sy afkeer van die geestelose nasionalisme was nie net onveranderd nie, maar sterker as voorheen. In sy tafel-besprekings met sy kinders kon hy gebeurtenisse vir hulle interpreteer met 'n insig wat nie deur huidige vooroordele of amptelike uitsprake onduidelik is nie. " (6) Hirzel onthou later: "Sophie se pa, Robert Scholl, was 'n vasberade katolieke pasifis en 'n opregte Christen. Hy het ons van sy ervarings vertel en dit het my denke beïnvloed." (7)

Sophie Scholl het 'n sterk haat vir die Nazi -regering ontwikkel. Sy het aan Hirzel gesê: "As Hitler nou verbystap en ek het 'n pistool, sou ek skiet. As die mans dit nie doen nie, moet 'n vrou. U moet iets doen om nie skuldig te wees nie." (8) Sophie het universiteit toe gegaan, maar Susanne Hirzel het musiek in Stuttgart gaan studeer. (9)

In 1942 het 'n groep studente aan die Universiteit van München die White Rose -groep gestig. Dit het Hans Scholl, Sophie Scholl, Christoph Probst, Alexander Schmorell, Willi Graf en Jugen Wittenstein ingesluit. Volgens Elisabeth Scholl is die White Rose -groep gestig weens die teregstelling van lede van die verset: "Ons het in die lente van 1942 verneem van die arrestasie en teregstelling van 10 of 12 kommuniste. En my broer het gesê: In die naam van burgerlike en Christelike moed moet iets gedoen word.” (10)

Hans Scholl het spoedig die leier van die groep geword: "Die rol is stilswyend aan hom toegeken op grond van die kwaliteit in sy persoonlikheid, wat hom in elke groep die aandag gevestig het. Alex Schmorell was gewoonlik aan sy sy, sy noue medewerker. Tussen hulle het hulle gereël vir vergaderings en vergaderplekke .... Soms ontmoet hulle mekaar in Hans se kamer vir onomwonde praatjies en besprekings. Vir groter vergaderings het hulle byeengekom in die Eickemeyer -ateljee of die villa van dr. Schmorell, 'n toegeeflike vader wat baie van sy seun se sienings. ” (11)

In Junie 1942 het die White Rose -groep pamflette begin vervaardig. Hulle is aan beide kante van 'n vel papier met 'n enkele afstand getik, gedupliseer, in koeverte gevou met netjies getikte name en adresse, en as drukwerk aan mense regoor München gestuur. Minstens 'n paar honderd is in die Gestapo ingehandig. Dit het gou duidelik geword dat die meeste pamflette deur akademici, staatsamptenare, restaurante en tollenaars ontvang is. 'N Klein aantal was versprei oor die Universiteit van München se kampus. As gevolg hiervan het die owerhede onmiddellik vermoed dat studente die pamflette gemaak het. (12)

Die aanvangsparagraaf van die eerste pamflet lui: "Niks is so 'n beskaafde nasie so onwaardig dat dit hom laat" regeer "sonder opposisie deur 'n onverantwoordelike kliek wat tot die instink gelei het nie. Dit is seker dat elke eerlike Duitser hom vandag skaam wie van ons het 'n idee van die dimensies van skaamte wat ons en ons kinders sal tref wanneer die sluier eendag uit ons oë geval het en die mees afgryslike van misdade - misdade wat elke menslike maat oneindig oortref - die lig bereik As die Duitse volk alreeds so bedorwe en geestelik verpletter is dat hulle nie 'n hand opsteek nie, vertroue op 'n twyfelagtige geloof in die wettige orde in die geskiedenis; as hulle die hoogste beginsel van die mens oorgee, dit wat hom bo alle ander skepsele van God verhef, sy vrye wil; as hulle die wil laat vaar om daadwerklik op te tree en die wiel van die geskiedenis te draai en dit sodoende aan hul eie rasionele besluit te onderwerp; as hulle so sonder alle individuele Dit is al so ver op die pad om 'n geeslose en lafhartige massa te word - dan ja, hulle verdien hul ondergang. " (13)

Die White Rose -groep het studente -simpatiseerders gewerf om hierdie pamflette te versprei. Susanne en haar broer Hans Hirzel het ingestem om hulle te help om in Ulm te gaan aflewer. Hulle het ook hul vriende, Franz Müller en Heinrich Guter, oorreed om te help. Traute Lafrenz, Gisela Schertling en Katharina Schüddekopf het ook deel van die netwerk geword. (14) Susanne Hirzel onthou later: "Ons was almal opposisionele patriotte, maar met 'n Christelike begrip. Hoewel die Scholls Katoliek was en ek protestant was (my pa was 'n Lutherse parochiepriester), het ons byna alles gemeen." (15)

In Januarie 1943 het die White Rose -groep 'n pamflet met die titel A Call to All Duitsers gepubliseer, wat die volgende gedeelte bevat: "Duitsers! Wil jy en jou kinders dieselfde lot ly as die Jode? Wil jy wees beoordeel volgens dieselfde standaarde as u handelaars? Is ons vir ewig 'n nasie wat deur die hele mensdom gehaat en verwerp word? om te begin. "

Dit eindig met die soort wêreld wat hulle wou hê nadat die oorlog geëindig het: "Imperialistiese ontwerpe vir mag, ongeag van watter kant hulle kom, moet vir altyd geneutraliseer word ... Alle gesentraliseerde mag, soos die wat die Pruisiese staat in Duitsland en in Europa, moet uitgeskakel word ... Die komende Duitsland moet federalisties wees.Die werkersklas moet bevry word van sy agteruitgang van slawerny deur 'n redelike vorm van sosialisme ... Vryheid van spraak, godsdiensvryheid, die beskerming van individuele burgers uit die willekeurige wil van kriminele geweldstelsels - dit is die basis van die Nuwe Europa. ” (16)

Die Gestapo beraam later dat die White Rose -groep ongeveer 10 000 eksemplare van hierdie pamflet versprei het. Sophie Scholl en Traute Lafrenz het die spesiale papier, asook die koeverte en seëls by 'n groot aantal winkels gekoop om agterdog te vermy. Elke pamflet is een vir een, aand vir aand, uitgegee. "Om wakker te bly en bedags te funksioneer, het hulle pille geneem by die militêre klinieke waar die dokters gewerk het." (17) Die samesweerders moes seker maak dat die Gestapo nie die bron na München kon opspoor nie, sodat die groep hul pamflette uit naburige dorpe moes plaas. "(18)

Die owerhede het hierdie pamflet ernstiger opgeneem as die ander. Een van die mees ervare agente van die Gestapo, Robert Mohr, is beveel om 'n volledige ondersoek te doen na die groep genaamd die "Weerstandsbeweging in Duitsland". Hy is meegedeel "die pamflette veroorsaak die grootste onrus op die hoogste vlakke van die party en die staat". Mohr was veral bekommerd oor die pamflette wat gelyktydig verskyn in stede wat wyd geskei is, waaronder Stuttgart, Wene, Ulm, Frankfurt, Linz, Salzburg en Augsburg. Dit dui daarop dat 'n groot organisasie aan die werk was, een met bekwame leierskap en aansienlike hulpbronne. (19)

Op 18 Februarie 1943 arriveer Sophie en Hans Scholl aan die Universiteit van München met 'n tas vol pamflette. Volgens Inge Scholl: "Hulle het by die universiteit aangekom, en aangesien die lesinglokale binne 'n paar minute sou oopmaak, het hulle vinnig besluit om die pamflette in die gange te plaas. Daarna het hulle die res weggegooi deur die lakens van bo af te laat val vlak van die trap af na die ingangsportaal. Verlig, hulle was op die punt om te gaan, maar 'n paar oë het hulle gewaar. Dit was asof hierdie oë (hulle behoort aan die gebou -opsigter) losgemaak is van die wese van hul eienaar en verander in 'n outomatiese spieëlglas van die diktatuur. Die deure van die gebou is onmiddellik gesluit en die lot van broer en suster is verseël. " (20)

Jakob Schmid, 'n lid van die Nazi -party, het hulle aan die Universiteit van München gesien en pamflette van 'n venster van die derde verdieping na die binnehof gooi. Hy het dadelik aan die Gestapo gesê en hulle is albei gearresteer. Hulle is deursoek en die polisie het 'n handgeskrewe konsep van 'n ander pamflet gevind. Dit pas by 'n brief in die woonstel van Scholl wat deur Christoph Probst onderteken is. Na ondervraging is hulle almal aangekla van verraad. (21)

