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Frances Balfour

Frances Balfour


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Frances Balfour, die dogter van George Douglas Campbell, agtste hertog van Argyll (1823–1900), is gebore op 22 Februarie 1858. Die tiende van twaalf kinders, Frances het 'n heupgewrigsiekte gehad en was van kleins af voortdurend in pyn en het geloop met slap.

Haar biograaf, Joan B. Huffman, het daarop gewys: "Haar formele opvoeding is deur 'n Engelse goewerneur verskaf. Die belangrikste metode waarop sy haar hele lewe geleer het, was deur na die gesprekke te luister en daaraan deel te neem, veral aan die etenstafel. , van haar ouers, skoonfamilie en manlike kennisse, veral ministers en politici, wie se geselskap en vriendskap sy verkies het. "

Die hertog en hertogin van Argyll was albei ondersteuners van die Liberale Party in die parlement en was betrokke by verskillende veldtogte vir sosiale hervorming. Frances het ook as kind gehelp met hierdie veldtogte, en een manier waarop sy bygedra het, was om kledingstukke te brei wat aan die kinders van oud-slawe gestuur moet word.

Frances trou in 1879 met Eustace Balfour. Eers het die hertog van Argyll die verhouding gekant omdat hy uit 'n bekende Tory-familie afkomstig was. Eustace se oom, die markies van Salisbury, het drie periodes as premier gehad. Eustace se ouer broer, Arthur Balfour, was ook 'n konserwatiewe politikus en sou later die Britse premier word (1902-1905). Anders as sy broer en oom, het Eustace nie 'n aktiewe rol in die politiek geneem nie. Hy het egter sy gesin se Tory -sienings gedeel, en dit het konflik veroorsaak tussen hom en sy vrou. Frances was 'n passievolle liberaal en was 'n lojale ondersteuner van William Gladstone en sy regering. Die egpaar het nooit hierdie politieke verskille oorkom nie en het al hoe minder tyd saam deurgebring. Eustace was 'n sterk drinker en het uiteindelik 'n alkoholis geword. Eustace sterf in 1911.

Lidmaatskap van die Women's Liberal Unionist Association het haar in aanraking gebring met feministe soos Marie Corbett en Eva Maclaren. In 1887 werk Balfour saam met Corbett en Maclaren in die pas gestigte Liberal Women's Suffrage Society. Frances Balfour het in haar joernaal geskryf: "Ek kan geen datum onthou waarop ek nie 'n passiewe gelowige was in die regte van vroue om in hierdie land as volwaardige burgers erken te word nie. Niemand het ooit met my daaroor gepraat nie behalwe as skokkend of belaglik, meer dikwels as 'n idee wat goddeloos, onbeskeie en onvroulik was. "

Haar biograaf, Joan B. Huffman, het aangevoer: "Lady Frances het haar politieke werk begin toe sy by die veldtog aangesluit het om die bevryding van Britse vroue te verseker. Sy was inderdaad een van die hoogste lede van die aristokrasie wat 'n leiersrol in die Een van die min vroue in haar klas wat vanaf die 1880's vir stemme vir vroue geagiteer het, het sy 'n leier geword van die konstitusionele kiesers. Haar feminisme, net soos die res van haar politieke filosofie, is afgelei van haar persoonlike ervarings Sy het in haar jeug en adolessensie die argumente teen slawerny gehoor wat deur lede van haar familie aangevoer is (haar ma en ouma, Harriet, hertogin van Sutherland, was vurige afskaffingskundiges). gefrustreerd omdat sy die parlement kon waarneem, maar nie daarna streef nie, het Lady Frances as feminis gelyke regte vir vroue voorgestaan ​​en was absoluut daarvan oortuig dat vroue per. toegelaat om op dieselfde voorwaardes as mans vir loopbane in alle beroepe te studeer en op te lei. "

In 1896 word Frances Balfour president van die Central Society for Women's Suffrage. Sy was 'n goeie spreker en het gereeld op publieke vergaderings verskyn. Sy was ook goed geplaas om vooraanstaande lede van die Laerhuis te probeer beïnvloed. Frances en haar skoonsuster, Betty Balfour, het hard probeer om Arthur Balfour te oorreed om vroue se stemreg te ondersteun. Alhoewel Balfour die regverdigheid van vroueregte aanvaar het, het sy gebrek aan entoesiasme beteken dat hy nie bereid was om te veg vir die saak in die grootliks onsimpatieke Konserwatiewe Party nie.

Balfour was 'n heeltemal nie-gewelddadige suffragis en was heeltemal gekant teen die militante optrede van die Women's Political and Social Union (WSPU). Francis was dit nie eens met haar skoonsuster, Constance Lytton, wat by die WSPU aangesluit het en verskeie periodes van gevangenisstraf moes verduur nie. Frances was ook gekant teen sosialisme en was baie ontevrede met die besluit van die National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies in 1912 om die Labour Party te ondersteun.

Nadat vroue stem gekry het, bestee Balfour haar tyd aan die skryf van boeke en artikels. Dit het vyf biografieë ingesluit: Lady Victoria Campbell (1911), Die lewe en briewe van eerwaarde James MacGregor (1912), Dr Elsie Inglis (1918), The Life of George, Vierde Graaf van Aberdeen (1923), en 'N Memoir van Lord Balfour van Burleigh (1925) en 'n outobiografie, Me Obliviscaris (1930), waar sy onthou: 'My geskenke, soos dit was, was om 'n soort skakelbeampte tussen stemreg en die parlement te wees en 'n goeie platformstem te hê.

Lady Frances Balfour is op 25 Februarie 1931 in haar huis in Londen, Addisonweg 32, Kensington, dood aan longontsteking en hartversaking. Sy is begrawe in Whittingehame, die Balfour -gesinshuis in Oos -Lothian.

Op die tafel te midde van haar werk was 'n glas, waarin 'n enkele blommetjie, of 'n takkie groen, en nie selde 'n bietjie klawerblaar, in vreemde uiterlike kontras met die groot, ongemerkte figuur van juffrou Blackburn staan, haar kortsigtige oë altyd toemaak na die koerante by wie sy gewerk het ... Haar gesig was erg bederf deur lang siekes, die meeste geduldig gedra, maar deur die duidelikheid daarvan het die aangesig van 'n groot siel geskyn .... Juffrou Blackburn was 'n gebore kroniekskrywer en antikwariër ... Haar kennis en ervaring was tot almal se beskikking.

Lady Frances Balfour het 'n toespraak gehou oor Women's Suffrage. Lady Balfour het tydens die vergadering gesê dat vroue, volgens die wet, onder arme, misdadigers en gekke as ongeskik beskou word om die franchise uit te oefen ... in die mediese professie en deelneem aan die plaaslike regering ... Een van die argumente wat gebruik word teen die stemme van vroue was dat hulle nie kon veg nie, daarom het hulle geen reg op 'n stem in hierdie aangeleenthede oor oorloë nie, maar dit was belaglik, vir wie was dit die meeste wat in oorlogstyd gely het? Vroue, omdat hulle hul mans en seuns verloor het.

Lady Balfour het my privaat by Arthur Balfour gaan sien. Toe ons daar aankom, het hy my gevra om hom te vertel wat ek dink hy vir ons kan doen. Ek het 'n lang gesprek met hom gehad ... Daar sit hy in 'n leunstoel, sy lang bene uitgestrek ... Hy snuif voortdurend na 'n botteltjie. Ek het gewonder wat dit bevat en het gedink dat die gesprek hom sou ontstel ... Dit was tyd om te gaan en hy het hom nie meer toegewy as wat ek verwag het nie.

Ek is pas terug van 'n aand saam met die militante ... Die polisie het in vaste lyne die vroue in Victoriastraat ingedraai. Hier het ons verskeie arrestasies gesien, die vroue wat almal buitengewone moed getoon het in die stormloop van die skare om hulle ... Twee vroue, presies voor ons, gooi klippe na die vensters. Swak skote; Ek dink nie die glas was gebars nie. 'N Polisieman vlieg om hulle en sy arms om hul nek voordat ons kan knipoog. Die moed wat hierdie hantering aandurf, bewonder ek wel. Daar is 'n goeie gees, maar of dit nie eerder weggegooi word oor hierdie taktiek nie, bly my 'n twyfel.

Min dinge het my hele lewensvisie meer beïnvloed as haar voorbeeld. Dit het 'n mens skaam gemaak vir halfhartige geloof en vir jou lafhartigheid. Dit stel 'n standaard, waarvolgens vroue voel dat hulle hulself moet meet en vind dat hulle wil, dat hulle fyner moet lewe. Dit is wat helde en heiliges vir ons doen, dit verhoog ons standaarde van geloof en prestasie. Ek voel vandag dieselfde diep impuls van dankbaarheid en liefde as wat ons in die donker dae gevoel het toe sy vir ons in die tronk gelê het.

