Geskiedenis Podcasts

Generaal -majoor Bernard Cyril Freyberg, VC (1889 - 1963)

Generaal -majoor Bernard Cyril Freyberg, VC (1889 - 1963)


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Generaal -majoor Bernard Cyril Freyberg, VC (1889-1963)

Freyberg was een van die mees charismatiese leiers van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog, en hoewel hy op 21 Maart 1889 in Richmond, Londen gebore is, het hy die grootste deel van sy kinderjare in Nieu -Seeland deurgebring, en Wellington College van 1897 tot 1904 bygewoon. yards Kampioen in 1906 en 1910. Hy het in 1911 'n gekwalifiseerde tandarts geword en in 1912 'n kommissie in die Nieu -Seelandse gebiede gekry. By die uitbreek van die oorlog in 1914, het hy teruggekeer na Brittanje en daarin geslaag om te veg in Antwerpen in die Hood Bataljon van die pas opgeleide Royal Naval Division nadat hy 'n kommissie gekry het. Hy het ook by Gallipoli geveg, waar hy sy swemvaardighede gebruik het om te swem tussen skepe wat fakkels aansteek om die vyand se aandag af te lei en waar hy die eerste van vier DSO's ontvang het. Aan die Westelike Front is 'n aantal kere gewond en is hy in November 1916 tydens die Slag van die Somme met die Victoria-kruis bekroon, waar hy die aanval van sy bataljon by Beaucourt sur Ancre gelei het en vier keer in vier-en-twintig uur gewond is. Hy is op 21 April 1917 op 29 -jarige ouderdom bevorder tot brigadier -generaal (onder leiding van 'n brigade in die 59ste Afdeling) en word kort daarna bevelvoerder van die 29ste Afdeling. Hy het gedurende die tussenoorlogse jare in die weermag gebly, maar is weens noodsaak uiteindelik gedwing om af te tree. Tog bied hy sy dienste in 1939 aan die Nieu -Seelandse regering aan, en as gevolg van sy reputasie, kry hy die bevel oor die 2de Nieu -Seelandse ekspedisiemag. Dit was dieselfde eienskappe, sowel as sy persoonlike verhouding met Winston Churchill wat daartoe gelei het dat hy as algemene bevelvoerder van die 'Creforce' -garnisoen op Kreta gekies is net voor Operation Mercury in Mei 1941. Na die veldtog het hy die bevelvoerder van die New Seelandse divisie deur sy betrokkenheid by Noord -Afrika en Italië. Na die oorlog word hy sy land se goewerneur-generaal van 1946 tot 1952 en word hy as baron (van Wellington, Nieu-Seeland en Munstead, Surrey) in 1951. Hy word aangestel as adjunk-konstabel en luitenant-goewerneur van Windsor Castle op 1 Maart 1953 , en die volgende jaar sy intrek in die Norman Gateway. Hy sterf op 4 Julie 1963 en word begrawe op die kerkhof van St Martha on the Hill, Guildford, Surrey.

Stevens, W G. Freyberg VC: 1939-1945, The Man, A H & A W Reed, Wellington, Nieu -Seeland, 1965.


Freyberg by Firstworldwar.com
Freyberg by fact-index.comM.

Wie is wie - Bernard Freyberg

Bernard Cyril Freyberg (1889-1963) verdien die Victoria Cross vir moed op die Somme in November 1916 plus nog vier DSO's vir soortgelyke dapperheid.

Freyberg, gebore in Brittanje, maar grootgeword in Nieu -Seeland, kwalifiseer as tandarts in 1911, maar soek (en ontvang) 'n kommissie in die New Zealand Territorials in 1912. Die jaar daarna verander Freyberg skielik van loopbaan deur 'n skeepstoker te word.

In Londen, toe die oorlog in 1914 uitbreek, ontmoet Freyberg die eerste Lord of the Admiralty Winston Churchill om hom 'n kommissie in die Hood Battalion van die Royal Navy Naval Division te gee.

Nadat hy gedien het tydens die verdediging van Antwerpen by die Royal Naval Division in Augustus 1914, is Freyberg na Gallipoli gestuur waar hy na 'n merkwaardige prestasie tydens die aanvanklike landings (toe hy van skip tot skip geswem het as 'n misleiding operasie gemaak het, en hom 'n DSO verdien het) ) dien hy tot die ontruiming van die Geallieerde.

Soos met baie oud-Gallipoli-soldate, was Freyberg se volgende bestemming die Westelike Front. Tydens diens aan die rivier die Ancre tydens die stertkant van die Allied Somme-offensief, het Freyberg 'n Victoria-kruis verdien omdat hy geweier het om die Hood-bataljon te verlaat, ondanks die feit dat hy nie minder nie as vier wonde in die bestek van 24 uur opgedoen het. Hy het vroeër die aanval van sy bataljon op Beaucourt gelei, wat gelei het tot die gevangenskap van 500 gevangenes.

Die volgende jaar het Freyberg 'n promosie op 21 April 1917 na brigadier -generaal gebring, wat hom op 27 die jongste in die Britse leër gemaak het. Hy kry 'n brigade en daarna 'n afdelings (29ste) bevel. By die wapenstilstand is hy by nege geleenthede gewond.

Freyberg se militêre loopbaan het egter nie in November 1918 geëindig nie. Hy het uiteenlopend in bevel- en stafrolle gedien tot met die aanvang van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog, toe hy bevel gekry het oor die Nieu -Seelandse magte in die Middellandse See.

In April 1941 speel Freyberg 'n rol in die verdediging van Griekeland en lei daarna Britse en Griekse troepe op Kreta tot hul vernederende nederlaag wat ten minste iets te danke was aan sy swak leierskap.

Daarna het hy diens gedoen as 'n korpsbevelvoerder in die 8ste leër in die Westelike Woestyn in Noord -Afrika, terwyl hy tydens die Tweede Slag van Sidi Rezegh en by Minqar Qaim (waar hy verder gewond is) optree.

Nadat hy 'n prominente rol gespeel het tydens die Tweede Slag van El Alamein in November 1942, lei hy die flankende mag onderweg na Tunisië. Sy volgende rol was as bevelvoerder van die Nieu -Seelandse magte in Italië, wat sy hoogtepunt bereik het toe sy troepe op 2 Mei 1945 Trieste binnegegaan het.

Met sy merkwaardige, bekroonde en bekroonde militêre loopbaan wat tot 'n einde gekom het, het hy in die loop van die loop van die loop van vier nie net die DSO's verdien, benewens die Victoriakruis en die rang van luitenant -generaal geword, maar daarna dien hy as nuwe Seelandse goewerneur-generaal in 1946.

Freyberg is in 1951 'n baron (van Wellington en Munstead) en sterf in 1963.

Saterdag, 22 Augustus, 2009 Michael Duffy

Brittanje het op 2 Februarie 1916 vir die eerste keer diensplig ingestel.

- Het jy geweet?


Inhoud

Freyberg, gebore in Richmond, Surrey, van verre Oostenrykse afkoms, [12] verhuis op tweejarige ouderdom saam met sy ouers na Nieu -Seeland. Hy het Wellington College van 1897 tot 1904 bygewoon.

Hy was 'n sterk swemmer en het die Nieu-Seelandse 100 meter-kampioenskap in 1906 en 1910 gewen.

Op 22 Mei 1911 het Freyberg formele registrasie as tandarts verkry. Hy werk as 'n assistent -tandarts in Morrinsville en praktiseer later in Hamilton en in Levin. Terwyl hy in Morrinsville was, is hy gevra om 'n subalternskap in die plaaslike territoriale leër -eenheid aan te neem, maar hy het nie daarin geslaag om die koning se kommissie te kry nie.

Freyberg verlaat Nieu -Seeland in Maart 1914. Daar bestaan ​​rekords van hom in San Francisco en in Mexiko, waar hy moontlik deelgeneem het aan die burgeroorlog wat toe in daardie land woed en na bewering kaptein geword het onder Pancho Villa. Toe hy hoor van die uitbreek van die oorlog in Europa in Augustus 1914, reis hy na Brittanje via Los Angeles (waar hy 'n swemkompetisie gewen het) en New York (waar hy 'n prysgeveg gewen het) om geld te verdien om die Verenigde State en die Atlantiese Oseaan oor te steek . [13]


1. verdenskrig [redigér | redigér wikikode]

In 1914 ontmoet ek Freyberg die Britse marineminister Winston Churchill en hy kan ook na die offisier van die Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve en die nuwe vloot van die Royal Naval Division gaan.