Sophie Scholl, Hans Scholl en Christoph Probst is almal verhoor weens hoogverraad op 22 Februarie 1943. Hulle is almal skuldig bevind. Regter Roland Freisler het aan die hof gesê: 'Die beskuldigdes het deur middel van pamflette in 'n oorlogstyd 'n beroep gedoen op die sabotasie van die oorlogspoging en bewapening en die omverwerping van die Nasionaal -Sosialistiese lewenswyse van ons mense, het nederlaagde idees gepropageer, en het die Führer op die mees vulgêre wyse beledig, waardeur die vyand van die Ryk hulp verleen en die gewapende veiligheid van die land verswak word. Om hierdie rede moet hulle met die dood gestraf word. (22) Hulle is almal later die dag tereggestel. (23)

Susanne Hirzel is gearresteer en op 19 April 1943 tereggestel. Sy het later beweer dat sy verwag word om tereggestel te word. (24) Sy het aan die hof gesê dat haar broer Hans Hirzel haar gevra het om die pamflette te plaas. Terwyl dit in die koeverte was, beweer sy dat sy nie die inhoud van die pamflette ken nie. Regter Freisler het gesê dat sy die indruk van openhartigheid wek en nie geweet het dat haar broer verraadlike aktiwiteite doen nie. Sy is ses maande tronkstraf opgelê. Haar broer het vyf jaar gekry. Alexander Schmorell, Kurt Huber en Willi Graf is almal skuldig bevind aan hoogverraad en tereggestel. (25)

Na die oorlog was Susanne Hirzel 'n tjello -onderwyseres. Met haar aftrede publiseer sy haar herinneringe aan die lewe in Nazi -Duitsland, in haar boek, Van Ja tot Nee. 'N Swabiese jeug 1933-1945 (2000).

Susanne Hirzel is op 4 Desember 2012 oorlede.

Ek het Sophie Scholl leer ken toe sy my groepleier in die BDM was. Politieke indoktrinasie was slegs een aspek onder vele ander en ek het selfs 'n troepeleier geword (Scharführerin). Sophie se pa, Robert Scholl, was 'n vasberade Katolieke pasifis en 'n opregte Christen. Hy het ons vertel van sy ervarings en dit het my denke beïnvloed. Destyds het ons gesamentlik besluit dat ons iets teen Hitler moet doen.

Susanne Hirzel het die musiekskool in Stuttgart bygewoon; sy het hard gewerk en goeie vordering gemaak met haar studies. Sy was altyd 'n ordentlike meisie, het tuis grootgemaak om die staat te ondersteun en het 'n behoorlike opvoeding gekry wat geskik was vir 'n vrou.
Onverwags bel haar gunsteling broer Hans haar eendag, maak 'n afspraak om haar in die stad te ontmoet en vertel haar dat hy sonder die kennis van hul ouers kom en dat hy 'briewe' moet stuur. Hy was nie eens met die inhoud daarvan nie, maar dit kan geen kwaad wees om dit te pos nie. Nou vermoed sy natuurlik dat daar iets fout is, maar sy het nie die inhoud daarvan nagegaan nie, en sy het hom gehelp om die 'briewe' te plaas.

Susanne Hirzel gee 'n indruk van openhartigheid. Die hof glo haar toe sy sê dat sy nie agtergekom het dat haar broer verraadlike bedrywighede gehad het nie. Maar dit was onverskoonbaar dat sy nie verder ondersoek ingestel het na die werklike inhoud van die pakket met die honderde 'briewe', met die vermoedelik onskadelike interne politieke inhoud daarvan nie. Dit sou haar plig gewees het.

Die politieke ontwikkeling van Sophie Scholl (antwoordkommentaar)

The White Rose Anti-Nazi Group (antwoordkommentaar)

Kristallnacht (antwoordkommentaar)

Adolf Hitler se vroeë lewe (antwoordkommentaar)

Heinrich Himmler en die SS (Antwoordkommentaar)

Vakbonde in Nazi -Duitsland (antwoordkommentaar)

Adolf Hitler teen John Heartfield (antwoordkommentaar)

Hitler se Volkswagen (The People's Car) (Antwoordkommentaar)

Vroue in Nazi -Duitsland (kommentaar op antwoord)

German League of Girls (antwoordkommentaar)

Die sluipmoord op Reinhard Heydrich (antwoordkommentaar)

Die laaste dae van Adolf Hitler (antwoordkommentaar)

(1) Richard F. Hanser, 'N Edele verraad: die verhaal van Sophie Scholl (1979) bladsy 61

(2) Susanne Hirzel, Die New English Review (Oktober 2009)

(3) Elisabeth Scholl, ondervra in Die Daily Mail (18 Januarie 2014)

(4) Inge Scholl, The White Rose: 1942-1943 (1983) bladsy 8

(5) Annette Dumbach & Jud Newborn, Sophie Scholl en die wit roos (1986) bladsy 38

(6) Richard F. Hanser, 'N Edele verraad: die verhaal van Sophie Scholl (1979) bladsy 58

(7) Susanne Hirzel, Die New English Review (Oktober 2009)

(8) Annette Dumbach & Jud Newborn, Sophie Scholl en die Wit Roos (1986) bladsy 128

(9) Afskrif van die verhoor van Susanne Hirzel (19 April 1943)

(10) Elisabeth Scholl, ondervra deur die Daaglikse spieël (17 Januarie 2014)

(11) Richard F. Hanser, 'N Edele verraad: die verhaal van Sophie Scholl (1979) bladsy 148

(12) Annette Dumbach en Jud Newborn, Sophie Scholl en die wit roos (1986) bladsy 56

(13) 1st White Rose -pamflet (begin Junie 1942)

(14) Annette Dumbach en Jud Newborn, Sophie Scholl en die Wit Roos (1986) bladsy 164

(15) Susanne Hirzel, Die New English Review (Oktober 2009)

(16) Die vyfde blaar van die wit roos, 'N Oproep aan alle Duitsers (Februarie 1943)

(17) Annette Dumbach en Jud Newborn, Sophie Scholl en die wit roos (1986) bladsy 124

(18) Anton Gill, 'N Eervolle nederlaag: 'n Geskiedenis van die Duitse weerstand teen Hitler (1994) bladsy 189 bladsy 190

(19) Richard F. Hanser, 'N Edele verraad: die verhaal van Sophie Scholl (1979) bladsy 208

(20) Inge Scholl, The White Rose: 1942-1943 (1983) bladsy 52

(21) Susan Ottaway, Hitler se verraaiers, Duitse verset teen die Nazi's (2003) bladsy 118

(22) Regter Roland Freisler, vonnisoplegging van Sophie Scholl, Hans Scholl en Christoph Probst (22 Februarie 1943)

(23) Anton Gill, 'N Eervolle nederlaag: 'n Geskiedenis van die Duitse weerstand teen Hitler (1994) bladsy 195

(24) Susanne Hirzel, Die New English Review (Oktober 2009)

(25) Afskrif van die verhoor van Susanne Hirzel (19 April 1943)


Onthou & quot; White Rose & quot-lid Susanne Zeller-Hirzel (1921-2012), 4 Desember 2013, Stuttgart, Duitsland

Op 4 Desember 2013 was dit die herdenking van die dood van & quotWhite Rose & quot-lid Susanne Zeller-Hirzel. Met hierdie foto, wat 'n ontmoeting tussen die "White Rose" -lid Susanne Zeller-Hirzel en my toon, wil ek onthou aan hierdie moedige versetstryder teen die Nazi's.

Susanne Zeller-Hirzel is gebore op 7 Augustus 1921 in Untersteinbach. Haar pa, Ernst Hirzel, was 'n predikant van die Evangelical Martin Luther Church in Ulm en so het Susanne Hirzel in die Donau -stad grootgeword. Daar het die pastoor se dogter die Scholl -gesin leer ken en vriendin geword van hul dogter Sophie. En Sophie Scholl het toe haar vriendin Susanne Hirzel gevra vir verset teen die Nazi's. Susanne Hirzel se broer Hans was op daardie stadium reeds lid van die studente -versetgroep & quotWhite Rose & quot. En dit was Hans Hirzel wat sy suster Susanne gevra het om koeverte in Stuttgart met die vyfde pamflet van die & quotWhite Rose & quot in posbusse te versprei. Susanne Hirzel voldoen aan die begeerte van haar broer en so kom sy by die & quotWhite Rose & quot.