Op een of ander manier kan ek nie dink aan die afsterwe van u suster Constance met 'n gevoel van breek nie - slegs 'n gevoel van 'n groot opkoms in groter vryheid en aktiwiteit ... Ek gee nie in die minste om of haar optrede wys of dwaas was nie. Ek sê eenvoudig dat sy 'n aandeel gehad het in die verandering van die wêreld en die vorming van gedagtes onder vroue. Wie kan vra vir 'n beter grafskrif? "


Jane Frances Balfour

@ R [email protected] 1900 Federale sensus van die Verenigde State Ancestry.com Aanlynpublikasie - Provo, UT, VSA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2004. Oorspronklike gegewens - Verenigde State van Amerika, Bureau of the Census. Twaalfde Sensus van die Verenigde State, 1900. Washington, DC: National Archives and Records Administration, 1900. T623, 18 1,7602 :: 0

GEDCOM Bron

Jaar: 1900 Census Place: Somerville Ward 5, Middlesex, Massachusetts Roll: T623_666 Page: 11B Enumeration District: 945. http://trees.ancestry.com/rd?f=sse&db=1900usfedcen&h=23570091&ti=0&. Geboortedatum: Mei 1858 Geboorteplek: Massachusetts Troudatum: 1883 Huweliksplek: Koshuisdatum: 1900 Koshuisplek: Somerville city, Middlesex, Massachusetts 1,7602 :: 23570091

GEDCOM Bron

@ R [email protected] 1910 Verenigde State se federale sensus Ancestry.com Aanlynpublikasie - Provo, UT, VSA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2006. Oorspronklike gegewens - Dertiende sensus van die Verenigde State, 1910 (NARA mikrofilmpublikasie T624, 1.178 rolle) . Rekords van die Buro vir die Sensus, Rekordgroep 29. Nasionale Argief, Was 1,7884 :: 0

GEDCOM Bron

Jaar: 1910 Sensus Plek: Somerville Ward 5, Middlesex, Massachusetts Rol: Bladsy: Enumeration District: Beeld:. http://trees.ancestry.com/rd?f=sse&db=1910uscenindex&h=134003122&ti. Geboortedatum: 1859 Geboorteplek: Massachusetts Koshuisdatum: 1910 Koshuisplek: Somerville Ward 5, Middlesex, Massachusetts 1.7884 :: 134003122

GEDCOM Bron

@ [email protected] 1880 United States Federal Census Ancestry.com en The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Online publikasie-Provo, UT, VSA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2010. 1880 US Census Index verskaf deur The Church of Jesus Christus van die heiliges van die laaste dae © Kopiereg 1999 Intellectual Reserve, Inc. Alle regte voorbehou. Alle gebruik is onderhewig aan die beperkte 1,6742 :: 0

GEDCOM Bron

Jaar: 1880 Census Place: Boston, Suffolk, Massachusetts Rol: 557 Familiegeskiedenis Film: 1254557 Bladsy: 259A Enumeration District: 696 Beeld: 0519. http://trees.ancestry.com/rd?f=sse&db=1880usfedcen&h=44090545&ti= 0 en amp. Geboortedatum: ongeveer 1858 Geboorteplek: Massachusetts Koshuisdatum: 1880 Koshuisplek: Boston, Suffolk, Massachusetts, Verenigde State 1,6742 :: 44090545

GEDCOM Bron

@ R [email protected] 1870 Verenigde State se federale sensus Ancestry.com Aanlynpublikasie - Provo, UT, VSA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2009. Beelde weergegee deur FamilySearch.Original data - 1870 Amerikaanse sensus, bevolkingsskedules. NARA mikrofilmpublikasie M593, 1 761 rolle. Washington, DC: National Archives and Record 1,7163 :: 0

GEDCOM Bron

Jaar: 1870 Sensus Plek: Boston Ward 7, Suffolk, Massachusetts Rol: M593_ Bladsy: Beeld:. http://trees.ancestry.com/rd?f=sse&db=1870usfedcen&h=26658698&ti=0&. Geboortedatum: ongeveer 1859 Geboorteplek: Massachusetts Koshuisdatum: 1870 Koshuisplek: Boston Ward 7, Suffolk, Massachusetts, Verenigde State 1,7163 :: 26658698

GEDCOM Bron

@ [email protected] Massachusetts, Huweliksrekords, 1840-1915 Ancestry.com Ancestry.com Operations, Inc. 1,2511 :: 0

GEDCOM Bron

New England Historic Genealogical Society Boston, Massachusetts 1,2511 :: 12579978

GEDCOM Bron

@ R [email protected] 1900 Federale sensus van die Verenigde State Ancestry.com Aanlynpublikasie - Provo, UT, VSA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2004. Oorspronklike gegewens - Verenigde State van Amerika, Bureau of the Census. Twaalfde Sensus van die Verenigde State, 1900. Washington, DC: National Archives and Records Administration, 1900. T623, 18 1,7602 :: 0

GEDCOM Bron

Jaar: 1900 Census Place: Somerville Ward 5, Middlesex, Massachusetts Roll: T623_666 Page: 11B Enumeration District: 945. http://trees.ancestry.com/rd?f=sse&db=1900usfedcen&h=23570091&ti=0&. Geboortedatum: Mei 1858 Geboorteplek: Massachusetts Troudatum: 1883 Huweliksplek: Koshuisdatum: 1900 Koshuisplek: Somerville city, Middlesex, Massachusetts 1,7602 :: 23570091

GEDCOM Bron

@ R [email protected] 1900 Federale sensus van die Verenigde State Ancestry.com Aanlynpublikasie - Provo, UT, VSA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2004. Oorspronklike gegewens - Verenigde State van Amerika, Bureau of the Census. Twaalfde Sensus van die Verenigde State, 1900. Washington, DC: National Archives and Records Administration, 1900. T623, 18 1,7602 :: 0

GEDCOM Bron

Jaar: 1900 Census Place: Somerville Ward 5, Middlesex, Massachusetts Roll: T623_666 Page: 11B Enumeration District: 945. http://trees.ancestry.com/rd?f=sse&db=1900usfedcen&h=23570091&ti=0&. Geboortedatum: Mei 1858 Geboorteplek: Massachusetts Troudatum: 1883 Huweliksplek: Koshuisdatum: 1900 Koshuisplek: Somerville city, Middlesex, Massachusetts 1,7602 :: 23570091

GEDCOM Bron

@ R [email protected] 1910 Verenigde State se federale sensus Ancestry.com Aanlynpublikasie - Provo, UT, VSA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2006. Oorspronklike gegewens - Dertiende sensus van die Verenigde State, 1910 (NARA mikrofilmpublikasie T624, 1.178 rolle) . Rekords van die Buro vir die Sensus, Rekordgroep 29. Nasionale Argief, Was 1,7884 :: 0

GEDCOM Bron

Jaar: 1910 Sensus Plek: Somerville Ward 5, Middlesex, Massachusetts Rol: Bladsy: Enumeration District: Beeld:. http://trees.ancestry.com/rd?f=sse&db=1910uscenindex&h=134003122&ti. Geboortedatum: 1859 Geboorteplek: Massachusetts Koshuisdatum: 1910 Koshuisplek: Somerville Ward 5, Middlesex, Massachusetts 1.7884 :: 134003122

GEDCOM Bron

@ [email protected] 1880 United States Federal Census Ancestry.com en The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Online publikasie-Provo, UT, VSA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2010. 1880 US Census Index verskaf deur The Church of Jesus Christus van die heiliges van die laaste dae © Kopiereg 1999 Intellectual Reserve, Inc. Alle regte voorbehou. Alle gebruik is onderhewig aan die beperkte 1,6742 :: 0

GEDCOM Bron

Jaar: 1880 Census Place: Boston, Suffolk, Massachusetts Rol: 557 Familiegeskiedenis Film: 1254557 Bladsy: 259A Enumeration District: 696 Beeld: 0519. http://trees.ancestry.com/rd?f=sse&db=1880usfedcen&h=44090545&ti= 0 en amp. Geboortedatum: ongeveer 1858 Geboorteplek: Massachusetts Koshuisdatum: 1880 Koshuisplek: Boston, Suffolk, Massachusetts, Verenigde State 1,6742 :: 44090545

GEDCOM Bron

@ R [email protected] 1870 Verenigde State se federale sensus Ancestry.com Aanlynpublikasie - Provo, UT, VSA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2009. Beelde weergegee deur FamilySearch.Original data - 1870 Amerikaanse sensus, bevolkingsskedules. NARA mikrofilmpublikasie M593, 1 761 rolle. Washington, DC: National Archives and Record 1,7163 :: 0

GEDCOM Bron

Jaar: 1870 Sensus Plek: Boston Ward 7, Suffolk, Massachusetts Rol: M593_ Bladsy: Beeld:. http://trees.ancestry.com/rd?f=sse&db=1870usfedcen&h=26658698&ti=0&. Geboortedatum: ongeveer 1859 Geboorteplek: Massachusetts Koshuisdatum: 1870 Koshuisplek: Boston Ward 7, Suffolk, Massachusetts, Verenigde State 1,7163 :: 26658698

GEDCOM Bron

@ R [email protected] Amerikaanse stadsgidse (Beta) Ancestry.com Aanlynpublikasie - Provo, UT, VSA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2011. Oorspronklike gegewens - Oorspronklike bronne wissel volgens gids. Die titel van die spesifieke gids wat bekyk word, word bo -aan die beeldbekykersbladsy gelys. Gaan die gids titel 1,2469 :: 0 na

GEDCOM Bron

GEDCOM Bron

@ R [email protected] Amerikaanse stadsgidse (Beta) Ancestry.com Aanlynpublikasie - Provo, UT, VSA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2011. Oorspronklike gegewens - Oorspronklike bronne wissel volgens gids. Die titel van die spesifieke gids wat bekyk word, word bo -aan die prentjie -kykerbladsy gelys. Gaan die gids titel 1,2469 :: 0 na

