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Vroue tydens die revolusionêre oorlog - Geskiedenis

Vroue tydens die revolusionêre oorlog - Geskiedenis

Vroue tydens die rewolusionêre oorlog

Deur Awet Amedechiel

Die meerderheid koloniale vroue het klein, maar noodsaaklike bydraes gelewer tot die Revolusionêre Oorlogspoging. Betsy Ross se mitiese skepping van die eerste vlag van die Verenigde State is die bekendste vroulike prestasie van die Revolusionêre era, maar dit is slegs een voorbeeld van die vele verhale van vroue wat 'n verskil tydens en na die oorlog maak. Die sukses van die boikot van Britse goedere in die 1760's en vroeë 1770's was grootliks afhanklik van die toewyding van Amerikaanse vroue en hul bereidwilligheid om hul verbruikspatrone te verander. Baie vroue het tuis produkte gemaak, veral klere, wat die boikot vergemaklik het sonder om die grense van die huishoudelike gebied te oorskry. Ander vroue het deur hul mans probeer om die stryd om onafhanklikheid en die ontwikkeling van beginsels vir die nuwe nasie te beïnvloed. Abigail Adams het gereeld met haar man gekorrespondeer en haar eenmaal op die kontinentale kongres van 1776 gemaan om 'die dames te onthou'. ter ondersteuning van die patriotiese saak. In Oktober 1774 het 51 vroue van die Society of Patriotic Ladies in Edenton, Noord -Carolina, 'n verklaring onderteken waarin hulle hul verbintenis tot die patriotiese saak verklaar en hulle voornemens is om dit alles in hul vermoë te doen om die saak te bevorder. In Philadelphia het Esther Berdt Reed die geldinsameling, die aankoop van materiaal en die vervaardiging van hemde vir die Amerikaanse kontinentale leër gereël. Sy en die vroue met wie sy gewerk het, het binne 'n paar weke $ 7.500 ingesamel, 'n groot bedrag in daardie tyd. Toe Reed aan 'n dysenterie -epidemie sterf, het verskeie ander vroue, waaronder Benjamin Franklin se dogter, Sarah Franklin Bache, haar werk voortgesit.

Sommige vroue het selfs aan die militêre kant van die oorlog deelgeneem. Baie vroue was in die posisie dat hulle hul huise en gesinne moes verdedig teen aanvalle deur Britse en inheemse Amerikaanse troepe. Die Amerikaanse kunstenaar Patience Lovell Wright het geheime inligting na Amerikaanse magte in Philadelphia gesmokkel, weggesteek in haar wasfigure. Catherine Van Rensselaer Schuyler, vrou van die rewolusionêre oorlogsgeneraal Philip Schuyler, het die koringlande rondom Albany, NY, verbrand om te keer dat Britse magte dit kan oes. Haar optrede het ander soortgelyke weerstandsdade geïnspireer. Mary Ludwid Hays, het die bynaam "Molly Pitcher" gekry omdat sy tydens die Slag van Monmouth in 1778 water na Amerikaanse soldate gebring het. Sy het selfs haar man se kanon bedien toe hy in die geveg val. Hays is deur generaal Washington beklee en het na die oorlog 'n pensioen gekry en met volle militêre eer begrawe. Betty Zane het 'n fort gered wat deur inheemse Amerikaners beleër was tydens een van die laaste inheemse Amerikaanse aanvalle van die Revolusionêre Oorlog. Sy het kruit gedra om die uitgeputte voorraad van die koloniale magte aan te vul. Volgens 'n anonieme joernaalinskrywing het 'n "korps vroulike infanterie" op 17 Augustus 1775 in East Hartford, Connecticut, 'n totaal van twintig vroue in 'n krygsmag en uitstekende orde na 'n winkel opgeruk. Hulle het die winkel aangeval en geplunder en tweehonderd agtien pond suiker saamgeneem. Dit is nie duidelik of hierdie voorval werklik plaasgevind het nie, maar dit is goed gedokumenteer dat Deborah Sampson as 'n man aangetrek het en in 1782 by die kontinentale magte ingeskryf het. Sy het anderhalf jaar met lof gedien en 'n maandelikse ongeskiktheidspensioen verdien. die oorlog. Margaret Cochran Corbin het ook geveg en is ernstig gewond in die oorlog en het 'n pensioen van die staat Pennsylvania ontvang.

Vroue was ook betrokke by die kroniek van die oorlog. In 1777 het Mary Katherine Goddard die eerste amptelike eksemplaar van die Onafhanklikheidsverklaring gedruk en die posryers betaal om dit deur die kolonies te dra. Lady Christian Henrietta Caroline Acland, ook Lady Harriet genoem, het 'n vertelling geskryf oor haar ervarings van Engeland na die Amerikaanse kolonies, wat as 'een van die helderste episodes in die oorlog' beskou is. Een van die vroegste historici van die oorlog was Mercy Otis Warren, wie se geskiedenis van die opkoms, vooruitgang en beëindiging van die Amerikaanse rewolusie in 1805 in drie dele gepubliseer is.

VROUE IN DIE REVOLUSIONARIE-ERA-GEMEENSKAP

Gedurende die beginfases van afhandeling was die behoefte aan arbeid in die Amerikas meer as geslagsdiskriminasie, en vroue kon werk buite die huis verkry, selfs fisies belastende werk. Dit was veral waar in grensgemeenskappe. Een voorbeeld is Susanna Wright, wat in 1771 waargeneem het as regsberader, nie -amptelike landdros en plaaslike dokter vir haar bure aan die grense van Pennsylvania.

Hierdie sosiale en ekonomiese gelykheid was egter die gevolg van noodsaaklikheid vir oorlewing en dui nie op fundamentele verskuiwings in die sosiale filosofie nie. Die Amerikaanse kolonies het die konsep van couverture gehou, afgelei van die Engelse gemenereg, waarvolgens getroude vroue as een met hul mans beskou is, en "die wese of wettige bestaan ​​van die vrou [is] opgeskort" na die huwelik. Na onafhanklikheid is hierdie geslagsongelykhede nie beduidend aangespreek nie. Tog is daar vordering gemaak. Massachusetts -wetgewing vanaf 1787 het daartoe gelei dat eiendomsreg aan vroue toegestaan ​​is deur vroue wat deur hul mans verlaat is, toe te laat om eiendom te verkoop. 'N Jaar later het vroue die reg gekry om in die Verenigde State verkies te word, hoewel vroue slegs in New Jersey kon stem, en dit was ook verbied teen 1806. Vir Afro-Amerikaanse vroue het die Revolusionêre Oorlog min invloed gehad op hulle lewens. Hulle was steeds slawe in elke staat, behalwe Massachusetts, wat in die 1780's na emansipasie beweeg het. Baie word steeds mishandel deur hul minnaresse, verkrag deur hul meesters en neergelê deur hul manlike kollegas. Geen burgerregte is aan Afro-Amerikaanse vroue uitgebrei nie, en enige suksesse wat hulle behaal het, is slegs binne 'n omskrewe gebied toegelaat. Een voorbeeld van so 'n beskutte sukses was Phillis Wheatley, 'n gevierde Afro-Amerikaanse digter. Abolitioniste het haar as voorbeeld gebruik om te bewys dat Afrikaners nie aangebore intellektueel minderwaardig was nie. Alhoewel sy 'n sterk voorstander was van onafhanklikheid vir die kolonies, was sy nie 'n voorstander van emansipasie vir slawe nie. In werklikheid spreek haar poësie dankbaarheid uit dat sy uit die 'duisternis' van Afrika aan die 'lig' van Amerika oorgelewer is.

