Pirates


Feite oor fiktiewe en regte seerowers

thewayofthepirates.com is 'n plek waar u alles kan vind wat u wil weet oor bekende seerowers en seerowery! Hierdie webwerf bied 'n basiese inleiding tot die wêreld van seerowers, en baie akkurate inligting oor seerower geskiedenis en legendes, sowel as resensies van seerowerboeke, films en ander fiksie.


Edward Teach: The Pirate Blackbeard

Edward Teach (ongeveer 1680–1718) het sy dik, swart baard lank gedra, versier met lintjies. Dit het hom sy bynaam gegee, en voor gevegte het hy smeulende lontjies uit sy baard gehang om sy vyande bang te maak.

In die vroeë 1700's het Blackbeard tientalle handelskepe in die Karibiese Eilande en langs die Atlantiese kus gevang. In 1718 het hy 'n klopjag op Charleston, Suid -Carolina, op baie skepe beslag gelê en 'n losprys geëis vir die beste inwoners van hierdie plek. & Later daardie jaar is hy dood in 'n geveg met die Britse vloot. Die Britse vlootbevelvoerder, Lt. Robert Maynard, het Blackbeard se kop terug land toe gebring om 'n beloning van £ 100 te eis.

Van kaptein Charles Johnson, 'N Algemene geskiedenis van die rooftogte en moorde op die berugste pirate. . . (Londen, 1724)

Met vergunning van die Afdeling Rare Books, The New York Public Library, Astor, Lenox en Tilden Foundations

Blackbeard’s Jolly Roger

Seerowers het die skedel-en-bene-vlag gehys om te wys wat hul prooi kan verwag as hulle weerstand bied teen vang. Die vlae kan ook swart of gewoon rooi wees sonder foto's en almal weet wat dit beteken.

Met vergunning van North Carolina Maritime Museum

Ontdek ander verhale oor Dangerous Waters:

Foto deur Julep Gillman-Bryan

Met vergunning van die Noord -Carolina Departement van Kulturele Hulpbronne

Blackbeard’s Flagship, die Queen Anne's Revenge

Blackbeard het 'n Franse slaaf met die naam gevang Concorde in die Karibiese Eilande in November 1717. Hy hernoem dit Queen Anne's Revenge en gebruik dit as sy vlagskip vir die volgende sewe maande. In Junie 1718 het Blackbeard doelbewus die skip aan die strand geloop in Beaufort Inlet, Noord -Carolina. Hy het 'n groot deel van sy bemanning laat vaar en met 'n kleiner groep gevlug, waarskynlik sodat hy meer van sy buit kon behou.

Duikers het die wrak in 1996 ontdek. Sedertdien is duisende artefakte uit die vroeë 1700's teruggevind, wat 'n merkwaardige venster bied op die lewe aan boord van 'n seerowerskip.

Van Jean Boudriot, Le Mercure, 1730 (Parys, J. Boudriot: 1991)

Met vergunning van Jean Boudriot

Franse handelskip, 1730

Daar is geen kontemporêre beelde van Queen Anne's Revenge, voorheen die Franse slaweskip Concorde. Argeoloë glo dat die 1730 Franse handelsskip Mercure, wat hier getoon word, was naby die grootte van die seerowerskip.

Met vergunning van Chris Southerly, Underwater Archaeology Branch, North Carolina Department of Cultural Resources

Terreinplantekening van die Wreck Site, 2008

Hierdie illustrasie beskryf alle bekende kenmerke van die wrak, aangesien die sand wat dit bedek geleidelik verwyder word. Terreinplanne ontwikkel voortdurend, aangesien nuwe voorwerpe tydens aanhoudende opgrawings onthul word. Dit is die akkuraatste en permanente weergawe van die webwerf self, aangesien dit noukeurig opgeneem, gefotografeer en afgebreek word.


Die geboorte van die gay buccaneers

Die meeste van ons moderne seerower -mites spruit uit die Goue Eeu van Piraterij, van die 1650's tot die 1730's. Hierdie tydperk was die inspirasie vir die Disney Pirates of the Caribbean filmfranchise.

Dit is gebore op die eiland Hispaniola (wat tans Haïti en die Dominikaanse Republiek is) in die Karibiese Eilande.

Teen 1605 het Spanje sy kolonies in die verarmde noorde van die eiland verlaat. So kon weghol slawe, muitende soldate en matrose, byna almal wat 'n rede het om weg te kruip, daar 'n veilige hawe vind.

Baie van hulle was protestante, óf Franse Hugenote óf Engelse, en was daarom sterk gekant teen die Katolieke Spanjaarde. Saam het hulle 'n samelewing gevorm wat hulle die Brethren of the Coast genoem het.

Aanvanklik het hulle op varke en beeste gejag wat hulle gerook het oor 'n houtbraai wat 'boucan' genoem word. Dit het hulle die naam 'buccaneers' gegee.

Dit was 'n byna heeltemal manlike samelewing, en daarom het hulle in paartjies van dieselfde geslag gewoon. Twee mans sou tussen ses maande en twee jaar in die tropiese woude verdwyn. As hulle na vore kom, sou hulle in dierevelle geklee wees en met bloed bedek wees. Dan verkoop hulle gerookte vleis en huide aan verbygaande skepe.

Hulle het moontlik tot piraterij gewend om hierdie karige inkomste te subsidieer. Maar die Spanjaarde het probeer om nie net die buccaneers uit te wis nie, maar ook die diere wat hulle gejag het. En dit het hulle net meer afhanklik gemaak van seerowery.

Uiteindelik het die Spaanse vervolging die bouers gedwing om na die kleiner eiland Tortuga, aan die noordkus van Hispaniola, te trek. Dit was meer verdedigbaar, maar het nog minder natuurlike hulpbronne gehad. So het seerowery hul belangrikste bron van inkomste geword.


Pirate History, Pirate Biography, History of Piracy, History of Pirates, Pirates History, Famous Pirates

Welkom by Pirates! Feit en legende 'n webwerf wat toegewy is aan seerowergeskiedenis en alle onderwerpe wat verband hou met seerowery. Ons webwerf is verdeel in verskillende afdelings: Famous Pirates, History of Pirates, Pirate Facts en Pirate Legends. Kyk ook na ons Pirates Message Boards en Pirate Books. Gebruik die skakels bo -aan hierdie bladsy om te navigeer of af te blaai vir 'n beskrywing hieronder.

Besoek ons ​​afdeling Geskiedenis van seerowery vir skakels na artikels oor seerowers gedurende belangrike tydperke. Lees meer oor gewilde onderwerpe soos Pirates of the Caribbean en hoe seerowergeskiedenis die regering, lewe, handel en meer beïnvloed het. Lees meer oor Ancient Pirates en leer meer oor die eerste vermelding van seerowery in 1350 vC. Byna almal ken 'n tydperk wat deur boeke en media gewild is, die Goue Eeu van Piraterij. Baie mense is verbaas om te weet dat Middeleeue seerowery hoogty vier en 'n ernstige handelsprobleem is. Julius Caesar het gesukkel met die Romeinse era seerowers en vandag word baie seë steeds geteister, aangesien moderne seerowery algemeen aan die kus van Somalië voorkom. Daar bestaan ​​geen twyfel dat seerowers 'n geweldige impak op die geskiedenis van die beskawing gehad het nie! Bekyk al ons inhoud van Pirates History.

Vir elke seerowerfeit is daar talle seerowerlegendes. Met talle fiktiewe seerowerverhale het ook romantiese geïdealiseerde interpretasies van seerowerlewe gekom. Treasure Island, een van die bekendste fiktiewe verhale oor seerowery, wek steeds idees oor seerowerpapegaaie, oogkolle en penbene in die verbeelding van nuwe generasies lesers. Leer die waarheid en die oorsprong van hierdie wanopvattings oor seerowers. Was dit 'n algemene gebruik om seerowervlae, soos die Jolly Roger, op seerowerskepe te wapper? Het Johnny Depp dit reggekry met sy uitbeelding van seerowerlewe en seerowerklere? Vind die antwoord op hierdie vrae en meer oor ons Pirate Feite en Pirate Legends -afdeling.

Lees oor beroemde seerowers wat hul stempel op die geskiedenis getrap het. Lees meer oor die vroulike seerowers, Mary Read en Anne Bonny, en 'n paar ander seerowers! Maak kennis met opwindende verhale oor Edward Teach, ook bekend as Blackbeard the pirate! Lees meer as 20 verskillende seerowerbiografieë op ons Famous Pirates -bladsy.

Pirate-boeke vir kinders en volwassenes is te koop en ook aanlyn leesbaar. Kry aanbevelings vir seerowerboeke vir volwassenes en kinders wat deur bekende skrywers geskryf is. Ons voorstelle word nie net gemaak op grond van opvoedkundige verdienste nie, maar ook oor die vraag of die boeke aangenaam en lekker is om te lees. Bespaar tyd deur na ons keuse te blaai. Kyk na al ons aanbevelings vir seerowerboeke vir volwassenes en kinders.