GEDCOM Bron

GEDCOM Bron

@ [email protected] Massachusetts, Huweliksrekords, 1840-1915 Ancestry.com Ancestry.com Operations, Inc. 1,2511 :: 0

GEDCOM Bron

New England Historic Genealogical Society Boston, Massachusetts 1,2511 :: 12579978


Lady Frances: Frances Balfour, Aristocrat Suffragist

Een van Lady France Balfour se lofrede het opgemerk dat sy as een van Skotland se grootste vroue beskou sou word, maar vandag weet min wie sy was of wat sy vir Britse vroue gedoen het. Die biografie van Joan B Huffman is 'n poging om die rekord reg te stel en die eerste volledige en akkurate verhaal van hierdie merkwaardige vrou te vertel. Die ouers en grootouers van Lady Frances Balfour was vooruitdenkend, en sy was van kleins af geïnteresseerd in die politiekwêreld. Toe sy met Eustace Balfour, broer van Arthur Balfour, trou, was sy steeds geïnteresseerd in die politiek. As vrou aan die einde van die negentiende/vroeë twintigste eeu het sy egter feitlik geen mag gehad nie, en moes sy ander metodes soek om haar belange na te streef. In 1889 vind sy haar roeping in die stryd om stemreg, waar sy die konstitusionaliste se grootste lobbyis by die parlement was. Van die stryd om die regte van werkende vroue tot werk en redelike inkomste tot die verdediging van die veiligheid van onbegeleide vroue wat deur charlatans na Londen gelok is tot die ondersteuning van dr. uiters onregverdige egskeidingswette, het Frances haar laaste dag gewerk en bedien, ondanks die daaglikse pyn van 'n heupprobleem wat in haar jeug verkeerd behandel is. Lady Frances is die enigste leier van die stemme vir vroue -veldtog sonder 'n biografie, maar sy was die enigste aristokraat en die enigste Skot wat 'n nasionale leiersrol in die veldtog gehad het. Hierdie biografie sal 'n beroep doen op lesers wat geïnteresseerd is in die Britse geskiedenis, veral diegene wat meer wil weet oor 'n belangrike kampvegter vir vroueregte.


Lady Frances: Frances Balfour, Aristocrat, Suffragist

Joan B Huffman bied 'n oortuigende en noukeurig nagevorsde insig in een van die hoogste lede van die Britse aristokrasie om 'n leiersrol in die vrouestembeweging te aanvaar.

Die boek gee 'n uitgebreide weergawe van die lewe van Lady Frances Balfour, 'n onbekende karakter wat baie vir Britse vroue gedoen het.

Met gedetailleerde verslae van Lady Balfour wat veg vir die regte van werkende vroue tot werk en redelike inkomste, wat dr Elsie Inglis ondersteun in haar strewe om Scottish Women's Hospitals te stig en in verskillende regeringskomitees te dien, poog hierdie biografie om die rekord reg te stel.

Lady Balfour was van jongs af geïnteresseerd in politiek, maar as vrou in die 19de eeu het sy dit moeilik gevind om haar belange na te streef.

In 1889 vind sy haar roeping in die stryd om stemreg, waar sy die konstitusionaliste se grootste lobbyis met die parlement was.

Die boek volg haar ontwikkeling as politikus en, die belangrikste, as mens. Alhoewel die teks op 'n sekere punt 'n bietjie swaar is vir besonderhede en datums, vloei dit baie goed oor hierdie soort biografie en verteenwoordig dit 'n fassinerende venster na Brittanje uit die 19de eeu.

Die vele aanhalings uit die briewe en dagboeke van Lady Frances verbind die leser direk met haar as persoon, en nie bloot as 'n abstrakte naam op 'n geskiedenisblad nie.

Die publikasie van die boek kom op 'n tydige tydstip vir die feministiese beweging in die Verenigde Koninkryk, want dit is vanjaar die honderdjarige bestaan ​​van sommige vroue wat in 1918 toegang tot die stemming verkry het.

Hierdie goed gemaakte, gebalanseerde en fassinerende portret van 'n ongelooflike en misgekykte karakter uit ons verlede sal 'n beroep doen op lesers wat geïnteresseerd is in die Britse geskiedenis en veral diegene met 'n belang in feministiese geskiedenis.

Dit bied ook 'n geleentheid vir nuwe generasies om meer te wete te kom oor hierdie inspirerende figuur.

Lady Frances: Frances Balfour, Aristocrat and Suffragist, deur Joan B Huffman, Troubador Publishing, £ 19,99.


Jerusalem Sentrum vir Openbare Sake

* Ambassadeur Dore Gold is die gasredakteur van hierdie spesiale uitgawe van die Oorsig van die Joodse Politieke Studies.

Die verklaarde doel van die Balfour -verklaring van 2 November 1917 en die omstandighede waaronder dit gepubliseer is, is algemeen bekend. 1 Die mees algemene verduideliking was dat Brittanje en die Geallieerde Magte deur idealisme en hul belange geraak is. Op 'n kritieke punt in die Eerste Wêreldoorlog moes die Britse kabinet wêreldwye Joodse steun vir die Geallieerde saak verseker en hoop om terselfdertyd die Verenigde State en Rusland aan hul kant te hou. Met verloop van tyd het die wêreld se begrip van die verklaring egter onderwerp geword aan bittere omstredenheid en revisionistiese interpretasie. Trouens, die Palestynse Owerheid van vandag het sover gegaan om dit 'n 'misdaad' te noem. 2

Dit is opmerklik dat die verklaring veel meer was as 'n eensydige daad van die regering van Sy Majesteit. Op 4 Junie 1917 het die Franse minister van buitelandse sake, Jules Cambon, aan Nahum Sokolow geskryf dat die Franse regering simpatie vir sy saak voel, wat Cambon beskryf as "die herlewing van die Joodse nasionaliteit in die land waaruit die volk Israel verban is soveel eeue gelede. ”

Boonop het die Britse diplomasie, voor die publikasie van die verklaring, eers die steun van president Woodrow Wilson en die Amerikaanse regering verseker. Nadat hulle dit gedoen het, het die Britte 'n breër basis vir internasionale steun begin bou vir die idee van die Jewish National Home. Op 24 Julie 1922 is die Britse belofte om die Joodse Nasionale Huis te help bou, uitdruklik opgeneem in die teks van die Volkebond -mandaat, wat 'n inwerkingtreding van die bepalings vereis. Die Balfour -verklaring is dus omskep in 'n bindende verpligting kragtens volkereg. Boonop is dit eenparig goedgekeur deur die Raad van die Volkebond, bestaande uit een-en-vyftig lidlande. Hierdie uitgebreide konsensus oor internasionale steun sou uiteindelik Argentinië, België, Brasilië, Kanada, China, Frankryk, Griekeland, Italië, Japan, Siam, Swede en die Vatikaan insluit. 3 Martin Kramer het opgemerk dat “die verklaring op die oog af 'n eensydige Britse voorneme was. Om die breë konsensus van die Geallieerdes uit te spreek, kan dit in werklikheid selfs as ongeveer vergelykbaar met 'n resolusie van die VN se Veiligheidsraad beskou word. " 4

Afsonderlik het dit duidelik geword dat die idee van die Jewish National Home sy eie momentum ontwikkel het. Onlangs het Wolfgang Schwanitz 'n merkwaardige ontdekking gerapporteer. Hy berig in 'n ongepubliseerde manuskrip, "The Ottoman Balfour Declaration", dat Talaat Pasha, die Groot Vizier van die Ottomaanse Ryk, op 12 Augustus 1918, twee en 'n half maande voor die einde van die oorlog, die volgende verklaring uitgereik het: "... het besluit om alle beperkende maatreëls op te hef en beslis die beperkende regulasies ten opsigte van immigrasie en vestiging van Jode in Palestina af te skaf. Ek verseker u van my simpatie met die totstandkoming van 'n Joodse godsdienstige sentrum in Palestina deur middel van goed georganiseerde immigrasie en kolonisasie. Dit is my begeerte om hierdie werk onder die beskerming van die Turkse regering te plaas. ” 5 Die verklaring was opvallend gegewe die Ottomane se vyandigheid teenoor minderhede, veral hul Armeense bevolking.

Die Balfour -verklaring is belangrik omdat dit die historiese band van die Joodse volk met die Heilige Land erken, 'n band wat lank voor die verklaring bestaan ​​het. Wat belangrik was, was die openbare en formele erkenning daarvan en die opname daarvan in die internasionale reg. In sy getuienis voor die Peel -kommissie op 7 Januarie 1937 het David Ben Gurion die onderskeid getref tussen die voorrang van die historiese feite en die moderne erkenning daarvan:

Ek sê namens die Jode dat die Bybel ons mandaat is, die Bybel wat deur ons in ons eie taal in Hebreeus in hierdie land geskryf is. Dit is ons mandaat. Dit is slegs erkenning van hierdie reg wat in die Balfour -verklaring uitgedruk is. 6

Die Balfour -verklaring is 'n uiters belangrike dokument, want dit bevat wêreldherkenning van die historiese regte van die Joodse volk tot 'n nasionale huis. In die mandaatdokument word gesê: “Terwyl daardeur erkenning gegee is aan die historiese verbintenis van die Joodse volk met Palestina en die gronde vir die heropbou van hul nasionale tuiste in daardie land.” Die mandaat en die Balfour -verklaring, waarop dit gegrond was, het dus nie Joodse historiese regte geskep nie, maar eerder erkenning gegee aan 'n bestaande reg.