Nadat Susanne Hirzel se goeie vriend Sophie Scholl en haar broer Hans Scholl betrap is terwyl hulle pamflette van die & quotWhite Rose & quot; aan die Universiteit van München versprei het en Roland Freisler die Scholl's ter dood veroordeel het tydens die eerste & quotWhite Rose & quot -proses, is die broers en susters Hirzel ook aan die kaak gestel en het hulle die tweede & quotWhite Rose & quot -verhoor voor die People's Court voorgelê. Hans en Susanne Hirzel was egter gelukkig en ontsnap met gevangenisstraf terwyl haar medebeskuldigdes Kurt Huber, Willi Graf en Alexander Schmorell deur Roland Freisler ter dood veroordeel is.

Susanne Zeller- Hirzel het hul geskiedenis as versetstryder op indrukwekkende wyse in haar boek & quotFrom Yes to No.

Ek het Susanne Zeller- Hirzel eerste persoonlik ontmoet in 2010. Ons het weer ontmoet en baie lekker met mekaar gesels. Dit was altyd vir my indrukwekkend toe Susanne Zeller-Hirzel vertel van hul nagtelike verspreidingsveldtog van die & quotWhite Rose & quot-pamflette in Stuttgart. Natuurlik ook onvergeetlik, dat ek en my gesin op 7 Augustus 2011 tydens haar 90ste verjaardagviering was en dat Susanne Zeller-Hirzel persoonlik ook deelgeneem het aan die verjaardagviering van my vrou Ingrid en my op 22 Oktober 2011.

Dit was regtig 'n hartseer oomblik toe ek verneem dat Susanne Zeller-Hirzel op 4 Desember 2012 oorlede is.


White Rose History: Januarie 1933 – Oktober 1943

Openbare sitting van die 1ste Raad van die Volkshof

Aanwesig as beoordelaars:
President van die Volkshof, dr. Freisler, voorsitter
Direkteur van die distrikshof Stier
SS Gruppenführer en generaal -majoor van die Waffen-SS Breithaupt
SA Gruppenführer Bunge
SA Gruppenführer en adjunk -minister van buitelandse sake Köglmaier

Verteenwoordig die hoofaanklaer van die Ryk
Assistent -aanklaer: Bischoff

1.) Alexander Schmorell uit München, gebore op 16 September 1917 te Orenburg (Rusland), enkel, sonder vooraf veroordelings

2.) Kurt Huber uit München, gebore op 24 Oktober 1893 te Chur (Switserland), getroud, sonder vooraf veroordelings

3.) Wilhelm Graf uit München, gebore op 2 Januarie 1918 in Kuchenheim, enkel, sonder vooraf veroordelings

4.) Hans Hirzel uit Ulm, gebore op 30 Oktober 1924 te Untersteinbach (Stuttgart), ongetroud, geen vorige veroordelings nie

5.) Susanne Hirzel uit Stuttgart, gebore op 7 Augustus 1921 te Untersteinbach, enkel, geen vorige veroordelings nie

6.) Franz Josef Müller uit Ulm, gebore op 8 September 1924 te Ulm, enkel, sonder vooraf veroordelings

7.) Heinrich Guter uit Ulm, gebore op Januarie [onleesbaar], 1925 in Ulm, enkel, sonder vooraf veroordelings

8.) Eugen Grimminger uit Stuttgart, gebore op 29 Julie 1892 te Crailsheim, getroud, sonder vooraf veroordelings

9.) Dr. Heinrich Philipp Bollinger uit Freiburg, gebore op 23 April 1916 in Saarbrücken, enkel, geen vorige veroordelings nie

10.) Helmut Karl Theodor Bauer uit Freiburg, gebore op 19 Junie 1919 te Saarbrücken, enkel, geen vorige veroordelings nie

11.) Dr. Falk Erich Walter Harnack uit Chemnitz, gebore op 2 Maart 1913 in Stuttgart, enkel, geen vorige veroordelings nie

12.) Gisela Schertling uit München, gebore op 9 Februarie 1922 te Pössneck / Thüringen, enkel, geen vorige veroordelings nie

13.) Katharina Schüddekopf uit München, gebore op 8 Februarie 1916 te Magdeburg, enkel, sonder vooraf veroordelings

14.) Traute Lafrenz uit München, gebore op 3 Mei 1919 in Hamburg, enkel, sonder vooraf veroordelings.

Om die vyand te help en by te staan, is die volgende op die datum van vandag vir die verhoor opgeroep:

1.) Die beskuldigde, wat uit ondersoekbewaring gelei is,

2.) As verweerder [Nota 1]:

1.) Dr. Deisinger, Prokureur, namens Bollinger

2.) Dr. Deppisch, Prokureur, namens Bauer

3.) Mnr Diepold, Prokureur, namens Graf en Guter

4.) Dr. Eble, Prokureur, namens Hans en Susanne Hirzel en Grimminger

5.) Mnr Klein, Prokureur, namens Müller en Harnack.

Bogenoemde is deur die hof aangestelde advokaat.

1.) Dr. Deisinger, Prokureur, namens Schmorell

2.) Mnr Roder, J.R., Prokureur, namens Huber

Hierdie advokate is deur hul kliënte aangehou.

Dr. Diepold is aangestel as prokureur vir die beskuldigde Gisela Schertling, dr. Deppisch vir die beskuldigde Katharina Schüddekopf en Klein vir die beskuldigde Traude [sic] Lafrenz.

Die beskuldigdes het verklarings aangaande hul persone afgelê.

Die adjunk van die hoofaanklaer van die Ryk het die aanklag ingedien.

Boonop is 'n mondelinge beskuldiging teen die voorbereiding vir hoogverraad, die hulp van die vyand en die demoralisering van die gewapende magte ingedien:

1.) Gisela Schertling uit München, gebore op 9 Februarie 1922 in Pössneck, enkel, sonder vooraf veroordelings, in tydelike aanhouding sedert 18 Februarie 1943

2.) Katharina Schüddekopf van München, gebore op 8 Februarie 1916 in Magdeburg, enkel, sonder vorige veroordelings, in tydelike aanhouding sedert [onleesbaar] 1943.

'N Mondelinge beskuldiging vir [kriminele] oortredings teen §139 St.GB is ingedien teen:

3.) Traude (sic) Lafrenz uit München, gebore op 3 Mei 1919 in Hamburg, enkel, sonder vooraf veroordelings, in tydelike aanhouding sedert 15 Maart 1943.

Die voorsittende regter vestig die aandag van die beskuldigde Susanne Hirzel, Gisela Schertling en Katharina Schüddekopf aan die feit dat hul vonnis moontlik op samespanning gebaseer kan wees en nie net op "hulpverlening" nie en hulle die geleentheid gebied het om hulself ook in hierdie saak te verdedig.

Die voorsittende regter lees die uitspraak van die Volkshof teen Scholl en 2 ander van 22 Februarie 1943 hardop - 1H 47/43 - asook die pamflette wat deur die beskuldigde geskryf of versprei is. Hy lees egter slegs uittreksels uit die 4 pamflette van die “White Rose ”.

Nadat die pamflette voorgelees is, het mnr. Roden J.R. [Justizrat] bedank uit sy pos as advokaat vir die beskuldigde Huber. Hy het gesê dat hy nog nooit voor die oomblik kennis gehad het met die inhoud van die pamflette nie, en dat hy Huber nie meer kon verdedig nie.

Die hof het toe dr. Deppisch, prokureur, aangestel as die hof-aangestelde advokaat vir die beskuldigde Huber.

Die beskuldigdes het hul verklarings oor die aangeleentheid gegee:

Nadat elke beskuldigde 'n verklaring afgelê het, het die ander onder die beskuldigdes geleentheid gekry om 'n verklaring daaroor af te lê.

Die verdediger van die beskuldigde Hans Hirzel het 'n versoekskrif gedoen dat die vader van die beskuldigde toegelaat word om te getuig oor sy geestestoestand.

Die verdediger van die beskuldigde Grimminger het 'n petisie gedoen dat die neef van die beskuldigde en die vroulike werknemer Hahn mag getuig wat die beskuldigde hulle vertel het oor die 500 punte wat hy aan Scholl gegee het, veral vir watter doel hy die geld aan Scholl gegee het.