I 1915 blev Freyberg betrokke in felttoget ved Dardanellerne. Under the allieredes first landgang efter det mislykkede forsøg på at sejle gennem strædet, svømmede Freyberg i land i Sarosbugten. Toe hy in die begin begin het, het ons gedink dat die seinblus vir die afwerking van die tyrkiske verdediging van die faktiese landgang, wat voorheen deur Gallipoli was. Selfs as hy onder kragtige beskrywings kan kom, kan hy veilig terugkom uit sy uitflugting. Vir hierdie dåd fik han Distinguished Service Order. Hy word ernstig aangemeld deur verskeie geleenthede en verlate gedeeltes, en die afdeling word in Januarie 1916 evakueret.

Ek het in 1916 Freyberg oorgeneem tot die Britse soldaat wat in Queen's (Royal West Surrey) Regiment kaptein was. ⎜ ] Maar ek het ook 'n ekstra tydelike hoofvak met#9116 ] gekry en saam met hulle na Frankrig. Under the afsluttende faser af slaget ved Somme, udmærkede han sig, mens had had kommandoen over en bataljon som midlertidig oberstløjtnant. Og det ved erobringen af ​​landsbyen Beaucourt at han blev tildelt Victoria Cross. Ώ ] Den 13. november 1916 ⎝ ] ved Beaucourt-sur-Ancre i Frankrig. Efter at Freybergs bataljon had before it indledende angreb gennem fjendens system of skyttegrave, fik han samling on sine own menns and some andre, and beforete them under et vellykket angreb mod their secondære target, howunder han blev såret to gange, men forsatte med at lede og holdt stand over dagen og natten. Da hy fik forstærkninger næste morgen angreb og erobrede en stærkt befæstet landsby og tog 500 fanger. Selv om hy vir een jaar lank net meer gegaan het, en die ander gang ernstig sou wees, sou Freyberg by die verlate linjêre gewees het, voordat hy 'n uitgedrukte verklaring van die orde gehad het. Begrundelsen for ordenen, Ώ ] som blev publicgjort i London Gazette beskrev resultes of these actioner and fastslog at "[Freyberg] possiblegjorde at korpsets stilling could holdes permanent, and on this sted blev linjen til sidst fastlagt" Ώ ] som grundlag vir later fremstød.

Onder sit stay on Vestfronten fortsatte Freyberg with at lede through sit example. Hans lederskab het egter algehele koste:

Freyberg word forfremmet to midlertidig brigadegeneral (om nog steeds permanent te kon rangskik) ⎞ ] en overtog kommandoen over en brigade i 58. division in april 1917, some after signende betød, at han var den yngste general i den britiske hær. Han word tildelt en Companion in the Order of St Michael and St George same år. Ek het in September 'n geglasuurde ontploffing en ontploffing van sy voeder. Det afstedkom de værste af hans mange sår. Da han vendte back to sin post i January 1918 kommanderede han igen 88. brigade i 29. division, ⎛ ] hvor han udmærkede sig under den tyske offensiv i marts-april 1918. Han fik en bjælke for sin DSO in september det jaar.

Freyberg sluttede krigen med at lede and kavaleri eskradron fra 7. dragongarde ved erobringen af ​​en bro ved Lessines. Dit word afgesloten en minuut voor die wapenstilstand van die draad, wat vir ons 'n derde DSO kan maak. Γ ] ⎟ ] Ved krigens slutning had Freyberg also got det franske Croix de Guerre, and was blevet nævnt in depecher fem gange after his eskapade by Saros.


Bernard Freyberg

Die veteraan Meksičke revolucije, Freyberg is 'n goeie manier om u te help. Sudjelovao is u iskrcavanju na Galipolje as u 'n biografiese Britse generaal het wat u na Zapadnom frontu kan gebruik, kan u ook die Viktorijinim-krieks in die DSO-film gebruik, maar u kan ook na die Britse branski ry. Freyberg je volio biti blizu borbi, a Winston Churchill mu je dao nadimak "Salamander", zbog njegove sposobnosti da se provuče neozlijeđen kroz vatru.

U kan ook 'n funksie van Monte Cassina gebruik, maar u kan ook die pad na ons deelneem. Nakon rata, preselio se na Novi Zeland, gdje je od 1946. do 1952. bio generalni guverner.

U kan ook die funksie, Freyberg in Englesku sien, en u kan dit ook in Domu lordova doen. Ons is 1963. 'n Goddelike ruptuur word deur 'n groot aantal mense in 'n groot groep in Guildforda geplaas.


“Creforce ” – Die bevelvoerders van die geallieerde magte tydens die Slag van Kreta

Elke feit in ons wêreld se geskiedenis is 'n gevolg van menslike optrede. Die grootste oorlog van alle tye verberg geheime ooreenkomste, politieke belange, winste en optrede van mense. In hierdie kort artikel sal ons ontleed en kyk watter mense die belangrikste rol gespeel het en wie agter die skerms was. Hitler- en as -magte beset Europa stadig. Sedert 1939 is Oostenryk, Tsjeggo -Slowakye en Pole die eerste lande wat die woede van Wehrmacht proe. Intussen sluit Benito Mussolini en sy visie van 'n nuwe Romeinse ryk en “Mare Nostrum ” (ons Middellandse See) die Balkan en Griekeland in.

Binnekort sal die Italiaanse leër Griekeland binnedring en vir die heel eerste keer in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog wen 'n nie-as-land die asmagte. Die klein, maar strategiese en kritiese land van Griekeland aan die rand van die Middellandse See, die land tussen Asië, Europa en Afrika, is verset teen fascisme en nasionaal-sosialisme. Die arm en basies toegeruste Griekse leër rem die Italiaanse een by die Grieks-Albanese grensmanne en dien as 'n goeie en ligte voorbeeld vir die Europese lande. Dit is die eerste keer dat burgerlikes aan die oorlog deelneem en hul land verdedig met alles wat hulle het. Na die drievoudige inval van die Italiaanse, Duitse en Bulgaarse leër uit die noorde, word die Griekse vasteland deur die as beset. Die enigste gratis gebied van Griekeland is die eiland Kreta. En op hierdie land sal sommige van die mees heroïese optrede plaasvind. Ons sal nie nou die feite tydens die slag van Kreta en die Duitse besetting ontleed nie, maar ons sal die hoofkarakters van hierdie dramatiese geveg van naderby bekyk.

Sir Winston Churchill

Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 1874 - 24 Januarie 1965) was die premier van die Verenigde Koninkryk van 1940 tot 1945. Griekeland en die eiland Kreta was vir hom baie belangrik. Na die inname van Griekeland deur die Duitsers, het hy geglo dat die geallieerde magte op Kreta die eiland ten alle koste moet hou. Hy bewonder die Griekse vegters van die Albanese front tydens die Grieks-Italiaanse oorlog 1940-1941 en baie mense gee hom die frase “Van nou af moet ons sê dat helde soos Grieke veg#8221. Na die slag van Griekeland sal Churchill 'n baie goeie vriend van hom vertrou om die eiland Kreta te verdedig. In samewerking met die geallieerde hoofkwartier van die Midde -Ooste en veldmaarskalk Wavell, kies hulle generaal Fryberg.

Tydens die ballet van Kreta was die opperbevelhebbers:

  • Statebondsmagte, Midde -Ooste: Veldmaarskalk Archibald Wavell
  • Mediterreense vloot: Admiraal sir Andrew B. Cunningham
  • Lugbeampte, Midde -Ooste: Air Chief Marshal Sir Arthur Longmore

Sir Andrew Cunningham

Admiraal van die vloot Andrew Browne Cunningham, 1st Burggraaf Cunningham van Hyndhope (7 Januarie 1883 - 12 Junie 1963) was 'n senior offisier van die Royal Navy tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. Hy was wyd bekend onder sy bynaam, “ABC ”.