Inheemse Amerikaanse vroue staar verskillende sosiale omstandighede in die gesig, afhangende van die sosiale organisasie van hul stam. In baie stamme het inheemse Amerikaanse vroue in patrone van seksuele segregasie geleef. In sommige stamme uit New England, byvoorbeeld, het vroue en mans afsonderlik geëet. Stamme as die Ute en Shoshone in die Great Basin -gebied het vroue baie lae sosiale status verleen. Boonop is "vrouewerk", gewoonlik huishoudelike en landbouarbeid, geskei van "manswerk", gewoonlik vegter- en jagpligte. In ander stamme het inheemse Amerikaanse vroue egter meer toegang tot magsposisies as hul Europese eweknieë. Sommige stamme, soos die Iroquois in die noorde van New York en die Pueblos van die suidweste, was matrilineêr en het verwantskap bepaal deur moederlyn. Sulke samelewings het vroue, soos Mary (Konwatsi'tsiaienni) Brant, toegelaat om status as belangrike politieke figure te verkry. Die Cherokee -nasie het 'n vroueraad onder leiding van vroue soos Nancy (Nanye'hi) Ward. Ward het ook as 'n lid van die Raad van die opperhoof gesit en die plek van haar man in die stryd ingeneem toe hy tydens die konfrontasie tussen die Creeks en die Cherokees in 1776 geval het. Benewens politieke posisies, het squaws gesag op die godsdienstige gebied gehad, wat soms rolle aangeneem het as sjamane of priesters, wat hulle toegelaat het om medisyne te beoefen. In sommige gevalle het vroue as sjamane en as leiers opgetree. Sommige vroue het selfs handel gedryf. Alhoewel vroue posisies met verskillende gesagsvlakke in hul stamme en geslagte kon beklee, bly die meeste inheemse Amerikaanse kulture sterk deur mans gedomineer. Aangesien die oorgrote meerderheid van die inheemse Amerikaners die kant van die Britte was, was baie van die inheemse Amerikaanse helde en heldinne individue wat nie deur die patriot -Amerikaners geprys sou word nie. Die leier van Mohawk, Mary Brant, was byvoorbeeld bekend daarvoor dat sy haar groot invloed onder inheemse Amerikaners gebruik het om hulle lojaal aan die Britte te hou. Die Revolusionêre Oorlog het waarskynlik inheemse Amerikaanse vroue meer geraak deur die ontwrigting van die daaglikse lewe wat dit veroorsaak het as deur enige liberale konsep wat die patriotiese stryd moontlik aangevoer het. Die ideale van 'n "republikeinse vrou" was in elk geval waarskynlik nie bedoel om op nie-Europese vroue van toepassing te wees nie, sodat die politieke en sosiale ontwikkelinge wat uit Amerikaanse onafhanklikheid ontstaan ​​het, grotendeels irrelevant was vir inheemse Amerikaners. Trouens, baie stamme sou beter daaraan toe gewees het as Groot -Brittanje die oorlog gewen het, aangesien die Britte baie meer geniale betrekkinge met die meeste stamme gehad het as die koloniale setlaars.

ONDERWYS EN VROUE

In teenstelling met baie van hul Europese eweknieë, word van Europese vroue in die nuwe republiek verwag om te weet hoe om 'n huishouding te kook en doeltreffend te bestuur, asook om haar man in 'n ernstige gesprek te voer. Die opvoeding wat vir die meeste vroue beskikbaar was, was egter onvoldoende om die vervulling van sulke veeleisende rolle behoorlik te vergemaklik. Min gesinne het hul dogters bo die laer vlak opgevoed, en byna geen vroue het die universiteit bygewoon nie. Uiteindelik is skole wat vroue aanvaar het of vir vroue ontwerp is, in die nuwe nasie gestig. 'Avontuurskole', wat gewoonlik in die huise van die instrukteurs geleë is, is op verskillende plekke in die kolonies gestig. Hierdie skool beklemtoon onderrig in musiek, dans, teken, skilder, handwerk, ens., Met min aandag aan lees, skryf of wiskunde. Een van die bekendste avontuurskole is in 1754 in Philadelphia gestig deur Anthony Benezet. In die suide is dogters van welgestelde gesinne deur tutors onderrig. Ander, meer akademies of prakties georiënteerde skole sluit in die Moravian Young Ladies Seminary in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, wat in 1785 vir nie-Morawiese meisies geopen is, en Sarah Pierce se skool in Litchfield, Connecticut in 1792. Sulke skole het jong vroue opgelei in lees, grammatika, aardrykskunde. , geskiedenis, musiek, rekenkunde, en soms sterrekunde en vreemde tale. Skole soos die Katy Ferguson School for the Poor, wat na 'n voormalige slaaf gestig en vernoem is, het die dringendste behoefte aan basiese geletterdheid onder die armes hanteer. Die Ferguson -skool het studente uit die armhuise in New York gewerf, en het in 1793 begin met 28 swart en 20 wit studente. Na die oorlog het verskeie New England-akademies begin om vroue te aanvaar en toe te laat om dieselfde vakke as mans te studeer, hoewel skole soos die Yale-universiteit steeds geweier het om selfs volledig gekwalifiseerde vrouestudente te aanvaar.

Vroue soos Mary Wollstonecraft in Engeland en Judith Sargent Murray het ter verdediging van vroueregte geskryf. Alhoewel die meeste Amerikaanse vroue moontlik nie in die openbaar goedkeuring gegee het aan Wollstonecraft se sienings nie, soos 'n kritiek op die huwelik, het haar boek uit 1792, Vindication of the Rights of Woman, wat deur verskeie uitgawes in die Verenigde State deurgegaan het, goedgekeur. Mans soos Thomas Paine en later John Quincy Adams het hulself uitgespreek ter ondersteuning van die politieke en sosiale regte van vroue. Die grootste deel van die vroue se geskrifte wat vandag oorleef, dui daarop dat die meeste minder bekommerd was oor politieke gelykheid as oor die erkenning van die belangrikheid en waarde van die privaat binnelandse sfeer, wat volgens hulle gelyk is aan die openbare politieke sfeer. Volgens Abigail Adams, "as die man die Here is, is die vrou die meesteres - dit is waarvoor ek stry." Die meeste van hierdie geskrifte is afkomstig van Protestantse Europese middel- en hoërklasvroue, wat dit moeilik maak om die gevoelens van ander vroue uit die Revolusionêre Era aan die dag te lê.

AFSLUITING

Alhoewel die meeste vroue in die Revolusionêre Era nie in die moderne sin as 'feministe' beskou kan word nie, was hulle een van die eerstes wat die rol van vroue in die Amerikaanse samelewing ernstig ondersoek het. Dit, tesame met hul aktiewe rol in die oorlog self, het die grondslag gelê vir 'n groot deel van die feministiese denke en protes wat in die volgende generasie sou plaasvind met die aanbreek van die beweging vir stemreg vir vroue.