Die verdediger van die beskuldigde Huber het versoek dat die polisiekommissaris Geib (sic) toegelaat word om te getuig om te bewys dat die beskuldigde altyd moeite gedoen het om die waarheid te vertel.

Die verdediger van die beskuldigde Harnack het 'n versoekskrif ingedien dat 'n deskundige mening oor die geestestoestand van die beskuldigde ten tyde van die voorval as bewys gelewer moet word.

Die verdediger van die beskuldigde Müller het versoek dat die vader van die beskuldigde toegelaat word om oor sy persoonlikheid te getuig.

Die adjunk van die hoofaanklaer van die Ryk het versoek dat die polisiebeampte Zacher wat die beskuldigde Guter ondervra het, as getuie geroep word oor die verklarings wat hy tydens sy polisieondervraging afgelê het.

Om as getuie die werknemer Hahn en die polisiebeampte, Zacher, asook die polisiebeampte, Schmauβ, te bel wat die beskuldigde Grimminger ondervra het [Nota 2].

Die Raad verwerp die oorblywende versoekskrifte. Hy beweer dat die geestestoestand van die beskuldigde Hans Hirzel en Harnack - vir laasgenoemde tydens die voorval - uit die saak self bepaal kan word. Die getuienis van die neef van die beskuldigde Grimminger, benewens die getuienis van die getuie Hahn, was nie meer nodig nie. Die verklarings van die beskuldigde Huber, naamlik dat hy die waarheid aan die polisie vertel het, sal bepaal word. Die getuienis van die vader van die beskuldigde Müller vir die beoordeling van die persoonlikheid van die beskuldigde was nie nodig nie [Onleesbaar].

Die voorsittende regter het die getuies Zacher, Schmauβ en Hahn vertroud gemaak met die voorwerp van die ondersoek en die beskuldigdes. Hy het hulle aangespoor om die waarheid te vertel en hulle herinner aan die betekenis van 'n eed en die kriminele gevolge van meineed.

Die getuies is daarna afsonderlik ondersoek en in die afwesigheid van getuies wat later afgedank sou word, soos volg:

1.) Getuie Zacher. Voornaam: Georg. Gebore 22 Junie 1894 in Gunzenhausen. Crim. Sekr. Nie een wat direk of met die huwelik verband hou met die beskuldigde nie. Die getuie het sy verklaring in hierdie aangeleentheid afgelê. By eenparige besluit is die getuie nie ingesweer nie.

2.) Getuie van Schmauβ. Voornaam: Ludwig. Gebore op 4 Januarie 1899 in Wuppenhof. Crim. Sekr. Nie een wat direk of met die huwelik verband hou met die beskuldigde nie. Die getuie het sy verklaring in hierdie aangeleentheid afgelê. By eenparige besluit is die getuie nie ingesweer nie. [Onleesbaar].

3.) Getuie Hahn. Voornaam: Tilli. Gebore op 6 Augustus 1899 in Stuttgart. Werknemer. Nie een wat direk of met die huwelik verband hou met die beskuldigde nie. Die getuie het sy verklaring in hierdie aangeleentheid afgelê. By eenparige besluit is die getuie nie ingesweer nie.

Die getuies is om 17:00 vrygelaat.

Die voorsittende regter lees die polisie -uitspraak gedateer 18 Maart 1943 (16 Maart 1943) aangaande die beskuldigde Gisela Schertling uit die Schertling -bundel.

Na aanleiding van die getuienis van elke getuie, is die ander beskuldigdes, sowel as die lees van elke dokument [onleesbaar], die geleentheid gebied om 'n verklaring af te lê.

Die voorsittende regter verklaar dat die bewys van aflegging gesluit is.

Die adjunk van die hoofaanklaer van die Ryk en die verdediger van die beskuldigde het die geleentheid gekry om 'n verklaring af te lê.

Die adjunk van die hoofaanklaer van die Ryk versoek die volgende:

Vir die hulp en ondersteuning van die vyand, voorbereiding op hoogredes: die doodstraf en verlies van burgerregte vir die res van hul lewens.

5) [Teen] Hans Hirzel, 12 jaar in die gevangenis, 10 jaar verlies aan burgerregte, vir die hulp en hulp van die vyand en vir voorbereidings vir hoogverraad.

6) [Teen] Müller, 10 jaar in die gevangenis, 10 jaar verlies aan burgerregte, vir die hulp en hulp van die vyand en vir voorbereidings vir hoogverraad.

7) [Teen] Gisela Schertling, 6 jaar in die gevangenis, 6 jaar verlies aan burgerregte, vir die hulp en hulp van die vyand en vir voorbereidings vir hoogverraad.

8) [Teen] Bollinger, 8 jaar in die gevangenis, 8 jaar verlies aan burgerregte vir die misdaad teen §1 van die VO, met betrekking tot buitengewone radio -uitsendings en teen §139 (II) van die St.GB.

9) [Teen] Bauer, 8 jaar in die gevangenis, 8 jaar verlies aan burgerregte vir die misdaad teen §1 van die VO, met betrekking tot buitengewone radio -uitsendings en teen §139 (II) van die St.GB.

10) [Teen] Susanne Hirzel, 3 jaar gevangenisstraf vir die misdryf teen §85 St. GB

11) [Teen] Guter, 5 jaar gevangenisstraf weens versuim om aan te meld in ooreenstemming met §139 St.GB.

12) [Teen] Harnack, 5 jaar gevangenisstraf weens versuim om aan te meld in ooreenstemming met §139 St.GB.

13) [Teen] Schüddekopf, 3 jaar in die gevangenis, 3 jaar verlies aan burgerregte, weens versuim om aan te meld ooreenkomstig §139 St.GB.

14) [Teen] Lafrenz, 3 jaar gevangenisstraf, weens versuim om aan te meld ooreenkomstig § 139 St.GB.

Die verweerder versoek 'n versoek om:

1) Schmorell, verontagsaming van die doodstraf

2) Huber, verontagsaming van die doodstraf

3) Graf, miskenning van die doodstraf

4) Hans Hirzel, vonnis in ooreenstemming met §84 St.GB.

5) Susanne Hirzel: Vryspraak

6) Müller, vonnis in ooreenstemming met § 84 St.GB.

8) Grimminger: Tronkstraf

9) Bollinger: Ligte vonnis. Vryspraak ingevolge §139

10) Bauer: Ligte vonnis. Vryspraak ingevolge §139

12) Gisela Schertling: Slegs tronkstraf

13) Schüddekopf: Slegs tronkstraf

14) Lafrenz: Slegs tronkstraf

Die beskuldigdes het die laaste woord gekry.

Die voorsittende regter het die verrigtinge uitgestel en afgetree om die aangeleentheid te oorweeg.

Die voorsittende regter het die volgende uitspraak aangekondig en geregverdig.

Die sessie het om 21:45 geëindig. [Nota 3]

Opmerking 1: Sintaksis is ook verkeerd in die oorspronklike dokument.

Nota 2: Handgeskrewe aantekeninge na aanleiding van hierdie sin en in die kantlyn is onleesbaar.


White Rose -verhoor vonnisopskrifte

Gedeeltelike transkripsies van die vonnis van die Duitse anti-nazi-groep White Rose-lede Hans en Sophie Scholl, Christoph Probst, Alexander Schmorell, Kurt Huber, Wilhelm Graf en ander ondersteuners van die groep in 1943.

Vonnisoplegging van Hans en Sophie Scholl en Christoph Probst, 22 Februarie 1943.

In die naam van die Duitse volk in die aksie teen
1. Hans Fritz Scholl, München, gebore te Ingersheim, 22 September 1918,
2. Sophia Magdalena Scholl, München, gebore te Forchtenberg, 9 Mei 1921, en
3. Christoph Hermann Probst, van Aldrans bei Innsbruck, gebore te Murnau, 6 November 1919,

nou in ondersoek in hegtenis oor verraadlike hulp aan die vyand, voorbereiding op hoogverraad en verswakking van die land se gewapende veiligheid, die Volkshof, eerste senaat, ingevolge die verhoor wat op 22 Februarie 1943 gehou is, waarin die beamptes was:

President van die volkshof Dr. Freisler, voorsitter, direkteur van die streeks- (Beierse) regbank Stier, leier van die SS -groep Breithaupt, SA -groepleier Bunge, staatsekretaris en SA -groepleier Köglmaier, en verteenwoordig die prokureur -generaal by die Hooggeregshof Hof van die Ryk, Reichsprokureur Weyersberg,
vind:

Dat die beskuldigdes in oorlogstyd deur middel van pamflette gepleit het om die oorlogspoging en bewapening te saboteer en om die Nasionaal -Sosialistiese lewenswyse van ons mense omver te werp, het nederlaagde idees gepropageer en die Führer op die vulgêrste wyse belaster, thereby giving aid to the enemy of the Reich and weakening the armed security of the nation.