Pirates -boodskapborde met 'n massiewe argief van boodskappe oor wetenskaplike en ander seerowerverwante onderwerpe. 'N Fantastiese plek om ander seerower -entoesiaste te vra oor navorsingskwessies rakende seerowery. Ons bied ook 'n afdeling vir kinders oor huiswerk, 'n gedeelte oor seerowerfilms en nog vele meer. Kyk na ons funksie ryk seerower bespreking met meer as 40,000 boodskappe. 'N Lewendige seerowersgemeenskap! Kyk na Pirates se boodskapborde.

U sal moontlik belangstel om 'n seerowerkostuum vir u Halloween -partytjie te koop. U kan ook na 'n verskeidenheid Jolly Roger -seerowervlae en ander seerowerverwante produkte blaai.


Feite oor seerower geskiedenis

Pirates het geglo dat hulle deur hul ore deurboor, die sig verbeter.

As 'n seerower -kaptein dink dat daar 'n kans was dat hy gevange geneem sou word, sou hy sy duur, aantreklike klere uitruil. Op hierdie manier kon hy maak asof hulle net 'n deel van die bemanning was, en nie die leier van die Piracy -operasie nie.

Die meeste seerowerings het tussen 1690 en 1720 plaasgevind.

Die swart "Jolly Roger" -vlag met 'n wit skedel en gekruisde bene was ontwerp om skrikwekkend te wees, maar 'n weergawe met 'n rooi agtergrond in plaas van swart, wat nog meer skrikwekkend was. Rooi het beteken dat daar geen genade geneem sou word nie!

Elke seerowerkaptein het sy eie gedragskode gehad. Alhoewel Pirates gesteel het om hul skat te kry, was dit op die meeste skepe streng verbied om te steel tussen skipmaats en het hulle strawwe strawwe opgelê.

Niemand het ooit 'n verborge Pirate -skatkaart gevind nie. Seerowers het gewoonlik nie 'n lang lewe gelei nie, en was geneig om al hul rykdom vinnig deur te bring. As daar nog Pirate -skatkaarte is, is dit baie goed weggesteek!

Daar is geen historiese bewys dat Pirates ooit gemaak is om op die plank te loop nie. Daar word vermoed dat dit heeltemal 'n Hollywood -mite is.

Soveel Pirates het oogkolle en houtpote gehad, want skepe was uiters gevaarlike werksplekke en Pirates het dikwels ledemate en oë verloor.

'N Bende Pirates uit 1714 genaamd die "Flying Gang" was die inspirasie agter Jack Sparrow en Disney's Pirates of the Caribbean -films.

Piraterij dateer uit die antieke Griekeland, en bestaan ​​vandag nog. Moderne seerowers val houerskepe, tenkskipskepe en soms selfs vaartuie in die see buite gebiede soos Somalië en die Straat van Malakka aan.

Regte historiese seerowers het nie soveel as "Arrr" en "Matey" gesê as wat u dink nie! Vroeë Hollywood -rolprente oor Pirates het 'n akteur met 'n dik aksent vertoon, wat die 'R' laat rol het. Dit het 'n styl vir Pirate -toespraak geskep, maar dit is nie histories akkuraat nie.


Blackbeard ’s Crew en Williamsburg, Virginia

Vroeg in die 1700's het meedoënlose skelms, bekend as seerowers, die oseaan beheer in 'n era wat bekend staan ​​as 'The Golden Age of Piracy'. Pirates het vrees in die harte van hul vyande geslaan en baie handelaars was bang om op die see te vaar. Gedurende hierdie tyd was Virginia die tweede belangrikste Britse kolonie op die Amerikaanse vasteland, en seerowers was geen vreemdelinge vir hierdie gebied nie.

Seerowerverbindings in Williamsburg, Virginia, dateer uit 1693, toe seerowers sou wag totdat handelsskepe sou deurgaan om hulle te beroof van alles wat hulle vervoer het. Die mees gevreesde en gerespekteerde seerower van hierdie tyd was Blackbeard.

Blackbeard het nie net van Virginia 'n gereelde stampveld gemaak nie, maar die laaste van sy bemanning is verhoor, skuldig bevind en in Williamsburg, Virginia, gehang. Mense het deur die eeue heen gesê dat hierdie seerowers nog steeds die plek van hul dood agtervolg. Spoke is eng genoeg, maar kan jy jou voorstel dat jy geeste ontmoet wat eens genadelose seerowers was?

Blackbeard: The Legend

“…Swartbaard in 'n gevegskikking was 'n wonderlike gesig en vir matrose van die dag, so gevrees as die duiwel self ... "

Blackbeard het tydens die hoogtepunt van seerowery kaptein geword van 'n groot vloot, en toe hy sterf, sterf seerowery saam met hom. Omskryf as die verpersoonliking van suiwer boosheid, het hy vrees in die hart van baie getref.

Blackbeard se regte naam was Edward Teach, en daar is nie veel bekend oor sy vroeë lewe nie. Die meeste historici is dit egter eens dat hy omstreeks 1680 in Bristol, Engeland, gebore is. Hy het op 'n jong ouderdom sy loopbaan op see begin toe hy in die vroeë agtiende eeu as 'n seeman na Jamaika vertrek het. Sy smaak vir misdaad kom tydens Queen Anne's War toe hy as privaat in Kingston, Jamaika, dien en op Franse skepe prooi.

Uiteindelik vestig hy hom in die Bahamas, waar die berugte seerower kaptein Benjamin Hornigold gewoon het. Kort nadat die regering omstreeks 1716 die lisensie van die privaat persoon ingetrek het, het Teach kragte saamgesnoer met Hornigold. Teach was sterk, moedig en het 'n duiwel-mag-sorg-houding wat Hornigold gegroei het om te respekteer en te bewonder. Hornigold neem hom onder sy vlerk en leer hom alles wat hy weet oor die neem van skepe. Teach is uiteindelik geplaas as bevelvoerder van 'n sloep (seilboot) wat hy en Hornigold gevang het, bekend as die Ranger.

Hornigold is deur sy bemanning omvergewerp in November 1717. Hulle het Teach toe as hul nuwe kaptein verkies, en Blackbeard, die berugste seerower in die geskiedenis, is gebore.

Nadat hulle hierdie skepe gekry het, het Blackbeard se reputasie begin ontwikkel. Dit geld veral in gebiede langs die kus van Noord -Carolina en Virginia. Blackbeard het 'n groot deel van sy tyd in hierdie gebiede deurgebring, begin in Maart 1718 toe hy moeg geword het vir die Karibiese Eilande en na Noord -Amerika vertrek het. Toe Blackbeard in Mei dieselfde jaar in Charleston aankom, het hy byna sewehonderd man onder sy bevel gehad. Dit is omdat hy byna elke skip op pad na Charleston gestop en almal geplunder het.

Teach se voorkoms het hom sy bynaam gegee. Hy het 'n baie lang, koolswart baard wat hy tydens die geveg in klein varkstertjies vasgemaak het. Die varkstertjies is bymekaar gehou met gekleurde linte waarmee hy die vuurhoutjies wat onder sy hoed gebêre was, aansteek. Hy was 'n lang, gespierde en baie groot man, wat toegeskryf word aan sy vreeslike voorkoms en sy vyande geïntimideer het. Hy was altyd swart geklee, met pistole, dolke en 'n snyglas aan sy gordel. Oor sy bors was 'n bandolier waarmee hy ses gereed-vir-vuur-pistole gedra het. Hy was 'die verpersoonliking van onneembare goddeloosheid, van roekelose waagmoed, 'n nagmerrie -skurk wat so min aan menslike goedheid was dat daar geen misdaad bo hom was nie ... 'n lewendige prentjie van 'n ogre wat in die see ronddwaal en met sy hele teenwoordigheid verdor het. ” Hy het 'n reputasie opgebou as die wreedste seerower op die sewe seë en was nie net bang vir sy vyande nie, maar ook vir sy eie bemanning en offisiere.

Hierdie reputasie is verder ontwikkel deur Blackbeard se passie om te veg. Sy ongeëwenaarde swaardvaardighede het mense aangespoor om te sê dat hy 'n man met 'n enkele slag in die helfte kan sny. Die bose roem wat hy verwerf het, het gelei tot vinnige oorgawe met minimale weerstand.

In Junie het Engeland seerowers 'n kwytskelding gebied, wat Blackbeard en sy bemanning genoop het om af te tree. Blackbeard het 'n huis in Bath, Noord -Carolina, gekoop en getroud met 'n vrou met die naam Mary Ormond (sy was nie daarvan bewus dat sy een van sy tien lewende vroue was nie, maar altesaam veertien). Hy het baie naby geword aan die goewerneur, John Holloway, en sy huis het 'n gewilde plek geword vir lede van die hoë samelewing. Hy het hulle gewen met baie geskenke rum en suiker.

Kort nadat hy hom in Bath, Blackbeard, gevestig het, het sy bemanning egter onrustig geraak en teruggekeer na die seerowery. Baie mense het geglo dat die goewerneur Blackbeard met hierdie poging bygestaan ​​het. Dit lyk asof die twee 'n vriendskap gevorm het en die mense van Noord -Carolina was bang dat hul goewerneur diep korrup was. In 'n daad van wanhoop het hulle hulle tot die goewerneur van Virginia, Alexander Spotswood, gewend vir hulp met hul probleem. Die ondergang van Blackbeard en sy bemanning was naby.