Die Joodse aanspraak op die Heilige Land is op feite gebaseer, en ons kan verstaan ​​uit Chaim Weizmann se taal en woordkeuse toe hy verduidelik dat dit 'n belangrike historiese gebeurtenis was. Hy noem die Balfour -verklaring 'n "daad van restitusie" en beskryf dit nadruklik as 'n 'unieke daad van die wêreld se morele gewete'. Hy het sy diep bewustheid van historiese kontinuïteit oor millennia uitgespreek en noem dit 'die regstelling van 'n historiese onreg' en 'geregtigheid'. 7

Sir Isaiah Berlin skryf in die 1960's dat "sy [Weizmann se] naam onlosmaaklik verbind is met hierdie [die Balfour -verklaring], die grootste gebeurtenis in die Joodse geskiedenis sedert die vernietiging van Judea." 8

Verder het Jacob, die vierde Lord Rothschild, nou 80 en hoof van die familie se bankdinastie, aan die voormalige Israeliese Britse ambassadeur Daniel Taub gesê dat die steunverklaring vir 'n Joodse vaderland in Palestina "die grootste gebeurtenis in die Joodse lewe vir duisende jare was" , n wonderwerk…." 9

Die praktiese betekenis van die Balfour -verklaring is dat dit in ons tyd die moderne basis is van die legitimiteit van die Joodse Nasionale Huis en die Staat Israel. Die wen van die Balfour -verklaring was 'n belangrike historiese prestasie, en daarom het die vyande van die Joodse nasionale saak die verklaring geteiken en probeer om dit te ontken, hoofsaaklik deur 'n veldtog van geskiedenisvervalsing.

… se pogings om die Joodse aanspraak op die land Israel te ondermyn, dateer van ver voor 1967, tot in die twintigerjare. Mense het onder meer beweer dat die Jode van vandag nie die ware afstammelinge van die Joodse volk was nie, maar die afstammelinge van die Khuzarim [Khazars]. Die vergelyking van die Sioniste met Nazi's strek ook terug tot die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. In die tyd toe die Nazi's besig was om die Europese Jood uit te roei, het Britse amptenare die Sioniste met Nazi's vergelyk. 10

Die historiese Joodse verbintenis met die land Israel is die werklike aanspraak op staatskaping. Die neiging om die sionisme op grond van die Holocaust te regverdig, word heeltemal verkeerd verstaan. Sionisme was nie net 'n florerende en suksesvolle beweging voor hierdie tragedie nie, maar die Holocaust het sy grootste menslike reservoir vernietig en dit ernstig teruggestel. Boonop het die Arabiere hulself altyd wanvoorgestel as die slagoffers van die Holocaust deur kwansuis gedwing te word om die rekening vir hierdie tragedie te betaal. Boonop poog hulle om Israel se aansprake te ondermyn deur terug te gaan na 1948 en dit uit te beeld as 'n staat wat in sonde gebore is. Die Arabiere en hul advokate voer aan dat die sionisme van die begin af daarna gestreef het om die Palestynse volk te vernietig, hulle uit hul erfenis te onttrek en gebruik te maak van die geleentheid wat die verdeling en die gepaardgaande oorlog gebruik het. 11

Die oorlog teen die Balfour -verklaring bevat voortdurende aanvalle op die wettigheid daarvan en die historiese band wat dit erken het. Hierdie aanslag op Israel se legitimiteit het die ontkenning van die Joodse geskiedenis by internasionale liggame soos die VN ingesluit. Onlangs het dit die Palestynse Owerheid ingesluit om 'n jaar van protes teen hierdie 'misdaad' te begin en die Britse regering om verskoning te vra.

Vandag se aanranding van die Palestynse Arabiere op die Balfour -verklaring is nie nuut nie. Dit het 'n skandelike presedent. Op die ses en twintigste herdenking van die Balfour-verklaring, 2 November 1943, het Hajj Amin-al Husseini, die voormalige Mufti van Jerusalem en hoof van die Moslem Instituut in Berlyn, die wêreld toegespreek vanuit Luftwaffe Hall. Daar het hy sy ongekwalifiseerde steun toegesê aan die Duitsers, “wat beslis die Joodse probleem opgelos het”. 12

By hierdie feestelike geleentheid het minister van buitelandse sake von Ribbentrop en die leier van die SS, Heinrich Himmler, telegramme van ondersteuning gestuur. Himmler het geskryf,

Die Nasionaal -Sosialistiese Party het op sy vlag 'die uitwissing van die Joodse wêreld' ingeskryf. Ons party het simpatie met die stryd van die Arabiere, veral die Arabiere van Palestina, teen die vreemde Jood. Op hierdie herdenkingsdag van die Balfour -verklaring stuur ek my groete en wense vir sukses in u stryd. 13

Die Joodse bevolking van Mandatory Palestina het 'n groot aantal vrywilligers bygedra en sy mannekrag, landbou, vervaardiging en kundigheid aan die Geallieerde aangewend. Ongelukkig is hierdie bydrae gou vergete. Toe die staat Israel in 1948 gebore word, is dit binnegeval deur 'n koalisie van Arabiese leërs wat op daardie stadium hul opleiding en wapens van die belangrikste koloniale moondhede in die Midde -Ooste ontvang het: Brittanje en Frankryk. Ironies genoeg was die opkoms van Israel 'n antikoloniale ontwikkeling wat die afsterwe van Europese koloniale ryke en die opkoms van onafhanklike state versnel het.

Ons begrip van die Balfour -verklaring van vandag kan beskou word as deel van 'n politieke oorlog om die integriteit van die historiese verslag te behou. In die groot historiese afrekening wat nog moet plaasvind, moet sekere historiese feite verstaan ​​word. Dit sou die volgende insluit: 1) die belangrikheid van die Balfour -verklaring en die status daarvan as 'n verbintenis wat die volkereg verseker 2) Die Yishuv se deelname tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog aan die kant van die Geallieerde Magte van die Balfour -verklaring en sy versuim om sy getroue bondgenoot te beloon.

Gedurende die eeufees van die Balfour -verklaring is ons bespreking besmet deur die pogings van Israel se vyande om die historiese feite wanvoor te stel en te vervals. Hulle probeer om die moderne Israel uit te beeld as 'n produk van Europese kolonialisme, eenvoudig en sonder wortels in die land en sonder historiese regte. Dit is nie moontlik om die mites en leuens van 'n sogenaamde 'verhaal' te aanvaar nie, wat vermoedelik die historiese feite kan weeg. In eenvoudige taal is die moderne Israel die erfgenaam en opvolger van antieke Israel. Die Balfour -verklaring het hierdie band erken en sodoende die wêreld “’ n unieke daad van wêreldmorele gewete ”getoon.

1 Op 28 Februarie van hierdie jaar het die Jerusalem -sentrum vir openbare aangeleenthede met die steun van die Konrad Adenauer -stigting 'n konferensie belê om die belangrikheid van die Balfour -verklaring te herdenk en te herwaardeer, met die honderdste herdenking wat binnekort nader kom. Die sentrum het prominente geleerdes uitgenooi om die verklaring vanuit verskillende oogpunte te ondersoek en hul bevindings te deel.

2 “Palestyne berei hulself voor om 100 jaar te vier vir die Balfour -verklaring,” 24 Oktober 2016, WAFA http://english.wafa.ps/page.aspx?id=G8NFN5a50719869123aG8NFN5

5 Wolfgang G. Schwanitz, “The Ottoman Balfour Declaration,” (2015) unpublished manuscript, cited with the author’s permission.

6 Conor Cruise O’Brien, The Seige (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1986), 225.

7 Chaim Weizmann, Trial and Error (London: Hamish Hamilton, 1949), 252. Some of this information is paraphrased from an essay of Joel Fishman, with his consent.

8 Sir Isaiah Berlin, “The Biographical Facts,” in Meyer W. Weisgal and Joel Carmichael, eds. Chaim Weizmann A Biography of Several Hands (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1962), 36.

9 Interview by Ambassador Daniel Taub, “Lord Rothschild discusses cousin’s crucial role in ‘miracle’ Balfour Declaration,” Tye van Israel, February 8, 2017, http://jewishnews.timesofisrael.com/rothschild/. The following background information was published by the Rothschild archives, “Beginning in 1916, the British hoped that in exchange for their support of Zionism, ‘the Jews’ would help to finance the growing expenses of the First World War, which was becoming increasingly burdensome. More importantly, policy-makers in the Foreign Office believed that Jews could be prevailed upon to persuade the United States to join the War. At this time, there were very strong pro-Zionist feelings by many of the political elite and establishment. Many of Britain’s leaders, including Prime Minister David Lloyd George, and Balfour himself, felt for the Jews and their history. These men were deeply religious Christian Zionists. They had grown up on the Bible the Holy Land was their spiritual home. They believed that modern Zionism would fulfil a divine promise, and re-settle the Jews in the land of their ancient fathers.” “Walter Rothschild and the Balfour Declaration,” The Rothschild Archive, https://www.rothschildarchive.org/contact/faqs/walter_rothschild_and_the_balfour_declaration.

10 Personal communication between Prof. Efraim Karsh and Joel Fishman, July 22, 2011.

12 Maurice Pearlman, Mufti of Jerusalem: The Story of Haj Amin el Husseini (London: Gollancz, 1947), 49 as quoted by Joel Fishman, “The Recent Discovery of Heinrich Himmler’s Telegram of November 2, 1943, the Anniversary of the Balfour Declaration, to Amin al Husseini. Mufti of Jerusalem.” Jewish Political Studies Review, Vol. 27, Nos. 3-4 (Fall 2016): 77-87.