On this account they are to be punished by Death.

Their honour and rights as citizens are forfeited for all time.

Partial transcript of the Sentence of Alexander Schmorell, Kurt Huber, Wilhelm Graf, and others associated with the White Rose, pursuant to the Trial held on April 19, 1943.

In the Name of the German People in the action against
1. Alexander Schmorell, Munich, born on September 16, 1917, in Orenburg (Russia)
2. Kurt Huber, Munich, born October 24, 1893, in Chur (Switzerland)
3. Wilhelm Graf, Munich, born January 2, 1918, in Kuchenheim
4. Hans Hirzel, Ulm, born on October 30, 1924, in Untersteinbach (Stuttgart)
5. Susanne Hirzel, Stuttgart, born on August 7, 1921, in Untersteinbach
6. Franz Joseph Müller, Ulm, born on September 8, 1924, in Ulm
7. Heinrich Guter, Ulm, born on January 11, 1925, in Ulm
8. Eugen Grimminger, Stuttgart, born on July 29, 1892, in Crailsheim
9. Dr. Heinrich Philipp Bollinger, Freiburg, born on April 23, 1916, in Saarbrücken
10. Helmut Karl Theodore August Bauer, Freiburg, born on June 19, 1919, in Saarbrücken
11. Dr. Falk Erich Walter Harnack, Chemnitz, born on March 2, 1913, in Stuttgart
12. Gisela Scheriling, Munich, born on February 9, 1922, in Pössneck (Thüringen)
13. Katharina Schüddekopf, Munich, born on February 8, 1916, in Magdeburg
14. Traute Lafrenz, Munich, born on May 3, 1919, in Hamburg

at present in investigative custody, regarding rendering aid to the enemy, inter alia, the People's Court, first Senate, pursuant to the trial held on April 19, 1943, in which the officers were:
President of the People's Court Dr. Freisler, Presiding, Director of the Regional (Bavarian) Judiciary Stier, SS Group Leader and Lt. Gen. of the Waffen-SS Breithaupt, SA Group Leader Bunge, SA Group Leader and State Secretary Köglmaier, and, representing the Reich Attorney General, First State's Attorney Bischoff,
find:

That Alexander Schmorell, Kurt Huber, and Wilhelm Graf in time of war have promulgated leaflets calling for sabotage of the war effort and for the overthrow of the National Socialist way of life of our people have propagated defeatist ideas, and have most vulgarly defamed the Führer, thereby giving aid to the enemy of the Reich and weakening the armed security of the nation.

On this account they are to be punished by Death.

Their honour and rights as citizens are forfeited for all time.

Eugen Grimminger gave money to a person guilty of high treason in aid of the enemy. To be sure, he was not aware that by so doing he was aiding the enemy of the Reich. However, he was aware that this person might use the money for the purpose of robbing our people of their National Socialist way of life. Because he gave support to high treason, he is sentenced to jail for a ten-year term, together with loss of honourable estate for ten years.

Heinrich Bollinger and Helmut Bauer had knowledge of treasonable conspiracy but failed to report it. In addition, the two listened to foreign radio newscasts dealing with the war and with events inside Germany. For this they are sentenced to jail for a term of seven years and loss of citizen's honour for seven years.

Hans Hirzel and Franz Müller - both immature boys misled by enemies of the state - gave support to the spread of treasonous propaganda against National Socialism. For this action they are sentenced to five years' imprisonment.

Heinrich Guter had knowledge of propagandistic intentions of this sort but failed to report them. For this he is sentenced to eighteen months' imprisonment.

Gisela Schertling, Katharina Schüddekopf, and Traute Lafrenz committed the same crimes. As girls, they are sentenced to one year's imprisonment.

Susanne Hirzel assisted in the distribution of treasonous leaflets. To be sure, she was not aware of their treasonous nature, but she was guilty in that in her inexcusable credulousness and good faith she did not seek certainty concerning the matter. She is sentenced to six months' imprisonment.

In the case of all the accused who have been sentenced to jail or imprisonment, the People's Court will accept as part of the punishment the time already spent in police and investigative custody.

Falk Harnack likewise failed to report his knowledge of treasonous activity. But such unique and special circumstances surround his case that we find ourselves unable to punish his deed of omission. He is accordingly set free.


White Rose - Leaflet 4

The fourth leaflet of the German anti-Nazi group the White Rose, produced between 1942 and early 1943.

Though we know that National Socialist power must be broken by military means, we are trying to achieve a renewal from within of the severely wounded German spirit. This rebirth must be preceded, however, by the clear recognition of all the guilt with which the German people have burdened themselves, and by an uncompromising battle against Hitler and his all too many minions, party members, Quislings, and the like.

There is an ancient maxim that we repeat to our children: "He who won't listen will have to feel." But a wise child will not burn his fingers the second time on a hot stove. In the past weeks Hitler has choked up successes in Africa and in Russia. In consequence, optimism on the one hand and distress and pessimism on the other have grown within the German people with a rapidity quite inconsistent with traditional German apathy. On all sides one hears among Hitler's opponents - the better segments of the population - exclamations of despair, words of disappointment and discouragement, often ending with the question: "Will Hitler now, after all. "

Meanwhile, the German offensive against Egypt has ground to a halt. Rommel has to bide his time in a dangerously exposed position. But the push into the East proceeds. This apparent success has been purchased at the most horrible expense of human life, and so it can no longer be counted an advantage. Therefore we must warn against all optimism.

Neither Hitler nor Goebbels can have counted the dead. In Russia thousands are lost daily. It is the time of the harvest, and the reaper cuts into the ripe grain with wide strokes. Mourning takes up her abode in the country cottages, and there is no one to dry the tears of the mothers. Yet Hitler feeds with lies those people whose most precious belongings he has stolen and whom he has driven to a meaningless death.

Every word that comes from Hitler's mouth is a lie. When he says peace, he means war, and when he blasphemously uses the name of the Almighty, he means the power of evil, the fallen angel, Satan. His mouth is the foul-smelling maw of Hell, and his might is at bottom accursed. True, we must conduct a struggle against the National Socialist terrorist state with rational means but whoever today still doubts the reality, the existence of demonic powers, has failed by a wide margin to understand the metaphysical background of this war. Behind the concrete, the visible events, behind all objective, logical considerations, we find the irrational element: The struggle against the demon, against the servants of the Antichrist. Everywhere and at all times demons have been lurking in the dark, waiting for the moment when man is weak when of his own volition he leaves his place in the order of Creation as founded for him by God in freedom when he yields to the force of evil, separates himself from the powers of a higher order and after voluntarily taking the first step, he is driven on to the next and the next at a furiously accelerating rate. Everywhere and at all times of greatest trial men have appeared, prophets and saints who cherished their freedom, who preached the One God and who His help brought the people to a reversal of their downward course. Man is free, to be sure, but without the true God he is defenceless against the principle of evil. He is a like rudderless ship, at the mercy of the storm, an infant without his mother, a cloud dissolving into thin air.

I ask you, you as a Christian wrestling for the preservation of your greatest treasure, whether you hesitate, whether you incline toward intrigue, calculation, or procrastination in the hope that someone else will raise his arm in your defence? Has God not given you the strength, the will to fight? We must attack evil where it is strongest, and it is strongest in the power of Hitler.