Die stryd om alles te beëindig

Goewerneur Spotswood het troepe per see gestuur, onder leiding van luitenant Robert Maynard, om Blackbeard te vang. Op 21 November 1718 het Maynard die gestremde skip in die oop water opgemerk en die bevel gegee vir 'n aanval. Hulle het onder die dek weggekruip om die seerowers na hul skip te lok en hulle die oorhand te gee. Toe Blackbeard en sy bemanning klim, is hulle onmiddellik omring. Die geveg het begin.

Uiteindelik wen Maynard en sy manne, en die legendariese Blackbeard bereik sy einde. Hy het swaai, maar hy is 20 keer gesteek en 5 keer geskiet tydens die geveg (25 treffers) voor sy uiteindelike dood. 'N Uittreksel uit Pirates on the Chesapeake deur Donald Shomette beskryf Blackbeard as synde,

'... ... slaan keer op keer bloed en brullende gebrek terwyl hy staande bly en met groot woede veg. Die een magtige arm swaai soos 'n dodelike windpomp oor sy kap, terwyl die ander een skoot na skoot uit die stut suiers in sy bandolier skiet. ”

Maynard en sy bemanning het Blackbeard die oggend van 22 November 1718 verslaan. Hulle het sy kop afgesny en sy liggaam in die see gegooi. Hulle het sy kop op 'n hoë paal by die monding van Hampton River (vandag bekend as Blackbeard's Point) geplaas as 'n manier om iemand wat piraterij oorweeg, te weerhou. Na 'n rukkie het die inwoners Blackbeard se skedel afgehaal en gevorm in 'n drinkbeker wat in die Raleigh Tavern in Williamsburg, Virginia, gebêre word.

Blackbeard is dood in Noord -Carolina, maar sy bemanning, wat baie kort na sy dood oorgegee het, het verhoor in Virginia ingewag en "The Golden Age of Piracy" was verby.

The Public Gaol (uitgespreek tronkstraf)

Na die geveg in Noord -Carolina het 15 of 16 van Blackbeard se bemanningslede oorleef en na Virginia gebring om verhoor af te wag. Hulle is in die beroemde en primêre gevangenis in Williamsburg gehou, bloot The Public Gaol (uitgesproke tronk).

Die gevangenis is in 1704 gebou en was baie klein omdat dit slegs tydelik gevangenes moes huisves, maar dit was nie die geval nie. Vanweë die klein grootte van die gevangenis het dit tot haglike lewensomstandighede gelei (veral in die rewolusionêre oorlog). Die gevangenes, insluitend weggeloopte slawe, moordenaars, afsnyers, seerowers, oproerige Indiërs, politieke en skuldige gevangenes, en selfs kriminele kranksinniges, het net hope strooi gehad om op te slaap. Die tronk ruik en is besmet met knaagdiere, kakkerlakke en luise. Die kos was afskuwelik en 'n siekte bekend as Galliekoors (tifus) was nie ongewoon nie. Daar was geen glas op die vensters nie, dus is gevangenes, vasgeketting in ysterige boeie en boeie, nie beskerm teen die elemente nie. Die swak lewensomstandighede en oorbevolking het veroorsaak dat meer gevangenes weens hongersnood en siektes gesterf het as by die galg.

Die verhoor vir Blackbeard se bemanning het op 19 Maart 1719 in die Capitol -gebou begin. Virginians het almal behalwe twee tot die dood veroordeel Samuel Odell is vrygespreek omdat hy net een dag op Blackbeard se skip was en Israel Hands (Blackbeard se hoofhulp) begenadig is. Hy sterf jare later as 'n hawelose man in die strate van Londen.

Einde Maart 1719 verlaat die oorblywende seerowers die Public Gaol en stap in die strate van Williamsburg. Hulle het bo -op hul eie kiste (destyds gebruik) uit die tronk gery. Hulle het vandag in Nicholsonstraat, waarna Gallowsweg verwys is, afgetrek en langs Capitol Hillweg gehang wat vandag Capital Landing Road genoem word. Hulle liggame is in hokke langs die ingang van die stad gehang om seerowers af te skrik en vertroue in die regering se vermoë om geregtigheid en orde te bewerkstellig. Die dood van Blackbeard en sy bemanning was die einde van "The Golden Age of Piracy".

Dit is nie ongewoon om vreemde geluide te hoor kom van waar Blackbeard se bemanning en baie ander mense gehang is nie. Die hang was destyds skrikwekkend vir die skuldige partye. 'N Kar ry hulle na die galg en hulle moet op hul eie kiste sit.

Hangings was openbare geleenthede, en toe hulle hul bestemming bereik, was daar 'n skare wat op hulle gewag het wat op hulle sou skreeu. Die kar stop net onder die galg, die man/vrou sê hul laaste woorde, en dan beweeg die kar onmiddellik daarna. Om sake te vererger, het mense nie altyd dadelik gesterf nie. Soms het dit 'n rukkie geneem.

Klanke wat gehoor word deur wat die inwoners die Wagon of Death noem, is gehoor in Nicholsonstraat, Hangman's Road, ook bekend as Gallows Road, wat vandag Capital Landing Road is. Mense het 'n perd en wa gehoor, asook 'n gejuig uit 'n skare. Niemand het die wa fisies gesien nie, maar mense sweer dat hulle dit gehoor het en dat dit bestaan.

Daar is ook geluide van die ou Openbare Gaol gehoor (die gebruik van hierdie gebou is in 1910 gestaak en die herstel is in 1936 begin). Die geluide van stemme en stampende swaar skoene kom uit 'n verlate kamer op die tweede verdieping, asook kreun en fluister laatnag. Daar moet ook genoem word dat die tronk langs Nicholsonstraat geleë is, een van die plekke waar die Wagon of Death gehoor is.

Swartbaard was 'n genadelose, wrede, maar ook briljante en vreeslose man. Sy bemanning en sy vyande respekteer en vrees hom. Trouens, die bemanning respekteer hom so baie dat hulle hul lewens vir hom verloor het, daarom is Blackbeard se bemanning en Williamsburg, Virginia, tot aan die einde van die tyd verbind.

Daar is geluide gehoor uit die tronk en waar die bemanning langs Capital Landing Road in Williamsburg gehang is. Wat Blackbeard betref, was daar geen berigte dat hy sy spook in Noord -Carolina gesien of gehoor het nie. Dit is egter waarskynlik 'n goeie ding. Daar word gesê dat hy die verpersoonliking van die bose was toe hy geleef het, en 'n mens wonder hoe dit sou wees om sy spook te ontmoet.


Pirates of the Caribbean

Die ontdekkingsreisiger Christopher Columbus het kontak gemaak tussen Europa en die lande wat later aan die einde van die 15de eeu Amerika genoem is. Terwyl hy vir die Spaanse monargie gewerk het, word die 'nuwe lande' beweer deur die Spanjaarde, wat hulle gou ontdek het dat dit 'n ryk bron van silwer, goud en edelstene is.

Vanaf die 16de eeu het groot Spaanse skepe, galjoene, na Europa begin vaar, gelaai met kosbare vragte wat seerowers onmoontlik kon weerstaan. Soveel seeroweraanvalle is uitgevoer dat galjoene gedwing is om saam in gewapende vaartuie saam te vaar ter beskerming. Aangesien Spaanse koloniste nuwe dorpe op die Karibiese eilande en die Amerikaanse vasteland opgerig het, het ook hulle onder seeroweraanval gekom.


Somaliese seerowers

Alhoewel die verhale van die Goue Eeu van Piraterij nog vars in ons gedagtes is, vol kapteinskapers, skatskepe en hewige vlootgevegte, het die moderne tyd nog steeds 'n gebied in die wêreld waar seerowers die see regeer - Somalië. Na die ineenstorting van hul regering in 1991, hewige burgeroorlog en die geboorte van die ondoeltreffende nuwe regering, het die land Somalië die geboorteplek geword van die nuwe era van seerowery. Somalies-vissermanne en voormalige militia het 'n strategiese punt op die Horing van Afrika begin maak en die seevaarte in die smal seekanaal, The Gulf of Aden, begin aanval. Hierdie aanvalle het 'n groot ekonomiese impak gehad, en internasionale militêre vloote patrolleer daagliks in hierdie waters.

Die eerste georganiseerde seeroweraanval wat deur Somaliese seerowers uitgevoer is, het begin kort na die aanvang van die tweede fase van die Somaliese burgeroorlog in 2005. Hoewel die presiese oorsaak van die aanval nie bekend is nie (sommige beweer dat vissers hul waters teen buitelandse skepe wou beskerm, of dat buitelandse giftige stortingsterreine 'n groot verlies aan seelewe veroorsaak het wat vissers tot geweld gedwing het), namate die tyd aanstap, begin al hoe meer seerowers vaartuie van Suez na Indië aanval, en omgekeerd. Namate die internasionale oorlogskepe meer en meer teenwoordig geword het, het die Somaliese seerowers al hoe meer gevorderde tegnieke begin gebruik (van nou af gebruik hulle vlootmoederskepe waarmee hulle grootskaalse aanvalle op 'n verre teiken op die oop see kan organiseer). Die gebrek aan sterk regering, armoede en misdaad wat altyd bestaan, het 'n situasie veroorsaak waar seerowers by die plaaslike misdaadbase begin werk het, onder die dekmantel om as kuswagte te dien. Suksesvolle seerowers leef baie beter as die res van die land, wat die voortdurende aankoms van nuwe seerowers wat honger is na glorie en rykdom, aanhits. Volgens sommige poele ondersteun meer as 70 persent van die plaaslike Somaliese bevolking hul seerower -vloot as een van die belangrikste beskermers van die land se visgronde.