How was it received by Palestinians and Arabs?

In 1919, then-US President Woodrow Wilson appointed a commission to look into public opinion on the mandatory system in Syria and Palestine.

The investigation was known as the King-Crane commission. It found that the majority of Palestinians expressed a strong opposition to Zionism, leading the conductors of the commission to advise a modification of the mandate’s goal.

The late Awni Abd al-Hadi, a Palestinian political figure and nationalist, condemned the Balfour Declaration in his memoirs, saying it was made by an English foreigner who had no claim to Palestine, to a foreign Jew who had no right to it.

In 1920, the Third Palestinian Congress in Haifa decried the British government’s plans to support the Zionist project and rejected the declaration as a violation of international law and of the rights of the indigenous population.

However, the other important source for insight into Palestinian opinion on the declaration – the press – was closed down by the Ottomans at the start of the war in 1914 and only began to reappear in 1919, but under British military censorship.

In November 1919, when the al-Istiqlal al-Arabi (Arab independence) newspaper, based in Damascus, was reopened, one article said in response to a public speech by Herbert Samuel, a Jewish cabinet minister, in London on the second anniversary of the Balfour Declaration: “Our country is Arab, Palestine is Arab, and Palestine must remain Arab.”

Even prior to the Balfour Declaration and the British Mandate, pan-Arab newspapers warned against the motives of the Zionist movement and its potential outcomes in displacing Palestinians from their land.

Khalil Sakakini, a Jerusalemite writer and teacher, described Palestine in the immediate aftermath of the war as follows: “A nation which has long been in the depths of sleep only awakes if it is rudely shaken by events, and only arises little by little … This was the situation of Palestine, which for many centuries has been in the deepest sleep, until it was shaken by the great war, shocked by the Zionist movement, and violated by the illegal policy [of the British], and it awoke, little by little.”

Increased Jewish immigration under the mandate created tensions and violence between the Palestinian Arabs and the European Jews. One of the first popular responses to British actions was the Nebi Musa revolt in 1920 that led to the killing of four Palestinian Arabs and five immigrant Jews.


Frances Balfour - History

The Genealogy of the Balfour Family.

Jerome Balfour.

John Balfour.

James Balfour.

Peter Balfour.

Nicholas Balfour. Born 1578.

James Balfour. Born c.1581.

Rev Andrew Balfour. Born ca 1587. Died 7 July 1624. Minister of Kirknewtown, 1587-1624. Getroud Isobel Arnot.

James Balfour. Born 1619. Advocate. Married 1645 Bridget (Beatrice) Chalmers.

Bridget Balfour. Born Edinburgh 1648.

Helen Balfour. Born Edinburgh 1650.

James Balfour. Born Edinburgh 1652. Died 1703. Governor of Darien Company in which he invested and lost a fair amount. Married 23 June 1679 Helen Smith, dau of Robert Smith and Elizabeth Hope. Helen married second, 1712, William Cochrane Jr of Rochsoles.

Mary Balfour. Born 1680. Died before 1702.

James Balfour 1st of Pilrig. Born 1681. Died 3 February 1737. Bought Pilrig 1718. Married, 10 September 1704, Louisa Hamilton (born 1686 died 1750).

James Balfour 2nd of Pilrig. Born Riddle's Close, Leith 1705. Died 6 March 1795. Appointed Professor of Moral Philosophy. Painted by Stavely 1790. Married, August 1737, Cecilia Elphinstone (born 1705 died 1780). She became blind.

James Balfour. Born 1738. Died 1755 aged seventeen.

John ("Jack") Balfour 3rd of Pilrig. Born 1740. Died 17 February 1814. Married c.1772 Jean Whytt (born 1750 died 20 November 1833).

James Balfour, 4th of Pilrig. Born 7 January 1774. Died 20 March 1860. Married 1806 Anne Mackintosh (born 1787 died 29 June 1825), dau of Captain John Mackintosh.

Margaret Balfour. Born 1807. Died 27 January 1860. Married Rev John Paul (born 12 March 1796, died 18 May 1873).

Rev William Paul. Minister of Whitekirk. Born 16 September 1832. Died 25 September 1866.

James Balfour Paul, Lyon King at Arms. Born 16 November 1846. Died 15 September 1931. Married Helen Margaret Forman (died 20 December 1929), dau of J N Forman of Staffs.

John Balfour. Born 1808. Died 1811.

James Balfour. Born 1810. Died 1811.

John Mackintosh Balfour-Melville. Born 1811. Died 22 September 1893. Married Annie Rainy (born 1820 died 17 December 1891), dau of Prof Harry Rainy.

Anne Mackintosh Balfour. Born 1845. Died 1881. Married 1869 Charles A Cunningham, later Major-General.

Barbara Gordon Balfour-Melville. Born 1846.

Margaret Jane Balfour-Melville. Born 1849. Died 30 July 1941.

Jane Balfour. Born 1812. Died 14 May 1842.

James Balfour-Melville. Born 1815. Died 1898. Married Eliza Ogilvy Maitland-Heriot (died 1897), dau of James Heriot.

James Heriot Balfour-Melville. Born 1845. Died 1913. Married 1878 Mary Louisa Dundas (died 1930), dau of Sir David Dundas of Dunira, Bt.

Frederick Maitland Balfour. Born 1847. Died 1907. Married Sarah Hillard (born 1847 died 1917).

Francis Douglas Balfour. Born 1847. Died 1859.

John Elphinston Balfour. Born 1849. Died 1928.

Robert Andrew Agnew Balfour-Melville. Born 1849. Died 1942. Married 1891 Frances Janetta Campbell (died 1947), dau of Rev Dr Campbell.

Leslie Melville Balfour-Melville. Born 9 March 1854. Died 16 July 1937. Married 1873 Jeannie Amelia ("Jane") Wilson (died 1890), dau of Dr Wilson.

Emma Constance Balfour-Melville. Born 1857. Died 1941.

Elliot Southesk Balfour-Melville. Born 1860. Died 1912.

Anne Balfour. Born 1816. Died 16 May 1842.

Robert Balfour. Born 1818. Died 14 August 1869. Director, Edinburgh Academy. Getroud Frances ("Fanny") Grace Blaikie (born Aberdeen 22 October 1821 died 1891).

Lewis Balfour. Born and died 1820.

Robert Balfour. Born 1774. Died 13 November 1782.

John Balfour. Born 1776. Died 17 December 1859. Married first Helen Buchanon (died 1816).

John Balfour. Born 1811. Died 1876. Married Agnes Boyle.

Thomas Graham Balfour. Born 18 March 1813. Died 17 January 1891. Married Georgina Prentice (born 12 August 1819).

Buchanon Balfour. Born 1816. Married Frances ("Fanny") E. Hazell (born 1821).

Robert Gordon Balfour. Born 1826. Died 1905. Married Margaret Naismith.

Hugh Melville Balfour. Born 1828. Died 29 December 1853.

James Balfour. Born Edinburgh 10 May 1830. Died Kew, Melbourne, Australia 24 August 1913. Married Frances ("Fanny") Charlotte Henty.

Jane Christiana Balfour. Born 1834. Died 1896. Married c.1832 George Rainy, MD (died 19 June 1969).

Helen Balfour. Born 1835. Died 18 September 1906.

Rev Lewis Balfour. Born 30 August 1777. Died 24 April 1860. Married Henrietta ("Helen") Scott Smith (born 1787 died 13 March 1844).

Dr John Balfour. Born 8 July 1809. Died 13 December 1886. Married Josephine Marianne Smith (born 1830 died 1887).

Lewis ("Delhi") Balfour. Born 1850. Died 1894.

Josephine ("Jessie") Balfour. Born 1854. Died 1877. Married _____ Park.

Henrietta ("Elta") Balfour. Born 1857. Died after 1881. Married _____ Younger.

George F Balfour. Born 1862. Died after 1881.

Marion Balfour. Born 29 November 1811. Bap 3 December 1811. Died 14 December 1884. Married Colonel John Alexander Wilson, RA (born 1793 died 1857).

Major James H Wilson. Born 1837. Died 1890.

Sidney Mary Beckwith Wilson. Born 1840. Died 1908. Married _____ Sitwell.

Marion Louisa Wilson. Born 1842. Married ____ Scott.

Matilda ("Maud") Whytt Wilson. Born 1844. Died 1919. Married _____ Wright. Married _____ Babington.

Jane Whytt Whyte Elizabeth Ann Wilson. Born 1846. Died 1903. Married Rev Carleton Greene (born 1844, died 1924).

Lewis H B Wilson. Born 1848. Died 1926.

Margaret Graham Wilson. Born 1851. Died Thanet 4th qtr 1900. Married Bury St Edmunds 2nd qtr 1877 Rev Frederick William Crick MA of Pembroke College, Cambridge (born 1853, died Long Bredy, Dorset 26 May 1924).

John G Y Wilson. Born 1853.

George Smith Balfour. Born 20 July 1813. Died 3 May 1816.

Jane Whyte Balfour. Born 6 November 1816. Bap 20 March 1816. Died 6 February 1907.

Lewis Balfour. Born 14 September 1817. Died 13 February 1870. Married Louisa Amelia Barton (born 1822, died 1858).

Lewis ("Noona") Balfour. Born 1842. Died 1873.