Onthou die dames van die Amerikaanse rewolusie

Op 31 Maart 1776, toe die crescendo van oorlogstromme na Amerikaanse onafhanklikheid klink, skryf Abigail Adams 'n brief aan haar man, John Adams, wat die Tweede Kontinentale Kongres in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania bygewoon het om die werk aan die Onafhanklikheidsverklaring te voltooi:

Ek wil hê jy wil die dames onthou, en sy het geskryf. & ldquo As daar nie sorgvuldige sorg en aandag aan die dames gegee word nie, is ons vasbeslote om 'n rebellie aan te moedig en sal ons nie gebonde hou aan enige wette waarin ons geen stem of verteenwoordiging het nie. & rdquo

Adam & rsquos se artikulasie namens & dquothe dames & rdquo was inderdaad revolusionêr en het een van die meer bekende verklarings geword namens vroeë Amerikaanse vroueregte. Soos die skrywer Virginia Woolf in haar boek opgemerk het A Room of One & rsquos Own, 'n belangrike punt van die einde van die 18de eeu was dat vroue in die klas begin skryf het. & rdquo

Binne 'n konteks uit die 18de eeu het die dames egter verwys na 'n eksklusiewe meisie van blanke elite-vroulike patriotte, 'n konsep wat, net soos die verklarings en mans, gelyk geskep word en die mense, en 'n groot deel van die bevolking van Brits Noord-Amerika uitgesluit het. . Dit is moeilik om Adams te blameer omdat hy namens die vroue van haar eie klas gepleit het, maar die ervarings van vroue tydens die Revolusionêre era was baie meer uiteenlopend as wat dikwels aanvaar word.

Patriotte uit die Engelse elite, soos Abigail Adams en Esther Reed, skrywer van die broadside & ldquoThe Sentiments of An American Woman, en rdquo en groepe soos die Daughters of Liberty, ondersteun byvoorbeeld die rede vir onafhanklikheid deur fondse in te samel vir die Kontinentale Weermag, organiseer boikotte van Britse goedere en dien as spioene en boodskappers. Ander vroue, soos Deborah Sampson Gannett, wat as mans vermom is en as soldate in die oorlog aangesluit het. Intussen het duisende vroue uit die laer klasse gekampeer onder die troepe wat arbeid en sekswerk verrig het. En die hele tyd, soos Anne M. Boylan in haar boek opgemerk het Vroue -en -regte -regte in die Verenigde State, vroue wou die definisie van patriotisme verander om in te sluit. . . die reg om oor politieke kwessies te praat en op te tree. & rdquo

Die politieke bemagtiging wat Engelse vroue volgens wet probeer verkry het, inheemse Amerikaanse vroue wat volgens gewoonte geniet het. In patrilineêre en matrilineêre stamgenootskappe was inheemse vroue sentraal in die stampolitiek. Soos Lisa L. Moore, et. al. in Transatlantiese feminismes in die era van revolusies opgemerk, Vir die Cherokee was 'n nasie wat sy vroue nie geëer het nie, 'n wanordelike nasie, 'n gevaarlike nasie, 'n nasie wat skade kon berokken. maar soos getoon deur Mohawk Mary & ldquoMolly & rdquo Brant (Tekonwatonti/Konwatsi-Tsiaienni) en Cherokee Nancy Ward (Nanye & rsquohi), was inheemse vroue nie 'n monoliet nie.

Mary Brant was die stiefdogter van hoofman Brant Canagara Duncka en die vrou van sir William Johnson, Britse superintendent van Indiese Sake. Sy gebruik haar politieke invloed in onderhandelinge tussen haar inheemse gemeenskap en Britse koloniale moondhede. Brant het op 6 Augustus 1777 gehelp om 'n Amerikaanse nederlaag in die Slag van Oriskany, NY, te verseker deur inligting aan Britse/Mohawk -lojaliste oor te dra. Uit vrees vir vergelding van die Patriots, het Brant en haar gesin na Kanada ontsnap, waar sy 'n nasionale heldin geword het.

Daarteenoor was Nancy Ward 'n Ghighua of geliefde vrou van die Cherokee -nasie en ondersteuner van die Patriot -saak. Gedurende die 1780's het sy en die Council of Cherokee Women by drie afsonderlike geleenthede op koloniale administrateurs gepraat oor grond- en vroueregte, wat met elke verdragsonderhandeling tussen Indiese stamme en koloniale regerings verswak het. In 'n toespraak wat in 1781 gelewer is, het Nancy Ward die Amerikaanse verdragskommissie teëgestaan ​​en gesê: 'U weet dat vroue altyd as niks beskou word nie. . . Laat u vroue ons woorde hoor. & Rdquo

En die digter Phyllis Wheatley, wie se merkwaardige lewe as 'n voormalige slaaf-internasionaal-literêr-sensasie die gedagtes uitgedaag het dat die vryheid wat deur die Patriotte uitbasuin nie tot mense van Afrika-afkoms uitgebrei moet word nie, spreek die betekenis van vryheid in 'n gedig welsprekend aan Die regte agbare William, graaf van Dartmouth, wat die Patriot -saak ondersteun het, sowel as in 'n brief en gedig gerig aan sy Edele George Washington. Wheatley het haar volle steun agter die leier van die kontinentale leër gegooi. Talle Afro-Amerikaanse vroue het as spioene gedien en gekruisig as soldate. Hulle het moedig teen die Britte geveg en die belofte geglo dat 'n Patriot -oorwinning bevryding van slawerny sou beteken.

Inteendeel, Elizabeth Freeman, bekend as mamma Bette, het nie op die einde van die oorlog gewag om haar vryheid te verkry nie. In 1781, twee jaar voor die Amerikaanse oorwinning, het Freeman 'n saak aanhangig gemaak in Massachusetts, in Brom en Bett v. Ashley, met die argument dat slawerny strydig was met die nuwe grondwet wat deur die staat bekragtig is. Die Hooggeregshof in Massachusetts het ingestem. Freeman het die eerste swart vrou geword wat suksesvol vir haar vryheid in die Baaistaat gedagvaar het. Haar saak het die slawerny in Massachusetts implisiet beëindig.

Die bydrae van vroue tot die Amerikaanse revolusie behoort nie 'n nadink te wees nie. Laat ons onthou terwyl ons die 240ste verjaardag van die Verenigde State van Amerika vier almal die dames wie se revolusionêre dade in die loop van ons geskiedenis ons steeds nader aan die Amerikaanse ideale van vryheid, geregtigheid en gelykheid vir almal bring.

Historici verduidelik hoe die verlede die hede inlig

Arica L. Coleman is die skrywer van Dat die bloed suiwer bly: Afro -Amerikaners, inheemse Amerikaners en die penarie van ras en identiteit in Virginia en voorsitter van die Committee on the Status of African American, Latino/a, Asian American, and Native American (ALANA) Historians and ALANA Histories at the Organization of American Historians.


Eerste vroueverpleegsters

Verpleegsters in die Revolusionêre Oorlog (1775-1783)
Die Revolusionêre Oorlog verskuif die rol van sommige vroue van huisvroue na versorgers op die strydfront. Kort nadat die Kontinentale Weermag in 1775 gestig is om in die Revolusionêre Oorlog te veg, is generaal George Washington daarvan bewus gemaak dat gewonde en siekes goeie vroulike verpleegsters benodig, aangesien die gewonde soldate baie swaarkry.

Image: Na die weermag deur Pamela Patrick White
Baie vrouekampvolgers is aangestel om as verpleegsters in die kontinentale leër te dien

Agtergrond
Deur die geskiedenis heen het die meeste gesondheidsorg in die huis plaasgevind deur familie, vriende en bure met kennis van genesingspraktyke. In die Verenigde State het gesinsgesentreerde siektes tradisioneel gebly tot in die negentiende eeu. Siekesorg wat deur ander as familie en naaste kennisse verskaf is, was oor die algemeen beperk tot epidemies en plae wat periodiek deur dorpe en stede getrek het.

