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Die Minoane: 'n Beskawing van die Bronstydperk Kreta

Die Minoane: 'n Beskawing van die Bronstydperk Kreta

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Die Minoërs was 'n beskawing wat gedurende die Bronstydperk in die Egeïese gebied floreer het en afkomstig was van die eiland Kreta. Die #Minoane was 'n sterk maritieme entiteit en handel oor die hele Egeïese See, hoofsaaklik met die vroeë Mykene op die vasteland van Griekeland, en met Egipte. #Knossos is 'n bekende terrein wat deur Arthur Evans opgegrawe is. Die fresko's wat oorleef het, het ikonies geword, soos die fresko van 'n bul wat spring en die dolfynfresco.

Kreta is veral bekend in die Griekse mitologie as die tuiste van koning Minos, sy vrou Pasiphae, hul dogters Ariadne en Phaedra en Pasiphae se kind, The Minotaur. Daedalus het die labirint geskep om die Minotaur te hou wat deur die held Theseus vermoor is.


Geskiedenis

Daar is geen bewyse dat mense voor 6500–6000 vC op Kreta aangekom het nie. Teen 3000 v.C. het die Minoïese beskawing - 'n Bronstydperk -kultuur vernoem na die legendariese heerser Minos - aan die ontstaan ​​gekom. In sy eerste eeue het hierdie kultuur weinig meer as sirkelvormige grafkelders en 'n paar fyn gesnyde klipvase opgelewer, maar teen ongeveer 2000 het die Minoane begin om 'paleise' te bou op die terreine van Knossós, Phaestus en Mallia (Mália). Die Minoïese beskawing was gesentreer in Knossós en bereik sy hoogtepunt in die 16de eeu v.C., wat wyd handel dryf in die oostelike Middellandse See. Die Minoërs het treffende beeldhouwerk, fresco's, erdewerk en metaalwerk gemaak. Teen ongeveer 1500 vC het Griekse vastelanders uit Mykene 'n invloedryke rol in Minoïese aangeleenthede aangeneem. Nadat Kreta ongeveer 1450 vC 'n groot aardbewing ondergaan het wat Knossós en ander sentrums verwoes het, het die mag in die streek beslissend oorgegaan aan die Mykeneers, met wie Kreta nou verbonde was tot die aanvang van die ystertydperk in 1200 vC. Omstreeks hierdie tyd het die Doriane, 'n ander Griekssprekende volk, ingetrek en die eiland georganiseer.

Kreta het 'n ondersteunende rol gespeel in die herlewing van die Griekse beskawing wat in die 9de eeu v.C. begin het, en tydens Athene se bloeitydperk in die 5de eeu v.C. het Kreta die Grieke gefassineer as 'n bron van mites, legendes en wette. Teen 67 vC verskyn die Romeine en voltooi hulle verowering van Kreta deur dit in Cyrenaica te omskep, 'n provinsie wat met Noord -Afrika verbind is. In 395 nC het die eiland oorgegaan na Bisantium (die Oos -Romeinse Ryk), en die Arabiere het ná 824 beheer oor dele van Kreta verkry, maar hulle in 961 teruggegee aan die Bisantyne. In 1204, in die nasleep van die Vierde Kruistog, verkoop kruisvaarders die eiland na Venesië, wat Kreta in sy groeiende kommersiële ryk ingepas het. Die inheemse Kretense het egter nooit hul Ortodokse godsdiens, Griekse taal en gewilde kennis laat vaar nie. Die Ottomaanse Turke, wat reeds in beheer was van dele van Kreta, het die hoofstad Candia (nou Iráklion) in 1669 van die Venesiërs afgestuur ná een van die langste beleërings in die geskiedenis. Kreta stagneer onder Turkse bewind, en inheemse opstande is altyd verydel, insluitend die in 1821 en 1866. Die Turke is uiteindelik in 1898 deur Griekeland verdryf, waarna die eiland outonome status gehad het totdat dit in 1913 met Griekeland verenig is.

OOR MINOANSE BESKAWING

Bronstydperk beskawing van Kreta wat floreer van ongeveer 3000 vC tot ongeveer 1100 vC. Die naam is afgelei van Minos, óf 'n dinastiese titel óf die naam van 'n spesifieke heerser van Kreta wat 'n plek in die Griekse legende het. 'N Kort behandeling van die Minoïese beskawing volg.

Kreta het die eerste plek van die Bronstydperk -kultuur in die Egeïese See geword, en dit was eintlik die eerste sentrum van die hoë beskawing in die gebied, wat begin aan die einde van die 3de millennium v.C. Die Minoïese beskawing, wat sy hoogtepunt bereik het omstreeks 1600 v.C. en die latere 15de eeu, was merkwaardig vanweë die groot stede en paleise, die uitgebreide handel in die Levant en verder, en die gebruik van skryfwerk. Sy gesofistikeerde kuns bevat uitgebreide seëls, erdewerk (veral die beroemde Kamáres-ware met sy lig-op-donker versieringsstyl) en veral delikate, lewendige fresco's wat op paleismure gevind is. Hierdie fresco's vertoon sekulêre en godsdienstige tonele, soos magiese tuine, ape en wilde bokke of fantasieus geklede godinne wat getuig van die Minoërs se oorwegend matriargale godsdiens. Onder die mees bekende motiewe van die Minoïese kuns is die slang, die simbool van die godin, en die bul wat die ritueel van bulspring, wat byvoorbeeld op kultusvase gevind word, blykbaar 'n godsdienstige of magiese basis gehad het.

Teen ongeveer 1580 vC het die Minoïese beskawing begin versprei oor die Egeïese See na die naburige eilande en na die vasteland van Griekeland. Minoïese kulturele invloed is weerspieël in die Mykeense kultuur van die vasteland, wat ongeveer 1500 vC deur die hele Egeïese gebied begin versprei het.

Teen die middel van die 15de eeu is die paleiskultuur op Kreta verwoes deur veroweraars van die vasteland. Hulle het 'n nuwe orde op Kreta gevestig, met sentrums in Knossos en Phaistos. Na die verowering beleef die eiland 'n wonderlike samesmelting van Kretensiese en vastelandse vaardighede. Die laat Minoïese tydperk (omstreeks 1400 - ongeveer 1100 v.C.) was egter 'n tyd van merkbare agteruitgang in beide ekonomiese mag en estetiese prestasie

OOR KNOSSOS

Die hoofstad van die legendariese koning Minos, en die belangrikste sentrum van die Minoïese, die vroegste van die Egeïese beskawings. Die terrein van Knossos staan ​​op 'n ommeswaai tussen die samevloeiing van twee strome en is ongeveer 8 myl binneland van die noordelike kus van Kreta geleë. In 1900 is met opgrawings by Knossos onder Sir Arthur Evans begin en 'n paleis en omliggende geboue onthul wat die middelpunt was van 'n gesofistikeerde Bronstydperk -kultuur wat die Egeïese gebied tussen ongeveer 1600 en 1400 vC oorheers het.