Emilia ("Mina") H Balfour. Born 1848. Died 1917.

Lewis married second Caroline ("Carrie") Louisa Sissmore (died 1924).

Arthur Balfour. Died after 1861.

Claud Balfour. Died after 1861.

Alfred Balfour. Died after 1861.

James Balfour. Born 30 July 1819. Died 20 June 1824.

William Somerville Balfour. Born 1821. Died 1821.

George William Balfour, MD, LL D. Born 2 May (or June) 1823. Died 9 August 1903. Married first Agnes Thomson (born 1825, died 1851).

(Lewis) Cramond Balfour. Born 1850. Died 1885.

Mackintosh Balfour. Born 9 March 1825. Bap 26 April 1825. Died 7 June 1884. Married Elisabeth Cecilia de Verinne (born 1829, died 1860).

Mackintosh James Balfour. Born 21 January 1851.. Married Evelyn Jane Usher (born 5 September 1853, died 3 May 1926).

(baby boy) Balfour. Born 1826. Died 1826.

Henrietta Louisa Balfour. Bap 11 April 1828. Married Ramsay Heatley Traquair (born 1820 died after 1881).

Henrietta Traquair. Born 1850. Died 1902. Married James Milne (born 1849).

William Traquair. Born 1851. Died 1923.

Margaret ("Maggie") Isabella Balfour. Born 11 February 1829. Bap 16 March 1829. Died 14 May 1897. Married Thomas ("Tom") C E Stevenson (born 22 July 1818 died 8 May 1887).

Robert Lewis ("Louis") Balfour Stevenson. Born Edinburgh 13 November 1850. Died Vailima, Samoa 3 December 1894. Married Frances ("Fanny") Matilda van de Grift Osbourne (born 1840 died 1914).

James Melville Balfour, CE. Born 8 June 1831. Bap 8 July 1831. Died 18 December 1869. Married Christina Simson (born 1837).

Marie Clothilde ("Chloe") Balfour Stevenson. Born 1862.

Louisa Mackenzie Balfour. Born 1779. Died April 1859. Married 10 November 1805 John Mackenzie.

Daniel Mackenzie. Married Emma Hughes.

James Mackenzie. Married Elizabeth Campbell.

Melville Balfour. Born 1781. Died 1828. Married Joanna Brunton.

John Balfour. Born 7 March 1816. Died 1875. Married Ann Traill.

Walter Brunton Balfour. Born 18 August 1818.

Mary Cecilia Balfour. Born 1742. Married 1761 William Gibson (died 5 May 1807), son of John Gibson of Durie and Helen, n e Carmichael of Skirling. He and his brother-in-law John Balfour were of the firm of Gibson, Balfour & Aitken which collapsed c.1772. She began a haberdasher's hop. They had ten sons and two daughters including:

Sir William Gibson-Craig, 2nd Bt, PC, MP for Midlothian and for Edinburgh. Commissioner for the Duchy of Cornwall. Born 2 August 1797. Died 12 March 1878. Married Elizabeth Sarah Vivian (died 15 December 1895).

James Thomson Gibson. Born 12 March 1799. Married Jane Grant (died 25 April 1863).

John James Gibson Thomson.

Lewis Balfour. Born 1746. Died 1806.

Robert Balfour. Born Riddle's Close, Leith 1706. Died 1764. Married Anne Ellis.

William Balfour. Born Riddle's Close, Leith 1708. Died 1708.

Helen Balfour. Born Riddle's Close, Leith 1709. Died 1793. Married c.1721/3 Bailie Gavin Hamilton (died 1st January 1767). Publisher and bookseller.

Louisa Hamilton. Born April/May 1733. Died 1793. Married Dr James Wodrow (born 1730 died 1810/11), minister at Steventon.

Dr Robert Hamilton. Born June 1743. Died July 1829. Professor of Mathematics Principal of Marischal College, Aberdeen. Married first Miss Anne Mitchell of Drumaird, Fife.

Robert married second Miss Jane Morison of Aberdeen (no issue).

George Hamilton, WS. Married Miss Stevenson of Montgrenan and had two sons and three daughters.

Elizabeth Hamilton. Born 23rd June 1749. Living 1842.

George Balfour. Born Riddle's Close, Leith 1711, twin. Died 28 March 1751. Married Anne Stevenson.

Anne Balfour. Born 1742. Died 1823. Married Thomas Wishart.

John Balfour. Born Riddle's Close, Leith 1711, twin. Died 1711.

Alexander Balfour. Born Riddle's Close, Leith 1713. Died 1737.

Elizabeth ("Betty") Balfour. Born Riddle's Close, Leith 1714. Died 1812. Married 15 June 1755 Rev Wodrow, minister of Tarbolton, 2nd son of the renowned ecclesiastical historian.

John Balfour. Born Riddle's Close, Leith 1715. Died October 1796. Publisher. Married Catherine Cant (born 1715 died 1796), daughter of Cant of Thurston. They had their portraits painted by Raeburn.

James Balfour. Died 1795. Married Anne Gertrude Haatz.

Louisa Balfour. Married James Miller.

Elphinstone Balfour. Married Margaret Bruce.

General William Balfour. Born 1756. Died 1811. Married Jane Ogilvie.

William Balfour. Born Riddle's Close, Leith 1716. Died 1717.

Louisa Balfour. Born Pilrig House, Leith 1718. Died 1764. "The White Rose of Pilrig". Married 1743 Professor Dr Robert Whytt (born 1714), distinguished physician and physiologist. They had fourteen children, of whom three sons and three daughters survived him.

Jean Whytt. Born 1750. Died 20 November 1833. Married 1773 John Balfour (born 1740, died 17 February 1814).

Louisa Whytt. Married Admiral John Rouatt.

Martha ("Patsy") Whytt. Born 1758. Died 1835. Married 1783 Major J Wilson.

John Whytt, later Whytt-Melville. Born 1756. Died Bath Abbey 1813. Painted by Raeburn. Married Elizabeth M'Gilchrist. Painted by Martin.

Bridget ("Biddy") Balfour. Born Pilrig House, Leith 1718. Dsp 1764. Married 1743 Rev William Leechman. He was minister of Beith, Ayrshire and afterwards Dr and Professor of Divinity (later Principal) in Glasgow University.

Margaret Balfour. Born Pilrig House, Leith 3 July 1720. Died 1785. Married Dr James Russell.

James Russell. Born 1754. Died 1836. Married Eleanor Oliver.

Mary Balfour. Born Pilrig House, Leith 12 September 1721. Died 1722.

William Balfour. Born Pilrig House, Leith 26 July 1723. Died 1731.

Majoor Henry Balfour. Born Pilrig House, Leith 13 August 1724. Died 1791. 2nd Batt'n of Royals. While in the British Army, he spent several years in North America. In October, 1761, he arrived in La Baye (today known as Green Bay, Wisconsin), where he took control of a former French post. Married in Edinburgh, 4 August 1765, Jane Elliot (born 1748, died 1815). There is a portrait of Jane Elliot by Raeburn in one of the galleries in Toronto. She was daughter of William Elliot of Wolfelee (b. 1688, d 1768) by Helen Elliot, daughter of Robert Elliot of Midlem Mill. William Elliot was son of Thomas Elliot in Oakwood (b 1659, d 1723) by Jean Inglis, daughter of Cornelius Inglis of Newton. Thomas was a descendant of the Elliots of Horsely Hill. Major Henry Balfour should not be confused with another, and unrelated, Major Henry ('Harry') Balfour who lived at about the same time. The unrelated Major Henry Balfour (b. 1741, d. between 1776-1791) was the older brother of Nisbet Balfour (1744-1823) see the report titled "General Nisbet Balfour of Dunbog, 1744-1823".

Louisa Balfour. Born Bonnington House, Pilrig 1767. Died West Kirk 1856. Married Robert Biggar.

James Balfour. Born 9 December 1770. Died Danzig 27 July 1849. Moved from Scotland to Gdansk, Prussia, where he married the mayor's daughter, Caroline Amelia von Gralath (born 1786).

Henry Balfour. Born Danzig 5 February 1805. Died 14 November 1873. Married Anne Fulljames.

James Aaron Balfour. Born Danzig 10 June 1808. Died 19 May 1862. Married first 5 July 1836 Amalie Matilda von Gralath (born 8 May 1818 died Spring 1850).

Arthur James Balfour. Born 27 June 1837. Died 13 February 1894. Married 27 July 1864 Emily Elizabeth Mason (born 5 December 1844 died 17 July 1930).

Louisa Amelia Balfour. Born 22 March 1839. Died 29 December 1909. Married William Ransom Ames (born 1830 died 21 March 1903).

William Arthur Balfour. Born 5 April 1845. Died 4 April 1935. Married Ella Elbina Hughes (born 16 February 1858 died 1 August 1901).

Jane Ernestine Balfour. Born 1817. Married Lt Charles Tarlo.

William Balfour.

Henry Balfour.

Helen Balfour.

Unnamed Balfour. Born Pilrig House, Leith 1726. Died 1726.

Robert Balfour. Born 1682. Died before 1703.

John Balfour. Bap 16 September 1684. Died after 1703.

Helen ("Nelly") Balfour. Married 17 August 1750 Rev Thomas Scott (born 1722 died 1806), minister of South Leith.

Walter Scott. Born 3 May 1753.

Martha Janet Scott. Born 29 September 1756.

John Scott. Born 14 May 1758.