So I returned, and considered all the oppressions that are done under the sun: and behold the tears of such as were oppressed, and they had no comforter and on the side of their oppressors there was power but they had no comforter. Wherefore I praised the dead which are already dead than the living which are yet alive.
- Ecclesiastes 4

True anarchy is the generative element of religion. Out of the annihilation of every positive element she lifts her gloriously radiant countenance as the founder of a new world. If Europe were about to awaken again, if a state of states, a teaching of political science were at hand! Should hierarchy then. be the principle of the union of states? Blood will stream over Europe until the nations become aware of the frightful madness which drives them in circles. And then, struck by celestial music and made gentle, the approach their former altars all together, hear about the works of peace, and hold a great celebration of peace with fervent tears before the smoking altars. Only religion can reawaken Europe, establish the rights of the peoples, and install Christianity in new splendour visibly on earth in its office as guarantor of peace.
- - Novalis

We wish expressly to point out that the White Rose is not in the pay of any foreign power. Though we know that National Socialist power must be broken by military means, we are trying to achieve a renewal from within of the severely wounded German spirit. This rebirth must be preceded, however, by the clear recognition of all the guilt with which the German people have burdened themselves, and by an uncompromising battle against Hitler and his all too many minions, party members, Quislings, and the like. With total brutality the chasm that separates the better portion of the nation from everything that is opened wide. For Hitler and his followers there is no punishment on this Earth commensurate with their crimes. But out of love for coming generations we must make an example after the conclusion of the war, so that no one will ever again have the slightest urge to try a similar action. And do not forget the petty scoundrels in this regime note their names, so that none will go free! They should not find it possible, having had their part in these abominable crimes, at the last minute to rally to another flag and then act as if nothing had happened! To set you at rest, we add that the addresses of the readers of the White Rose are not recorded in writing. They were picked at random from directories.

We will not be silent. We are your bad conscience. The White Rose will not leave you in peace!


Susanne Hirzel - History

The White Rose was a civilian resistance organization that actively opposed Adolf Hitler in Nazi Germany during WWII. It was composed of students from the University of Munich and their philosophy professor, Kurt Huber. The group became known for an anonymous leaflet campaign, lasting from June 1942 until February 1943, calling for active resistance to the Third Reich. Upwards of 9,000 copies of the White Rose leaflets were distributed across Germany leading to an investigation by the Gestapo. Six members of the group were arrested endured show trials conducted by Nazi Judge Roland Freisler and were executed by decapitation in 1943. The story of the valiant White Rose resistance group has been the subject of a film Sophie Scholl – Die letzten Tage (Sophie Scholl: The Final Days), Weisse Rose (White Rose) a chamber opera by Udo Zimmerman that debuted in Hamburg in 1986 to international acclaim and many books, most recently: Sophie Scholl and the White Rose in 2006.

The first leaflet from the White Rose read:

Isn’t it true that every honest German is ashamed of his government these days? Who among us has any conception of the dimensions of shame that will befall us and our children when one day the veil has fallen from our eyes and the most horrible of crimes – crimes that infinitely outdistance every human measure – reach the light of day?

Since the conquest of Poland three hundred thousand Jews have been murdered in this country in the most bestial way … The German people slumber on in their dull, stupid sleep and encourage these fascist criminals … Each man wants to be exonerated of a guilt of this kind, each one continues on his way with the most placid, the calmest conscience. But he cannot be exonerated he is guilty, guilty, guilty! (see another here)

The sixth leaflet from the White Rose resistance group was about the disaster at Stalingrad. It was smuggled out of Nazi Germany to Scandinavia. Re-titled as “The Manifesto of the Students of Munich” thousands of copies were dropped over Germany from allied aircraft.

Mrs. Suzanne Zeller – Hirzel is one of only two survivors of the White Rose Society. She is a member of the Peoples Movement PAX EUROPA” (BPE) that opposes the Islamization of Germany and Europe. Mrs. Zeller – Hirzel is the author of a memoir of her experiences during the Hitler era in Germany: Susanne Hirzel: [From Yes to No. A Schwabian Youth. 1933 to 1945] Vom Ja zum Nein. Eine schwäbische Jugend 1933 bis 1945. Silberburg-Verlag, 2000.

This interview was conducted by D.L. Adams, a co-founder of the group Stop Islamization of America (SIOA).

The following interview was translated from the German.

Adams: During the war, you and Sophie Scholl were members of the League of German Girls (BDM) prior to the formation of the White Rose was there a particular event that caused you to turn away from Nazism and take an active position against it?

Zeller – Hirzel: I got to know Sophie Scholl when she was my group leader in the BDM. I admired her because of her eloquence and her behavior and she quickly became my very best friend. I often stayed at Sophie’s parents’ home and got to know her brother Hans and her sister Inge. The BDM was a scouting organization for girls. Political indoctrination was only one aspect among many others and I even became a troop leader(Scharführerin). Sophie’s father Robert Scholl was a determined Catholic pacifist and a sincere Christian. He told us about his experiences and that influenced my thinking. At that time, we jointly decided that we should do something against Hitler.

Adams: What component(s) of character did all the members of the White Rose group share in common?

Zeller – Hirzel: We all were oppositional patriots, but with a Christian understanding. Although the Scholls were Catholic and I was Protestant (my father was a Lutheran parish priest), we shared almost everything in common.

Adams: I understand that Sophie’s brother was an enlisted soldier in the Werhmacht. Was Hans involved in a silent movement within the Werhmacht against Hitlerism? If such a movement existed can you tell us about it? In addition, was there a feeling among Germans against Hitlerism that you felt the White Rose could encourage?

Zeller – Hirzel: Yes, there were within the armed forces an anti-Nazi underground movement (Count Claus von Stauffenberg, etc.). Mainly officers were involved. My brother Hans was only an ordinary soldier. Soldiers were rarely drawn into their confidence by officers. So Hans had no contact with them. There was no support among the population since the prevailing erroneous opinion was: «As long as our sons at the front are fighting for their country, resistance would be a betrayal.» Another fellow who was looking for contact with the White Rose sympathizers in Berlin, Falk Harnack, was also forced into the armed forces. He failed to make contact with the underground resistance. He was surprisingly acquitted on April 19, 1943 by Freisler’s People’s Court. Harnack benefitted from his profession he was a theatrical arts director. During the trial Freisler’s assessment of me as a young naive girl enabled me to get off lightly, although I feared a death sentence from my prison cell.

Adams: It is known that Hitler had a deep fascination and affection for Islam. Hitler once said that he would have preferred if Germany had been an Islamic culture as he thought the German people would then have been more brutal fighters. Hitler also understood that Jews were despised by Mohammed. The oppression and killing of Jews is a common thread between Nazism and Islamic doctrine. Were you aware of this linkage during the White Rose times? Were there Muslims in Munich? Did Professor Huber or any other White Rose members ever discuss the linkage between Islam and Nazism with the group?

Zeller – Hirzel: Islam and Muslims in general at that time were not an issue with us. I was not aware that there were any Muslims in Germany. Hitler’s collaboration with Haj Amin al-Husseini, the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem was not known even though Hitler invited him to reside in Berlin from 1941 to war’s end and the Grand Mufti recruited SS divisions of Bosnian Muslims. All this was unknown to us.

Adams: There is a documentary film about one of Hitler’s personal secretaries, Traudl Junge. The film is called «Blind Spot». It is an excellent film and shows how an otherwise decent person can make excuses and be silent in the face of the cruelties and brutalities of dictators and totalitarian systems. Do you have any comment on ordinary Germans like Trudle Junge who went along with the Nazi Party and Hitler but may have felt that what they were supporting was wrong? We know that dictatorships and totalitarian systems only can work when decent people remain silent.

Zeller – Hirzel: I know the film and the book, “Until the Final Hour.” Mrs. Junge was probably a young woman with a nice nature, but was otherwise fairly simple. Hitler preferred to be accompanied by that kind of women. Why did millions follow the Nazis? Well, there was poverty in many parts of the population. In addition, the majority felt the «shame of Versailles,» which culminated in accusations of treason against the politicians of the Weimar Republic. Hitler gave them back, at least emotionally, a sense of national self-respect. I was very angry and disappointed to see my teachers, professors and the rector voluntarily wearing brown shirts (the Nazi dress code) in school and in University they said they want to give the Nazis “a helping hand.» These were people who previously had served me as role models. I think today, it would be the same teachers and professors describing themselves as Islamophiles, multiculturalists and “helping hands” for Muslim associations as they did at that time for the Nazis. However, I must say that the Classical scholars were the most courageous and distant among the teachers.

Adams: You are now involved in the “Peoples Movement PAX EUROPA” (BPE) in Germany. We understand this to be one of the more important anti-Jihad organizations in Germany. What prompted you to get involved in the anti-Islamist movement?

Zeller – Hirzel: I read many, many books on the subject especially the books by Mark Gabriel (see “Islam and Terrorism”). So I realized that one must not simply accept these things passively but also do something about it. One must support this cause by necessity.