Tydens die slag van Kreta het die Britse vloot die Duitse konvooi van 70 skepe wat na Kreta gelei het (21 en 22 Mei) gebreek en die see -inval op die eiland is vermy. Na 'n week van hewige gevegte, het Britse bevelvoerders besluit dat die situasie hopeloos was en beveel om terug te trek uit Sfakia. In die volgende vier nagte is 16 000 troepe deur skepe na Egipte ontruim. 'N Kleiner aantal skepe sou troepe onttrek op 'n aparte sending van Heraklion, maar hierdie skepe is onderweg aangeval deur Luftwaffe -duikbomwerpers. Sonder lugbedekking het skepe van Cunningham ernstige verliese gely. Cunningham was egter vasbeslote dat die leër nie die weermag in die steek moes laat nie, en toe weermaggeneraals vrees dat hy te veel skepe sou verloor, het Cunningham beroemd gesê: Dit neem die vloot drie jaar om 'n skip te bou. Dit sal driehonderd jaar neem om 'n nuwe tradisie op te bou. Die ontruiming sal voortgaan.

Die “ sê nooit dat die gesindheid van Cunningham en die mans onder sy bevel beteken het dat van 22 000 man op Kreta 16 500 mense gered is nie, maar met die verlies van drie kruisers en ses verwoesters. Vyftien ander groot oorlogskepe is beskadig.

Sir Arthur Longmore

Air Chief Marshal Sir Arthur Murray Longmore (8 Oktober 1885 - 10 Desember 1970) was 'n vroeë vlootvlieënier voordat hy 'n hoë rang in die Royal Air Force bereik het. Hy was van 1940 tot 1941 die opperbevelhebber van die RAF se Midde-Ooste-kommando.

Tydens die uitbreek van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog was Longmore 'n lugmaghoof en leier van RAF Training Command. Op 2 April 1940 word hy aangestel as lugdiensbevelvoerder in die Midde -Ooste. Hy het nie lank die volle vertroue van Winston Churchill in daardie posisie geniet nie en is in Mei 1941 onthef van sy bevel. Sy laaste rol voor sy formele uittrede in 1942 was as inspekteur-generaal van die RAF.

Archibald Percival Wavell

Veldmaarskalk Archibald Percival Wavell (5 Mei 1883 - 24 Mei 1950) was 'n senior offisier van die Britse leër. Hy het gedien in die Tweede Boereoorlog, die Bazar Valley -veldtog en die Eerste Wêreldoorlog, waartydens hy in die Tweede Slag van Ieper gewond is. Hy het in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog gedien, aanvanklik as opperbevelhebber in die Midde-Ooste, in watter rol hy die Britse magte gelei het tot die oorwinning oor die Italianers in Wes-Egipte en Oos-Libië tydens Operasie Kompas in Desember 1940, net om deur die Duitser verslaan te word Weermag in die Westelike Woestyn in April 1941.

Tydens die verdedigingsontplooiing op die eiland Kreta het Wavell deur die inligting van ULTRA, generaal Bernard Freyberg, bevelvoerder van “Creforce ”, baie keer gewaarsku oor die inval in die lug. Daar is versendings van Wavell na “Creforce ” se hoofkwartier wat die kennis oor die Duitse aanval bewys voordat dit gebeur.

Bernard Freyberg

Luitenant -generaal Bernard Cyril Freyberg (21 Maart 1889-4 Julie 1963) was 'n Britse gebore soldaat en Victoria Cross-ontvanger, wat later dien as die 7de goewerneur-generaal van Nieu-Seeland van 1946 tot 1952. Hy was 'n WWI-held en volgens sy manne 'n baie dapper soldaat.

Winston Churchill en die Britse leër het Freyberg in 1937 as ongeskik vir aktiewe diens geklassifiseer. Na die uitbreek van die oorlog in September 1939 keer hy in Desember terug na sy aktiewe lys as 'n spesiaal-aangestelde majoor-generaal. Toe die Nieu -Seelandse regering hom genader het, bied Freyberg sy dienste aan en word hy aangestel as bevelvoerder van die 2de Nieu -Seelandse ekspedisiemag en die 2de Nieu -Seelandse afdeling. In die chaos van die terugtog uit die Slag van Griekeland in 1941, gee Churchill Freyberg bevel oor die geallieerde magte tydens die Slag van Kreta. Daar is baie verskillende menings oor die optrede van Fryberg, sy verantwoordelikhede en uiteindelik die gevolg van die slag van Kreta. Opgedra om 'n aanval uit die lug te voorkom, bly hy behep met die (hoogs onwaarskynlike) moontlikheid van 'n vlootlanding en baseer sy taktiek daarop, en versuim voldoende om die vliegveld by Maleme te verdedig en ignoreer ULTRA -intelligensieboodskappe, wat toon dat die aanval deur die lug kom. Uiteindelik verloor die bondgenote Kreta in minder as 10 dae, maar moedig veg teen die Duitse valskermsoldate en bergtroepe.

Die ontruimingsplan was suksesvol en baie van Kreta se vegters het na Alexandria gekom. Bevorder tot luitenant-generaal en tot ridder as ridderbevelvoerder in die Orde van die Britse Ryk, het Freyberg voortgegaan om die 2de Nieu-Seelandse afdeling te beveel deur middel van die Noord-Afrikaanse en Italiaanse veldtogte van die Agtste Leër. Hy het 'n uitstekende reputasie gehad as taktikus op afdelingsvlak. Winston Churchill beskryf Freyberg as sy “salamander ” vanweë sy liefde vir vuur en om altyd in die middel van die aksie te wees.

As gevolg van die geografiese samestelling van die eiland en sy voorkennis van Duitse planne, beplan Freyberg sy verdediging rondom vier selfstandige veggroepe wat ontplooi is in die streke waar die indringers in die lug waarskynlik vastrapplek sou kry. Hierdie gebiede sou die fokuspunte van die Kreta -verdedigingsplan vorm.

Die eerste hiervan, by Heraklion, sou verdedig word deur 'n garnisoen van 8 000 man wat bestaan ​​uit Australiese, Britse en Griekse troepe onder bevel van Brigadier B.H. Chappell. Die tweede, in die Rethimnon-Georgioupolis sektor, sou hê Brigadier G. A. Vasey bevelvoerende Australiese en Griekse eenhede van altesaam 7.500 man. Die derde, in die Souda Bay-Chania sektor, was onder bevel van Generaal -majoor Weston met 'n mag van 8 000 man, terwyl die vierde, onder Brigadier E. Puttick, het die Maleme-Galatas sektor net wes van Chania. Die Nieu -Seelanders in hierdie streek was verantwoordelik vir die verdediging van die vliegveld, die kus en die gevangenisvallei teen die Duitsers.

Brian Herbert Chappell (Geen foto beskikbaar nie)

Brigadier Brian Herbert Chappell was die bevelvoerder van die 14de Infanterie Brigade – (Heraklion Sektor)

Onder sy bevel:

  • 2de Bataljon, Leicestershire Regiment (Lt. -kolonel C.H.V. Cox, DSO, MC) (637 beamptes en mans)
  • 2de Bataljon, York en Lancaster Regiment (Lt. -kolonel A Gilroy) (742 beamptes en mans)
  • 2de bataljon, Black Watch (Majoor AA Pitcairn in tydelike bevel) (867 beamptes en mans)
  • 2/4de Australiese infanteriebataljon (Lt. -kolonel Ivan Noel Dougherty) (550 beamptes en mans)
  • 1ste Bataljon, Argyll en Sutherland Highlanders (Lieut. Kol. RCB Anderson, DSO, MC Tymbaki Sektor)
  • 7de Medium Regiment, RA (Maj.R.J.B. Snoek, DSO (gewond – 20 Mei 1941). Geen artillerie -toerusting en#8211 gewapen as infanterie. (450 beamptes en mans)
  • 3de Griekse regiment (656 offisiere en mans), (Lt. -kolonel Ant Betinakis)
  • 7de Griekse regiment (877 offisiere en mans), (Kol. E Cheretis)
  • Griekse Garnisoenbataljon (oud-Griekse 5de “Kreta ” Afdeling, agtergelaat as garnisoen toe hul afdeling ontbied is om die vasteland te verdedig, 830 offisiere en mans)

C.E. Weston (geen foto beskikbaar nie)