In 2008 het druk van internasionale handel geboorte gegee aan die georganiseerde militêre verdediging van handelsroetes. Die eerste oorlogskip wat die waters van die Golf van Aden binnegekom het, kom uit Indië, wat binnekort by Russiese magte aangesluit het. Die huidige militêre poging is georganiseer in 'Combined Task Force 150' wat waters rondom Somalië bewaak en nuwe meerjarige verdedigingsplan toepas wat beter beskerming van handelsskepe en voorkomende aanvalle op die pirate -kusvestings insluit. Die onmiddellike effek van die internasionale oorlogskip was duidelik sigbaar - seerowers het gou opgegee op die plaaslike aanvalle naby die Somaliese kus en hulle pogings toegespits op die wyer Indiese Oseaan en die gruwelike ontvoering van die toeris van Kenia vanaf hul strande.

Die hoofdoel van seerowers het gedurende al die jare dieselfde gebly - losprys. Net in 2010 is meer as 1100 gyselaars deur Somaliese seerowers gevange geneem, en teen die herfs van 2011 het hulle nog 300 gevange geneem. Hulle het ook verskillende hoeveelhede losprys ingesamel vir gevange skepe - wat wissel van 500.000 tot 2 miljoen dollar. Al probeer seerowers hul gevangenes lewendig hou in die hoop om losprys te ontvang, is meer as 60 seevaarders in hul tronke dood.

Internasionale regerings probeer nog steeds tot die oplossing van hierdie ernstige probleem kom, en die eerste stap moet wees om 'n stabiele Somaliese regering te skep.


Pirates - GESKIEDENIS


Alhoewel seerowers vandag as swendelaars geromantiseer word, was dit hoofsaaklik diewe en moordenaars
Bron: Pixabay

Pirate word dikwels geromantiseer as vindingryke ondernemers aan die rand van die wildernis en waag waagmoedige risiko's terwyl hulle egalitêre gemeenskappe skep op skepe wat 'n gedragskode vereer. Meer akkuraat was seerowers diewe wat van skepe gesteel het, op hele skepe beslag gelê en op plantasies toegeslaan het. Pirates was (en is) snelwegrowers wat op water werk.

In die 1500's was Spanje 'n dominante militêre mag met volle beheer oor alle kolonies in die Westelike Halfrond behalwe Brasilië. Daardie kolonies, en die skepe wat van en na hulle gaan, was die primêre teikens vir seerowers.

Francis Drake het in 1586 beslag gelê op Cartegena en dit geplunder. Sy skepe was moontlik gelaai met 200 slawe toe Drake in 1586 op Roanoke -eiland stop. Byna al die koloniste aanvaar sy aanbod om terug te keer van Roanoke -eiland na Engeland, en Drake het moontlik daardie slawe daar of op 'n nabygeleë plek gelos eiland.

Die vang van 'n skip in die Skatvloot wat silwer en goud na Spanje bring, was 'n seerower se droom, maar skepe wat weswaarts na die kolonies was, was ook 'n aantreklike teiken. Engelse seerowers het die eerste verslaafde Afrikaners in 1619 na Virginia gebring nadat hulle hulle as mensevrag van 'n Portugese skip na Mexiko aangegryp het.

Franse, Nederlandse en Engelse seerowers het op Portugese en Spaanse skepe gevang - en op skepe van enige land wanneer dit gemaklik was. Daarbenewens het seerowers op dorpe en plantasies wat aan die wal verdedig is, toegeslaan.

Ver in die binneland in die Caroline County is Peumansend Creek na wat vernoem is na 'n Franse privaat of seerower. Iets voor 1670 het kaptein Peuman volgens die plaaslike kennis een te veel keer op die Rappahannockrivier toegeslaan. Plaaslike koloniste het sy ontsnapping na die Chesapeakebaai geblokkeer, en hy beland in 'n spruit naby die stad Port Royal. Peuman is daar vermoor, en vandag word die plek waar hy "aan sy einde gekom het" Peumansend Creek genoem. 1


Peumansend Creek herdenk vermoedelik waar 'n privaat/seerower met die naam Peuman vermoor is
Bron: ESRI, ArcGIS Online

Seerskepe was die ekwivalent van moderne wegkommotors van bankrowers. Tog het die Engelse regering soms toestemming gegee dat skepe 'amptelike' seerowers was privaat persone, om Spaanse, Franse en Nederlandse skepe en kolonies aan te val. Die onderbreking van die handel in 'n mededinger verswak sy vermoë om inkomste te genereer en vir troepe en voorrade te betaal, en veroorsaak interne druk van 'n land se sakelites om 'n oorlog te sluit.

Ander nasies het hul eie privaat persone gemagtig om die Engelse aan te val in 'n vorm van swart-maar-amptelike ekonomiese oorlogvoering. In die 1600's en 1700's is sekere skeepskapteins deur verskillende Europese monarge gemagtig deur 'n dokument genaamd a brief van merk om private skepe te gebruik om handelskepe van vyandelike nasies in beslag te neem. Aangesien Spaanse kolonies in Sentraal- en Suid -Amerika in die 1800's onafhanklikheid gesoek het, het groepe wat beweer dat hulle regerings is, markebriewe uitgereik wat dit regverdig om Spaanse handelsvaartuie in die Golf van Mexiko te vang. Die dokumente bied 'n dun fineer van legitimiteit aan seerowers in Louisiana, waaronder Jean en Pierre Lafitte.

Vaartuie wat gevange geneem is, staan ​​bekend as "pryse". Privaat persone kan hulle terugvaart na 'n Amerikaanse hawe, waar 'n regter toesig hou oor 'n veiling van die skip en sy vrag en die inkomste aan kapteins en bemanning sal uitdeel.

Matrose kan deelneem aan 'n veranderende siklus van onwettige seerowery, vermeng met wettige privaatheid (wettige piraterij) en private bedrywighede: 2

In die agtiende en negentiende eeu. die nasionale vloot van selfs die sterkste maritieme state was klein. In plaas daarvan het kusstate - sterk en swak - op private vaartuie staatgemaak vir maritieme ondersteuning. Daardie private vaartuie, bekend as privateers, is belê met die mag om namens 'n staat op te tree deur middel van briewe van merk en vergelding.

In plaas van oseane wat deur die nasionale vloot gepolisieer is, het private vaartuie en hul kapteins hul vaartuie namens state geseil. 'N Vaartuig wat die een dag privaat was, kan die volgende dag 'n handelsmerkbrief dra. Sodra die termyn van die brief verstryk het, kan die vaartuig na sy vorige privaat aktiwiteite terugkeer of die brief hernu.

. Die bestaan ​​van veranderende, grootliks private vlootmagte het op sigself chaos geskep. Boonop het die krag van private vaartuie die deur oopgemaak vir seerowers - wat onder die gesag van geen staat optree nie.

Konings en koninginne het 'uitgekontrakteer' om hul vloot uit te brei deur privaatmagte te magtig, die politieke hoofpyn van die verhoging van belasting te vermy om meer oorlogskepe te bou en spanne te kry om die vaartuie te beman. Tydens die Amerikaanse Revolusie het die Kontinentale Kongres dieselfde gedoen. Die amptelike brief van goedkeuring het beteken dat private persone vyandelike vegters was en beskerm moet word as krygsgevangenes as hulle gevang word eerder as summier tereggestel word as seerowers.

Skeepkapteins en bemanningslede met handelsmerke kan in die koloniale tyd sonder enige amptelike seën op handelskepe beslag lê, skepe wat na en van Virginia vaar, ly aan ongemagtigde seerowery en privaat toestemming deur vyandige nasies. Toe die nasies in vrede was en die handelsmerke skaars was, kon kapteins en bemannings na die nie -amptelike geleenthede oorgaan.


in 1780 het die Kontinentale Kongres handelsmerkbriewe uitgereik waarin privaat persone gemagtig is om Engelse skeepvaart aan te val
Bron: Library of Congress, instruksies aan die kapteins en bevelvoerders van privaat gewapende vaartuie met kommissies of briewe van merk en vergelding

Die "spelreëls" was buigsaam. Die bepaling van wat wettig was, wissel, afhangende van wie die besluite neem. Ervare kapteins en bemannings het heen en weer tussen privaat en seerower oorgeskakel, of eenvoudig ingeskryf vir gewone kommersiële reise, afhangende van die vraag na hul dienste. Voordat John Smith in 1607 na Virginia gekom het, het selfs John Smith op 'n seerowerskip in die Middellandse See gedien. 3

For example, the transition of the colony of Virginia from royal to Parliamentary control between 1651-1652 created confusion regarding which laws applied in the colony. After Parliament passed the first Navigation Act of 1651, Dutch ships were banned from trading with the colony of Virginia. Virginia trips were banned from sailing to destinations other than England and its various possessions.