As versorgers van kinders, familie en gemeenskap was dit natuurlik dat die vroue die verpleegsters, die versorgers, word namate die menslike samelewing ontwikkel. Verpleegkunde, en nie prostitusie nie, is miskien die oudste beroep, aangesien sommige verpleegsters van die begin af vir hul dienste betaal is. Die huis was eintlik die sentrum van gesondheidsorg. Selfs nadat die eerste hospitaal van die land in 1751 in Philadelphia geopen is, sou daar nog 'n eeu verbygaan voordat die publiek hospitale as betroubaar en veilig beskou het.

Om kampvolgelinge in verpleegsters te verander
Verpleegkunde in die weermag is tradisioneel deur manlike soldate gedoen. Kort nadat die rewolusionêre oorlog in 1775 begin het, het generaal Horatio Gates 'n versoek gerig dat 'n vrou na sy gewonde soldate omsien. Generaal George Washington het die kongres gevra om verpleegsters te voorsien om siekes by te woon en matrone om toesig te hou oor die verpleegsters.

Generaal Washington wou ook nuttige werksgeleenthede vind vir die vroue wat altyd by soldate rondgehang het. Baie van hierdie kampvolgelinge was die vroue, dogters en moeders van soldate wat die weermag gevolg het omdat hulle hulself nie kon onderhou nadat hul manne die huis verlaat het nie.

In Julie 1775 is 'n plan opgestel wat een verpleegster vir elke 10 pasiënte en een matrone vir elke 100 gewonde of siek soldate voorsien het. Dit was die eerste keer van 'n georganiseerde verpleegstelsel in die weermag. Die kongres het 'n salaris van $ 2 per maand toegestaan ​​vir hierdie verpleegsters, die matrone is $ 4 per maand toegeken. Om 'n manier om siek soldate te versorg, het die Kongres ook die oprigting van hospitale goedgekeur.

Die weermag verkies vroulike verpleegsters, nie net omdat vroue beter was om siekes te versorg nie, maar ook omdat elke vrou wat verpleeg het, beteken dat nog 'n man vrygelaat is om op die slagveld te veg. Maar vroue was nie altyd gretig om as vrywilliger vir verpleegplig te werk nie. Washington blameer die lae vergoedingskoers vir die tekort aan verpleegsters. In 1776 het die kongres die vergoeding van verpleegsters verhoog tot $ 4 per maand en 'n jaar later tot $ 8 per maand, terwyl chirurge en apteke $ 40 per maand betaal het.

Alhoewel 'n vrou wat as verpleegster dien, gereeld loon kan ontvang en 'n werk kan behou gedurende die oorlog, kan verpleegkunde in die weermag baie gevaarlik wees. Blootstelling aan dodelike siektes, soos pokke en kampkoors, kan 'n vroeë dood beteken, benewens die afval na die vuilste werk wat verband hou met die mediese professie. Beamptes het dus gedreig om rantsoene te weerhou van vroue wat geweier het om vrywillig te wees.

Ondanks die pogings van die Kongres om die aantal vroulike verpleegsters vir die weermag te vergroot, was daar 'n tekort gedurende die hele oorlog. Regimente het voortdurend vroue gesoek om hul siekes en gewondes te verpleeg. Die General Hospital in Massachusetts benodig verpleegsters vir Cambridge en Roxbury in die lente van 1776. Advertensies beloof voorkeur aan vroue uit Boston en Charlestown.

'N Paar maande later in Williamsburg het die Virginia Gazette 'n versoek vir verpleegsters geadverteer. In Julie 1776 skryf generaal Nathanael Greene:

Aangesien daar baie siekes in die hospitaal is, maar daar is min vroulike verpleegsters, moet die regimentskirurg die getal meld wat nodig is vir die siekes van die regiment, en die kolonels word versoek om dienooreenkomstig te voorsien.

In Julie 1776 het bevele vir die Pennsylvania -bataljons in Ticonderoga gesê dat een vrou uit elke geselskap gekies moet word om na die hospitaal in Fort George te gaan om die siekes te verpleeg. Opgawes vir die hospitaal in Albany in Julie 1777 bevat nege vroulike verpleegsters. In 1778 beveel Washington sy regimentbevelvoerders om soveel verpleegsters as moontlik in diens te neem om regimentskirurge te help.

In 1781 stuur generaal Washington 'n brief aan Sarah Franklin Bache (dogter van Benjamin Franklin), wat die leier was van 'n vereniging van vroue wat met hul eie geld drooggoed koop en hemde vir soldate naai. Hy het geskryf:

Te midde van die nood en swaarkry van die weermag, watter bronne ook al ontstaan, moet dit 'n troos vir ons deugsame landvroue wees dat hulle nooit daarvan beskuldig is dat hulle hul ywerigste pogings om die saak waarin ons besig is, te weerhou nie.

Verpleegsorg tydens epidemies
In 1793 het 'n geelkoors -epidemie Philadelphia, die hoofstad, getref en byna 10 persent van die bevolking doodgemaak. Epidemies soos geelkoors, pokke, malaria en tifus was algemeen aan die einde van die agtiende en vroeë negentiende eeu, wat dikwels die gemeenskappe waarin hulle plaasgevind het, oorweldig en die tradisionele siekesisteem wat op familie en vriende as verpleegsters staatgemaak het, geknou het.

Die Free African Society, 'n nie -konfessionele organisasie wat gestig is ten behoewe van gratis Afro -Amerikaners, het georganiseerde verpleegsorg aan slagoffers van geelkoors gelewer.
In sy topverkoper -pamflet uit 1794, 'N Kort verslag van die kwaadaardige koors wat onlangs in Philadelphia voorkom, met 'n verklaring van die verrigtinge wat in die verskillende dele van die Verenigde State oor die onderwerp plaasgevind het, Het Matthew Carey mense van Afrikaanse afkoms afgemaak. Hy gebruik ook rassestereotipes wat gehuurde verpleegsters as dronkaards, diewe en prostitute uitbeeld.

Die verpleegsters van die Free African Society versoek dat hul leiers Absalom Jones en Richard Allen hul optrede in die hof van openbare mening verdedig. Hulle het hul eie pamflet uitgegee, 'N Vertelling oor die verrigtinge van die swartmense tydens die laat ontsettende ramp in die jaar 1793 en 'n weerlegging van sommige sensure wat hulle in dieselfde laat publikasie gegooi het (1794).

Jones en Allen het die beskuldigings van Carey weerlê en verpleging beskryf as 'n aansienlike kuns, verkry uit ervaring, sowel as die uitoefening van die fynere gevoelens van die mensdom. kragtige argument vir Afro -Amerikaanse gelykheid en burgerskap.

Vroeë negentiende eeu
Teen die begin van die negentiende eeu het verstedeliking en industrialisasie die manier waarop siek mense versorg is, verander. Hospitale het begin vermeerder om diegene wat sonder die hulpbronne was, te bedien om hul eie sorg te bied, en namate die hospitale toegeneem het, het die vraag na versorgers toegeneem wat bedagsame sorg aan hul pasiënte sou kon bied.

Beeld: The Philadelphia Almshouse (1835)
Later word Philadelphia General Hospital

Vroeë negentiende-eeuse hospitale is hoofsaaklik in meer bevolkte dele van die land gebou, meestal in groot stede. Verpleegsorg in hierdie instellings het geweldig verskil. In hospitale wat deur godsdienstige verpleegopdragte bedryf word, het pasiënte hoë kwaliteit sorg ontvang. Maar in ander instellings was verpleegsorg meer veranderlik, van goed in sommige hospitale tot lukraak en arm in ander.