Adams: Do you see similarities between Islam and Nazism? If so, what are these similarities?

Zeller – Hirzel: The fanaticism, the absolute claim of possessing the only truth and the spiritual simplicity are very similar between Islam and the Nazism.

Adams: Do you view opposing Islamization as the same battle you were fighting when the White Rose fought Nazism?

Zeller – Hirzel: Not quite yet. Critics of the Nazi ideology were then immediately arrested. We have not yet reached that point. But if we do nothing, it will come back to that. Then they might lock up the critics of Islam.

Adams: In your view why is it so difficult to explain the threat of Islamization to the public? What is stopping us from getting our message across to the public? What can we do better?

Zeller – Hirzel: The general indifference to religious matters make it difficult. The public believes we to have to be «fair» to everyone. That is counterproductive. Additionally, there is general prosperity with a relatively high standard of living that makes people lazy. I say: Only education can help. Education can aid.

Adams: What is the best way to approach a person who knows nothing about Islam? How do we build a base of support among people so that we are never in the desperate position that entrapped you, Sophie and the heroes of the White Rose resistance group?

Zeller – Hirzel: As I said before: Education! We need to conduct neighborhood meetings, community and church events. The distress in the population is indeed there, but apparently not big enough. «Hitler is the scourge of God,» once said Robert Scholl, Sophie’s father. But he was then promptly convicted.

Adams: When you and your colleagues of the White Rose were leafleting in Munich and elsewhere, did you believe that the population could be converted to anti-Hitlerism?

Zeller – Hirzel: Yes, we really believed that. We actually thought we could move public opinion. Even if it happened to be in vain, we tried it before history. And yet we were afraid. The very few supporters we had were scared. We were afraid of death sentences, meted out by Freisler’s People’s Court, afraid of his screaming. But screaming is also a weakness.

Adams: We know that the memory of Sophie Scholl, you and your colleagues is held in great esteem across the world by lovers of freedom and justice. How best do we motivate people today to fight against the Islamization of Europe and the West?

Zeller – Hirzel: I think something terrible needs to happen before Germans awaken. 9/11 was too far away from the German people. The churches fail miserably in the task of informing people about Islamic ideology. That can only happen through grassroots activism, education and instruction. Even if in Europe the churches play an increasingly smaller social role, the people ought to be agitating in church institutions, in the parishes and so forth.

Adams: What words of encouragement can you give us to help in our fight against the enemy of freedom, and humanity?

Zeller – Hirzel: Strive for Unity. It makes resistance powerful and courageous!

Adams: Thank you, Mrs. Zeller- Hirzel, for your thoughts and comments. It is an honor to interview you. You, Sophie, Hans and Kurt and all of your colleagues are heroes to us and to all who love life and liberty and oppose barbarism, totalitarianism, and hatred.

Zeller – Hirzel: I also thank Mr. Adams and our American friends of SIOA and wish them the very best success in their fight for the preservation of freedom and human rights.

Adams: Thank you, Mrs. Susanne Zeller- Hirzel you are a model for us in this struggle against Islamization.


Enlightenment Rebooted 1: Susanne Zeller-Hirzel

Part one in my hopefully long running series of trying to clear out all the corrupt code infesting the atheist/skeptic scene. Now, anyone here remember when Ophelia Benson said TAM was like Nazi Germany for her (except it wasn’t – or something)? Well, here is the solution: Don’t read Ophelia Benson:

Do read Suzanne Zeller-Hirzel:

Frau Zeller-Hirzel actually het gedoen face up to the Nazis, back in the day. She was, along with Hans and Sophie Scholl, a member of the White Rose, the students who, at the zeroth hour, tried to stop the Nazi government by distributing leaflets against the regime. By ‘distributing’ I mean ‘dumping them by the hundreds all over campuses and and cities.

Here’s the text from one of those leaflets. Still stands up today:

Nothing is so unworthy of a civilised nation as allowing itself to be governed without opposition by an irresponsible clique that has yielded to base instinct. It is certain that today every honest German is ashamed of his government.

Who among us has any conception of the dimensions of shame that will befall us and our children when one day the veil has fallen from our eyes and the most horrible of crimes – crimes that infinitely outdistance every human measure – reach the light of day? If the German people are already so corrupted and spiritually crushed that they do not raise a hand, frivolously trusting in a questionable faith in lawful order of history if they surrender man’s highest principle, that which raises him above all other God’s creatures, his free will if they abandon the will to take decisive action and turn the wheel of history and thus subject it to their own rational decision if they are so devoid of all individuality, have already gone so far along the road toward turning into a spiritless and cowardly mass – then, yes, they deserve their downfall.

You can find a collection of these leaflets here.

Suzanne Zeller-Hirzel was until quite recently (she sadly passed away last December) the last survivor of the White Rose. Many were killed, others imprisoned for their activities.

Now you might think that being eighty years old and having seen off one of the worst tyrannies in human history would be enough for one lifetime. You would be wrong. In her old age, she joined the struggle against Islam. Here is a good interview with her.

The fanaticism, the absolute claim of possessing the only truth and the spiritual simplicity are very similar between Islam and the Nazism. […] Critics of the Nazi ideology were then immediately arrested. We have not yet reached that point. But if we do nothing, it will come back to that. Then they might lock up the critics of Islam.

They are certainly getting there. In a related note, the reborn White Rose, with her blessing, were recently convicted of “inciting racial hatred” and being “far right” by a German court. Fortunately, this has been overturned for being just too stupid for words.

Such people are far too few. Think of her and her lost comrades whenever you wonder whether it is worth it to make waves.


History: October through December 2001

December 27, 2001
Well, the well-worn and horribly romantic image of a writer writing and pacing and drinking himself silly sure has taken a hit this year. Writing is proving to be much more of a "job" than anyone ever lets on. A job, to be sure, that I wouldn't trade for anything. And that, my friends, is a great place to be.

December 20, 2001
Finished a "markets" piece for Children's Writer Newsletter. Researched which publishers are looking for adventure pieces in 2002 and early 2003. This means I'll be able to seriously pick up where I left off on White Rose work. Hopefully very soon! Nothing like a short absence to make me ready to go again. How is it that after all these years, their story still has the power to make me cry?

November 29, 2001
Birthday tomorrow reminds me that we all get older and slower, no matter what we do or where we live. Oh well. Enjoying the journey, and that is what matters most.

November 22, 2001
So much to be thankful for, and I don't even mean the "biggies". Strong sense this year of needing to understand that so much that I am "thankful" for comes at the expense of others who receive little or no wage (much less thanks) for their labor.

November 1, 2001
We are coming up so quickly on the 63rd anniversary of Kristallnacht, the night of breaking glass, that awful pogrom that signaled the irrevocable beginnings of the Shoah. In these days when our own society can feel like it is standing on equivalent quicksand, we need to hear the words of Paul Spiegel, President of the German Jewish Council, spoken last November 9 in Berlin.

October 18, 2001
The worst thing to come of the bombing of the World Trade Center and Pentagon has been the willingness of too many citizens to voluntarily hand over civil liberties in exchange for what is perceived as "security" .

This is a dangerous world view. We can fight external enemies. It has never been difficult to rally Americans to genuine jeopardy from abroad. But if we let go of the things that make us special

the right to freely assemble, the right to dissent, the right to speak our minds even if our opinions buck conventional wisdom and White House spin


White Rose trial sentencing transcripts

Partial transcripts of the sentencing of German anti-nazi group White Rose members Hans and Sophie Scholl, Christoph Probst, Alexander Schmorell, Kurt Huber, Wilhelm Graf and other supporters of the group in 1943.

Sentencing of Hans and Sophie Scholl and Christoph Probst, February 22, 1943.

In the Name of the German People in the action against
1. Hans Fritz Scholl, Munich, born at Ingersheim, September 22, 1918,
2. Sophia Magdalena Scholl, Munich, born at Forchtenberg, May 9, 1921, and
3. Christoph Hermann Probst, of Aldrans bei Innsbruck, born at Murnau, November 6, 1919,

now in investigative custody regarding treasonous assistance to the enemy, preparing to commit high treason, and weakening of the nation's armed security, the People's Court, first Senate, pursuant to the trial held on February 22, 1943, in which the officers were:

President of the People's Court Dr. Freisler, Presiding, Director of the Regional (Bavarian) Judiciary Stier, SS Group Leader Breithaupt, SA Group Leader Bunge, State Secretary and SA Group Leader Köglmaier, and, representing the Attorney General to the Supreme Court of the Reich, Reich Attorney Weyersberg,
find:

That the accused have in time of war by means of leaflets called for the sabotage of the war effort and armaments and for the overthrow of the National Socialist way of life of our people, have propagated defeatist ideas, and have most vulgarly defamed the Führer, thereby giving aid to the enemy of the Reich and weakening the armed security of the nation.