Generaal -majoor C.E. Weston was die bevelvoerder van die Mobile Base Defense Organization – Chania & amp; Souda Bay

Onder sy bevel:

  • 15de Kusregiment, RA
  • “S ” Royal Marine Composite Battalion, maj. R Garrett (Royal Marines)
  • 1ste Bataljon, The Rangers, The King ’s Royal Rifle Corps – (later aangewys as 9de Bataljon, The King ’s Royal Rifle Corps (The Rangers)
  • 102ste (Northumberland Hussars) Anti-Tank Regiment, Royal Artillery – geen toerusting, gebruik as infanterie
  • 106ste (Lancashire Huzars) Ligte regiment teen lugvaartuie, Royal Artillery – Lt.-kolonel AF Hely
  • 16de Australiese Brigade Saamgestelde Bataljon – 350 offisiere en mans Gevorm uit die ondersterkte 2/2de en 2/3de Australiese Infanteriebataljonne
  • 17de Australiese Brigade Saamgestelde Bataljon – 270 offisiere en mans Gevorm uit die onder-sterkte 2/5de en 2/6de Australiese Infanteriebataljonne
  • 2de Griekse regiment – 930 offisiere en mans
  • 2de swaar lugweerregiment, Royal Marines

George Alan Vasey

Generaal -majoor George Alan Vasey (29 Maart 1895 - 5 Maart 1945) was 'n Australiese offisier. Hy het tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog tot die rang van generaal -majoor gestyg, voordat hy in 1945 dood is tydens 'n vliegtuigongeluk naby Cairns.

In Maart 1941 word Vasey bevorder tot tydelike brigadier en neem hy die bevel oor die 19de Infanterie Brigade van die 6de Afdeling na die vertrek van Horace Robertson na Australië om mediese redes. Hy het dit in Griekeland gelei en 'n nederlaag tydens die Slag van Vevi gely. Die instruksies van Vasey aan sy mans was in tipiese Vasey -terme opgesluit: Hier is dit goed, en jy bly goed. En as daar 'n bloedige Duitser tussen u pos en die volgende kom, draai dan u bleddie bren om en skiet hom teen die esel op. ” Die 19de Infanteriebrigade is ontruim na Kreta, waar dit in die Slag van Kreta geveg het. Vasey is geprys vir sy werk op Kreta en was een van die laaste wat na Egipte ontruim is, maar ongeveer 3 000 Australiërs is gevange geneem. Alhoewel dit 'n bittere nederlaag was, word die prestasie van Vasey as uitstaande beskou, maar hy is aangestel as 'n bevelvoerder in die Orde van die Britse Ryk (CBE), 'n balie toegeken aan sy DSO en later die Griekse Oorlogskruis.

Onder sy bevel:

  • 2/3rd Field Artillery Regiment, RAA Maj.IJ Bessell-Browne No.6 Battery, bestaande uit 90 mans gewapen met vier gevange Italiaanse 100 mm gewere en 4 x 75 mm gewere
  • 2/1ste Australiese infanteriebataljon Lt. -kolonel Ian R Campbell 620 beamptes en mans (Rethymnon)
  • 2/11de Australiese infanteriebataljon Lt. -kolonel Ray Sandover 650 beamptes en mans (Rethymnon)
  • 2/7de Australiese infanteriebataljon Lt. -kolonel Theo Walker
  • 2/8ste Australiese infanteriebataljon Lt. -kolonel John W Mitchell
  • 4de Griekse regiment Kol. M Trifon 1 300 beamptes en mans (Rethymnon)
  • 5de Griekse regiment Lt. -kolonel I Servos 1200 beamptes en mans (Rethymnon)
  • Gendarmerie Privates School Kol. Iak Chaniotis 916 Beamptes en mans (Rethymnon)

Sir Edward Puttick

Generaal -majoor Sir Edward Puttick, (26 Junie 1890 - 25 Julie 1976) was 'n offisier wat tydens die Eerste en Tweede Wêreldoorloë by die Nieu -Seelandse weermag gedien het. Die eerste in Nieu-Seeland gebore soldaat wat die rang van luitenant-generaal bereik het, was van 1941 tot 1945 hoof van die algemene staf van die Nieu-Seelandse militêre magte.

Aan die begin van 1940 word die 4de Infanteriebrigade met Puttick bevorder tot tydelike brigadier, aangesien sy bevelvoerder die eerste brigade van die nuutgestigte 2de Nieu -Seelandse divisie sou wees, onder die algemene bevel van generaal -majoor Bernard Freyberg.

Op Kreta is Puttick bevorder tot tydelike generaal -majoor en het na die aanstelling van Freyberg as die bevelvoerder van Creforce die verantwoordelikheid vir die 2de Nieu -Seelandse afdeling oorgeneem. Tydens die Slag van Kreta het sy versuim om James Hargest, een van sy brigade -bevelvoerders, onder druk te sit om die heuwel 107 en Maleme -vliegveld in die begin te hou en dan 'n teenaanval te maak om die verdedigers van Maleme -vliegveld te ondersteun, gelei tot die uiteindelike verlies van die Duitsers.

Onder sy bevel:

4de Nieu -Seelandse Infanterie Brigade (Brig. Lindsay Inglis) tussen Chania en Galatas

  • 18de Nieu -Seelandse infanteriebataljon
  • 19de Nieu -Seelandse infanteriebataljon
  • 20ste Nieu -Seelandse infanteriebataljon
  • 1st Light Troop, RA

5de Nieu -Seelandse Infanterie Brigade (Brig. James Hargest) (Maleme en Platanias)

  • 21ste Nieu -Seelandse infanteriebataljon
  • 22ste Nieu -Seelandse infanteriebataljon
  • 23ste Nieu -Seelandse infanteriebataljon
  • 28ste (Maori) Infanteriebataljon
  • 7de Field Company Nieu -Seelandse ingenieurs
  • 19de Army Field Corps Company
  • Gevangenes in Nieu -Seeland (FPC) is vrygelaat om die vyand te beveg.
  • 1ste Griekse regiment (1 030 offisiere en mans), (Kol. IP Papadimitropoulos)
  • Evelpidon Officers ’ Academy (17 beamptes, 300 kadette), (Lt. -kolonel Loukas Kitsos)

10de Nieu -Seelandse Infanterie Brigade (Lt. -kolonel Howard Kippenberger) (Galatas)

  • Nieu -Seelandse afdeling Kavallerie
  • Nieu -Seeland Saamgestelde Bataljon (700 gewere)
  • 6de Griekse regiment (1 389 offisiere en mans), (Lt. -kolonel M Grigoriou)
  • 8ste Griekse regiment (840 offisiere en mans), (Lt. -kolonel Pan Karkoulas)

James Hargest

Brigadier James Hargest (4 September 1891 - 12 Augustus 1944) was 'n offisier van die Nieu -Seelandse militêre magte, wat in die Eerste en Tweede Wêreldoorloë gedien het. Hy was 'n lid van die parlement in Nieu -Seeland van 1931 tot 1944, en verteenwoordig eerstens die Invercargill en daarna die Awarua -kiesers.

Tydens die Slag van Kreta was hy bevelvoerder van die 5de Nieu -Seelandse Infanteriebrigade en verantwoordelik vir die Maleme- en Platanias -sektor. Hy het swak oordeel getoon in die posisie van sy magte rondom die belangrike Maleme -vliegveld en in die beheer van hul bewegings sodra die geveg begin het. Weens 'n gebrek aan kommunikasie weens die groot lugaanval was daar 'n chaos in hierdie sektor. Na die kommunikasie met Leslie Andrew (22ste bataljonbevelvoerder) in die aand van 20 Mei (Hy besluit om terug te keer van punt 107 na 'n nabygeleë rant), het Hargest ingestem tot die onttrekking - beroemd geantwoord: 'as jy moet, moet jy'. Tot die 22ste Mei na die mislukkings met die teenaanvalle, het die 5de Brigade die sektor Maleme en Platanias aan die Duitsers oorgelaat.