Verpleegsters in die oorlog van 1812
Gedurende die oorlog van 1812 (1812-1815) was vroue in diens as militêre verpleegsters, net soos tydens die Amerikaanse rewolusie. Soldate en#8217 vroue en dorpsvroue naby die slagvelde is gereeld deur militêre hospitale gehuur om as verpleegsters te dien. Commodore Stephen Decatur ’s ship ’s log onthul die name Mary Allen en Mary Marshall, wat as verpleegsters aan boord van Decatur ’s skip United States gewerk het op 10 Mei 1813. Hulle was nog aan boord toe die skip op 24 Mei 1813 seil.

Mary Ann Cole het die Amerikaanse weermag as hospitaalmatrone gedien tydens die beleg van Fort Erie, Ontario vanaf Julie – Oktober 1814, waartydens 1800 Amerikaners gedood of gewond is. Terwyl die Amerikaners in die fort wanhopig probeer het om die Britse bombardement uit te hou, het Mary Ann sy pligte versorg vir die siekes in die hospitaal, hul maaltye voorberei, medisyne uitgegee en mediese rekords bygehou vir die regimentskirurg.

Die vroue wat tydens die oorlog van 1812 in die militêre kampings kon bly, is deur 'n loterystelsel gekies. Slegs ses vroue is toegelaat in die kamp vir elke honderd soldate.
Die vroue was in diens as verpleegsters, naaiers en diensmeisies. As 'n vrou se man sterf, het sy drie tot ses maande tyd om te begroet, en dan moet sy 'n nuwe man kry of die kamp verlaat.

Die Verpleegstersvereniging
Sommige dokters het erkenning gegee aan die belangrikheid van goeie verpleegsorg vir die welstand van 'n pasiënt en het kursusse begin vir diegene wat belangstel in verpleegkunde. In 1798 reël Valentine Seaman, 'n dokter in New York, 'n vroeë lesing vir verpleegsters wat kraampasiënte versorg het.

In die vroeë negentiende eeu het die Nurse Society of Philadelphia vroue opgelei in die versorging van moeders tydens die bevalling en na die bevalling. Die stigter daarvan, dr. Joseph Warrington, 'n sterk voorstander van onderrig vir vroue wat belangstel in verpleegkunde as 'n beroep, het 'n boek geskryf met die titel Die gids vir verpleegsters met 'n reeks instruksies aan vroue wat wil deelneem aan die belangrike sake van die verpleegmoeder en -kind in die inwonende kamer (1839).

Die Verpleegster se gids, wat elke verpleegster se vereniging ontvang het, verteenwoordig 'n vroeë voorbeeld van 'n verpleeghandboek. Tussen 1839 en 1850 het die verpleeggenootskap ongeveer vyftig verpleegsters in diens geneem, wat 'n vroeë praktyk begin het om verpleegkundiges te betrek vir die versorging van pasiënte in hul huise.

Die Burgeroorlog
Die uitbreek van die Burgeroorlog het onmiddellike behoefte aan bekwame verpleegsters nodig gehad om die enorme aantal siekes en gewondes te versorg. Ongeveer 20 000 vroue en mans het in beide die noorde en die suide as verpleegsters gedien. Die prysenswaardige diens wat deur die burgeroorlogverpleegsters gelewer is, was 'n rede vir toekomstige eksperimente met die opstel van opleidingsprogramme vir verpleegkunde.

Dit is 'n uittreksel uit Nursing the Sick and the Training of Nurses, 'n toespraak van dr. Ann Preston, dekaan van die Woman's Medical College of Pennsylvania, in Philadelphia in 1863:

Onder die vele behoeftes van die samelewing in hierdie tydperk, is daar miskien nie meer 'n noodsaaklikheid, en nie meer onvoldoende, as dié van goeie verpleegsters nie. Die behoefte is nie net vir 'n groep opgeleide professionele verpleegsters wat toegerus is om die siekhuise van vreemdelinge te betree nie, maar ook vir die kennis en opleiding onder vroue, wat hulle in staat stel om hul geliefdes te kalmeer en te verpleeg. as hy met siektes getref word.

Professionele verpleegsteropleiding begin
In 1862 is die New England -hospitaal vir vroue en kinders gestig deur dr. Marie Zakrzewska in Boston, Massachusetts, die eerste hospitaal wat geheel en al deur vroulike dokters en chirurge beman is. Deur die jare het die hospitaal uitgebrei tot die kompleks wat vandag uit agt geboue naby Columbuslaan bestaan, 'n skilderagtige versameling Victoriaanse Gotiese, Stick Style en klassieke herlewingsargitektuur.

Daar, in 1872, open dr Zakrzewska die New England Hospital for Women and Children Training School for Nurses, die eerste professionele verpleegskool in die VSA, met twee en veertig studente, maar slegs vier het eintlik gegradueer. Een van die gegradueerdes was Linda Richards, Amerika se eerste professioneel opgeleide verpleegster, wat in 1873 aan die Training School for Nurses afgestudeer het. Die eerste professioneel opgeleide Afro -Amerikaanse verpleegster, Mary Eliza Mahoney, studeer daar in 1879.

Mary Eliza Mahoney
Die eerste professioneel opgeleide Afro -Amerikaanse verpleegster was Mary Eliza Mahoney. Op die ouderdom van 18 begin sy werk by die New England -hospitaal vir vroue en kinders. In 1878, op 33 -jarige ouderdom, word sy opgeneem in die Hospital's Training School for Nurses, die eerste professionele verpleegprogram in die land. Die opleiding vereis 12 maande in die mediese, chirurgiese en kraamafdelings en instruksies deur dokters op die saal en vier maande werk as 'n privaat verpleegster.

Nadat hy in 1879 gestudeer het, het Mahoney as 'n privaat verpleegster geregistreer. Families that employed Mahoney praised her calm and quiet efficiency. Her professionalism helped raise the status of all nurses. As her reputation spread, Mahoney received requests from patients as far away as New Jersey, Washington, DC and North Carolina.

Mahoney was one of the first black members of the organization that later became the American Nurses Association (ANA). When the ANA was slow to admit black nurses, Mahoney strongly supported the establishment of the National Association of Colored Graduate Nurses (NACGN), and she delivered the welcome address at that organization’s first annual convention in 1909.

In that speech, Mahoney recognized the inequalities in nursing education and called for a demonstration at the New England Hospital for Women and Children, in an effort to have more African American students admitted. The NACGN members responded by electing her association chaplain and giving her a lifetime membership.

During the ensuing years, Mahoney helped recruit nurses to join the Association. She was deeply concerned with women’s equality and a strong supporter of the movement to give women the right to vote. When that movement succeeded with the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment in 1920, she was among the first women in Boston to register to vote – at the age of 76.

Mahoney contracted breast cancer in 1923 and died in 1926. Her grave in Everett, Massachusetts is the site of national pilgrimages. In 1936, the NACGN established the Mary Mahoney Award to raise the status of black nurses. The number of African American women in nursing grew from about 2,400 in 1910 to almost 5,000 by 1930. The NACGN merged with the American Nurses Association in 1951, and Mahoney was inducted into the ANA Hall of Fame in 1976.