On this account they are to be punished by Death.

Their honour and rights as citizens are forfeited for all time.

Partial transcript of the Sentence of Alexander Schmorell, Kurt Huber, Wilhelm Graf, and others associated with the White Rose, pursuant to the Trial held on April 19, 1943.

In the Name of the German People in the action against
1. Alexander Schmorell, Munich, born on September 16, 1917, in Orenburg (Russia)
2. Kurt Huber, Munich, born October 24, 1893, in Chur (Switzerland)
3. Wilhelm Graf, Munich, born January 2, 1918, in Kuchenheim
4. Hans Hirzel, Ulm, born on October 30, 1924, in Untersteinbach (Stuttgart)
5. Susanne Hirzel, Stuttgart, born on August 7, 1921, in Untersteinbach
6. Franz Joseph Müller, Ulm, born on September 8, 1924, in Ulm
7. Heinrich Guter, Ulm, born on January 11, 1925, in Ulm
8. Eugen Grimminger, Stuttgart, born on July 29, 1892, in Crailsheim
9. Dr. Heinrich Philipp Bollinger, Freiburg, born on April 23, 1916, in Saarbrücken
10. Helmut Karl Theodore August Bauer, Freiburg, born on June 19, 1919, in Saarbrücken
11. Dr. Falk Erich Walter Harnack, Chemnitz, born on March 2, 1913, in Stuttgart
12. Gisela Scheriling, Munich, born on February 9, 1922, in Pössneck (Thüringen)
13. Katharina Schüddekopf, Munich, born on February 8, 1916, in Magdeburg
14. Traute Lafrenz, Munich, born on May 3, 1919, in Hamburg

at present in investigative custody, regarding rendering aid to the enemy, inter alia, the People's Court, first Senate, pursuant to the trial held on April 19, 1943, in which the officers were:
President of the People's Court Dr. Freisler, Presiding, Director of the Regional (Bavarian) Judiciary Stier, SS Group Leader and Lt. Gen. of the Waffen-SS Breithaupt, SA Group Leader Bunge, SA Group Leader and State Secretary Köglmaier, and, representing the Reich Attorney General, First State's Attorney Bischoff,
find:

That Alexander Schmorell, Kurt Huber, and Wilhelm Graf in time of war have promulgated leaflets calling for sabotage of the war effort and for the overthrow of the National Socialist way of life of our people have propagated defeatist ideas, and have most vulgarly defamed the Führer, thereby giving aid to the enemy of the Reich and weakening the armed security of the nation.

On this account they are to be punished by Death.

Their honour and rights as citizens are forfeited for all time.

Eugen Grimminger gave money to a person guilty of high treason in aid of the enemy. To be sure, he was not aware that by so doing he was aiding the enemy of the Reich. However, he was aware that this person might use the money for the purpose of robbing our people of their National Socialist way of life. Because he gave support to high treason, he is sentenced to jail for a ten-year term, together with loss of honourable estate for ten years.

Heinrich Bollinger and Helmut Bauer had knowledge of treasonable conspiracy but failed to report it. In addition, the two listened to foreign radio newscasts dealing with the war and with events inside Germany. For this they are sentenced to jail for a term of seven years and loss of citizen's honour for seven years.

Hans Hirzel and Franz Müller - both immature boys misled by enemies of the state - gave support to the spread of treasonous propaganda against National Socialism. For this action they are sentenced to five years' imprisonment.

Heinrich Guter had knowledge of propagandistic intentions of this sort but failed to report them. For this he is sentenced to eighteen months' imprisonment.

Gisela Schertling, Katharina Schüddekopf, and Traute Lafrenz committed the same crimes. As girls, they are sentenced to one year's imprisonment.

Susanne Hirzel assisted in the distribution of treasonous leaflets. To be sure, she was not aware of their treasonous nature, but she was guilty in that in her inexcusable credulousness and good faith she did not seek certainty concerning the matter. She is sentenced to six months' imprisonment.

In the case of all the accused who have been sentenced to jail or imprisonment, the People's Court will accept as part of the punishment the time already spent in police and investigative custody.

Falk Harnack likewise failed to report his knowledge of treasonous activity. But such unique and special circumstances surround his case that we find ourselves unable to punish his deed of omission. He is accordingly set free.


Susanne Hirzel, Tochter des Ulmer Pfarrers Ernst Hirzel und Enkelin des Geographen Robert Gradmann, war zunächst begeistertes Mitglied des Bundes Deutscher Mädel, distanzierte sich aber zunehmend von den Machthabern. Von 1932 an besucht Susanne Hirzel das humanistische Gymnasium, das heutige Humboldt-Gymnasium in Ulm. Einer ihrer Klassenkameraden war Jörg Zink, der später eine der bekanntesten Persönlichkeiten des Protestantismus im Nachkriegsdeutschland werden sollte. Aus diesem Gymnasium gingen etliche spätere Mitglieder der Widerstandsgruppe Weiße Rose hervor: Neben Hans Scholl die einige Jahre jüngeren Mitglieder der „Ulmer Abiturientengruppe“ Hans Hirzel, Franz J. Müller, Heinrich Guter und Heinz Brenner. [1]

„Dem Volksgerichtshof fällt auf, daß aus einer Schulklasse drei Schüler (auch Heinrich Guter) in dieser Sache erscheinen und noch weitere erwähnt wurden! Da muß etwas nicht stimmen, was am Geiste dieser Klasse liegt und was der Senat nicht allein diesen Jungen zur Last legen kann. Man schämt sich, daß es eine solche Klasse eines deutschen humanistischen Gymnasiums gibt!“

Ende 1942 wurde sie als Musikstudentin von Sophie Scholl angesprochen und zum Widerstand aufgefordert. Ende Januar folgte sie der Bitte ihres Bruders Hans und warf in Stuttgart das kuvertierte fünfte Flugblatt der „Weißen Rose“ in Briefkästen. Diese hochgeheime Aktion wurde zusammen mit Franz J. Müller in der Ulmer Martin-Luther-Kirche hinter dem Orgelprospekt vorbereitet. Der Vater Ernst Hirzel war damals an dieser Kirche Gemeindepfarrer.

Nach Verhaftung und Hinrichtung der Geschwister Scholl wurde auch sie verhaftet und im zweiten Prozess, in dem Kurt Huber, Willi Graf und Alexander Schmorell durch den Volksgerichtshof unter Roland Freisler zum Tode verurteilt wurden, zu einem halben Jahr Haft verurteilt, weil ihr die Kenntnis der ausgetragenen Flugblätter nicht nachgewiesen werden konnte.

Nach dem Zusammenbruch der nationalsozialistischen Diktatur 1945 war Susanne Zeller Cellolehrerin. Zugleich war sie die Autorin einer verbreiteten, mehrbändigen Violoncello-Schule, die in vielen Auflagen im Bärenreiter-Verlag erschienen ist. [2]

Wie ihr Bruder Hans, Funktionär der Partei Die Republikaner und deren Bundespräsidentenkandidat, war Susanne Hirzel in rechtskonservativen Kreisen aktiv, u. a. ebenfalls bei den Republikanern. In ihren Erinnerungen „Eine schwäbische Jugend“ schreibt sie u. a., die Alliierten hätten bei ihren Luftangriffen auf deutsche Städte „möglichst viele Deutsche ausrotten wollen“, und die deutschen KZs seien dem „Vorbild“ Stalins sowie der Engländer im Burenkrieg gefolgt. Ferner gab sie 2002 der Jungen Freiheit und 2010 auch dem antiislamischen Blog Politically Incorrect (PI) ein Interview. Sie lebte zuletzt in Stuttgart und engagierte sich aktiv in der Bürgerbewegung Pax Europa (BPE) gegen eine vermeintliche Islamisierung Deutschlands. [3] [4] [5]


Kyk die video: Deputy Hirzel Facing New Investigation (Januarie 2022).