Die eerste menslike inwoners van Knossos het waarskynlik in die 7de millennium vC uit Anatolië daarheen gekom en 'n landbougenootskap gestig wat gebaseer is op koring en veeteelt. Aan die begin van die vroeë Minoïese tydperk (3000–2000 vC) het hulle begin om brons te gebruik en geglasuurde erdewerk, gegraveerde seëls en goue juweliersware te maak. 'N Hiërogliewe skrif is uitgevind, en handel met die Egiptenare is onderneem. Die eerste paleis in Knossos is aan die begin van die Middel -Minoïese tydperk (2000–1580 v.C.) gebou. Dit het bestaan ​​uit geïsoleerde strukture wat rondom 'n reghoekige voorhof gebou is. Knossos het gedurende hierdie tydperk fyn polychrome aardewerk op 'n swart geglasuurde grond vervaardig. Ongeveer 1720 vC het 'n vernietigende aardbewing die meeste Knossos gelykgemaak. Die paleis is herbou, hierdie keer met uitgebreide kolonnades en trappe wat die verskillende geboue op die heuwelagtige terrein verbind. Die oorblyfsels van hierdie paleis beslaan die opgegrawe terrein in die huidige tyd. Die administratiewe en seremoniële kwartiere van die paleis was aan die westekant van die sentrale hof, en die troonkamer in hierdie gebied bevat nog steeds die gipsstoel waarin die konings van Knossos sit. Hierdie gebied van die paleis het ook lang smal kelderkamers wat gedien het as tydskrifte vir koring, olie en skat. Werkswinkels was aan die noordoostekant van die sentrale hof geleë, terwyl koshuise in die suidoostelike deel geleë was. 'N Uitgebreide stelsel met dreine, leidings en pype het water en sanitasie vir die paleis verskaf, en die hele stedelike kompleks is verbind met ander Kretaanse dorpe en hawens deur geplaveide paaie. Die kuns van die Minoïese fresko -skildery het in hierdie tyd sy hoogtepunt bereik, met tonele van dans, sport en dolfyne in 'n naturalistiese styl. Die Minoërs het ook hul hiërogliewe skrif vervang deur 'n lineêre skrif wat bekend staan ​​as Lineêre A.

Omstreeks 1580 vC het die Minoïese kultuur en invloed begin uitbrei na die vasteland van Griekeland, waar dit verder ontwikkel en na vore gekom het as die kultuur wat bekend staan ​​as Mykeneeër. Die Mykeneërs het op hul beurt beheer oor Knossos verkry iewers in die 15de eeu vC is die Lineêre A -skrif vervang deur 'n ander skrif, Lineêr B, wat identies is aan die wat in Mykene gebruik is en in die algemeen die prototipe van Grieks word. Gedetailleerde administratiewe rekords in Lineaire B wat by Knossos gevind is, dui aan dat die stad se Myseense heersers baie van die sentrale en westelike Kreta beheer het.

'N Ruk na ongeveer 1400 vC is wat Evans die "Laaste Paleis" van Knossos genoem het, vernietig deur 'n brand van onseker oorsprong, en brande het baie ander Kretaanse nedersettings in hierdie tyd vernietig. Knossos is voortaan tot die status van 'n blote stad gereduseer, en die politieke fokus van die Egeïese wêreld het na Mykene op die Griekse vasteland verskuif. Knossos word deur die daaropvolgende eeue steeds bewoon, hoewel op 'n baie verminderde skaal.

Wenk: Moenie vergeet om die argeologiese museum in Heraklion te besoek nie, ideaal voor u besoek aan Knossos, aangesien die meeste van die fondamente daar is. 'N Fantastiese klein museum as u aan die ander kant van die eiland is om te besoek, is die museum in Eleftherna, wat gekombineer kan word met 'n goeie fietsroete.


Die geskiedenis van Kreta: die opkoms en val van die Minoïese beskawing

Kreta het 'n lang en ryk geskiedenis, en een van die beste dinge wat u op die eiland kan doen, is om die talle argeologiese terreine in die vier prefekture van die eiland te besoek. Die bekendste antieke plekke is Phaistos en Knossos in Heraklion, maar daar is ook baie ander monumente oor die hele Kreta, soos antieke Eleftherna, Zakros en Malia. As u 'n motor op Kreta huur, kan u die fassinerende geskiedenis van Kreta, die Minoïese eiland met een van die oudste beskawings in die Egeïese See, maklik en buigsaam ontdek.

Die Minoïese beskawing het in die Bronstydperk tussen 2 700 en 1 600 v.C. nie net op Kreta nie, maar ook op ander Egeïese eilande. Die naam Minoan kom van die mitiese koning van Kreta, Minos, wat volgens die legende die labirint met die monster Minotaur daarin gebou het. Hierdie beskawing is wêreldwyd bekend vir sy pragtige paleise, versier met fresco's. Die belangrikste paleise is Knossos en Phaistos. Die Minoïese stede was ook ver gevorder met paaie, water en rioolgeriewe deur pype. Geboue met plat teëldakke en mure van klip.

Die invloed van die Minoërs het die hele Middellandse See bereik, insluitend die Cyclades, Egipte, Ciprus, Kanaän en Anatolië. Hulle het in een van die oudste geskrifte in Europa geskryf, die Lineêre A, wat nog nie ontsyfer is nie. The Disc of Phaistos is 'n kleitablet met tekens en woorde van die Lineêre A en word uitgestal in die Argeologiese Museum in die stad Heraklion.

Landbou was die belangrikste inkomste vir die Kretense. Hulle verbou groente en vrugte en het gevorderde handel met ander bevolking op die eiland gehad. Hulle beoefen ook polikultuur, gebruik verskeie gewasse op dieselfde plek en bied diversiteit in die natuurlike ekosisteme. Hulle het 'n gesonde lewenswyse gevolg, wat gelei het tot 'n toename in die bevolking.

Hierdie ekonomie het Minoërs handelsmerke vir buitelandse handel gemaak. Hulle het 'n handelsnetwerk met die vasteland van Griekeland, Egipte, Mesopotamië en Sirië gehad met die oorheersing van vroulike figure in gesaghebbende rolle. Daarom glo historici en argeoloë dat die matriargie oorheersend was in Minoïese Kreta. Hulle het ook die Groot Godin, die godin van vrugbaarheid, aanbid.


Die Minoane: 'n Beskawing van die Bronstydperk Kreta - Geskiedenis

Meer as 100 jaar nadat dit eers ontdek is, herdefinieer die stad Gournia weer die eiland se verlede

Ek ken 'n plek waar daar baie ou dinge is, en 'n boer met die naam George Perakis het in die lente van 1901 die skoolmeester van die klein dorpie Vasiliki, op die eiland Kreta, vertel. die skoolmeester het gereël dat Perakis en sy broer Nicholas Harriet Boyd en haar kollega Blanche Wheeler na Gournia, vier myl noordwes van die dorp, geneem het om op te grawe. Boyd op 19 Mei het Boyd 'n paar potskerwe versamel en die toppe van verskeie ou mure opgespoor, genoeg om haar te oortuig dat dit die moeite werd is om 'n span werkers die volgende oggend na die werf te stuur. Toe sy die middag van die 20ste in Gournia aankom, was Boyd verstom toe hy die mans sien wat 'n bronsspies en sekel en talle stukke klip- en erdebakke vashou en die drumpel van 'n huis en 'n goed verharde pad met 'n kleigrend. Die volgende dag keer Boyd terug met 51 werksmense, en binne drie dae is bykomende huise en paaie ontbloot, asook meer vase en bronsgereedskap, wat haar verseker het dat sy gevind het wat sy gesoek het, en mdasha Bronstydperk -nedersetting van wat sy genoem het & ldquothe beste tydperk van die Kretaanse beskawing. & rdquo Gedurende drie seisoene wat in 1904 geëindig het, het Boyd en haar span, wat gemiddeld meer as honderd werkers was, saam met 'n aantal plaaslike meisies wie se taak was om die vondste te was, die oorblyfsels van 'n antieke stad opgegrawe byna 3 500 jaar begrawe en onbekend gelê.

Boyd kon nie op 'n beter tyd na Kreta gekom het nie. Gedurende die jare wat sy daar aan die begin van die twintigste eeu daar gewerk het, het 'n nuwe, unieke Kretaanse, Bronstydperk beskawing aan die lig gekom. In 1900 het die Britse argeoloog Sir Arthur Evans op die plek van Knossos aan die noordoostelike kus van Kreta begin grawe en binne enkele maande ontdek wat hy die paleis van Minos noem, en na die legendariese koning van Kreta waarvan die labirint vroeër geglo het. bevat die halfman, halfstier, bekend as die Minotaur. Evans gebruik later die naam & ldquoMinoan & rdquo om die beskawing te beskryf, 'n term wat die Duitse geleerde Karl Hoeck in 1823 eers in sy geskiedenis van Kreta gebruik het.