Women During the Revoutionary War - History


Portrait of Abigail Adams by Benjamin Blythe
  • Occupation: First Lady of the United States
  • Born: November 22, 1744 in Weymouth, Massachusetts Bay Colony
  • Died: October 28, 1818 in Quincy, Massachusetts
  • Best known for: Wife of President John Adams and mother of President John Quincy Adams

Where did Abigail Adams grow up?

Abigail Adams was born Abigail Smith in the small town of Weymouth, Massachusetts. At the time, the town was part of the Massachusetts Bay Colony of Great Britain. Her father, William Smith, was the minister of the local church. She had a brother and two sisters.

Since Abigail was a girl, she did not receive a formal education. Only boys went to school at this time in history. However, Abigail's mother taught her to read and write. She also had access to her father's library where she was able to learn new ideas and educate herself.

Abigail was an intelligent girl who wished that she could attend school. Her frustration over not being able to get a better education led her to argue for women's rights later on in life.

Abigail was a young lady when she first met John Adams, a young country lawyer. John was a friend of her sister Mary's fiancé. Over time, John and Abigail found they enjoyed each other's company. Abigail liked John's sense of humor and his ambition. John was attracted to Abigail's intelligence and wit.

In 1762 the couple became engaged to be married. Abigail's father liked John and thought he was a good match. Her mother, however, wasn't so sure. She thought Abigail could do better than a country lawyer. Little did she know that John would one day be president! The marriage was delayed due to an outbreak of smallpox, but finally the couple was married on October 25, 1763. Abigail's father presided over the wedding.

Abigail and John had six children including Abigail, John Quincy, Susanna, Charles, Thomas, and Elizabeth. Unfortunately, Susanna and Elizabeth died young, as was common in those days.

In 1768 the family moved from Braintree to the big city of Boston. During this time relations between the American colonies and Great Britain were getting tense. Events such as the Boston Massacre and the Boston Tea Party occurred in the town where Abigail was living. John began to take a major role in the revolution. He was chosen to attend the Continental Congress in Philadelphia. On April 19, 1775 the American Revolutionary War began with the Battle of Lexington and Concord.

With John away at the Continental Congress, Abigail had to take care of the family. She had to make all sorts of decisions, manage the finances, take care of the farm, and educate the children. She also missed her husband terribly as he was gone for a very long time.

In addition to this, much of the war was taking place close by. Part of the Battle of Lexington and Concord was fought only twenty miles from her home. Escaping soldiers hid in her house, soldiers trained in her yard, she even melted utensils to make musket balls for the soldiers.

When the Battle of Bunker Hill was fought, Abigail woke to the sound of cannons. Abigail and John Quincy climbed a nearby hill to witness the burning of Charlestown. At the time, she was taking care of the children of a family friend, Dr. Joseph Warren, who died during the battle.

During the war Abigail wrote many letters to her husband John about all that was happening. Over the years they wrote over 1,000 letters to each other. It is from these letters that we know what it must have been like on the home front during the Revolutionary War.

The war was finally over when the British surrendered at Yorktown on October 19, 1781. John was in Europe at the time working for the Congress. In 1783, Abigail missed John so much that she decided to go to Paris. She took her daughter Nabby with her and went to join John in Paris. When in Europe Abigail met Benjamin Franklin, who she did not like, and Thomas Jefferson, who she did like. Soon the Adams packed up and moved to London where Abigail would meet the King of England.

In 1788 Abigail and John returned to America. John was elected as Vice-President under President George Washington. Abigail became good friends with Martha Washington.

John Adams was elected president in 1796 and Abigail became the First Lady of the United States. She was worried that people wouldn't like her because she was so different from Martha Washington. Abigail had strong opinions on many political issues. She wondered if she would say the wrong thing and make people angry.

Despite her fears, Abigail did not back off her strong opinions. She was against slavery and believed in the equal rights of all people, including black people and women. She also believed that everyone had the right to a good education. Abigail always firmly supported her husband and was sure to give him the woman's point of view on issues.

Abigail and John retired to Quincy, Massachusetts and had a happy retirement. She died of typhoid fever on October 28, 1818. She did not live to see her son, John Quincy Adams, become president.


Remember the Ladies coin by the United States Mint

WAC was disestablished when male and female forces were integrated in 1978.

Slowly, the doors began opening for women seeking a career in military service. Beginning in 1976, women were admitted to all service academies. Basic training became integrated in 1977. A separate branch for women was no longer necessary, so Congress disbanded the Women's Army Corps in 1978.

Of the 119 women who joined the first group of female cadets at West Point, 62 women graduated as second lieutenants in 1980.


4. Lydia Darragh // Undercover Patriot

George Washington maintained a large spy network, including a number of agents in British-occupied Philadelphia. According to her descendants, one of these was Lydia Darragh, a Quaker woman whose home became a meeting place for British officers.

Family legend has it that she often hid in a closet adjoining the room the officers met in, then smuggled word of their plans to her son, who served in the Revolutionary forces. Sometimes she sewed the messages into button covers or hid them in needle books.

If the stories are true, her spying career saved the lives of thousands of Revolutionary soldiers, including Washington himself. Sometime in early December, British officers meeting in Darragh’s home discussed information they’d received that the colonists, led by Washington, were in Whitemarsh. They would launch a surprise attack, they decided. Darragh overheard the plans, then concocted a lie that she needed to purchase flour from a mill outside the city. She was given a pass by the British, then headed straight for the Revolutionary leaders, where she passed the information to an officer in Washington’s army.

Thanks to Darragh’s intelligence, the colonists were prepared for the Redcoats and, after a few skirmishes, the British retreated back into Philadelphia. Unfortunately, historians have been unable to verify many of the family tales surrounding Darragh’s espionage.


Revolutionary Women

Kids learning about Revolutionary Women in this issue will be surprised to find out that while women did not hold the front lines during the War of Independence, they greatly contributed to efforts to keep soldiers fed on the battlefield, lent their voices to political debates, and generally kept the home fires burning. From patriots like Deborah Samson, who actually served secretly in the army, to loyalists like Margaret Draper, who kept publishing the Boston News-Letter after her husband’s death, this evenhanded account of how women influenced the war in big and small ways, laying the groundwork for the suffrage movement that followed much later, is not to be missed.

Equally surprising to kids will be the fact that many of the women who took action during the war were mere teenagers, like Sybil Ludington, a 16-year-old who rode alone 40 miles one rainy night to alert patriots of a planned attack. Other incredible tales of bravery like this make learning about Revolutionary women a high point of the study of early American History. Women even worked as spies during the Revolution, collecting valuable info about the other side and passing it to officers in dangerous acts of defiance. Learning about Revolutionary Women, for kids interested in this era, opens their eyes to a whole other side to this famous war, showing them how great men – as the saying goes – often stand on the shoulders of great women.

Kids learning about Revolutionary Women in this issue will be surprised to find out that while women did not hold the front lines during the War of Independence, they greatly .
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Kids learning about Revolutionary Women in this issue will be surprised to find out that while women did not hold the front lines during the War of Independence, they greatly contributed to efforts to keep soldiers fed on the battlefield, lent their voices to political debates, and generally kept the home fires burning. From patriots like Deborah Samson, who actually served secretly in the army, to loyalists like Margaret Draper, who kept publishing the Boston News-Letter after her husband’s death, this evenhanded account of how women influenced the war in big and small ways, laying the groundwork for the suffrage movement that followed much later, is not to be missed.