Thomas Scott. Born 4 April 1764. Died 30 July 1825. Minister at Newton. Getroud Mary Martin.

Elizabeth Scott. Born 1 June 1796.

Helen Scott. Born 22 December 1797.

Thomas Scott. Born 26 June 1799.

Ellen Martin Scott. Born 5 March 1801.

Walter Scott. Born 4 February 1803.

Mary Scott. Born 7 September 1805.

Cecilia Scott. Born 26 July 1807.

Matilda Henrietta Scott. Born 25 June 1809.

Margaret Louisa Scott. Born 15 April 1811.

Madeline Scott. Born 23 January 1816.

Elizabeth Balfour. Born 1685. Died before 1703.

Helen Balfour. Born 3 February 1688. Died c.1720. Married 31 December 1708 George Duncan WS (1683 - 1723) son of Alexander Duncan (Provost of Dundee) and Anna Drummond.

Alexander Duncan. Born Edinburgh 10 October 1709. Town clerk of Dundee. Married 26 August 1736 Isobel Crawford (bap c.1711), dau of Henry Crawford of Monorgan and Ann Hay.

George Duncan. Bap 1 August 1737.

Henry Duncan, RN. Bap 24 January 1739. Commissioner & Deputy Comptroller. Married 27 November 1751 Mary French.

Henry Duncan. Captain, RN. He had a grandson, Lt-Col A B R Myers.

Arthur Duncan.

Isabella Duncan. Married Captain Thomas Twysden, RN. They had a grandson, Captain J S Twysden.

Alexander Duncan. Bap 13 March 1740. Married 13 November 1768 Mary Simson.

Elizabeth Duncan. Bap 14 November 1741.

James Duncan. Bap 2 May 1743.

John Duncan. Bap 14 August 1744.

James Duncan. Bap 27 December 1745.

Elizabeth Duncan. Bap 25 February 1747.

Helen Duncan. Bap 11 January 1749. Married 7 October 1769 Alexander Stevenson.

Charles Duncan. Bap 29 January 1750.

William Duncan. Bap 22 January 1751.

Adam Duncan. Bap 9 May 1752.

Patrick Duncan. Bap 29 August 1753.

Isabella Duncan. Bap 17 December 1754. Went to live as a companion to Cecilia, nee Elphinstone, Mrs Balfour and lived at Pilrig.

Helen Duncan. Born Edinburgh 21 May 1713.

Isobel Duncan. Born Edinburgh 7 May 1715.

Anne Duncan. Born Edinburgh 19 March 1717.

Louvesia Duncan. Born Dundee 17 January 1719.

James Duncan. Born Dundee 6 February 1720.

Alexander Balfour. Born 15 June 1690. Died before 1703.

William Balfour. Born 11 September 1692. Died before 1703.

Bridget Balfour. Born 1694. Dsp 23 November 1764. Married first Rev Brown. Married second as his second wife 1737 Neil MacVicar (died 1747), minister of St Cuthbert's or the West Kirk.

Elizabeth Balfour. Born 1695. Died after 1703.

Henry Balfour. Born 15 November 1698. Died after 1703.

John Balfour. Born Edinburgh 1662.

Robert Balfour. Born Edinburgh 1665.

Christine Balfour. Born Edinburgh 1666.

Andrew Balfour. Born Edinburgh c.1620.

John Balfour. Born Edinburgh c.1621.

Elizabeth Balfour. Born Edinburgh c.1623.

David married second c.1574 Euphame Abercrombie (dvu 1576).

Marion Balfour. Married her neighbour, Alexander of Denmylne.

Robert Balfour. Died before he who married Anne Ellis. Married Lillias Alexander (born 30 January 1719/20).

James Balfour. Born 3 March 1743/44. Died 1809. Married Betty Caw (born 1745 died 1788).

Robert Oliphant. Married Agnes Balfour (born 1806 died 1855) [see below].

Agnes Balfour. Born 1806. Died 1855. Married Robert Oliphant (see above).

George Keith Balfour. Born 12 November 1819. Died 5 August 1820.

George Edmond Balfour. Born 4 May 1821. Died 29 August 1869. Married Marianna Jowitt (born 7 July 1837 died 19 July 1865).

Georgiana Mary Balfour. Born 5 September 1860. Died 6 February 1900. Married Walter George Barttelot (born 11 April 1855 died 20 December 1900).

John Edmond Heugh Balfour. Born 22 January 1862? Died 5 September 1952. Married Evelyn Gerard (born 1891).

Kenneth Robert Balfour. Born 14 December 1863. Died 1936. Married Margaret Anne Rogerson (died 1901). Married second May Eleanor Broadwood (born 1875 died 1961).


In Bath Abbey there is a memorial to John Hay Balfour of Leys (died 28th February 1791) and his widow Katherine Hay.

Hierdie genealogie is nie bedoel om omvattend te wees nie. We will however be adding to it.
A principal source has been "The Balfours of Pilrig" by Barbara Balfour-Melville (T & A Constable, Edinburgh, 1907). It is now possible to get a freshly printed version, or a digital version, of the book over the internet. See Quintin's Family History Centre. The printed book costs $31.90, and the CD-ROM costs $14.50.


External Links Notice - The dynamic nature of the internet may mean that some of these listed links may no longer function. If the link no longer works search the web with the link text or name. Links to any external commercial sites are provided for information purposes only and should never be considered an endorsement. UNSW Embryology is provided as an educational resource with no clinical information or commercial affiliation.

Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2021, June 30) Embryology Embryology History - Francis Balfour. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Embryology_History_-_Francis_Balfour

What Links Here? © Dr Mark Hill 2021, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G


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Who was behind the Balfour Declaration?

This week, Palestinians around the world are marking 100 years since the Balfour Declaration was issued on November 2, 1917.

The Balfour Declaration was a public pledge by Britain, declaring its aim to establish "a national home for the Jewish people" in Palestine.

The statement came in the form of a letter from Britain's then foreign secretary, Arthur Balfour, addressed to Lionel Walter Rothschild, a figurehead of the British Jewish community.

But the declaration was by no means formulated and decided upon overnight - rather, it had been in the works for years, involved many people and was drafted numerous times before being sent out.

The pledge is generally viewed as one of the main catalysts of the ethnic cleansing of Palestine in 1948 and the creation of the Zionist state of Israel.

Below, Al Jazeera examines the key players involved in realising the Balfour Declaration.

Arthur Balfour

The author of the Declaration.

The English aristocrat was serving as foreign secretary in the British government when the Declaration was issued and is the author of it.

Lionel Walter Rothschild

Rothschild was the figurehead of the British Jewish community and is the man to whom the Declaration was addressed.

Chaim Weizmann

A Russian Zionist and later the first president of Israel, Weizmann’s contribution to the British war effort as a scientist made him well connected to the upper echelons of the British government.

He played a central role in lobbying the government to issue the Declaration.

David Lloyd George

The prime minister in the coalition government between 1916 and 1922, Lloyd George’s government issued the Balfour Declaration.

He created the War Cabinet to make major strategic decisions during WWI and ensured that the Zionist project was on the agenda.

Herbert Samuel

Said to be the first Jewish Cabinet minister in England in 1909, Samuel, an ardent Zionist, introduced the idea of a Jewish state to the British government as early as 1914.

He worked closely with Chaim Weizmann and advised him on how to further Zionist aims in government circles.

Mark Sykes

Serving in the British government’s War Cabinet, Sykes acted as a key channel between British Zionists and politicians.

Nahum Sokolow

A Polish writer and diplomat, Nahum Sokolow traveled widely to rally support from world powers to back the Declaration.

Most notably, he met with high profile French officials in May 1917 and managed to convince them that Palestine should come under British control.

Key photos from the era of the Balfour Declaration

Arthur Balfour

Arthur Balfour, who first served as prime minister of the United Kingdom, and more importantly, later as foreign secretary during the government of David Lloyd George, is the author of the declaration.

Balfour, an English aristocrat, is credited with convincing the War Cabinet to issue the statement and with asking Chaim Weizmann and Lord Rothschild to draft it.

His colonial mindset could best be demonstrated with the following statement, which he made in a 1919 memorandum:

“In Palestine … we do not propose even to go through the form of consulting the wishes of the present inhabitants of the country. Zionism, be it right or wrong, good or bad, is rooted in age-long traditions, in present needs, in future hopes, of far profounder import than the desires of the 700,000 Arabs who now inhabit that ancient land.”

His niece, Blanche Dugdale, who worked in the London office of the Jewish Agency with Chaim Weizmann, indicated that Balfour was a Christian Zionist in her autobiography: “Balfour’s interest in the Jews and their history was lifelong, originating in the Old Testament training of his mother, and his Scottish upbringing.”

But others argue that Balfour was an anti-Semite and that his interests in the Zionist project were merely for British strategic gains.

Before he resigned as prime minister, Balfour pushed for the 1905 Aliens Act, believed to have been an attempt at curbing Eastern European Jewish immigration to Europe, though it did not explicitly state that.

Lionel Walter Rothschild

A descendant of the powerful Jewish Rothschild banking family, Walter Rothschild was a Zionist and a close friend of Chaim Weizmann.

Though he retired from parliament by 1910, he remained active as a figurehead of the British Jewish community and served as the president of the English Zionist Federation. He was the recipient of the Balfour Declaration.

In the summer of 1917, Arthur Balfour asked Rothschild and Weizmann to draft a statement that would be in line with Zionist goals.