Alhoewel sy interpretasie van Knossos as die paleis van Minos, en inderdaad sommige van sy kenmerke van die Minoïese beskawing, die afgelope eeu betwis of selfs weerlê is, het Evans en baanbrekerswerk op Kreta en sy erkenning van die Minoïese kultuur iets anders as die neolitiese kultuur wat daaraan voorafgegaan het, of die verskillende kulture, insluitend die Mykeense, wat daarop gevolg het, kan nie onderskat word nie.

Toe Harriet Boyd die beste tydperk gaan soek, en toe wou sy Minoans soek. By Gournia ontdek sy iets van 'n heel ander aard as die Evans -paleis. Nou, meer as honderd jaar nadat sy met haar soektog begin het, gaan 'n nuwe span argeoloë voort met wat sy begin het, hergrawe 'n paar van die ruimtes wat sy eers ontdek het, en grawe heeltemal nuwe gebiede om by te dra tot die prentjie van 'n baie die antieke beskawing wat op dieselfde tyd as die Groot Piramide en Stonehenge ontwikkel is, en waaroor daar nog baie vrae bestaan.

Kreta is die grootste eiland in Griekeland en die vyfde grootste in die Middellandse See, wat ongeveer 160 kilometer van oos na wes strek. In die middel is dit 60 km noord tot suid, terwyl die eiland in die ooste, naby die stad Ierapetra, nie ver van Gournia nie, net sewe en 'n half kilometer van kus tot kus strek. Die landskap wissel van berge met sneeubedekking, waarvan die hoogste, die berg Ida, meer as 8 000 voet bereik, tot diep klowe en grotte, uitgestrekte valleie, vrugbare plato's en sandstrande, almal omring deur die blou waters van die Egeïese See. Kreta, geleë op die kruispad van drie kontinente, het al duisende, selfs tienduisende jare besoekers, reisigers en handelaars gelok. Die eiland het baie keer 'n belangrike rol in die Middellandse See gespeel, beide oud en modern, en was sedert die derde millennium vC 'n gewaardeerde besitting van groot moondhede deur die kulture van die Mykeneërs, Romeine, Bisantyne, Venesiërs en Ottomane, en as 'n besette gebied van Hitler en rsquos Derde Ryk.

Maar Kreta & rsquos se eerste groot beskawing was dié van die Minoërs. Evans het voorgestel dat die Minoane meer as 5 000 jaar gelede deur indringers uit Noord -Egipte gedwing is. In die tyd waarin hy gewerk het, was dit onmoontlik om 'n gesofistikeerde Egeïese beskawing uit die Bronstydperk voor te stel wat nie 'n paar bande met Egipte gehad het nie, waarvan die aansienlike oudheid, godsdienstige en politieke kompleksiteit en argitektoniese en artistieke prestasies al geruime tyd bekend was. Evans het in werklikheid sy chronologie van die Minoïese beskawing gebaseer op die Egiptiese model van Ou, Middel en Nuwe Koninkryke en die geskiedenis daarvan verdeel in periodes wat hy Vroeg, Middel en Laat genoem het, en dit verder onderverdeel met Romeinse syfers en letters waar meer presiese datums nodig was.

Die meeste geleerdes twyfel egter oor die konsep van Minoïese oorsprong oor die Evans -konsep. Wat die vraag betref wanneer die oorspronklike setlaars gekom het, waarskynlik in die loop van verskeie trekgebeurtenisse, moet ldquowe waarskynlik fokus op die Neolitiese as die eerste periode van volgehoue ​​vestiging en uitbreiding op die eiland, sê argeoloog en Egeïese prehistorikus John Cherry van Brown Universiteit. Vir vroeë tydperke, voor die sewende millennium v.C., is die bewyse van vestiging geneig om aan en af ​​te knip, miskien slegs aanduidings van seisoenale beroep, of selfs van plaaslike uitwissing. & rdquo

'N Onlangse 10-jarige studie onder leiding van George Stamatoyannopoulos van die Universiteit van Washington oor 37 mitochondriale DNA-monsters wat onttrek is uit bene wat opgegrawe is by 'n laat neolitiese en Minoïese ossuarium in die Agios Charalambos-grot in die oostelike sentrale Kreta, het gesuggereer dat die Minoane die afstammelinge was van Neolitiese boere wat waarskynlik van elders in die Egeïese Eilande gekom het. Vorige DNS -monsters wat van ander Minoïese terreine geneem is, soos die vroeë Bronstydperk tholos [byekorfvormige] grafte in Odigitria in die suide is baie erg agteruitgegaan, maar by Agios Charalambos was ons baie gelukkig omdat die grot tot 1975 verseël is en die bene fantasties was, sê Stamatoyannopoulos. Ons het goeie bewyse gekry dat die Minoane 'n Europese [en nie Afrika- of Midde -Oosterse] mitochondriale DNA gehad het. bevolking was, en hoe dit mettertyd gewissel het.

Vir die oudste era van die Minoïese beskawing, Evans en die vroeë Minoïese tydperk, kom die getuienis uit begrafnisse en klein nedersettings tussen 3100 en 1900 v.C. Hierdie vondste toon aan dat die Minoane vroeg reeds uitstekende matrose was wat aktief handel gedryf het met Egipte en die Nabye Ooste en hul doek, hout, voedsel en waarskynlik olyfolie verruil het vir koper, tin, goud, silwer en ivoor. . Dit is ook duidelik dat die Minoërs groot vaardighede ontwikkel het as pottebakkers, metaalsmede, graveeraars en skeppers van die gesnyde klipvase wat vir meer as 'n millennium 'n kenmerkende en waardevolle uitvoer sou word.

Aan die begin van die tweede millennium v.C. het 'n groot verandering in die Minoïese beskawing plaasgevind. Gedurende die Protopalatial en Neopalatial periodes, wat ooreenstem met Evans & rsquo Middle Minoan IB deur Late Minoan I periodes, het die Minoërs gebou & ldquopalaces & rdquo (Evans & rsquo naam vir hierdie sentrums voortgeduur en is die basis vir 'n ander chronologie stelsel waarin die Minoïese geskiedenis verdeel is in Pre- , Proto-, Neo- en Postpalatial eras) op plekke meestal in die oostelike deel van die eiland, waaronder Knossos, Malia, Phaistos en Zakros. Hierdie paleise was groot, multi -verdiepings geboude komplekse wat rondom oop, geplaveide binnehowe gerangskik was en ruimtes bevat vir industriële aktiwiteite, voedselverwerking en berging, godsdienstige vieringe, huishoudelike gebruik, sportwedstryde en administratiewe funksies. beteken. Die paleise was toegerus met uitgebreide trappe en gesofistikeerde dreinering en loodgieterswerk, en was ook versier met helderkleurige fresco's, enkele van die mees bekwame voorbeelde van skilderkuns in antieke Griekeland, wat hoofsaaklik tonele uit die natuur en die daaglikse lewe uitbeeld.