Equally surprising to kids will be the fact that many of the women who took action during the war were mere teenagers, like Sybil Ludington, a 16-year-old who rode alone 40 miles one rainy night to alert patriots of a planned attack. Other incredible tales of bravery like this make learning about Revolutionary women a high point of the study of early American History. Women even worked as spies during the Revolution, collecting valuable info about the other side and passing it to officers in dangerous acts of defiance. Learning about Revolutionary Women, for kids interested in this era, opens their eyes to a whole other side to this famous war, showing them how great men – as the saying goes – often stand on the shoulders of great women.


Women During the Revoutionary War - History

What kind of houses did the colonists live in?

Just like today, houses during the Revolutionary War were different depending on where people lived and how much money they had. Poor people often lived in one room homes. Wealthier people would live in two story houses which typically had four rooms downstairs and two upstairs. Many homes had the kitchen in a separate building in order to try and prevent the spread of fires.

Homes during colonial times didn't have running water or electricity. They got light from the fireplace and from candles. Bathrooms were in a separate little building called the "privy" or "necessary".

Did the kids go to school?

Not all kids went to school during the Revolutionary War. More children attended school in the northern colonies than in the south. Often children learned to read and write from ages 6 to 8. After that, usually only wealthy boys continued with school. They attended common school and Latin school where they were taught by a man called the schoolmaster.

The few colleges in the Americas were closed during the war. Also, many schoolmasters enlisted in the army leaving their schools without a teacher.

What type of clothing did they wear?

People who lived during the American Revolution wore similar styles of clothing. Most of the clothing was sewn at home by hand.

Women wore long dresses covered with an apron and a tucker. They also wore mob caps which were pleated cloth bonnets with a ruffled brim. Young girls wore the same style of clothing as the women.

Men wore breeches, stockings, a cotton shirt, a vest, and a tricorn hat. They also wore leather shoes. Wealthy men wore stylish wool coats with shiny buttons. They also wore powdered wigs. A lot of wealthy people had their clothes imported from England. Boys wore the same style of clothing as the men.

Most Colonial families grew vegetables and hunted for their own food. In the city, they would often get food from relatives that had farms or trade for it. They had milk, eggs, fruits, vegetables, and grains from the farms. They ate lots of stews with meats and vegetables.

Cooking took a long time and was a lot of hard work. The women spent a good part of their day cooking. They had to build a fire, milk the cow, pick vegetables, prepare the meat, and bring in water from the outside well. The big meal of the day was usually served around 2pm in the afternoon.

Did the women and children see battles?

The Revolutionary War was fought wherever two armies met up. This was often near towns or on people's farmland. Many people fled their farms as the armies arrived. Sometimes people would wake up to the sounds of cannon fire or musket shots.

Boys could join the army at age 16 as soldiers and even younger as fife, drum, or bugle players. Boys as young as 7 years old joined the army as drummers or message carriers.

Women and girls took part in the war taking care of the soldiers. They cooked for them and sewed their uniforms. They also acted as nurses taking care of the wounded. A few women, called Molly Pitchers, even took part in the fighting.


Women During the Revoutionary War - History

Deborah Sampson became a hero of the American Revolution when she disguised herself as a man and joined the Patriot forces. She was the only woman to earn a full military pension for participation in the Revolutionary army.

Born on December 17, 1760 in Plympton, Massachusetts near Plymouth, Sampson was one of seven children to Jonathan Sampson Jr. and Deborah (Bradford) Sampson. Both were descendants of preeminent Pilgrims: Jonathan of Myles Standish and Priscilla Alden his wife, the great granddaughter of Massachusetts Governor William Bradford. Still, the Sampsons struggled financially and, after Jonathan failed to return from a sea voyage, his impoverished wife was forced to place her children in different households. Five years later, at age 10, young Deborah was bound out as an indentured servant to Deacon Benjamin Thomas, a farmer in Middleborough with a large family. At age 18, with her indenture completed, Sampson, who was self-educated, worked as a teacher during summer sessions in 1779 and 1780 and as a weaver in winter.

In 1782, as the Revolutionary War raged on, the patriotic Sampson disguised herself as a man named Robert Shurtleff and joined the Fourth Massachusetts Regiment. At West Point, New York, she was assigned to Captain George Webb’s Company of Light Infantry. She was given the dangerous task of scouting neutral territory to assess British buildup of men and materiel in Manhattan, which General George Washington contemplated attacking. In June of 1782, Sampson and two sergeants led about 30 infantrymen on an expedition that ended with a confrontation — often one-on-one — with Tories. She led a raid on a Tory home that resulted in the capture of 15 men. At the siege of Yorktown she dug trenches, helped storm a British redoubt, and endured canon fire.

For over two years, Sampson’s true sex had escaped detection despite close calls. When she received a gash in her forehead from a sword and was shot in her left thigh, she extracted the pistol ball herself. She was ultimately discovered — a year and a half into her service — in Philadelphia, when she became ill during an epidemic, was taken to a hospital, and lost consciousness.

Receiving an honorable discharge on October 23, 1783, Sampson returned to Massachusetts. On April 7, 1785 she married Benjamin Gannet from Sharon, and they had three children, Earl, Mary, and Patience. The story of her life was written in 1797 by Herman Mann, entitled The Female Review: or, Memoirs of an American Young Lady . She received a military pension from the state of Massachusetts. Although Sampson’s life after the army was mostly typical of a farmer’s wife, in 1802 she began a year-long lecture tour about her experiences — the first woman in America to do so — sometimes dressing in full military regalia.

Four years after Sampson’s death at age 66, her husband petitioned Congress for pay as the spouse of a soldier. Although the couple was not married at the time of her service, in 1837 the committee concluded that the history of the Revolution “furnished no other similar example of female heroism, fidelity and courage.” He was awarded the money, though he died before receiving it.


Women participated actively in a variety of ways during the War for Independence some even traveled with the Patriot army. Sarah Osborn was a servant in a blacksmith’s household in Albany, New York, when she met and married Aaron Osborn, a blacksmith and Revolutionary war veteran, in 1780. When he re-enlisted as a commissary sergeant without informing her, Sarah agreed to accompany him. They went first to West Point, and Sarah later traveled with the Continental army for the campaign in the southern colonies, working as a washerwoman and cook. Her vivid description included a meeting with General Washington and memories of the surrender of British forces at Yorktown. This account comes from a deposition she filed in 1837, at the age of eighty-one, as part of a claim under the first pension act for Revolutionary war veterans and their widows.

. after deponent had married said [Aaron] Osborn, he informed her that he was returned during the war, and that he desired deponent to go with him. Deponent declined until she was informed by Captain Gregg that her husband should be put on the commissary guard, and that she should have the means of conveyance either in a wagon or on horseback. That deponent then in the same winter season in sleighs accompanied her husband and the forces under command of Captain Gregg on the east side of the Hudson river to Fishkill, then crossed the river and went down to West Point. There remained till the river opened in the spring, when they returned to Albany. Captain Gregg’s company was along, and she thinks Captain Parsons, Lieutenant Forman, and Colonel Van Schaick, but is not positive.

Deponent, accompanied by her said husband and the same forces, returned during the same season to West Point. Deponent recollects no other females in company but the wife of Lieutenant Forman and of Sergeant Lamberson.. . .

Deponent further says that she and her husband remained at West Point till the departure of the army for the South, a term of perhaps one year and a half, but she cannot be positive as to the length of time. While at West Point, deponent lived at Lieutenant Foot’s, who kept a boardinghouse. Deponent was employed in washing and sewing for the soldiers. Her said husband was employed about the camp. . . .