One Jamestown merchant was caught up in the change in policy, sailing The Fame of Virginia to the Netherlands when Virginia was loyal to the king but returning in 1752 after Parliament had seized control of the Virginia colony.

Upon the ship's return to Virginia, another sea captain seized The Fame of Virginia and claimed it as a prize, based upon the ship's violation of Parliamentary law. The Northampton County Court rejected that claim. When the captain who seized the ship left the court after losing his case, he promptly sailed away with his "prize."

County taxpayers feared they would be required to provide compensation, since county officials had made the mistake of releasing the captain who sailed away, but then a Dutch ship was captured. Colonial officials conspired together to claim that ship as property of the colony, then sell it at a great discount to the owner of The Fame of Virginia (with the arbiters making the decision getting compensated by that owner, as part of the deal). Clearly, the boundary between illegal piracy and legalized privateering depended upon the circumstances, and who got rewarded by different interpretations of the law. 4

Dutch privateers, not pirates, caused the greatest damage to Virginia shipping in the Chesapeake Bay area. In 1667, during one of the Anglo-Dutch wars, Dutch privateers disguised themselves as English ships. They sailed into the Chesapeake Bay, crippled the one English warship stationed there, and captured the fleet of merchant ships preparing to sail to England with full loads of tobacco.

The privateers had time to send landing parties to loot plantation houses along the James River. Before the militia under Gov. William Berkeley could organize a response, the Dutch sailed away with all the tobacco ships they could handle and burned the rest of the fleet.

In 1673, another set of Dutch raiders repeated their success. They spent days collecting tobacco from Virginia and Maryland merchant vessels, overcoming efforts of ship captains to flee up the Nansemond and James rivers. 5

Thanks to intimidation, robbery at sea was often a pretty easy way to make a living. Pirates consciously spread fear regarding their behavior, and announcing their presence by hoisting a blood-red flag. Blackbeard hoisted a black flag with a death's head, while variants used by other pirates are replicated today as the "Jolly Roger" flag with a skull and crossbones. 6

Captains and crews who quickly surrendered hoped to be treated better than those who fought back or tried to escape. Crew members from captured vessels ("prizes") would be invited to join the pirates, who at times created a fleet with multiple ships that required additional crew.

Those who refused were imprisoned with passengers in dark and smelly holds below decks or marooned on a plundered hulk from which sails and ropes had been removed. A quick surrender might result in gentle treatment, but pirates were mercurial and often undisciplined. Captains, crews, and passengers could be tortured or killed for information/entertainment, and the fate of captured ships varied


some pirates flew red flags to signal no quarter, while others flew black flags that intimidated captains/crew of merchant ships
Source: Library of Congress, Major Stede Bonnet.

Sometimes pirates simply stole valuables, and then released the crew and ship. At other times, pirates would trade their worn-out vessels for a captured merchant ship in better condition, in the maritime equivalent of stealing a faster car.

Ships not suitable for use by the pirates were often burned, or ship carpenters were forced to drill holes below the waterline so the wooden vessels would quickly sink. Putting captives on board, and sinking unneeded ships, enabled pirates to keep their location secret from any English warships patrolling the American coastline and from private vessels chartered by colonial governors to hunt down pirates.

Some pirate crews made decisions by democratic vote. Strong-willed captains made decisions for other crews, and mutinies were not uncommon when the decision process broke down. William Dampier, a pirate who lived for a part of his life in Virginia, captained one of several pirate ships sailing in the Pacific Ocean near Chile in 1704 when another pirate captain marooned a troublesome sailor on an isolated island there.

Four years later, Dampier was navigator on the ship that rescued the castaway, Alexander Selkirk. Dampier's descriptions of his experiences helped stimulate Jonathan Swift to write Gulliver's Travels and Daniel Defoe to write Robinson Crusoe. 7

Like modern burglars, pirates sought cash and goods easy to sell. They stole the personal possessions of captured crew and passengers, and resupplied their ships with rigging, food, and whatever wine, beer, and rum they captured.

Pirates might sail a captured ship to a port where officials winked at their presence, and sell the cargo to the equivalent of modern "fences" trafficking in stolen goods. Hogsheads of tobacco or other bulk cargo on captured ships would be thrown overboard if the ship itself was desired. Other ships with hard-to-sell cargoes were simply sunk or burned, after the easy-to-sell items were transferred to the pirate's ship.


the life of pirates and privateers has been romanticized and converted into tourist events and "Talk Like a Pirate Day" - aaargh!
Source: Library of Congress, A Pirate's Life For Me

Ten years after the successful 1673 Dutch raid in the Chesapeake Bay, the English began to station a Royal Navy guardship at the Virginia colony to protect the commercial shipping from privateers with letters of marque and from pirates. In 1688, the HMS Dumbarton seized four men who were suspected of being pirates. They were in a small boat on the Chesapeake Bay, and were thought to be pirates because the boat carried three chests loaded with gold coins and items of silver.

It turned out one of the four was Edward Davis, who had sailed out of Hampton in 1683 with William Dampier on a pirate expedition (though they also obtained letters of marque from the king of England). Davis ended up as captain of the Batchelor's Delight, which raided Spanish shipping and coastal villages on the west coast of South America until King James II issued a proclamation of amnesty for pirates in 1687. Davis obtained a royal pardon for the crew in Jamaica, but the pirates calculated that it would be wise to split up and seek to disguise their past.

The captain of the HMS Dumbarton and the colonial officials at Jamestown were not willing to accept the pardon granted by the royal governor in Jamaica. They hoped to claim a share of the treasure seized from the four men, and the officials also feared retaliation from other pirates if the four men were punished.

Ultimately, one of the four died and the other three were shipped to England for trial. Rev. James Blair, the commissary representing the Anglican church in Virginia, was visiting London in hopes of finding a source of money to start a college in Williamsburg. He helped the pirates negotiate a plea bargain.

The English judge agreed in 1692 to release the defendants and restore their confiscated treasure, if they made a substantial contribution to the colony where they had first been arrested. The three former pirates donated the equivalent of $1 million today, and it was used to start the College of William and Mary. 8


in 1688, James II granted amnesty to pirates who returned to England
Source: Library of Congress, British Attempt to Suppress Pirates

Die HMS Dumbarton had been lucky enough to capture four trying-to-retire-in-peace pirates, crossing the Chesapeake Bay in an unarmed small boat. At times, the Royal Navy guardship was outgunned by the pirates. In 1699, the 16-gun Essex Prize warship was forced to evade and then finally flee from the pirate John James and his 26-gun Providence Galley. The pirates then plundered various merchant ships in Lynnhaven Bay and the Chesapeake Bay.

Despite the risk from pirates, colonists in Virginia and Maryland were not anxious to have an effective Royal Navy in the Chesapeake Bay. A ship capable of intercepting all pirates could also ensure all import and export duties were collected. As described in The Virginian-Pilot's series of articles in 2006 exploring the history of pirates in Virginia: 9

As governor of Maryland a few years earlier, Nicholson had asked the colony's residents to support his request for a royal navy ship to guard the coast from pirates. They had refused. "They are," he wrote bitterly, "afraid such cruiser would spoil the illegal trade."

But the guard ships themselves had a poor reputation. One had been burned in the James River by an attacking Dutch fleet that captured and sailed away with 14 tobacco ships. One was captained by a man who saw a chance to get rich quick and joined with the pirates. One was led by a drunkard and a thief.


Lynnhaven Bay, where pirate Lewis Guittar captured merchant ships in 1700 - but then was captured by the new guardship
Source: ESRI, ArcGIS Online

Occasionally, the small guard ship was capable of defeating even well-armed pirates. In 1700, the pirate Lewis Guittar captured a fast merchant vessel, the La Paix (Vrede) in Barbados. After converting it into his pirate flagship, Guittar and La Paix seized other ships to assemble a pirate fleet. That pirate fleet captured multiple vessels off the Virginia coastline.

Lewis Guittar's success ended after he sailed into Lynnhaven Bay in April, 1700. He thought the only British warship in the Chesapeake Bay region was the dilapidated Essex Prize.

Some of the merchant vessels that were anchored in Lynnhaven Bay tried to escape, fleeing to the Atlantic Ocean and hoping they could sail faster than the pirates. One ship went the other direction, and sailed up the James River to alert the colonial authorities. The powerful warship Shoreham had arrived recently to strengthen the colony's defenses. Governor Nicholson went on board before the Shoreham quickly sailed to challenge the La Paix.

During battle in Lynnhaven Bay, the sails and rudder of the La Paix were shot away and the pirate flagship was disabled. Guittar threatened to blow it up, killing 50 or so prisoners that he had seized from other vessels rather than surrender unconditionally. To save the lives of the hostages, Gov. Nicholson agreed to grant quarter to the pirates, and assured them of a trial in England rather than in the colony.

One pirate, John Houghling, chose to jump off the La Paix and swim to shore in hopes of escaping. He was captured, and became the person tried for piracy in Virginia. Houghling was found guilty and hung, together with two other pirates who had been found asleep on one of their prizes. They had been excluded from the governor's offer of clemency, because they were not on board La Paix when Governor Nicholson agreed to sending the captured pirates to England for trial. 10

The presence of the 28-gun Shoreham had surprised Lewis Guittar. Sending the powerful guard ship reflected a change in colonial policy to increase protection of merchant vessels sailing between England and the Chesapeake Bay. The poorly-equipped, poorly-staffed vessels that previously served as guard ships had been ineffective in collecting revenue, but conflicts in Europe had increased the threat of authorized privateers and unauthorized pirates in the Chesapeake Bay.