Alhoewel daar gedink is dat die paleise 'n gesentraliseerde politieke entiteit ondersteun met die mag om belasting in die vorm van voedsel in te samel en te herverdeel, is geleerdes nou baie minder seker as Evans dat dit werklik so was. Eerder as om die plek te wees van enige regering met absolute beheer, 'n interpretasie gebaseer op die model van die kragtige stedelike tempels van die ou Nabye Ooste, lyk dit meer waarskynlik dat dit outonome entiteite is wat gebruik word vir gemeenskaplike rituele en seremonies. Dit is ook moontlik dat die paleise groot hoeveelhede voedsel vir hierdie geleenthede, sowel as vir die elite -huise in die omgewing, gebêre het en rantsoene betaal het aan die kunstenaars en werkers wat nodig was om elke paleis te bou, te versier en te onderhou. Enige of al hierdie gebruike sou waarskynlik daartoe gelei het dat dit akkurate rekords moes hou, wat op sy beurt gelei het tot die ontwikkeling van skryfwerk en die eerste in die antieke Egeïese wêreld en die vorm van die draaiboek wat bekend staan ​​as Lineêr A, sowel as die gebruik daarvan van Kretaanse hiërogliewe wat waarskynlik op die Egiptiese skryfstelsel gebaseer was. Argeoloë, wat begin met Evans, het baie artefakte gevind wat hierdie skrifte bevat, hoewel albei grotendeels onontcijferd is.

In ongeveer 1700 v.C. is die Minoïese paleise verwoes, waarskynlik deur 'n massiewe aardbewing, maar is gou herbou en opgeknap, wat twee en 'n half eeue ingelui het wat die hoogtepunt van die Minoïese beskawing was. Met gevestigde handelsnetwerke wat grondstowwe en luukse voorwerpe uitruil, en 'n betreklik stabiele politieke omgewing, het die Minoërs floreer, hoewel dit nie die voornatuurlik vreedsame samelewing was wat deur Evans en sy tydgenote voorgestel word nie. Die meeste groter Minoïese dorpe is in werklikheid versterk. 'N Tweede wydverspreide vernietiging van die paleise in ongeveer 1450 v.C., moontlik in die hande van Mykeneërs uit die vasteland van Griekeland, het 'n vermenging van Minoïese en Mykeense kulture tot gevolg gehad wat uiteindelik gelei het tot die agteruitgang van die Minoïese beskawing.

Danksy die Evans-werk in Knossos, sowel as die Franse in Malia, die Italianers in Phaistos en die Grieke in Zakros, was daar reeds baie kennis van die vroeë stadiums van navorsing oor die groot paleisgebiede van die Proto- en Neopalatiese periodes van Minoïese. geskiedenis. En terwyl Harriet Boyd miskien gehoop het dat haar werk tot skouspelagtige ontdekkings sou lei, ontdek sy by Gournia iets nuuts en duidelik die goed bewaarde oorblyfsels van 'n Minoïese stad. Die ou naam van die terrein en rsquos is nie bekend nie, en Gournia, die naam wat die inwoners dit gegee het, kom van die Griekse woord gourna, 'n klipbak wat gebruik word om diere wat in enige tradisionele Griekse dorpie aangetref word, te water. Boyd het tientalle huise, geplaveide strate, 'n klein paleis, 'n begraafplaas en ontelbare brons gereedskap en wapens, klip- en kleivate en persoonlike en godsdienstige artefakte ontbloot. Maar sy het slegs drie seisoene op die terrein gehad, en die begin van die twintigste eeu was nog vroeg in die ontwikkeling van moderne argeologiese metodes. Nadat hy in 1906 met die argeoloog Charles Henry Hawes getrou het en haar veldwerk in 1908 gepubliseer het, het Boyd Hawes Gournia verlaat, en daarna sou dit slegs sporadies en eerder liggies herondersoek word.

In 2010, toe Vance Watrous van die Universiteit van Buffalo en sy span met nuwe opgrawings in Gournia begin het, meer as 'n eeu nadat Boyd haar beëindig het, was daar, volgens hom, nog baie te ontbloot. Sommige van die antwoorde was ver onder die oppervlak. Ons is regtig gelukkig hier. Die kulturele oorblyfsels begin slegs vyf of ses sentimeter verder, en rdquo sê Watrous, en voeg by: & ldquo Dit lyk asof niemand hierheen teruggekom het na die laat Minoïese vernietiging nie, en daar is baie min Myceense bewyse, en geen oorlading nie, so sodra ons begin grawe ons vind in Minoïese vlakke. Dit was regtig opwindend. & Van die begin af was die fokus van die projek nie die Neopalatial -webwerf wat Boyd gegrawe het nie. Ons kyk eerder na die vroeëre geskiedenis, die protopalatiese tydperk en die vrae oor wat gebeur het voor die ontwikkeling van die paleis, hoe Gournia 'n streeksentrum geword het, en watter soort stad dit in hierdie vroeë fases was, & rdquo Watrous verduidelik. Die span doen ook 'n volledige argitektoniese opname onder leiding van velddirekteur D. Matthew Buell van Trent University en John McEnroe van Hamilton College, en skep 'n heeltemal nuwe werfkaart met elke muur wat geteken word met behulp van tegnologieë wat Boyd 'n eeu gelede nie beskikbaar was nie. & ldquo Die eerste jaar het ons probeer om ons loopgrawe te laat sink volgens die plan van Boyd & rsquos, en dit werk nie, & rdquo Watrous sê. In sommige gevalle het ons kamers en selfs hele geboue gevind wat op die oorspronklike plan was. & rdquo

Terwyl Watrous by die noordelike ingang van die terrein, ongeveer 125 voet bo seespieël, staan ​​en kyk na die Egeïese See net 'n derde van myl weg, met die mure en strate van hierdie baie ou stad agter hom, lyk hy soos 'n klein 'n inwoner van die stad met besoekers buite die stad, wat gretig is om met sy geboortedorp te wys en die beste funksies van die stad. Selfs nie die baie harde, onverbiddelike liedjie van die cicadas en die rsquo of die intense somerhitte demp sy entoesiasme nie. Ek is die meeste geïnteresseerd om te leer hoe mense leef, en watrose sê, terwyl hy op die oorspronklike Minoïese straat stap en rsquos netjiese keistene en jy kry die idee dat as jy hom volg, jy weet hoe dit sou gewees het om in Gournia te woon, selfs meer as 3000 jaar na die laaste inwoner het vertrek. Op plekke soos Knossos, Phaistos en Malia het ons groot stedelike nedersettings in die paleis, regtig stede, maar Gournia is iets kleiner, tussen 500 en 800 mense, en dit is dus nader aan die land, en op sommige maniere lewendiger, sê rdquo Watrous.

Van al die plekke in die prehistoriese Egeïese See, gee Gournia die beste idee van hoe 'n Minoïese stad daar uitsien, wat Harriet Boyd na drie jaar se werk daar verstaan ​​het. & ldquo Die belangrikste argeologiese waarde van Gournia, en rdquo het sy in haar webwerfpublikasie geskryf, en ldquois dat dit ons 'n merkwaardige duidelike beeld gegee het van die alledaagse omstandighede, beroepe en ideale van die Egeïese volk op die hoogtepunt van hul ware welvaart. & rdquo Buell stem saam: As die meeste mense aan Minoïese argeologie dink, dink hulle in terme van die paleise as hierdie monolitiese elemente sonder nedersettings, maar in Gournia het ons die nedersetting en die paleis, en dit is so belangrik. & rdquo

Tussen 2010 en 2014 het Watrous en 'n jaarlikse span van meer as honderd 'n groot bydrae gelewer tot die prentjie van Gournia as 'n florerende stedelike sentrum wat ten minste tot in die protopalatiese periode (1900 en 1700 v.C.) teruggaan. Aan die noordelike rand van die perseel het die span bewyse gevind van intensiewe industriële aktiwiteite langs huishoudelike ruimtes. & ldquo Daar is geen plek in die omgewing wat met Gournia vergelyk kan word nie. Hierdie ouens is nie voltydse boere nie, en dit is nie 'n plaasdorp nie. Dit is die enigste soortgelyke terrein in ons streek, & rdquo sê Watrous, wat ook honderde ander Minoïese terreine gedokumenteer het, waarvan die meeste volgens hom plaashuise is, tydens 'n uitgebreide streeksopname wat hy tussen 1992 en 1994 gedoen het. Volgens Watrous is 'n normale Die Minoïese gesinshuis sou vier tot vyf pithoi (groot opbergkanne) vol kos gehad het om 'n jaar te oorleef, maar by Gournia het min van die huise hoegenaamd pithoi gehad, wat daarop dui dat inwoners ruil vir hul kos in ruil vir die goedere wat hulle vervaardig het daar.