When the army were about to leave West Point and go south, they crossed over the river to Robinson’s Farms and remained there for a length of time to induce the belief, as deponent understood, that they were going to take up quarters there, whereas they recrossed the river in the nighttime into the Jerseys and traveled all night in a direct course for Philadelphia. Deponent was part of the time on horseback and part of the time in a wagon. Deponent’s said husband was still serving as one of the commissary’s guard.

. . . They continued their march to Philadelphia, deponent on horseback through the streets, and arrived at a place towards the Schuylkill where the British had burnt some houses, where they encamped for the afternoon and night. Being out of bread, deponent was employed in baking the afternoon and evening. Deponent recollects no females but Sergeant Lamberson’s and Lieutenant Forman’s wives and a colored woman by the name of Letta. The Quaker ladies who came round urged deponent to stay, but her said husband said, “No, he could not leave her behind.” Accordingly, next day they continued their march from day to day till they arrived at Baltimore, where deponent and her said husband and the forces under command of General Clinton, Captain Gregg, and several other officers, all of whom she does not recollect, embarked on board a vessel and sailed down the Chesapeake. . . .They continued sail until they had got up the St. James River as far as the tide would carry them, about twelve miles from the mouth, and then landed, and the tide being spent, they had a fine time catching sea lobsters, which they ate.

They, however, marched immediately for a place called Williamsburg, as she thinks, deponent alternately on horseback and on foot. There arrived, they remained two days till the army all came in by land and then marched for Yorktown, or Little York as it was then called. The York troops were posted at the right, the Connecticut troops next, and the French to the left. In about one day or less than a day, they reached the place of encampment about one mile from Yorktown. Deponent was on foot and the other females above named and her said husband still on the commissary’s guard. . . . Deponent took her stand just back of the American tents, say about a mile from the town, and busied herself washing, mending, and cooking for the soldiers, in which she was assisted by the other females some men washed their own clothing. She heard the roar of the artillery for a number of days, and the last night the Americans threw up entrenchments, it was a misty, foggy night, rather wet but not rainy. Every soldier threw up for himself, as she understood, and she afterwards saw and went into the entrenchments. Deponent’s said husband was there throwing up entrenchments, and deponent cooked and carried in beef, and bread, and coffee

On one occasion when deponent was thus employed carrying in provisions, she met General Washington, who asked her if she “was not afraid of the cannonballs?”

She replied, “No, the bullets would not cheat the gallows,” that “It would not do for the men to fight and starve too.”

They dug entrenchments nearer and nearer to Yorktown every night or two till the last. While digging that, the enemy fired very heavy till about nine o’clock next morning, then stopped, and the drums from the enemy beat excessively. Deponent was a little way off in Colonel Van Schaick’s or the officers' marquee and a number of officers were present, among whom was Captain Gregg, who, on account of infirmities, did not go out much to do duty.

The drums continued beating, and all at once the officers hurrahed and swung their hats, and deponent asked them, “What is the matter now?”

One of them replied, “Are not you soldier enough to know what it means?”

They then replied, “The British have surrendered.”

Deponent, having provisions ready, carried the same down to the entrenchments that morning, and four of the soldiers whom she was in the habit of cooking for ate their breakfasts.

Deponent stood on one side of the road and the American officers upon the other side when the British officers came out of the town and rode up to the American officers and delivered up [their swords, which the deponent] thinks were returned again, and the British officers rode right on before the army, who marched out beating and playing a melancholy tune, their drums covered with black handkerchiefs and their fifes with black ribbands tied around them, into an old field and there grounded their arms and then returned into town again to await their destiny. Deponent recollects seeing a great many American officers, some on horseback and some on foot, but cannot call them all by name. Washington, Lafayette, and Clinton were among the number. The British general at the head of the army was a large, portly man, full face, and the tears rolled down his cheeks as he passed along. She does not recollect his name, but it was not Cornwallis. She saw the latter afterwards and noticed his being a man of diminutive appearance and having cross eyes. . . .

After two or three days, deponent and her husband, Captain Gregg, and others who were sick or complaining embarked on board a vessel from Yorktown, not the same they came down in, and set sail up the Chesapeake Bay and continued to the Head of Elk, where they landed. The main body of the army remained behind but came on soon afterwards. Deponent and her husband proceeded with the commissary’s teams from the Head of Elk, leaving Philadelphia to the right, and continued day after day till they arrived at Pompton Plains in New Jersey. Deponent does not recollect the county. They were joined by the main body of the army under General Clinton’s command, and they set down for winter quarters. Deponent and her husband lived a part of the time in a tent made of logs but covered with cloth, and a part of the time at a Mr. Manuel’s near Pompton Meetinghouse. She busied herself during the winter in cooking and sewing as usual. Her said husband was on duty among the rest of the army and held the station of corporal from the time he left West Point.

In the opening of spring, they marched to West Point and remained there during the summer, her said husband still with her. In the fall they came up a little back of New-burgh to a place called New Windsor and put up huts on Ellis’s lands and again sat down for winter quarters, her said husband still along and on duty. The York troops and Connecticut troops were there. In the following spring or autumn they were all discharged. Deponent and her said husband remained in New Windsor in a log house built by the army until the spring following. Some of the soldiers boarded at their house and worked round among the farmers, as did her said husband also.

Deponent and her said husband spent certainly more than three years in the service, for she recollects a part of one winter at West Point and the whole of another winter there, another winter at Pompton Plains, and another at New Windsor. And her husband was the whole time under the command of Captain Gregg as an enlisted soldier holding the station of corporal to the best of her knowledge.

In the winter before the army were disbanded at New Windsor, on the twentieth of February, deponent had a child by the name of Phebe Osborn, of whom the said Aaron Osborn was the father. A year and five months afterwards, on the ninth day of August at the same place, she had another child by the name of Aaron Osborn, Jr., of whom the said husband was the father. . . .

About three months after the birth of her last child, Aaron Osborn, Jr., she last saw her said husband, who then left her at New Windsor and never returned. He had been absent at intervals before this from deponent, and at one time deponent understood he was married again to a girl by the name of Polly Sloat above Newburgh about fifteen or sixteen miles. Deponent got a horse and rode up to inquire into the truth of the story. She arrived at the girl’s father’s and there found her said husband, and Polly Sloat, and her parents. Deponent was kindly treated by the inmates of the house but ascertained for a truth that her husband was married to said girl. After remaining overnight, deponent determined to return home and abandon her said husband forever, as she found he had conducted in such a way as to leave no hope of reclaiming him. About two weeks afterwards, her said husband came to see deponent in New Windsor and offered to take deponent and her children to the northward, but deponent declined going, under a firm belief that he would conduct no better, and her said husband the same night absconded with two others, crossed the river at Newburgh, and she never saw him afterwards. This was about a year and a half after his discharge.

After deponent was thus left by Osborn, she removed from New Windsor to Blooming Grove, Orange County, New York, about fifty years ago, where she had been born and brought up, and, having married Mr. [John] Benjamin . . . she continued to reside there perhaps thirty-five years, when she and her husband Benjamin removed to Pleasant Mount, Wayne County, Pennsylvania, and there she has resided to this day. Her said husband, John Benjamin, died there ten years ago last April, from which time she has continued to be and is now a widow.


Kyk die video: Varsgedruk 66: Die oorlog kom huis toe: Vroue en gesinne in die Anglo-Boereoorlog (November 2021).