Raids on French and Spanish vessels were no longer legitimized by English letters of marque after the end of Queen Anne's War in 1713, but English pirates based in the Bahamas ignored the peace and continued to seize foreign merchant ships. In 1718, after a new royal governor expelled pirates from the Bahamas, Virginia became a prime target: 11

Virginia's geography combined with its rich tobacco fleets to turn the waters off the capes and the lower Chesapeake into a choice target. Located near the northernmost reach of the Gulf Stream, the region was easily reached from as far away as the Caribbean - and the wealth of protected anchorages on its long coastline made it a haven for sea rovers intent on striking without being detected.

The most famous pirate associated with Virginia today is Blackbeard, one of the last pirates to pose a serious threat to Virginia's shipping. Blackbeard (Edward Teach) was a licensed privateer during Queen Anne's War and an unlicensed pirate afterward. The details of his life are hazy, but he may have been born in Jamaica, become a crewman on a merchant ship, and then joined the Royal Navy as a youth.

After the destruction of a Spanish treasure fleet during a 1715 hurricane, many Jamaicans began looting the wrecks off the Florida coast. Teach and other English privateers liked free treasure, and kept seizing merchant vessels from Spain and France - even though the Treaty of Utrecht had been signed in 1713 to end the War of the Spanish Succession.

Blackbeard reportedly presented a fearsome appearance that was a calculated part of his business style, not a coincidental characteristic. He may not have killed anyone, himself, until his last battle. His goal was to frighten victims into surrendering without a fight: 12

This Beard was black, which he suffered to grow of an extravagant Length as to Breadth, it came up to his Eyes, he was accustomed to twist it with Ribbons, in small Tails, after the Manner of our Ramilies Wiggs, and turn them about his Ears : in Time of Action, he wore a Sling over his Shoulders with three brace of Pistols, hanging in Holders like Bandaliers, and stuck lighted Matches under his Hat, which appearing on each Side of his Face, his Eyes naturally looking fierce and wild.


Swartbaard die seerower
Source: A general history of the pyrates (1724)

In 1718, Blackbeard organized a blockade of the main South Carolina port, Charles Town (Charleston). He managed to get a pardon from North Carolina Governor Charles Eden. The governor of Virginia, Alexander Spotswood, was less forgiving.

Technically, Spotswood had no jurisdiction over piracy committed in the Atlantic Ocean south of the Virginia border, but pirates based on the Outer Banks of North Carolina threatened ships sailing in and out of the Chesapeake Bay. North Carolina ship captains requested help from Virginia, recognizing that Governor Charles Eden was allied with Teach and unwilling to stop his piracy.

King George I had issued pardons to pirates in 1717 and again in 1718, hoping they would voluntarily switch back to legal shipping activities. Spotswood was looking for an opportunity to improve his relationship with the powerful gentry in Virginia, who were resisting his authority as governor. A strong stand against piracy would enhance colonial commerce in Virginia, increasing profits of plantation owners and thus increasing Spotswood's political power in Williamsburg.

Governor Spotswood did not wait for Blackbeard to hear about the second pardon opportunity. He dispatched Lieutenant Robert Maynard from the Chesapeake Bay to Ocracoke Island, after learning that Blackbeard's ship Avontuur had become stuck on a shoal there.

Maynard took two ships, Jane en Ranger. He found Blackbeard's ship on November 22, 1718 and demanded that he surrender, but the pirates chose to attack him.

Maynard tricked Blackbeard by having his crew on the Jane go below decks. The 10 pirates boarded Maynard's ship, thinking most of the crew had been killed. Maynard and his 11 crew members came back on deck, and in hand-to-hand combat with swords and pistols they killed or captured all the pirates. Blackbeard's head was cut off and hung from the bowsprit on Maynard's ship. That displayed the success of the mission on its return to Virginia, and the severed head was then hung on a pole in Hampton. 13


Blackbeard's severed head was carried back to Virginia
Source: The Pirates Own Book (p.217)

Today, marine archeologists have excavated the Queen Anne's Revenge, which sank on the Outer Banks near Beaufort Inlet six months before Lieutenant Robert Maynard defeated Blackbeard and his pirate crew on the Avontuur. It was loaded with weapons. At least 30 cannon have been found so far, along with cutlasses and firearms. Archeologists even found grenades designed to be tossed by hand onto the deck or in the hold of a ship, plus the equivalent of a Molotov cocktail designed to set fire to a ships sails and rigging. 14

The pirate history has been romanticized. The City of Hampton holds an annual festival commemorating his exploits and his ship the Queen Anne's Revenge, converting a once-feared military threat into an excuse for a party. The festival started in 2000 as a Hampton event, to pull some tourists across the water during OpSail 2000 in Norfolk. The continued public response (with 50,000 visitors annually) surprised tourism officials, but they have scheduled events each year.

Hampton's connection to Blackbeard provides something unique to draw tourists to the city. As the Convention & Visitors Bureau Executive Director has noted: 15

No place else has a pirate story like ours to tell.


graphic from poster for 2013 Blackbeard Festival in Hampton
Source: City of Hampton, About the Festival

Hampton University adopted a pirate as the school's logo in 1979. The sketch of the pirate has been revised over time, but the athletic department sales items are still covered with pirate paraphernalia. 16


Hampton University has associated itself with the pirate history of the city
Source: Hampton University, Small Decal Hampton Pirates, 6 inches tall

Placing the bodies of executed pirates in public locations was thought to deter others from choosing to become pirates. Spotswood had bodies hung in chains at the harbors of Tyndall's Point (York River) and Urbanna (Rappahannock River). The return of Maynard's trophy to Hampton, a gruesome event in 1718, is now a high point of the city's annual Blackbeard Festival: 17

A presentation ceremony follows the sea battle, where Lt. Maynard presents Blackbeard's head and defeated crew to Virginia's Governor Spotswood. Visitors can participate in the festivities when they join Blackbeard's funeral parade, Hampton's version of Mardi Gras, and share in the booty from his treasure chest.


Blackbeard's Point, where Lieutenant Robert Maynard hung the pirate's head, is at the southern end of Eaton Street in Hampton
Source: ESRI, ArcGIS Online

Blackbeard was not the very last pirate in Virginia. In 1720, pirates captured a Virginia vessel near Barbados, and eight of the pirates sought to return to "civilian life" by sailing home with that vessel to the Chesapeake. The pirates were captured and six were executed, but that triggered a threat from other pirates to get revenge on Virginia. Governor Spotswood established lookout posts at Cape Charles and Cape Henry, plus fortifications at the mouths of the James, York, and Rappahannock rivers. Those defenses were not tested, but fear of being captured and tortured by pirates while sailing back to England kept Spotswood in Virginia even after he was replaced as governor. 18

Pirate treasure may be buried today somewhere on Virginia's coastline. Captain Kidd sailed from the Caribbean to Boston in 1699, supposedly burying gold, silver, and jewels on the shoreline during the journey. Perhaps his loot was recovered by other pirates soon after he was captured (and later executed in England), or perhaps whatever treasure he buried may be exposed one day after a storm shifts the sands.

The role of colonial officials in dealing with pirates ended in 1776 the new state of Virginia gained that responsibility. The state's navy and state-authorized privateers protected the Chesapeake Bay and nearby waters of the Atlantic Ocean from pirates and privateers from other nations, together with the tiny United States Navy created in 1775. Virginia also created an Admiralty Court to process cases involving crime on the high seas.

The new Federal government was granted exclusive jurisdiction over piracy in the US Constitution. Since Federal courts were established in 1798, the US Navy and Federal judges have had full responsibility for suppressing and punishing piracy. One significant reason for adoption of the new US Constitution was the need for consistent policies among the 13 states for managing interstate commerce and international trade. Language adopted in 1787 was clear: 19

The Congress shall have Power. To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on the high Seas, and Offences against the Law of Nations.

A July 1819 piracy trial in Richmond, United States v. Smith, is still relevant in defining the US approach to international law. Die bemanning van die Creola mutinied, seized a faster ship named the Onweerstaanbaar and started capturing ships. Though cargo was stolen and passengers/crews robbed, no one was murdered.

Die Onweerstaanbaar sailed to Baltimore, home of some crew members. Officials there arrested them. Two were tried and executed in Baltimore. Another 17 were tried in Richmond. One was acquitted and 16 were convicted of piracy, but the judges disagreed on whether the crews actions met the definition of "piracy" under the US Congress' 1819 Act to Protect the Commerce of the United States and Punish the Crime of Piracy.

The law described "the crime of piracy, as defined by the law of nations." Chief Justice John Marshall heard the case in Richmond, operating as a judge of the circuit court there. Sixteen prisoners were convicted, but Marshall and the other judge disagreed on whether the actions of the crew qualified as "piracy." Marshall noted: 20

The doubt I entertain is whether there is any such thing as Piracy as "defined by the law of nations."

The case was elevated to the US Supreme Court for final resolution. It ruled that the US Congress was entitled to reference international law when defining the crime, and that the crew was guilty of piracy. All 16 were sentenced to death, but President Monroe reduced the sentences and none were executed.