In die loop van Boyd & rsquos en Watrous & rsquo opgrawings, is meer as 50 huise of gebiede met bewyse van industriële aktiwiteit ontbloot & mdash20 gebiede wat pottebakkery produseer, 15 klipvase, 18 vervaardiging van brons en brons werktuie, en sommige met bewyse vir tekstielproduksie. Op 'n plek aan die noordelike rand van die nedersetting wys Buell op 'n gebied met gebrande berggrond in 'n ruimte wat as 'n gieterij geïdentifiseer is. Hier het ons allerhande stukkies brons smeltkroes, brons druppels, koper stukkies en yster wat gebruik word vir vloei. Op 'n ander plek het ons ook 'n blikbak gevind, waarvan Afghanistan die naaste bron is, en koperblokke uit Ciprus, sodat dit duidelik is dat hulle metaal op voorwerpe op die werf vervaardig en bewerk, en hy sê.

Een van die belangrikste gebiede wat die span opgegrawe het, is aan die noordelike rand van Gournia en op die noordelike rand, waar argeoloog John Younger van die Universiteit van Kansas 'n volledige pottebakkery -werkswinkel ontbloot het waar die inwoners van die stad sowel as rooi klei goedere en fyn klei goedere gemaak het. In een kamer van die werkswinkel is daar 'n hoop wat jonger noem, en 'n kwessie van materie, wat, toe sy span dit afgesny en vir ontleding gestuur het, geïdentifiseer is as moontlik klei van Vasiliki Ware, soortgelyk aan dié wat gebruik is om die kenmerkende Gournia te maak aardewerk, genaamd Mirabello Ware, wat oral in die oostelike en sentrale Kreta voorkom. In 'n ander kamer, in 'n fase wat uit die neopatiese periode strek, het Jonger 15 ongeskonde potte regop op 'n paar banke gevind, en in 'n ander kamer het hy vier groot potte met talle kleiner potte binne gevind. Daar was potte in potte om op te berg, net soos ek tuis in my kas het, en rdquo Younger sê, en elkeen was 'n unieke vorm, so ek dink dit was 'n soort winkel. & rdquo In nog 'n ander kamer het hy 10 koppies gevind net effens van mekaar verskil. Ek dink jy het hiernatoe gekom en die potte gekies wat jy wou hê. U kan sê: 'Ek wil 'n stel hiervan, of tien daarvan,' En in die somer van 2014, in 'n klein gebied oos van die werkswinkel, het die span nie minder nie as 11 oonde op mekaar gevind, 'n verdere bewys van die indrukwekkende duur en omvang van die industriële produksie van Gournia & rsquos.

Miskien is die ander belangrikste gebied wat die span opgegrawe het (en op sommige plekke weer opgegrawe het) die ruimte wat Boyd as die neopalatiese paleis geïdentifiseer het. Daar het hulle bevestig dat die paleis en rsquos -mure nogal indrukwekkend bedoel was. Aan die noordelike fasade is die mure gebou met behulp van die gemetselde tegniek bekend as Cyclopean, waarin die klippe onvoltooid is, en bestaan ​​uit wit rotsblokke wat moontlik op 'n afstand sigbaar was vir besoekers aan Gournia wat uit die see kom. Aan die westekant, teenoor die binnehof, is die sandsteenblokke egter van goed afgewerkte asmesselwerk, 'n meer verfynde tegniek, en dit is waarskynlik bedoel om indruk te maak op diegene wat in die paleis kom vergader, verduidelik Buell. Die oostelike vleuel van die paleis en rsquos het 'n groot oop ruimte wat na 'n vallei kyk, met 'n uitsig op 'n Minoïese bergtop wat op 4,842 voet op die hoogste punt in die ooste van Kreta geleë is. Daar is 'n visuele verhouding tussen die paleis en die piekheiligdom, en rdquo sê Watrous, en dit is regtig netjies. & rdquo

In een kamer het die span meer as 700 koniese koppies in twee verskillende neerslae gevind. Die eerste deposito dateer uit die Middel -Minoïese III periode (ongeveer 1700 v.C.) en bevat vate wat gebrande aarde, dierebene en druiwepitte bevat. &ldquoThese are the remains of the celebration to mark the completion of the palace, like a foundation deposit,&rdquo says Buell, adding, &ldquoThey&rsquore like ancient Dixie cups.&rdquo The second deposit dates to the beginning of the Late Minoan IB period, in about 1600 B.C., where, in addition to the other botanical remains, the team found pomegranate seeds in the cups. The additional presence of pumice in some vessels suggests a ritual in response to the catastrophic eruption of the Thera volcano on the island of Santorini some 125 miles away. It&rsquos clear, says Buell, that Gournia&rsquos residents were also congregating in the central courtyard and eating and drinking, but they may have been amusing themselves in other ways too&mdashthe team also found a series of &ldquocounters,&rdquo perhaps used as gaming pieces. Within the palace, Watrous&rsquo team made what may be their most exciting discovery: a small object that looked at first like a piece of burned bark, but that Watrous immediately recognized as a fragmentary Linear A tablet. Both Boyd and Watrous excavated many seals&mdashclay nodules that were impressed by engraved gemstones to authenticate them&mdashand both the tablet and the seals suggest a palatial system of administration. Boyd had also found a clay disk called a roundel bearing a short inscription in the Linear A script.

Discovering the tablet &ldquomade my whole year,&rdquo says Watrous. &ldquoIt seems to follow a formulaic format that records them sending objects of some sort to various places and shows that they were fully literate. It&rsquos not great looking, I know, but it&rsquos really important.&rdquo

Several structures originally explored by Boyd (but about which she never published) are the Minoan buildings she located on the north coast of Mirabello Bay, about 400 yards north of the site. In 2008 and 2009, Watrous returned to this area to clean and map it, at which time he was able to identify several of them and place them in the context of the entire site. &ldquoWe found a large shed for storing ships, pithoi, anchors, and tackle for unloading cargo, as well as a cobbled street running from this harbor toward the town, all of which makes sense given the scale of the industrial production here,&rdquo Watrous says. By the Neopalatial period, nearly 4,000 years ago, Gournia had a fully functioning harbor with a monumental building linked to the palace and a wharf for seagoing ships that sent goods out from the town and brought them back from overseas as part of the eastern-Mediterranean-wide trade network in which the Minoans thrived.

Thousands of years before Evans discovered the first evidence of the Minoans, Crete had long been known as the subject of myth and legend. Fearing the wrath of her husband Kronos, who had devoured his other children, the goddess Rhea secretly gave birth to her son Zeus, the most powerful of the Greek gods, in the Dikteon Cave in the mountains of central Crete. It was back to Crete, too, that Zeus, in the form of a white bull, took the Phoenician woman Europa, where she became queen of the island and mother to King Minos. And for the Athenians of the Golden Age, their great hero and king, Theseus, also had a Cretan past, for it was on the island that he slew the Minotaur and escaped the prison of King Minos&rsquo labyrinth.


Evans’ three main phases of Minoan Civilization

The artifacts unearthed at the site suggested that some sort of ancient Bull Cult was practiced by the inhabitants of the civilization whom he called Minoans after the legendary King Minos.

