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Vulcan, Neptunus, Mercurius en Minerva, Herculaneum

Vulcan, Neptunus, Mercurius en Minerva, Herculaneum


Vulcan (mitologie)

Vulcan (Latyn: Volcānus [wɔɫˈkaːnʊs] of Vulcānus [wʊɫˈkaːnʊs]) is die god van vuur [4], insluitend die vuur van vulkane, woestyne, metaalbewerking en die smee in antieke Romeinse godsdiens en mite. Hy word gereeld uitgebeeld met 'n smidshamer. [5] Die Vulcanalia was die jaarlikse fees ter ere van 23 Augustus. Sy Griekse eweknie is Hephaestus, die god van vuur en smedery. In die Etruskiese godsdiens word hy geïdentifiseer met Sethlans.

Vulcan behoort tot die oudste stadium van die Romeinse godsdiens: Varro, die antieke Romeinse geleerde en skrywer, met verwysing na die Annales Maximi, skryf dat koning Titus Tatius altare opgedra het aan 'n reeks gode, waaronder Vulcan. [6]


Vulcan

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Vulcan, in die Romeinse godsdiens, god van vuur, veral in die vernietigende aspekte daarvan as vulkane of brand. Poëties kry hy al die eienskappe van die Griekse Hephaestus. Sy aanbidding was baie oud, en in Rome het hy sy eie priester (flamen). Sy hooffees, die Volcanalia, is op 23 Augustus gehou en word gekenmerk deur 'n ritueel van onbekende betekenis: die koppe van Romeinse gesinne het klein vissies in die vuur gegooi. Vulcan is opgeroep om brande te voorkom, soos sy bynaam Quietus en Mulciber (Fire Allayer) suggereer. Omdat hy 'n god van vernietigende vuur was, was sy tempels behoorlik buite die stad geleë. In die Romeinse mite was Vulcan die vader van Caeculus, stigter van Praeneste (nou Palestrina, Italië). Sy verhaal word vertel deur Servius, die 4de-eeuse advertensiekommentator oor Vergilius. Vulcan was ook die vader van die monster Cacus, wat deur Hercules vermoor is omdat hy sy beeste gesteel het, soos Vergilius in boek VIII van die Aeneis.


Oorsprong van die Romeinse gode

Die presiese oorsprong van die Romeinse gode dateer uit die primitiewe mense wat na die streek Rome gegaan het, in beginsel met min gode, hoewel altyd politeïsties.

Hierdie het 'n reeks gode gehad om gewasse of vir reën te verbeter, en dit is ingeroep spesiale omstandighede . Terwyl die groei en ontwikkeling van die ryk plaasgevind het, was daar 'n diep kontak met ander kulture, veral met die Griekse kultuur, en hieruit het die aanpassing van ander gode begin.

Hierdie gode is geïntegreer as hul eie figure en gehad het Romeinse name en 'n paar kenmerkende eienskappe, maar hulle vervul soortgelyke funksies as hul Griekse eweknieë.

Die beeld wat ons tans van die Romeinse gode ken, is aangeneem in die tyd van die Etruske, in die 6de eeu vC. C., toe dit die ander gode begin voorstel het met vorm en Romeinse kostuums.


Inhoud

Sekere eerbewyse en titels kan deur verskillende gode, goddelike verpersoonlikings, demi-gode en divi (vergoddelike sterflinge).

Augustus en Augusta Redigeer

Augustus, "die verhewe of Augustus" (manlike vorm) is 'n eer en titel wat aan Octavian toegeken word as erkenning vir sy unieke status, die buitengewone omvang van sy magte en die oënskynlike goddelike goedkeuring van sy prinsipaal. Na sy dood en vergoddeliking is die titel aan elkeen van sy opvolgers toegeken. Dit het ook 'n byna alomteenwoordige titel of eer geword vir verskillende klein plaaslike gode, waaronder die Lares Augusti van plaaslike gemeenskappe en obskure provinsiale gode soos die Noord -Afrikaner Marazgu Augustus. Hierdie uitbreiding van 'n keiserlike eer aan groot en klein gode van Rome en haar provinsies word beskou as 'n kenmerk op grondvlak van die keiserlike kultus.