Onder sy bevel:

5de Nieu -Seelandse Infanterie Brigade (Maleme en Platanias)

  • 21ste Nieu -Seelandse infanteriebataljon
  • 22ste Nieu -Seelandse infanteriebataljon
  • 23ste Nieu -Seelandse infanteriebataljon
  • 28ste (Maori) Infanterie Bataljon
  • 7de Field Company Nieu -Seelandse ingenieurs
  • 19de Army Field Corps Company
  • Gevangenes in Nieu -Seeland (FPC) is vrygelaat om die vyand te beveg.
  • 1ste Griekse regiment (1 030 offisiere en mans), (kolonel IP Papadimitropoulos)
  • Evelpidon Officers ’ Academy (17 beamptes, 300 kadette), (luitenant -kolonel Loukas Kitsos)

Sir Howard Kippenberger

Generaal -majoor Sir Howard Karl Kippenberger (28 Januarie 1897 - 5 Mei 1957), bekend as “Kip ”, was 'n offisier van die Nieu -Seelandse militêre magte wat in die Eerste en Tweede Wêreldoorloë gedien het.

Op Kreta word Kippenberger bevorder tot tydelike kolonel en word bevel gegee oor die 10de Brigade, 'n ad-hoc-formasie, wat 'n saamgestelde bataljon van 750 man bevat, wat hoofsaaklik bestaan ​​uit artillerie- en weermagdienskorps (sonder die meeste van hul swaar toerusting en vragmotors) , Nieu -Seelandse afdelingskavallerie, 'n paar masjiengeweerders en twee Griekse regimente. Sy 20ste bataljon was ook deel van die brigade, maar daar was streng beheer oor die ontplooiing en gebruik daarvan.

Toe die Duitsers op 20 Mei die inval in Kreta begin, was Kippenberger, soos die meeste verdedigers van die eiland, verbaas toe honderde Fallschirmjäger (valskermsoldate) onder valskerms neerdaal. Hy het vinnig herstel en was op pad na sy hoofkwartier toe 'n skietgeweer van 'n valskermsoldaat op sy pad was. Nadat hy sy enkel gedraai het om die skietery te vermy, het hy die valskermsoldaat doodgeskiet met 'n skoot op die kop. Sy brigade was oos van die Maleme -vliegveld, op die Galatas -vlaktes. Dit was goed geplaas om verspreide valskermsoldate teen te val wat begin konsolideer het in 'n goeie beginposisie waaruit 'n aanval op die vliegveld geloods kon word. Sy versoek om dit te doen is geweier deur die waarnemende afdelingsbevelvoerder, brigadier Edward Puttick. 'N Aanval wat later geloods is sonder kennis van Kippenberger ’, het misluk, alhoewel hy geglo het dat die uitkoms anders kon gewees het as sy troepe betrokke was.

Vir die meeste van die oorblywende dae van die geveg is 'n reeks aanvalle en teenaanvalle geloods. Die 10de Brigade is ondergeskik gestel aan die 4de Infanteriebrigade, hoewel Kippenberger in bevel van die voorste troepe van die brigade rondom die stad Galatas gebly het. Die volgende paar dae was hy 'n belangrike rol in die handhawing van die verdedigende dissipline van die voorste troepe, van wie die meeste nie opgeleide infanterie was nie. Toe Galatas op 25 Mei op die Duitsers val, het hy vinnig 'n suksesvolle teenaanval beplan, gelei en uitgevoer om die stad te herower. Ondanks hierdie noemenswaardige sukses was dit van korte duur, aangesien die brigade na 'n korter verdedigingslinie moes terugtrek en die stad verlaat is. Kippenberger sluit aan by die 20ste bataljon toe dit geleidelik terugtrek na Sphakia, aan die suidkus van die eiland, waarvandaan dit na Egipte moes ontruim word. By sy aankoms in Sphakia moes hy 'n aantal van sy manne kies om as agterhoede te bly terwyl die res van die bataljon op 30 Mei ontruim is. Tot sy plesier kon die agterhoede wat hy gedink het hy op Kreta moes laat vaar, die volgende dag volg.

As gevolg van sy optrede in Griekeland en Kreta, het Kippenberger vir hom 'n reputasie gesmee as een van die voorste offisiere van die 2de afdeling. Sy brigade -bevelvoerder, Puttick, het hom aanbeveel vir die leiding van 'n infanterie -brigade, hoewel hy vir eers die bevelvoerder van die 20ste bataljon sou bly. Later in die jaar kry hy 'n Distinguished Service Order (DSO) vir sy leiding tydens die Slag van Kreta.

Onder sy bevel:

10th New Zealand Infantry Brigade (Galatas)

  • New Zealand Divisional Cavalry
  • New Zealand Composite Battalion (700 rifles). General Weston named this force the “Royal
  • Perivolians” after they were supposedly involved in rescuing the King of Greece.
  • 6th Greek Regiment (1,389 Officers and men), (Lt. Col. M Grigoriou)
  • 8th Greek Regiment (840 Officers and men), (Lt. Col. Pan Karkoulas)

Lindsay Inglis

Major General Lindsay Merritt Inglis (16 May 1894 – 17 March 1966) was a New Zealand military leader, lawyer and magistrate.

Having missed the Battle of Greece, Inglis was appointed commander of the 4th Infantry Brigade of 2nd New Zealand Division in May 1941. During the Battle of Crete, his brigade served the sector between Chnaia and Souda bay. The battle ended in the evacuation of Creforce to Egypt. Freyberg selected Inglis to travel to the War Office in London and provide a report on the battle. When he met with Winston Churchill the month after the evacuation from Crete, Inglis was critical of Freyberg’s conduct of the battle and made a number of inaccurate and misleading statements. However, Inglis’ own conduct in the battle had not been exemplary. At one stage, he disobeyed an order to take over a newly created reserve and remained at divisional headquarters, possibly with hopes of taking over command of the division.

Under his command:

4th New Zealand Infantry Brigade between Chania and Galatas


LT General Sir Bernard Freyberg VC, DSO**

Lieutenant General Sir Bernard Freyberg was a dentist from Wellington who joined the Royal Naval Division in 1914, serving in Gallipoli and France, before transferring to the Royal West Surrey Regiment in 1916.

A very competent and courageous leader he was wounded several times and during the WWI. He was awarded the Victoria Cross, made a member of the Order of St Michael and St George and the Distinguished Service Order, with two bars.

He commanded the 2nd New Zealand Expeditionary Force in WWII and was later Governor General of New Zealand.

Bernard Cyril Freyberg was born at Richmond, London, on 21 March 1889. The youngest son of James Freyberg, a surveyor, and his wife, Julia Hamilton and came to Wellington with his family in 1891.

At school he was more adept at sports than academics and was a champion swimmer. Leaving school and on completion of his apprenticeship, became a dentist in 1911.

Bernard left New Zealand in March 1914 and was in Mexico when war broke out and the immediately travelled to England and was granted a commission in the Royal Naval Division, being appointed to Hood Battalion.

He was part of the Division when it took part in the unsuccessful attempt to defend Antwerp in October 1914. The Division re-formed after this expedition and more fully trained was despatched to the eastern Mediterranean for the Gallipoli campaign.

Appreciating that a planned diversion by a company of his battalion would result in heavy casualties, Bernard volunteered to undertake the task alone.

At 10.00pm on the night of 24 April painted black and covered in grease, he was taken towards the enemy shore in a ship’s boat.

The night was cold, with a touch of frost and by a miscalculation he was dropped 2 miles (3.2km) off shore, to swim, towing a small raft, to the land. By midnight he was ashore and began lighting flares to simulate a landing.

Fire was immediately opened in his direction by machine guns and from picket boats patrolling the coast and to compound his situation British warships began to bombard the enemy positions now revealed.

Nevertheless he was able to light several flares before taking to the water to return to his ship. After a further two hours swimming he was miraculously picked up, exhausted but still alive. For this he was made member of the Distinguished Service Order (DSO).

Bernard took part in the heavy fighting in late April and May and in June, by now a Lieutenant Commander he was appointed to command Hood Battalion, and in September promoted to Acting Commander.

He was wounded in June and again in July, but remained with the Battalion until the evacuation in January 1916. After a short spell in the eastern Mediterranean the Royal Naval Division arrived in France in May, to be redesignated 63 rd (RN) Division.

At this time Bernard transferred from the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve to the Queen’s Royal West Surrey Regiment, but remained in command of Hood Battalion, which with Division was in the front line by mid-July.