Evans divided up Minoan Civilization history into three main phases:

i) the early Bronze Age or early Minoan period from 3000 to2100 BCE

ii) the middle Bronze Age or middle Minoan period from 2100 to 1600 BCE and

iii) the Late Bronze Age or late Minoan period from 1600 to about 1100 BCE.

The classification was based on distinctive pottery styles which have since served as a method for dating sites in the area.

The origin of the Minoan Civilization is unknown, but most Historians believe that the Minoans journeyed to Crete from Anatolia sometime around the year 7000 BCE and began a life as settled Farmers of crops, herders of sheep and domesticated cattle.

The Bull was an important icon in Minoan art and culture, and all indications are that the Minoans worshipped it.

By around 2400 BCE the Minoans started to live in larger settlements equal to towns or small cities, with the later Bronze Age sites indicating the existence of a complex highly developed society characterised by high Culture and impressive large palaces.

These sites were major Minoan administrative trade and religious centers with the Palaces also serving as storehouses for important commodities like grain, olive oil, wine and ceramics. An impressive system of roads was also developed by the Minoans connecting all the various Towns and large Administrative Centres.

The Minoan Civilization developed an alphabet called linear script whose origins and meaning remain undeciphered.

Nevertheless, the Minoan Civilization left a rich legacy of vibrant, colourful visual art that helped paint a portrait of Minoan life.

Some of the greatest and most beautiful visual displays of Minoan life can be found in their pottery and the many frescoes that adorn the walls, ceilings and floors of their buildings.

The causes of the decline of the Minoan Civilization also remain unanswered and some Historians believe that its decline could have been the result of war or a natural disaster like a massive volcanic eruption.

One of the more intriguing theories is that that Mycenaean Civilization from the Greek mainland found its way to Crete in the mid 2nd millennium BCE and gradually overtook the Minoan Civilization.

What is certain however is that by around 1200 BCE, the Minoan sites of Crete were abandoned with the Island only being populated by the Greeks around 500 years later.

The Minoan Civilization remains one of the most fascinating Ancient Civilizations and its influence spread as far as the Greek Islands, Anatolia, Egypt and across the Aegean and Mediterranean Seas.


Metodes

Authentication

This study validated its results through the application of fifteen criteria. The DNA was extracted from tooth powders and DNA libraries were prepared in two independent laboratories in different locations at the University of Washington by different personnel. All DNA extractions and amplification preparations were carried out in physically isolated work areas in flow hoods exclusively dedicated to the study of ancient DNA. The extraction of DNA from teeth for next-generation genome sequencing was performed at the University of Washington in a separate building and by different personnel from the HVS-1 analysis. The samples were processed in a newly built laboratory facility that was restricted for use solely for the Minoan tooth materials. The DNA extracts were maintained in a dedicated, bleach-treated freezer in a separate wing of the building from the PCR or the Illumina machines. Multiple blank extractions were processed in parallel and negative controls were included in all reactions. Positive controls were excluded from extractions and amplifications to avoid the introduction of modern competitor DNA. The DNA samples were tested for appropriate molecular behaviour 27 . HVS-1 results were confirmed on a second tooth from the same individual. Small overlapping targets were amplified. PCR products were cloned to determine the ratio of endogenous-to-exogenous sequences. Amino-acid racemization 28 and concentration ratios 29 were determined in duplicate on a large subset of the samples. PCR copy number was estimated using real-time PCR methods. Protective surgical clothing and mask were worn during the handling and extraction of materials. Equipment, sand paper and tubes were illuminated with UV for 3 hours before each use. All commercial reagents (Taq Polymerase, primers, water and buffers) were screened for modern DNA before use.

DNA extracts were screened with primers L16055-H16379, using the parameters outlined above to assess appropriate molecular behaviour. None of the ancient DNA samples reported here amplified when screened with the L16055-H16379 primer pair, indicating the absence of intact modern competitor DNA 20,27 . Biochemical preservation of teeth was determined using amino-acid analysis by MicroAnalytica LLC on 15 of the original 52 samples from Ayios Charalambos that amplified through HVS-1 primers and 39 of 39 samples from Odigitria. Racemization results for aspartic acid ranged from 0.057 to 0.103 (average=0.08) and for alanine from 0.004 to 0.011 (average=0.0076) for individuals from Ayios Charalambos. Concentration ratios were proportional to published and modern reference standards. For Asp/Glu, they ranged from 0.65 to 0.79 (average=0.71), Ser/Glu 0.44–0.47 (average=0.45) and Ala/Glu 1.56–1.71 (average=1.63). Racemic results were consistent with specimens from which ancient DNA has been successfully recovered and indicate that the cave of Ayios Charalambos contains skeletal remains with excellent biomolecular preservation. In comparison, racemization results obtained from specimens from Odigitria suggested poor preservational history. Aspartic acid ratios for Odigitria ranged from 0.092 to 0.226 (average=0.135) and for alanine from 0.007 to 0.043 (average=0.015). Concentration ratios from Odigitria materials were proportional to published and modern reference standards, but showed a greater range compared with the samples from Ayios Charalambos. For Asp/Glu, they ranged from 0.66 to 1.12 (average=0.75), Ser/Glu 0.38–0.48 (average=0.42) and Ala/Glu 1.31–1.86 (average=1.59) Quantification of target molecules was performed on specimens from Ayios Charalambos using primers L16055-H16155 and SYBR Green (Qiagen) dye on a DNA Engine Opticon 2 Real-Time PCR Detection System (MJ Research). All DNA extracts were shown to contain high copy numbers, ranging from 6,250–13,125 copies (average=10,500) per PCR reaction 30 .

DNA extraction, PCR cloning and sequencing

Teeth were decontaminated by removing the outer layer with sand paper, soaking in 100% bleach for 15 s, rinsing 8 times with DNA-free water and UV treating on all sides for 3 h. They were then pulverized with a Spex CertiPrep 6750 Freezer/Mill for 2 min at a setting of 4. Four-hundred milligram of the resulting powder was decalcified and digested following Krings et al. 31 , using Ultra reagents (Fluka BioChemika). For the HVS-1 analysis, samples were centrifuged for 1 min at 4,000g and the supernatant removed and extracted with an equal volume of UltraPure phenol, chloroform, isoamyl alcohol (25:24:1) (Invitrogen). Supernatant was concentrated to 100 μl using Microcon MW-30 columns (Millipore). DNA from concentrate was isolated using the MinElute Qiagen PCR Purification Kit 32 and eluted with 70 μl of DNA-Free Elution Solution (QBIOgene). Six microlitres of the DNA extract was added to each 25 μl reaction containing HotStart Taq DNA Polymerase (Qiagen) following the manufacturers protocol. Four or five overlapping primer pairs were used to amplify 16055–16379 of the mitochondrial HVS-1 region. Primers followed previous publications 31,33 with these noted modifications L16022-H16155 (5′-ATGTGGATTGGGTTTTTATG-3′) or L16055-H16155, L16122-H16223 (5′-CAGTTGATGTGTGATAGTTGAG-3′), L16209 (5′-CCCCATGCTTACAAGCAAG-3′)-H16331, and L16271-H16379. Reactions were cycled in a PTC-150HB PCR MiniCycler (MJ Research) using the parameters: 95 °C for 15 min, 42 cycles of 94 °C for 30 s, 55 °C for 60 s, 72 °C for 60 s and 72 °C for 7 min. PCR products were cloned using the 2.1-TOPO TA Cloning Kit (Invitrogen). Eight to twelve clones per amplicon were sequenced, representing

80 clones per individual. For sequencing by next-generation Illumina GAII analyzer, DNA was extracted according to the protocol of Rohland and Hofreiter 34 , and processed for sequencing according to the specifications of the manufacturer. The DNA ends were repaired by a Taq polymerase-based protocol and TruSeq adaptors or bar-coded adaptors (single-end) ligated to synthesize the DNA-sequencing libraries. The Truseq adapter libraries were loaded in a single flowcell, while the bar-coded libraries were pooled in sets of six libraries and loaded in a single flowcell.