The US Congress has not updated the 1819 law since the Supreme Court found it sufficient, but Federal judges still interpret it differently. In 2010, different Federal judges in the Eastern District of Virginia disagreed on whether two failed attempts to seize a US Navy vessel off the coast of Somalia qualified as piracy. One judge ruled that actual robbery had to occur before the 1819 law could be applied. The appeal resulted in a ruling that a violent attack, even if repulsed before robbery occurred, qualified as an act of piracy as understood under international law. 21

In 1827, three pirates were captured in Virginia, then tried and executed. They had helped to seize a vessel sailing from Cuba, planning to use it as a slave ship to smuggle human cargo from Africa to the United States. The pirates sailed to Norfolk to resupply before crossing the Atlantic Ocean. At Old Point Comfort, the pirates sent the ship's mate ashore to purchase supplies, but he immediately alerted the officers at Fortress Monroe. The head of the pirates killed himself, but three others fled in a boat to Hampton. They walked to Newport News, used a canoe to cross to the south bank of the James River, and got 20 miles inland before being captured.

Chief Justice Marshall opened a special session of the Circuit Court in Richmond for trial of the three men. The trial was conducted on July 16, 1827. The accused pirates were Spaniards from Cuba, so an interpreter was used to translate proceedings for them and to communicate their testimony.

The defendants claimed they had been asleep when the captain of the brig Crawford, most of the crew, and some passengers were murdered and tossed overboard near the Bahamas before the ship sailed to Norfolk. The jury returned three guilty verdicts after just five minutes of deliberation for each defendant, and they were executed within three weeks. 22


in 1827, three pirates were tried, convicted, and executed in Richmond
Source: Library of Congress, A Treasure Trove of Trials

In 1856, as part of the negotiations at the end of the Crimean War, European nations signed the Declaration Respecting Maritime Law. It abolished privateering and the use of letters of marque. Private ships may still be converted to military use, but a government must accept responsibility for the actions of such vessels. 23

Confederates engaged in acts of piracy in 1861. The governor of Virginia sanctioned their plan to capture the USS Pawnee, then use it as a Confederate warship and disrupt Union shipping on the Chesapeake Bay.

Die USS Pawnee commanded the three-ship Potomac Squadron that patrolled the Potomac River and interrupted smuggling between Maryland and Virginia. The Confederates planned to seize a packet boat, the St. Nicholas, which traveled regularly between Baltimore and the Patuxent River. That boat, pretending to still be under Union control, would be able to get next to the USS Pawnee.

The Confederate conspirators boarded the St. Nicholas as regular passengers. The commander was Richard Thomas, who adopted the last name of Zarvona. He got onboard disguised as a French lady, and inside her baggage trunks were weapons used to seize the boat. Die St. Nicholas then stopped at the mouth of the Coan River in Northumberland County to unload passengers and crew, and to load 30 infantrymen sent by Governor John Letcher.

All three US Navy warships had returned to Washington, DC, so the Confederates had to settle for using the St. Nicholas to disrupt shipping in the Chesapeake Bay. There they captured ships loaded with coffee and ice, plus a coaling schooner which enabled a refueling while anchored in the Rappahannock River. The three captured ships and the St. Nicholas ended the pirate expedition by going to Fredericksburg. The 38 crew members of the four captured ships were taken by train to Richmond, then brought back to the Coan River and repatriated by a Confederate vessel to Point Lookout in Maryland.

After a legal proceeding in the Richmond District Court in Admiralty to determine the fair value of the St. Nicholas, the Confederate Government purchased the ship and delivered the funds to the owners in Baltimore. The ship was renamed the CSS Rappahannock, and burned to prevent recapture when the Confederates evacuated Fredericksburg in April 1862.

The Confederates tried to capture a second steamer, but ended up being caught. The Union Army did not give in to public demands to hang Richard Thomas Zarvona as a pirate, but also declined to consider him as a prisoner of war. His health deteriorated while imprisoned, and he was returned to Virginia as part of a prisoner exchange in 1863. 24


a Richmond newspaper celebrated Confederate piracy in 1861, while a District of Columbia paper had a different angle
Source: Library of Congress - Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers, The Daily Dispatch and Evening Star (July 2, 1861)

More recently, the wave of piracy in the Gulf of Aden off the coast of Somalia triggered trials in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia. The first conviction in nearly 200 years was in 2010, for attacks on the USS Nicholas. By 2011, 26 pirates had been brought over 7,000 miles to Virginia for trial.

The largest group of pirates to be tried were captured in 2011, after Somali pirates with AK-47s and rocket-propelled grenades hijacked a 58-foot sailboat off the east coast of Africa. The American guided missile destroyer Sterett intercepted the seized Quest, but negotiations failed. The pirates executed the four American hostages on the sailboat. US Navy Seals swarmed onto the boat, killing four pirates and capturing 14 others.

Most pirates captured off the coast of East Africa recently have been tried in the courts of Somalia, Kenya, and the Seychelles. Because Americans were murdered on the sailboat, the US Navy brought the 14 captured pirates back to Norfolk for trial, where 11 pled guilty and were given life sentences. FBI and Somali security forces also captured the multi-lingual onshore negotiator, and after trial he was also given a life sentence.

The three pirates accused of shooting the Americans on the sailboat were tried in 2013 and faced the death penalty, but a Federal jury ended up giving them life sentences as well. One juror was apparently not convinced that the three men on trial were the ones who fired the guns and killed the four American hostages. 25

Wanneer die Maersk Alabama was seized in 2009, the captain was held captive in a small lifeboat until Navy sharpshooters killed the pirates with him. The movie Kaptein Phillips, starring Tom Hanks, dramatized that event. Other pirates on the Maersk Alabama were captured and brought to New York for trial.

The pirates who had seized the Quest tried unsuccessfully to get their trial moved out of Norfolk. They contended: 26

Simply put, the community in Norfolk has a very personal stake in piracy issues that prejudices the defendants. These prejudices will become that much more exaggerated in the event that defense counsel contends that the deaths occurred in this case partly because the Navy failed to follow proper protocol. There would be manifest prejudice if this trial is permitted to proceed in Norfolk

Importing the First Africans in 1619: The Piracy Story

Skakels

  • Chesapeake Bay Program
    • Pirates on the Chesapeake Bay
    • Exploring the Early Americas - Pirates and Privateers
    • The Difference Between Pirates, Privateers and Buccaneers - Pt. 1 and Pt. 2
      (The Regional Review, June 1939) (Fort Raleigh National Monument) (Cape Hatteras National Seashore)
  • Verwysings