Fought between 12 and 14 November 1916 the Battle of the Ancre was a continuation of the Battle of the Somme, which had started in July.

During this battle, under trying circumstances Bernard displayed outstanding leadership and personal courage, which enabled the Division to achieve two key objectives of the attack. In recognition of this he was awarded the Victoria Cross (VC).

He was also severely wounded and had to be evacuated to England, from where he did not return until February 1917.

Soon after returning to France Bernard left the Royal Naval Division and took command of an Army brigade with the rank of Brigadier, at the age of 28.

In September he was badly wounded again and did not return to duty until January 1918, subsequently being awarded two bars to his DSO, having been made a Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George (CMG) in 1917.

Two elder brothers did not survive the war, Oscar being killed with the Royal Naval Division on Gallipoli and Paul in France in 1917.
After the war, Bernard remained in the Army and in 1939 was appointed to command the 2 nd New Zealand Expeditionary Force, a position he held throughout the Second World War.

Between 1946 and 1952 he was Governor General of New Zealand, being raised to the peerage as Baron Freyberg ‘of Wellington, New Zealand and of Munstead in the County of Surrey’.

He died at Windsor on 4 July 1963 as a result of a rupture of one of his Gallipoli wounds.


The Salamander: Bernard Freyberg

To Winston Churchill, he was “the Salamander of the British Empire,” like the mythical creature that could pass through fire unharmed. To a subordinate, Major General Sir Howard Kippenberger, he was “simple as a child and cunning as a Maori dog.”

Lieutenant General Bernard Freyberg indeed was an extraordinary figure. He achieved one of the most remarkable records of personal courage in World War I, and in World War II he organized and commanded the New Zealand Army Expeditionary Corps, which has been called “one of the toughest, most hard-hitting formations of the war,” and earned the admiration of several Axis foes while fighting in North Africa and Italy. Along the way, though, he became embroiled in two of the latter war’s bitterest controversies.

Born in London in 1889, Freyberg was taken by his family to New Zealand at the age of 2. Although he arguably would become his adopted country’s greatest soldier, the young man would have an unusual start to martial life, training first to be a dentist before deciding to join the Territorial Army. He had barely established himself, however, when the wanderlust that had originally taken his family to New Zealand compelled him to embark on adventures of his own. He was in California when World War I broke out in August 1914.

Eager to be where the action was, Freyberg left quickly for London. Commissioned a lieutenant in the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve, he was part of a token force that Churchill sent on an ineffectual, short-lived effort to defend Antwerp, Belgium—the beginning of what would be a close friendship and patronage with the future prime minister. It was the following year at Gallipoli, however, that Freyberg made his first true impact.

Freyberg’s platoon in the Royal Naval Division was assigned to stage a mock landing at Bulair in the Gulf of Xeros as a diversion to the British army’s main landings along Turkey’s Gallipoli peninsula. Freyberg, a champion swimmer in New Zealand, convinced his superiors to let him complete the mission alone.

Shortly after midnight on April 25, 1915, a naked Freyberg, painted brown and heavily oiled, slipped from a naval cutter two miles offshore and began swimming in the icy waters with a small raft containing flares. Ninety minutes later, he reached the coast and—to simulate a landing party—quickly lit three flares along 300 yards of beach before swimming back to his ship. For that feat, Freyberg was awarded the Distinguished Service Order, Britain’s second-highest decoration.

Freyberg’s division was in the thick of the fighting on Gallipoli. In July 1915, he was wounded in the abdomen, and then in the stomach two months later. After being evacuated to Cairo, Egypt, he was given little chance of recovery, but two months later he was back leading a battalion at the front. “I guess he’s made of Indianrubber,” an Australian nurse remarked.

From Gallipoli, Freyburg was transferred to the British army on the Western Front. On November 13-14, 1916, during the Somme campaign, the lieutenant colonel led his battalion toward the key village of Beaucourt, in the Valley of Ancre. Wounded twice on the first day, he continued pushing his men forward through the enemy trenches while rallying lost troops from other units. The next day, he spearheaded the assault on the heavily fortified village that captured more than 500 German prisoners. His division’s official history concluded that it probably “was the most distinguished personal act in the war.”

It almost proved to be his swansong. Freyberg was wounded twice more on November 14, the second time shortly after Beaucourt fell when he was struck in the neck by shrapnel during a German artillery barrage. “There was a bang, a curious ringing note in my ear, and I lost consciousness,” he recalled. “When I came to, my head gave me a great deal of pain, and as I lay face downwards hot blood was dropping from my nose and chin. I thought at first my head had been smashed, but I located the wound in my neck with two dirty fingers.”

Freyberg eventually made his way to an aid station and was put in the tent reserved for those expected to die. Then, in a semiconscious state, he heard an order that he be moved out and treated. Twenty-five years later, in a hotel lobby in Cairo, Freyberg heard that voice again and finally met the doctor who had saved his life that day.

For his performance in the Ancre, Freyburg was awarded the Victoria Cross. After five months in a London hospital, Freyberg returned to the front as the youngest brigadier general in the British army. In 1917, at Ypres, Belgium, he was wounded five times, including in the lungs, but came back from another long hospital stay to command a brigade (and earn a bar to his DSO) at Passchendaele. He was promoted to major general, the army’s youngest at that time, but in June 1918 he was blown through the air by a German shell, suffering injuries to his head and leg.

The general kept fighting to the end. In fact, in the final 90 minutes before the Armistice was signed in November 1918, he led an attack on horseback and captured a bridge at Lessines and 100 German soldiers, earning a second bar to his DSO. During the assault, an enemy bullet pierced his saddle.

Freyberg had suffered an astonishing 27 wounds in all, though he always made a point of stressing, “You nearly always get two wounds for every bullet or splinter because they have to go out as well as go in.” Many New Zealanders had not been so lucky during the war: The colony had 18,000 men killed out of a total population of 1 million.

Following the war, Freyberg remained in the British regular army and also made an unsuccessful bid for the House of Commons. In 1937 he was forced to retire from the army when a routine physical indicated heart trouble his response was to take up mountain climbing.

He was recalled to duty in 1939 but was stuck in an unglamorous post in Salisbury. To Freyberg’s good fortune, following a visit to London by New Zealand Prime Minister Peter Fraser, he was appointed general officer commanding the New Zealand Expeditionary Corps, with the rank of lieutenant general. The appointment included a charter allowing Freyberg to communicate directly with the New Zealand government for guidance.

The New Zealanders were too late to help save France after the Germans invaded in May 1940, and saw their first action during the improvident British intervention in Greece in April 1941, an operation Freyberg said was “ill conceived and [violated] every principle of war.” In the fighting around Thermopylae, Freyberg received orders to evacuate ahead of his unit. He refused, saying he was “busy fighting a battle,” and then stayed with his men until they could be withdrawn to Crete 200 miles away. For Freyberg, though, it was out of the proverbial frying pan of Greece into the fire of Crete, where he was charged with defending the island against the Germans’ remarkable airborne invasion of May 20-June 1.

At the end of April, Field Marshal Sir Archibald Wavell, the British commander in the Middle East, told Freyberg he would lead a combined force of British, Commonwealth and Greek troops on Crete. Wavell’s directive dismayed Freyberg, particularly when he was informed that a German attack was imminent.

There were about 7,700 New Zealanders in Freyberg’s 32,000-man army, which lacked an adequate supply of arms, ammunition, artillery and antitank guns. Freyberg initially informed Wavell that the forces “at my disposal are totally inadequate to meet [the] attack envisaged,” but then cabled his old friend Churchill a few days later to say: “Cannot understand [your] nervousness am not in the least anxious about airborne attack have made my dispositions and feel [I] can cope adequately with the troops at my disposal.”

As the German paratroopers of Brig. Gen. Karl Student’s Fliegerkorps XI opened the invasion on May 20, Freyberg said he watched from the key Maleme airfield “enthralled by the magnitude of the operation…hundreds of planes, tier upon tier coming towards us…white specks mixed with other colors suddenly appeared beneath them as clouds of parachutists floated slowly to earth.” Despite heavy losses on the first day, the Allies managed to hold possession of several critical airfields.