Sequence analysis and statistics

Consensus sequences were determined from manually aligned amplicons. Sequences were typed following Richards et al. 35 , where motifs containing 16304 were typed as haplogroup H rather than F. All analyses were performed treating cytosine deamination-induced artifacts as ambiguous characters (N). The Surfer 9.0 application (Golden Software Inc., Golden, Colorado) applying the Kriging method was used to graphically represent shared lineages on geographic maps.

Comparison data set of extant and ancient populations

For comparison to the Minoan haplotypes, we mined the GenBank sequence database, and compiled a data set of previously published HVS-1 haplotypes from 135 different population samples (total of 14,267 individuals) (Supplementary Table S4). For our analysis, samples were grouped into 71 population groups from modern populations and 11 ancient populations (Supplementary Table S4).

Population distance matrix based on allele frequencies

For each population, we computed the frequencies of the four different possible nucleotides (A,C,G,T) and missing entries for each of the 413 genotyped mtDNA loci of the HVS-1 region. Thus, each population was summarized by a vector of frequencies. To compute the distance between two populations, we ignored loci with >10% missing entries in either population. Then, for each locus, we computed the city-block (L1) distance between the frequency vectors at that locus. (Recall that the L1 distance between two probability distributions is simply the sum of the absolute values of the element-wise differences.) The distance between the two populations is equal to the average of all L1 distances in all retained loci. This distance definition is symmetric, and for populations that have similar allele frequencies in all genotyped loci, this distance will be small. The above computation was run for all pairs of available populations, thus forming a pairwise distance matrix for all populations.

Principal component analysis

PCA was performed on a pairwise population distance matrix, which was computed using the allele frequencies at each genotyped locus. PCA was evaluated on various subsets of the available populations. Towards that end, we applied the singular value decomposition on the aforementioned pairwise distance matrix, to compute its singular vectors and values. The singular values were used to measure the significance of the top two principal components, and nearest neighbours to the Minoan population were computed by projecting each population on the top two singular vectors and then scaling by the corresponding singular values.


Kry 'n afskrif


Minoan Civilization

Since the archeological pickax unearthed the first findings of the Minoan Palace in Knossos, almost 100 years ago, the cause of the destruction of the Minoan Civilization has been a subject of controversy and dispute among scientists.

Die Minoan Civilization was a Bronze Age civilization that arose in Crete and flourished almost 5000 years ago, until it was destroyed in 1450BC. The Minoans were enigmatic people educated, warriors and merchants, artists, and experienced sailors. Their maritime empire was vast.

They were the first in Europe to use a written language, referred to as Linear A, which was finally decoded just a few years ago. They were different than Greeks and dominated the Mediterranean Sea, especially since they were not menaced by external forces from the Greek mainland or elsewhere.

All of a sudden though, at the height of its power, the Minoan Civilization was destroyed and perished forever, leaving important samples and tokens of its grandeur. The inexplicable end of this civilization made many archaeologists, among which Professor Marinatos and Evans, to associate it with the eruption of the Santorini Volcano.

Is Crete or Santorini the lost Atlantis?

Many scientists and archeologists associate Minoan Crete with the lost Atlantis, partially counting on the words of Plato, whose descriptions fit the findings and evidence of the Minoan Civilization.

"Our records show how your city checked a great power which arrogantly advanced from its base in the Atlantic Ocean to attack the cities of Europe and Asia. For in those days the Atlantic was navigable. " - Platon

Since Platon described the story of Atlantis, numerous myths, legends, and scientific studies have appeared. Many people believe that Atlantis is located in Greece –maybe in Crete, or Santorini. Or even at the Gibraltar. Or maybe, Atlantis is just a myth. In any case, this story fascinates and intrigues numerous people all over the world.

The Eruption of the Santorini Volcano and the destruction of the Minoan Civilization


the eruption of the Santorini Volcano

Somewhere between history and myth lie two historical events of immense importance that shook up and overwhelmed the Hellenic grounds: the destruction of the Minoan Civilization and the eruption of the Santorini Volcano , almost 3,500 years ago. Since Evans discovered the lost Palace of King Minos in Crete, archaeologists and scientists have been trying to connect the two events.

The predominant theory regarding the destruction of the Minoan Civilization has been – for years – that it was provoked by something as violent and as sudden as the eruption of Santorini Volcano. Originally it was believed that the eruption took place in 1450 BC, when the Minoan Civilization perished, but newest findings and theories set it somewhere between 1627BC and 1600BC.

The cosmogonic event of the eruption has perplexed historians for years. Until today, the scientific world is trying to explain and reconstruct the sequence of events that lead to the destruction of the Island of Thira (Santorini) and probably devastated the Minoan Civilization. The Volcanic ash from the Santorini Volcano covered Akrotiri in Thira and reached the Cretan shores. Was it enough though to wipe off map the Minoans?

Minoan Civilization destroyed by tsunamis


The archaeologist Sandy McGillivray in Palaikastro, Crete

For many years, the views and theories of archaeologists have diverged. Relatively recently though, new discoveries in Palaikastro in Crete give us enough hints for a plausible explanation.

Archaeologist Stuart Dunn suggests that the volcanic ash from Santorini obviously shadowed Crete for a few days, but under no circumstances destroyed the Minoan Civilization.

The archaeologist Sandy McGillivray , who studies the Cretan Civilization and its destruction, called in Hendrik Bruins from the Ben Gurion University in Israel to examine the soil in Palaikastro and the coastal sites of Crete, close to the famous palm forest in Vai.

Hendrik Bruins took some soil samples which showed sea microorganisms and species, in places that no known phenomenon could explain their existence.

The experts found deposits of stone and pottery, in pieces or powered, and lots of lumps of volcanic ash. They also discovered foraminifera , tiny marine organisms, usually found only on the seabed, and coralline algae, elements that cannot be seen on the mainland.


The tsunami expert, Dr Kostas Sinolakis

Many kilometers away from Palaikastro, in Amnissos , the port of Knossos, the scientists examined findings that also contained ash, marine species, cattle bones, floor and wall plaster, pumice and seashells. They figured out immediately that this could be explained only by a massive and sudden inflow of water and they called in Kostas Sinolakis , a tsunami expert.

The only way they could have been deposited on the land of Crete was by a tsunami . The tidal wave caused by Santorini Volcano travelled and hit the shores of Crete, destroying the plantations, the crops, the ships and commerce, devitalizing and deviating the Minoan Civilization. The Minoan ports and infrastructures were destroyed by the 50 feet waves and were never rebuilt.


a Minoan city hit by the tsunami

Based on highly accurate and specialized software, Dr Sinolakis managed to reconstruct and enact the way that this tsunami travelled across the Aegean building a full picture of its scale and impact.

Using radio carbon techniques they compare the geological findings with the eruption era all pieces are finally falling into place.

The conclusion was horrifying: not only one, but several successive tsunamis, of more than 50 feet were hitting the Cretan shores, every thirty minutes. Minoans could not have known what fate had written for them.

We can just imagine the terror these people had run away, maybe some of them were coming back to help the wounded or find family members they were there watching more waves coming in.

This was something that happened over and over again, destroying completely the northern and eastern shores of Crete.

Crete is a large island though the palaces and settlements in the interior of the island were almost intact, as were the south and west coast.

Invasion by Mycenaeans - Complete destruction of the Minoan Civilization


Mycenean sword found in a tomb in Chania

Archaeologists have now enough evidence to believe that the reputed Minoan Civilization was severely damaged and affected by the eruption of Santorini Volcano, which destroyed their fleet.

Prosperity and safety of the Minoans relied on their ships since their main means of existence and defense were afflicted, Minoans became an easy prey for the Mycenaean invaders that came to island from the Greek Mainland.