The original draft sent by Rothschild to Balfour proposed that “Palestine should be reconstituted as the national home of the Jewish people”. But following objections within the cabinet, the wording was made vague.

His lobbying efforts alongside Weizmann and other Zionists, both within and outside of the British government, were central in pressuring the government to issue the declaration.

Chaim Weizmann

Birth: Russian Empire (Now Belarus), 1874

Chaim Weizmann, who later became the first president of Israel, was a Russian Zionist and chemist who was arguably the most influential figure in procuring the Balfour Declaration.

While Theodore Herzl was referred to as the “father of political Zionism”, Weizmann was viewed as the one who put the plan into action.

After receiving a doctorate in chemistry in Switzerland, he went to England and took up work as a scientist with the British government during the first world war (WWI).

His contributions, mainly developing a process to produce synthetic acetone for explosives, made him well connected to the upper echelons of the British government, including former Prime Minister David Lloyd George, then foreign secretary Arthur Balfour and diplomat Mark Sykes.

In his autobiography, Lloyd George reportedly wrote that the Balfour Declaration was offered to Weizmann, who became a British citizen, as a reward for his contribution to the war effort.

At Balfour’s request, Weizmann and Lord Rothschild drafted the Declaration in a manner that would suit Zionist interests.

Weizmann lobbied hard for more than two years to publicly commit Britain to building a state for the Jews in Palestine. He argued that a Jewish state was in the interest of England.

In a 1914 letter to the Manchester Guardian, now known as The Guardian newspaper, Weizmann wrote:

"Should Palestine fall within the British sphere of influence, and should Britain encourage a Jewish settlement there, as a British dependency, we could have in 20 to 30 years a million Jews out there - perhaps more they would develop the country, bring back civilization to it and form a very effective guard for the Suez Canal."

The colonial undertones in his views are evident. In his first visit to Palestine in 1907, he is quoted as describing the country as follows: “a dolorous country it was on the whole, one of the most neglected corners of the miserably neglected Turkish Empire … Neither the colonies nor the city settlements in any way resembled, as far as vigor, tone and progressive spirit are concerned, the colonies and settlements of our day.”

Weizmann is also credited with the famous quote in 1919 in which he said: “By a Jewish National Home I mean the creation of such conditions that as the country is developed we can pour in a considerable number of immigrants, and finally establish such a society in Palestine that Palestine shall be as Jewish as England is English, or America American."

David Lloyd George

The prime minister in the coalition government between 1916 and 1922, David Lloyd George’s government issued the Balfour Declaration.

He created the War Cabinet to make major strategic decisions and made sure that the Zionist project was on the agenda.

Lloyd George is quoted as saying: “I was taught far more history about the Jews than about the history of my own people.”

He was convinced that Palestine had to come under British rule and acted on this accord.

In his memoirs, Lloyd George listed a multitude of reasons as to why he supported Zionism, including a desire to attract Jewish financial resources, Christian Zionist beliefs, the Jewish lobby in Britain, and sympathy with Jews facing anti-semitism.

He reportedly wrote that he offered the Balfour Declaration to Chaim Weizmann as a reward for his contribution to the war effort, but some historians challenge that notion.

Prior to serving as prime minister, Lloyd George worked closely with Theodore Herzl, the “father of political Zionism,” on the Uganda scheme - a plan to resettle the Jews in Uganda under British auspices.

During the war, Lloyd George advised the British military commander Edmund Allenby to occupy Jerusalem before the holidays. When the British entered Jerusalem in December 1917, Lloyd George described it as “a Christmas present for the British people”.

Herbert Samuel

Herbert Samuel is said to be the first Jewish Cabinet minister in England in 1909.

In 1914, Samuel, an ardent Zionist of German origin, suggested that “perhaps there might be an opportunity for the fulfilment of the ancient aspiration of the Jewish people and the restoration there of a Jewish State,” in a discussion with the secretary of state for foreign affairs, Edward Grey.

A few weeks later, Samuel presented a memorandum titled The Future of Palestine, to the British Cabinet, proposing a Jewish commonwealth, but then Prime Minister HH Asquith did not find his proposal enticing.

“He thinks we might plant in this not very promising territory about three or four million European Jews” as a solution to anti-Semitism, Asquith wrote.

In a revised memorandum, Samuel said the British government should enable Jewish immigration “so that in the course of time the Jewish inhabitants, grown into a majority and settled in the land, may be conceded such degree of self government”, which he said “would win for England the gratitude of the Jews throughout the world”.

He also believed it was in the interest of Britain to install a friendly power near the strategic Suez Canal.

Samuel worked closely with Chaim Weizmann and advised him on how to further Zionist aims in government circles.

In 1918, his son, Edwin, was appointed as an officer of the Zionist Commission in Palestine, a group chaired by Weizmann and created to advise the British government on how to implement the Balfour Declaration.

Samuel was chosen by then Prime Minister David Lloyd George to be high commissioner, the highest source of authority, in Palestine, from 1920 to 1925. He was described as the “first Hebrew Governor of Jerusalem for over 2,000 years”.

Though he expressed on several occasions his fears that a Jewish state may harm the Palestinian Arab majority in the country, many criticised his actions in creating policies meant to allow Jews to flourish.

For example, he appointed Zionists to the top posts of his administration, while Palestinians were robbed of the right to create their own autonomous para-state structures.

Mark Sykes

Known for coauthoring, along with Francois Georges-Picot, the infamous Anglo-French deal to divvy up the Middle East after WWI, Mark Sykes’ involvement in the Balfour Declaration is often overlooked.

While his support for the Zionist project came late, Sykes served as a key channel between Chaim Weizmann and his fellow Zionist activists, and the British government.

He served as an assistant secretary in the War Cabinet to oversee Middle Eastern affairs and was convinced that a Jewish settlement in Palestine would ensure British imperial interests and minimise French influence there.

Sykes was highly involved in the negotiations that led to the Declaration.

He is credited with directing Nahum Sokolow, a Polish Zionist and diplomat, to convince the French to accept bringing Palestine under British control after the war and arranged for him to meet with the Papal authorities in Rome.

In his autobiography, Weizmann wrote that Sykes, at a meeting with a group of Zionists in 1917, said that the “idea of a Jewish Palestine had his full sympathy”.

On October 31, 1917, the Cabinet approved the final wording of the Declaration. Sykes was said to have emerged, calling “Dr Weizmann, it’s a boy!”

Nahum Sokolow

A Polish writer and diplomat, Nahum Sokolow is a lesser-known key player in the Balfour Declaration, though his behind-the-scenes work had a major impact on the issuing of the statement.

A close aide of Chaim Weizmann, he travelled widely to rally support for the Declaration. He was reported to have met with Supreme Court Justice Louis Brandeis in the United States and Pope Benedict XV in the Vatican.

He also secured support from the French and Italians, the Allied powers in WWI, for Zionist aspirations before the Declaration was issued.

Under the 1916 Sykes-Picot treaty to divide the Middle East after the fall of the Ottoman Empire, the majority of the land of Palestine was meant to become an international zone. But in coordination with Mark Sykes, Sokolow, as a representative of the Zionists, fostered the view that the Jews preferred British over French protection in Palestine.

Most notably, he met with high profile French officials in May 1917 and managed to secure French support for the plan, as expressed in the Cambon Letter.

The letter, addressed from Jules Cambon, the secretary-general of the French foreign ministry, to Sokolow, expressed the French government’s sympathy towards “Jewish colonization in Palestine”.

“It would be a deed of justice and of reparation to assist, by the protection of the Allied Powers, in the renaissance of the Jewish nationality in that Land from which the people of Israel were exiled so many centuries ago,” the letter, which was seen as a precursor to the Balfour Declaration, stated.

Sokolow later became the president of the World Zionist Organization for a short period of time.

Key photos from the era of the Balfour Declaration


Chaim Weizmann, the former president of the World Zionist Organization, and his wife, Vera, are pictured outside of St James's Palace in London, where a conference was being held to discuss the creation of an Israeli state out of British-controlled Palestine. [Getty Images]


British soldiers patrol the streets of Jerusalem during a visit by Arthur James Balfour, a British Conservative politician, on April 2, 1925. The city's Arab residents were on strike as a protest against the Balfour Declaration, which supported plans for a Jewish homeland in Palestine. [Topical Press Agency/Hulton Archive/Getty Images]


Balfour, while serving as foreign secretary, authored the Balfour Declaration in 1917. Here, he speaks at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem in 1927. [Artist Topical Press Agency/Historica Graphica Collection/Heritage Images/Getty Images]


Arab protesters travel to the Jordanian capital Amman for a demonstration against the Balfour Declaration in 1936. The banners read: ''Palestine for the Arabs'' and ''Our homeland is our faith and complete freedom is our life''. [Roger Viollet/Getty Images]


Balfour points out a feature of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre to Governor Sir Ronald Storrs during a visit to Jerusalem on April 9, 1925. [Topical Press Agency/Hulton Archive/Getty Images]


Balfour and former Prime Minister David Lloyd George are pictured in London before World War I. [Photo12/UIG/ Getty Images]


Former British Interior Minister Sir Herbert Samuel arrives in Jerusalem in July 1920 to take over as high commissioner of the British Mandate in Palestine. [Keystone-France/Gamma-Keystone/ Getty Images]


Lionel Walter Rothschild, a figurehead of the British Jewish community to whom the Balfour Declaration was addressed, is pictured in July 1927. [Fox Photos/Getty Images]


Kyk die video: Ethereal Reality (Junie 2022).