The next day, the Germans captured the Maleme airfield and began flying in a large contingent of Gebirgsjäger (mountain troops). The Allies ineffectively attempted to retake the airfield, and within five days Freyberg reported that his men had reached the limit of their endurance. Informing his superior that “our position here is hopeless,” he was given permission to lead a withdrawal across the White Mountains to Sphakia.

In Sphakia, working out of a cave, Freyberg organized a seaborne evacuation to Egypt, which had only limited effectiveness because incessant Luftwaffe attacks were decimating the Royal Navy ships. Some troops, and Freyberg and his staff, managed to leave the island, but six destroyers and three cruisers were sunk and the evacuation was called off on May 30, stranding some 5,000 men.

Commonwealth casualties in the entire campaign were approximately 3,500 killed and wounded, with nearly 12,000 taken prisoners. Although the Royal Navy was able to evacuate 18,000 men, it was at a cost of 1,828 dead, 183 wounded and the loss of several vessels.

Criticism of Freyberg’s handling of his forces during the Battle for Crete dogged the general for the remainder of his life. His chief of staff said that his failure to retake Maleme after the initial German onslaught “amounted to accepting the loss of Crete.” Also, though he had done so for reasons unknown at the time, he was faulted by some for holding back troops waiting for a German seaborne invasion that never arrived. The general sentiment was that if Freyberg had consolidated his forces to resist only an airborne assault or launch a stronger counterattack once Maleme fell, the outcome of the battle might have been different.

But there was another key factor that wasn’t revealed until after Freyberg’s death in 1963—a secret the general had confided to his son that in hindsight forces a reevaluation of his performance.

Apparently, before the attack, Wavell had informed Freyberg that British cryptologists at Bletchley Park, using the Ultra machine, had intercepted and read important German Enigma codes. Wavell had gone on to warn him, however, that he could not reveal to his staff the source of his information and, critically, could not use it solely to conduct the battle without being able to offer another plausible explanation for his troop dispositions. “The authorities in England would prefer to lose Crete rather than risk jeopardizing Ultra,” Freyberg told his son.

The key Ultra intercept Freyberg received seven days before the invasion spelled out the German attack but did not specify Maleme as the prime target— Freyberg, in fact, expected it to be at Heraklion. It was on the basis of another Ultra report that he held back troops from a counterattack on Maleme to confront a seaborne landing he believed was the main invasion. (The Germans attempted two token seaborne efforts during the battle, both foiled by the Royal Navy.)

Ultimately, Crete was lost for Freyberg even before the first German paratrooper landed. A week before, following his confident cable to Churchill, Freyberg learned from Ultra that his troops were in fact nie properly situated to meet the invasion, and he warned Wavell. The British commander reminded Freyberg by special messenger that he could not compromise Ultra.

An inquiry in Cairo exonerated Freyberg over Crete, and he went on to command the New Zealand Corps in Operation Crusader and the battles of Mersa Matruh, Alma Halfa and El Alamein. He was wounded five more times.

Because of the New Zealanders’ performance in combat, German General Erwin Rommel came to respect them probably more than any other Allied troops. Freyberg had instilled in his men a “Go for them with the bayonet” philosophy and an attitude of “Ever been wounded? Why the bloody hell not?” They even had a reputation for informality in the extreme. A British general once complained to him, “Your people don’t salute very much, do they?” Freyberg responded: “You should try waving to them. They always wave back.”

The Kiwi commander found ill will with some in the British hierarchy. General Sir Alan Francis Brooke, chief of the Imperial General Staff, felt Freyberg was “casualty conscious.” In addition, Field Marshal Sir Bernard L. Montgomery changed his previously high opinion of Freyberg, believing that he had allowed a defeated Rommel to escape from El Alamein—his best division commander was now “ a nice old boy, but a bit stupid.”

Freyberg was effectively demoted when his corps was placed under the command of Lt. Gen. Brian Gwynne Horrocks, a younger and junior officer. According to the British official history, Freyberg was “grim” upon receiving the news, and Horrocks was “embarrassed.” In the end, Freyberg at least had the satisfaction of being the one to receive the surrender of the last Axis commander in North Africa, Italian First Army chief General Giovanni Messe, on May 13, 1943.

In the Italian campaign, Freyberg led the New Zealand Corps, and to his misfortune became involved in another bitter controversy on February 15, 1944—the destruction of the ancient Benedictine abbey at Monte Cassino. Freyberg had argued relentlessly for bombing the abbey, though even his subordinate, General Kippenberger, admitted, “Opinion at NZ Corps HQ as to whether the Abbey was occupied was divided.”

U.S. General Mark Clark, who commanded the Fifth Army in which the New Zealanders fought, said later that he would have ignored Freyberg’s advice if he had been an American, but respecting the commander’s position in the British army, he passed his request on to Field Marshal Harold Alexander, Allied commander in Italy, who backed Freyberg without hesitation. “When soldiers are fighting for a just cause and are prepared to suffer death and mutilation in the process, bricks and mortar, no matter how venerable, cannot be allowed to weigh against human lives,” Alexander said.

The bombing ultimately turned the abbey into an easily defensible ruin for the Germans, and it took the Allies three months to drive them out.

In March 1944, the town below the abbey was also bombed and shelled into rubble, at which point Freyberg threw in his troops. In five days, the New Zealanders lost 287 killed, 1,582 wounded and 237 missing. Freyberg eventually broke off the attack.

Freyberg was later injured in a plane crash but, as indestructible as ever, returned to have his troops reach Trieste the day the German army in Italy surrendered on May 2, 1945. New Zealand’s losses in WWII were less than in WWI: 10,033 killed, 19,314 wounded, 8,453 prisoners and 2,129 missing.

Despite the controversies over Crete and Cassino, Freyberg’s popularity remained so high in New Zealand that his appointment as governor-general, the country’s ceremonial head of state, was a foregone conclusion. Returning to Britain after his term, he was made Lord Freyberg and was holding an honorary position at Windsor Castle when he died. The cause of death was not the heart trouble reported decades before, but something even further back: His old stomach wound from Gallipoli suddenly flared up.

Originally published in the November 2006 issue of Tweede Wereldoorlog. Klik hier om in te teken.


Bernard Cyril Freyberg (1889-1963)

Summary This article on Lord Bernard Cyril FREYBERG appeared in the May 2009 Hauraki News (No 55).

Note: This articles was originally part of Tauranga City Library's 'Tauranga Memories' website. To your right, the 'Archived Kete Link', if present, will take you to a snapshot of the original record. Tauranga Memories was made up of several focus areas, called 'baskets'. This article was part of the Remembering War basket. It was first published under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 New Zealand License. There are, possibily, further details at the conclusion of the biography. Please note that articles on Tauranga Memories were often uploaded on behalf of a member of the public, meaning sometimes the author is misattributed to a library staff member. Please contact us if you this is the case for an article you authored. Biography Looking wrong? See archived copy here.

Lord Bernard Cyril FREYBERG was born in London in 1889, but came to New Zealand with his parents at the age of two. He was educated at Wellington College, when he distinguished himself particularly in swimming, winning numerous national titles in the sport.

He initially trained as a dental technician in Paeroa. where he was commissioned into the Hauraki Regiment as a Territorial Force officer, and later worked in Levin beta re returning to Britain in 1913. While en route to Britain, he spent several months in Mexico where he fought in the Mexican Revolution. On the outbreak of the Great War in 1914 he joined the Royal Naval Division - a Marine unit raised by Winston Churchill - which he eventually commanded and with which he fought on the Belgian Front.

Throughout this war Freyberg's career was notable for outstanding exploits which won him the Victoria Cross, the Distinguished Service Order (with 2 Bars), and the Croix Militaire de Guerre. He was mentioned in despatches 6 limes and wounded 9 times. After the war he became a General Staff Officer at the War Office, until his discharge on medical grounds in 1934.

He was recalled in 1939 and offered his services to the New Zealand Government, which appointed him to command the Second New Zealand Expeditionary Force which he led through fighting in the Mediterranean theatre until the end of the war. During this time he gained a forthth bar to his DSO, and was knighted.

A capable and determined commander - and one committed to avoiding fruitless waste of life - Freyberg led his Division through more major actions than any other Allied divisional commander. He subsequently served two terms as Governor-General of New Zealand (1946-52) before returning to Britain as Lieutenant-Governor of Windsor Castle. He died in 1963.