Minoans did not disappear overnight they became ripe for attack by ferocious enemies. In Palaikastro, archeologists found depredated and ravaged statues and monuments, while in Western Crete, closer to Chania, tombs of the same era with bodies and weapons not belonging to the Minoans were unearthed.

Many years passed until the Minoan Civilization was completely destroyed. It is estimated that the palaces of the Minoan Civilization were destroyed almost 150 years after the volcanic eruption.

Even if we never discover if Plato’s words were allegoric or prophetic, or if Atlantis ever existed, the studies and combinations of evidences give us satisfactory and realistic answers on the downfall of one of the most important European Civilizations.


How did the Minoans influence the Greeks?

Cities and towns on the Grieks vasteland were influenced by the Minoan society in that Grieks cities tended to be organized around a palace-like complex. Die Minoan Crete was divided into six different political regions that was discovered based on palace ruins in each location.

Additionally, where did the Minoans originally come from? Die Minoans and Mycenaeans descended mainly from early Neolithic farmers, likely migrating thousands of years prior to the Bronze Age from Anatolia, in what is today modern Turkey. "Minoans, Mycenaeans, and modern Greeks also gehad het some ancestry related to the ancient people of the Caucasus, Armenia, and Iran.

Likewise, people ask, how did the mycenaeans influence Greek culture?

Die Mycenaeans were able to take land by force in the Aegean region, but they eventually expanded their invloed directly to Anatolia and Egypt through trade, incorporating their kultuur into the Bronze Age system from about 1400 BC until its collapse around the year 1200 BC.

How did the Minoans build and create a Greek civilization?

They built their civilization off trade. Abundant resources helped them bou a prosperous economy. Through trade, religious beliefs and cultural customs travel over bigger areas cauding them to be mixed with other cultures.


The Minoans: A Civilization of Bronze Age Crete - History


a Minoan fisherman with his catch of mackerel or tuna - this fresco was found at the city of Akrotiri on the Greek island of Santorini

Since we cannot yet translate the writings from Crete, Linear A, we must rely on their architecture and art to find out who the Minoans were. The beautiful frescoes that the Minoans left behind them reveal a sensitive culture, dependent on the sea, and alive to human beauty and the beauty of the world around them.

Much of what we know of the Minoans comes from their art and architecture. In sharp contrast to other Bronze Age societies, such as the Mycenaeans, Minoan art does not immortalize brutality or war. Their art celebrates everyday things that overflow with the joy of life. Entire walls were decorated with creatures and plants from the natural world around them, such as dolphins, swimming fish, monkeys, lilies, octopi, or birds and swallows. They glorified the everyday portraits of men and women going about ordinary tasks, whether visvang of gathering saffron.

The Minoans decorated their klere and their bodies in keeping with this love of beauty and life. We see social groupings of slender women with long curly black hair in tight-waisted flounced skirts with tight bodices engaged in conversation. There are pictures of lithe young men, some naked, some in decorated kilts or loin cloths. They used cosmetics to further adorn themselves.

They didn't take life lightly however. A culture that depends on an unpredictable see for its livelihood, and rejoices in the daring and extremely dangerous sport of bull leaping cannot take life for granted. And there must have mistakes and mishaps. And yet, in their art what we see is the grace and beauty of the acrobats. We do not see scenes of sadness or pain in Minoan art - even the dolphins seem happy and full of life.

We also see a society that is essentially egalitarian. The signs of exaggerated importance of some individuals (larger than life figures, elaborate burials for leaders) which we see in other Bronze Age culture are largely absent here. For example, in paintings where there is a princess as well as ordinary women, the saffron gatherers, there is no suggestion of awe or fear or undue importance. Although the Minoans clearly did not have a communist or socialist society, the wealth of the Minoan civilization was not concentrated in a wealthy few. All indications are that ordinary people lived very well and even modest homes were equipped with hypocaust heating systems, byvoorbeeld.


Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations

In the late 19th century, Heinrich Scliemann and Sir Arthur Evans unearthed the remains of previously unknown civilizations. Although the names of Troy, Mycenae and Knossos were familiar from the poems of Homer, the Bronze Age societies of the Aegean revealed by these excavations had much more in common with contemporary Near Eastern Societies than they had with later Greece.

Substantial settlements appeared in mainland Greece and Crete by the end of the 3rd millennium BC. These were subsistence farmers, with households providing goods for their own consumption. The subsequent appearance in Crete of large stone-built complexes marked the emergence of a new form of social organization. There are some parallels between these "First Palaces" and Near Eastern Buildings, and they are accompanied by other signs of such influence, including the appearance of a form of hieroglyphic writing in Crete. However, it is likely that local needs as much as outside influence determined the island's overall development.

There is no agreed explanation for the latter destruction of the "First Palaces", but in their place the large complexes of the "Second Palace Period" emerged. These were not fortified, but they were the focus of the economic and religious life of the Minoan communities.

By 1700 BC Knossos had achieved a dominant position within Crete, and the palace there reveals much information about Minoan society. Surviving frescoes depict scenes of communal activity including processions, bull-leaping, dining and dancing. It is clear from Knossos and other palaces that Cretan society depended upon intensive agriculture - the palaces incorporate large storage areas where crops could be gathered for later redistribution to the population. Outside the towns, especially in eastern Crete, laarge "villas" has a similar role, and acted as processing centres for grape and olive crops.

The two hundred years of the Second Palace Period witnessed considerable destruction and rebuilding at a number of sites. The eruption of Thera in 1628 BC left its mark on sites in eastern Crete but otherwise appears to have had little long-term impact. More significantly, a little over a century later many Cretan settlements were widely devastated, possibly as a result of invasion from the Greek mainland.

Mycenaean Greece

Mycenaean Greece, ca. 1400–1100 BC.

Mainland Greece did not share in the prosperity of Crete and the Aegean islands until after c. 1700 BC, when rich burials, especially in the "shaft graves" at Mycenae and in tholos tombs, point to the emergence of a powerful warlike elite. After 1500 BC mainlanders, called Mycenaeans, appear to have been in control of Knossos, where the palace functioned for another century. It was only after then that palaces started to appear on the mainland. While they owed something to Minoan models, and, like them, acted as centres for agricultural storage and redistribution, they were fortified and less luxurious. The Mycenaeans spoke a form of Greek, and wrote in a syllabic script, Linear B, adapted from the still undeciphered script in use in Crete, Linear A. Documents inscribed on clay tablets reveal a strongly hierarchical society, with the ruler at the top, lesser lords below and the mass of the population at the bottom.

Soon after 1200 BC, more or less simultaneously, the palaces on the mainland were destroyed. In the centuries following there is no trace of Linear B writing, nor of the figurative decoration that characterizes Mycenaean art. When written Greek appears again in the 8th century, it uses a version of the Phoenician alphabet.

The absence of firm evidence - mirrored by the lack of firm dates for this period - has led historians to examine the myths in the search for historical facts. On this basis it has been suggested that the Mycenaeans fell victim to Dorian invaders from the north, or that a long war against Troy aused revolution in the Greek homeland. Neither finds support from archaeology, and an agreed explanation for the complete social breakdown or Mycenaean society is yet to emerge. One contributing factor may have been major political upheavals further east, cutting off access to the tin needed to make the bronze on which the Mycenaean rulers based their power. Certainly the society which emerged from the "dark age" that followed the collapse was reliant on the more widely available iron.

The massive ruins of the Mycenaean palaces remained visible to the Greeks of later times, and these, together with a tradition of oral poetry that developed over the following centuries, led to the invention of a heroic world, most famously celebrated in the epic poems of Homer, that was very different from Bronze Age reality.


Kyk die video: #1 Отдых в Греции. Остров Крит, п. Георгиуполис (November 2021).