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    2. Joel H. Samuels, "The Full Story of United States v. Smith, America's Most Important Piracy Case," Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs, Volume 1, Issue 2 (November 2012), pp.323-325, https://elibrary.law.psu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1016&context=jlia (last checked June 3, 2018)
    3. Meredith Hindley, "Soldier of Fortune: John Smith before Jamestown," Humanities, Volume 28, Number 1 (January/February 2007), http://www.neh.gov/humanities/2007/januaryfebruary/feature/soldier-fortune-john-smith-jamestown (last checked August 18, 2013)
    4. Jon Kukla, Political Institutions in Virginia, 1619-1660, Garland Publishing, New York, 1989, pp.170-176
    5. "Pirates series: Dutch raiders prowl Hampton Roads," Daily Press (Newport News), May 27, 2012, http://www.dailypress.com/features/history/dp-nws-pirates-2-20120527,0,428923.story (last checked August 18, 2013) 6. Arthur L. Cooke, "British Newspaper Accounts of Blackbeard's Death," The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, Volume 61, Number 3 (July 1953), http://www.jstor.org/stable/4245947 Peter T. Leesony, "Pirational Choice: The Economics of Infamous Pirate Practices," Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, Volume 76, Issue 3 (December 2010), p.10, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jebo.2010.08.015 "Red is for ruthless: Rare Jolly Roger pirate flag captured in north Africa battle 230 years ago goes on show for first time," Daaglikse pos, December 16, 2011, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2074868/Rare-red-Jolly-Roger-pirate-flag-captured-battle-north-Africa-230-years-ago-goes-display-time.html (last checked September 11, 2013)
    7. Mark P. Donnell, Daniel Diehl, Pirates of Virginia, Stackpole Books, 2012, pp.28-29 Bruce Selcraig, "The Real Robinson Crusoe," Smithsonian, July 2005, http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history-archaeology/crusoe.html "William Dampier," Mariner's Museum, http://ageofex.marinersmuseum.org/?type=travelwriter&id=12 "Two Extraordinary Travellers," British Broadcasting Corporation, http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/scottishhistory/europe/oddities_europe.shtml (last checked May 16, 2014)
    8. Mark Donnelly, Daniel Diehl, Pirates of Virginia: Plunder and High Adventure on the Old Dominion Coastline, Stackpole Books, 2012, pp.33-42 "The Unreliable Legend of the Batchelor's Delight: Buccaneers Davis, Wafer & Hingson, and the Ship Batchelors Delight," William and Mary Alumni Magazine, Volume 75 Number 4 (Summer 2010), cached at http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:qnpQ0xHl6P8J:https://www.wmalumni.com/%3Fsummer10_pirates "Hampton Roads pirates: College of William and Mary founded on pirate loot," Daily Press, May 29, 2012, http://www.dailypress.com/features/history/dp-nws-pirates-3-20120529-story.html (last checked June 15, 2018)
    9. Thomas C. Parramore, Peter C. Stewart, Tommy L. Bogger, Norfolk: the First Four Centuries, University Press of Virginia, Charlottesville, 1994, p.55 Mark P. Donnell, Daniel Diehl, Pirates of Virginia, Stackpole Books, 2012, pp.59-65 "Out of the Sea! Chapter 1," The Virginian-Pilot, August 13, 2006, http://hamptonroads.com/node/66521 "Out of the Sea! Chapter 2: Deception," The Virginian-Pilot, August 14, 2006, http://hamptonroads.com/node/66531 (last checked September 8, 2013)
    10. Mark Donnelly, Daniel Diehl, Pirates of Virginia: Plunder and High Adventure on the Old Dominion Coastline, Stackpole Books, 2012, pp.69-81, http://books.google.com/books?id=pctJhGN09QQC "Out of the sea! Chapter 10: Scrutiny," The Virginian-Pilot, August 22, 2006, http://hamptonroads.com/2006/08/out-sea-chapter-10-scrutiny "Out of the Sea! Chapter 13: Justice," The Virginian-Pilot, August 25, 2006, http://hamptonroads.com/node/66781 (last checked September 8, 2013)
    11. "Pirate series opener: Virginia hunts for Blackbeard," Daily Press (Newport News), May 27, 2012, http://www.dailypress.com/features/history/dp-nws-pirates-1-052712-20120526,0,1029984.story (last checked August 18, 2013)
    12. Charles Johnson (Daniel Defoe), A general history of the pyrates, 1724, posted in Internet Archive, p.87, http://archive.org/details/generalhistoryof00defo "Three Centuries After His Beheading, a Kinder, Gentler Blackbeard Emerges," Smithsonian, November 13, 2018, https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/three-centuries-after-his-beheading-kinder-gentler-blackbeard-emerges-180970782 (last checked November 17, 2018)
    13. "November 22, 1718 - The Death of Blackbeard," This Month in North Carolina History Archives, November 2003, http://www2.lib.unc.edu/ncc/ref/nchistory/nov2003/nov2003.html (last checked August 18, 2013) Charles Ellms, Die Pirates Eie Boek, 1837 (Project Gutenberg eBook digitized 2004), pp.213-215, http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/12216 Mark Donnelly, Daniel Diehl, Pirates of Virginia: Plunder and High Adventure on the Old Dominion Coastline, Stackpole Books, 2012, p.106 "Blackbeard was killed by an unlawful act of a Virginia lieutenant governor before he could get a pardon," The Virginian-Pilot, August 15, 2018, https://pilotonline.com/news/local/history/article_c04b45cc-a08e-11e8-a93f-a33f08d1a13a.html (last checked August 15, 2018)
    14. "Pirate weapons excavated from Blackbeard's ship show life was violent on the high seas," The Virginian-Pilot, March 19, 2019, https://pilotonline.com/news/local/history/article_b4966e24-4a51-11e9-a39d-0376af344bbf.html (last checked March 20, 2019)
    15. "Hampton Roads' most important pirate," Newport News Daily Press, May 30, 2013, http://www.dailypress.com/features/history/our-story/dp-hampton-roads-most-important-pirate-20130530,0,2501462.post "Pirates of Hampton Roads: Can Hampton make its pirate history pay?," Daily Press (Newport News), June 3, 2012, http://www.dailypress.com/features/history/dp-nws-pirates-8-20120603,0,4033404.story (last checked September 8, 2013)
    16. "Hampton Pirates Log," 1,000 Logos, Nov 22, 2019, https://1000logos.net/hampton-pirates-logo/ (last checked February 14, 2021)
    17. Mark Donnelly, Daniel Diehl, Pirates of Virginia: Plunder and High Adventure on the Old Dominion Coastline, Stackpole Books, 2012, p.110 "About the Festival," City of Hampton, 2013, http://hampton.gov/index.aspx?NID=2059 (last checked August 18, 2013)
    18. Mark Donnelly, Daniel Diehl, Pirates of Virginia: Plunder and High Adventure on the Old Dominion Coastline, Stackpole Books, 2012, p.138
    19. "A Guide to the Court of Admiralty Records of the Virginia Auditor of Public Accounts, 1775-1788," Library of Virginia, https://ead.lib.virginia.edu/vivaxtf/view?docId=lva/vi04856.xml "Constitution Annotated," US Congress, https://constitution.congress.gov/constitution/ (last checked February 14, 2021) 20. Joel H. Samuels, "The Full Story of United States v. Smith, America's Most Important Piracy Case," Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs, Volume 1, Issue 2 (November 2012), p.334, p.340, p.347, https://elibrary.law.psu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1016&context=jlia (last checked February 14, 2021)
    21. Joel H. Samuels, "The Full Story of United States v. Smith, America's Most Important Piracy Case," Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs, Volume 1, Issue 2 (November 2012), p.352-355, p.361, https://elibrary.law.psu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1016&context=jlia US vs. Smith (1820), FindLaw, https://caselaw.findlaw.com/us-supreme-court/18/153.html (last checked February 14, 2021)
    22. "A Brief Sketch of the Occurrances on Board the Brig Crawford," Samuel Shepherd and Company, 1827, in "A Treasure Trove of Trials," Law Library of Congress, http://lcweb2.loc.gov/service/lawlib/law0001/2010/201000133614278/201000133614278.pdf (last checked June 3, 2018)
    23. Joel H. Samuels, "The Full Story of United States v. Smith, America's Most Important Piracy Case," Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs, Volume 1, Issue 2 (November 2012), p.325, https://elibrary.law.psu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1016&context=jlia "Declaration Respecting Maritime Law. Paris, 16 April 1856," International Committee of the Red Cross, https://ihl-databases.icrc.org/applic/ihl/ihl.nsf/INTRO/105?OpenDocument (last checked June 3, 2018)
    24. "Confederate Pirates: Capture of Steamer St. Nicholas," The Mariner's Museum and Park, August 13, 2020, https://blog.marinersmuseum.org/2020/08/confederate-pirates-capture-of-steamer-st-nicholas/ "Richard Thomas Zarvona (1833-1875)," The Latin Library, http://www.thelatinlibrary.com/chron/civilwarnotes/zarvona.html "Cross-Dressing Civil War Piracy on the Potomac," WETA - Boundary Stones local history blog, December 17, 2017, https://boundarystones.weta.org/2013/12/17/cross-dressing-civil-war-piracy-potomac (last checked January 1, 2021)
    25. "Va. Piracy Conviction Spotlights Laws Of The Sea," National Public Radio, November 25, 2010, https://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=131586837 "Somali pirates will face death penalty in federal trial in Virginia," Washington Post, June 2, 2013, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/somali-pirates-will-face-death-penalty-in-federal-trial-in-va/2013/06/02/197a8868-c969-11e2-8da7-d274bc611a47_story.html "Somali pirates receive life sentences from federal jury," The Virginian-Pilot, August 3, 2013, https://pilotonline.com/news/article_4fad2d44-cacf-5bcc-a8a2-3b3970b2f514.html "The pirate negotiator: Aboard hijacked tanker, this Somali called the shots," Die Washington Post, October 2, 2012, https://www.washingtonpost.com/local/crime/the-pirate-negotiator-aboard-hijacked-tanker-this-somali-called-the-shots/2012/10/02/287c2ddc-01bc-11e2-9367-4e1bafb958db_story.html "Three Somali Pirates Sentenced To Life-In-Prison For Murder Of Four Americans Aboard SV Quest," US Department of Justice, August 1, 2013, https://www.justice.gov/usao-edva/pr/three-somali-pirates-sentenced-life-prison-murder-four-americans-aboard-sv-quest (last checked June 3, 2018)
    26. "Somali pirate sentenced to 33 years in US prison," BBC News, February 16, 2011, http://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-12486129 "Judge: Somali piracy, murder trial to stay in Va.," San Diego Tribune, November 29, 2012, http://www.sandiegouniontribune.com/sdut-judge-somali-piracy-murder-trial-to-stay-in-va-2012nov29-story.html (last checked June 3, 2018)


    in 1718, Governor Spotswood offered a reward for anyone to capture or kill pirates
    Source: A general history of the pyrates (1724)


    1 Recruitment


    Volunteers made up the bulk of pirate crews. It was a dangerous and unpredictable life, desertions and death were common, and ships constantly needed new people. As with any jobs, recruitment meant showing potential members the glamor of the job. Current pirates had to dress sharply and be clean to put on the external appearance of a life well lived. And if they couldn&rsquot get enough volunteers, pirates weren&rsquot above using force to get new crewmembers.

    Pirates saw an increase in the number of people seeking work after 1713, when privateers turned to pirating. When European nations were fighting at sea, privateers were able to work and earn a significant income. In 1708 they were even allowed by the English to keep everything they stole from other ships. A mere five years later, the Treaty of Utrecht brought relative peace to the ocean and thousands of privateers lost their jobs. Instead of turning to the land and becoming thieves, most joined pirate crews where they could put their skills to use.