The inscription on his gravestone - 'An Unconquerable Heart” - sums up perfectly the man New Zealand soldiers knew and loved as 'Tiny'.

Useful links within the London Gazette

(Supplement) no. 29664. pp. 6941&ndash6952. 11 September 1916.

(Supplement) no. 35821. p. 5446. 11 December 1942.

(Supplement) no. 37368. p. 5835. 27 November 1945.

geen. 37417. p. 203. 1 January 1946.

(Supplement) no. 37204. p. 3962. 31 July 1945.

(Supplement) no. 35519. p. 1595. 7 April 1942.

(Supplement) no. 29626. p. 6042. 16 June 1916.

(Supplement) no. 29866. p. 12307. 15 December 1916.

(Supplement) no. 30106. p. 5400. 1 June 1917.

(Supplement) no. 31219. p. 3224. 7 March 1919.

(Supplement) no. 31583. p. 12214. 3 October 1919.

geen. 33281. p. 3629. 3 June 1927.

geen. 33463. p. 867. 29 February 1929.

geen. 33699. p. 1802. 17 March 1931.

geen. 33978. p. 6014. 15 September 1933.

geen. 34070. p. 4591. 17 July 1934.

geen. 34238. p. 767. 31 December 1935.

geen. 34444. p. 6372. 15 October 1937.

(Supplement) no. 34758. p. 8531. 22 December 1939.

This page archived at Perma CC in August of 2016: https://perma.cc/2A9S-R7TJ

The original Tauranga Memories website also collected the following information:

Article first created: 2015-01-06 01:19:26
Article last updated: 2016-08-31 01:58:03

Year relevant to this record:
Family Surname:
Country of birth: United Kingdom
Occupation: Soldier
Migration ship sailed from:
Date of sailing:
First settled: ["Wellington"]
Place of settlement in the Bay of Plenty:
Later places of settlement :
Other places of settlement:
Member of society:
Activities involved in:
Date of marriage:
Spouse's nationality:
Spouse's date of birth:
Spouse's place of death:
Spouse's place of burial:
Father's nationality:
Father's place of birth:
Father's place of death:
Further notes:


Artist biography

Paul Desmond Fitzgerald (1 August 1922 – 24 June 2017) was an Australian portrait painter who painted a vast array of distinguished persons.

Fitzgerald was born in the family home, in the Melbourne suburb of Kew, the second son of Frank Fitzgerald and Margaret née Poynton. Frank Fitzgerald was a journalist with Die ouderdom for approximately ten years and about eight years with The Argus. He periodically filled the roles of general reporting, leader writing, political correspondent, art critic, music critic, theatre critic and motoring editor.

A Catholic, Fitzgerald was educated at Xavier College in Melbourne (1933–1939) and studied for five years at the National Gallery School (1940–43 and 1946–47), interrupted for three and a half years in the Army during World War II (1943–46).

When he was painting away from his studio in Melbourne, he usually lived with the subjects of his portraiture. He lived and painted overseas on commissioned portraits twice each year since 1958 including America, Canada, England, Scotland, Ireland, Jersey, France, Italy, Germany, Spain, Malaysia, Singapore, Hong Kong, Hawaii and Bermuda. He also painted throughout Australia.

Fitzgerald was a finalist for the Archibald Prize for portraiture on multiple occasions including 1958 (with a portrait of Justice Robert Monahan), in 1962 (with portraits of each of Sir Reg Ansett and Sir Robert Menzies), and in 1972 (with a portrait of Sir Henry Bolte).

In 1997 Fitzgerald was appointed a Member of the Order of Australia and a Knight of Malta. He founded the Australian Guild of Realist Artists, where he was a Life Member of the Council, and was president for seven years. Fitzgerald was a member of "Portraits Incorporated" in America, is a trustee of the A.M.E. Bale Travelling Scholarship and Art Prize, and produced the art book Australian Realist and Impressionist Artists, donating the profits to charity.

Fitzgerald's work was prolific and the following are known notable portraits by the artist:

    in 1963, in 1978 being the only official portrait in her Silver Jubilee year, and one other portrait in 1967. in 1976, plus one other portrait in 1974. , two portraits, 1978. painted in The Vatican in 1963.
  • The Duke of Kent, two portraits, in 1978 and 2000.
  • Sir William Heseltine, Private Secretary to Queen Elizabeth II.
  • Five portraits of the Malaysian Royal Family
  • Two identical 6 feet (1.8 m) portraits of Sharafuddin Idris Shah -The Raja Muda of Selangor (Crown Prince of Malaysia), son of the Sultan of Selangor
  • Prince Ludwig (nephew of Prince Philip) and Princess Von Baden and family (Germany)
  • Three Cardinals, including Cardinal James Knox, four Archbishops including Daniel Mannix, and two Bishops
  • Angelo de Mojana di Cologna – 77th Prince Grand Master of the Knights of Malta and Count Da Larocca – Knight of Malta
  • The Duke of Westminster a Marquess three Earls two Viscounts four Barons
  • Two Governors-General of Australia, two Australian Prime Ministers, including Sir Robert Menzies and Malcolm Fraser, six Australian State Governors, two Australian State Premiers, including Sir Henry Bolte
  • Bernard Cyril Freyberg, first Baron Freyberg , Governor General of New Zealand
  • Fourteen Supreme Court Judges, including portraits of the ten judges of the Supreme Court of Victoria between 1964 and 1965 (who were Sir Edmund Herring, Sir Charles Lowe, Sir Norman O'Bryan, Sir Arthur Dean, Sir Reginald Sholl, Thomas W. Smith, Sir Edward Hudson, Sir Robert Monahan, Sir Douglas Little, and Sir Alistair Adam) and six Chiefs of Air Staff
  • Two presidents of the Australian Colleges of Surgeons, three of the College of Physicians: one the College of Anaesthetics and three of the College of Obstetrics and Gynaecology two presidents of the English Royal College of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
  • Three University Chancellors twelve College Principals
  • Three Presidents of the Melbourne Cricket Club seven Presidents of the Victorian Football League and three Chief Executives two presidents the Australian Football League
  • Five presidents of the Board of Governors of the New York Hospital the Executive Director of the New York Hospital
  • World Chairman of Citibank (who was also president of the New York Metropolitan Opera), Conrad Hilton (Hilton Hotels), Glenn Ford (actor), Vivien Leigh (actor), Maria Callas (soprano posthumously)
  • Two Australian motor racing champions
  • Sporting champions including Sir Norman Brookes (post.), Lew Hoad, Neale Fraser, Allan Border,John Nichols, Lionel Rose
  • Mrs Kerry Packer, Gretel & James
  • Sir Reginald Ansett
  • Peter Janson
  • Bruno and Reno Grollo
  • Hon. Tom Hughes QC – Australian Attorney-General
  • The first three Racehorses of the Year for Victorian Racing Commission – Rain Lover, Gay Icarus, Vain
  • 14 portraits of the Vestey Family
  • Portraits of Lord Trout, Roy Trout (1974), and Jane Nathan (1958)
  • George Mochrie, 1970, Melbourne Businessman

Shortly after returning to Australia in 1957, Fitzgerald married Mary Parker, who was born in Bitton, Gloucestershire and, as a child, had emigrated with her family to Melbourne. Parker's brother, Lieutenant–Commander Michael Parker, was a former private secretary to Prince Philip. Mary Parker attended Genezzano Convent then returned to England and established a successful career as a film actress and television announcer. She returned to Australia with HSV-7 in 1956 to cover the television coverage of the Melbourne Olympic Games and is considered to be the first woman on Australian television, having appeared in their test broadcasts and as a newsreader on their opening night, alongside Eric Pearce (later Sir Eric). Mary and Paul Fitzgerald had seven children Fabian (born 1959), Marisa (born 1960), Patrick (born 1963, since deceased), Emma (born 1964), Edward (born 1968), Maria (born 1970) and Frances (born 1973).

Fitzgerald's hobbies included tennis, music and reading and he was a member of the Melbourne Club, Victorian Racing Club and Royal South Yarra Lawn Tennis Club.


Kyk die video: Into The Storm - Winston Churchill meets Major General Bernard Montgomery (Mei 2022).