Augusta, die vroulike vorm, is 'n eer en titel wat verband hou met die ontwikkeling en verspreiding van die keiserlike kultus soos toegepas op die Romeinse keiserinne, hetsy lewend, oorlede of vergoddelik as divae. Die eerste Augusta was Livia, die vrou van Octavianus, en die titel word dan gedeel deur verskillende staatsgodinne, waaronder Bona Dea, Ceres, Juno, Minerva en Ops deur baie klein of plaaslike godinne en deur die vroulike verpersoonliking van keiserlike deugde soos Pax en Victoria.

Bonus en Bona Redigeer

Die bynaam Bonus, "die Goeie", word gebruik in die keiserlike ideologie met abstrakte gode soos Bona Fortuna ("Goeie geluk"), Bona Mens ("Goeie denke" of "gesonde verstand"), en Bona Spes ("Geldige hoop", miskien vertaal as "Optimisme"). Gedurende die Republiek is die bynaam die bekendste by Bona Dea, 'die Goeie Godin', wie se rituele deur vroue gevier is. Bonus Eventus, 'Good Outcome', was een van Varro se twaalf landbougode, en het later sukses in die algemeen verteenwoordig. [2]

Caelestis Redigeer

Uit die middel -keiserlike tydperk, die titel Caelestis, "Hemelse" of "Hemelse" is geheg aan verskeie godinne wat aspekte van 'n enkele, opperste hemelse godin beliggaam. Die Dea Caelestis is geïdentifiseer met die sterrebeeld Virgo ("The Virgin"), wat die goddelike balans van geregtigheid besit. In die Metamorfose van Apuleius, [3] bid die protagonis Lucius tot die Hellenistiese Egiptiese godin Isis as Regina Caeli, "Queen of Heaven", wat na bewering ook as Ceres manifesteer, "die oorspronklike koesterende ouer" Heavenly Venus (Venus Caelestis) die "suster van Phoebus", dit wil sê Diana of Artemis terwyl sy in Efese of Proserpina aanbid word as die driedubbele godin van die onderwêreld. Juno Caelestis was die geromaniseerde vorm van die Carthaagse Tanit. [4]

Grammatikaal, die vorm Caelestis kan ook 'n manlike woord wees, maar die ekwivalente funksie van 'n manlike god word gewoonlik uitgedruk deur sinkretisering met Caelus, soos in Caelus Aeternus Iuppiter, "Jupiter die ewige hemel."

Invictus Redigeer

Invictus ("Onoorwin, onoorwinlik") was in die vroeë 3de eeu vC as 'n goddelike bynaam gebruik. In die keiserlike tydperk het dit die onoorwinlikheid uitgespreek van gode wat amptelik omhels is, soos Jupiter, Mars, Hercules en Sol. Op muntstukke, kalenders en ander inskripsies word Mercurius, Saturnus, Silvanus, Fons, Serapis, Sabazius, Apollo en die Genius ook gevind as Invictus. Cicero beskou dit as 'n normale bynaam vir Jupiter, vir wie dit waarskynlik 'n sinoniem is Almagtig. Dit word ook gebruik in die Mithraïese raaisels. [6]

Mater en Pater Redigeer

Mater ("Moeder") was 'n eerbewys wat 'n godin se gesag en funksies van die godin respekteer, en nie noodwendig "moederskap" per se nie. Vroeë voorbeelde was Terra Mater (Moeder Aarde) en die Mater Larum (Moeder van die Lares). Vesta, 'n godin van kuisheid wat gewoonlik as 'n maagd beskou word, is vereer as Mater. 'N Godin, bekend as Stata Mater, was 'n saamgestelde godheid wat toegeskryf word aan die voorkoming van brande in die stad. [7]

Vanaf die middel -keiserlike era word die heersende keiserin Mater castrorum et senatus et patriae, die simboliese Moeder van militêre kampe, die senaat en die vaderland. Die Galliese en Germaanse kavallerie (hulp) van die Romeinse keiserlike leër het gereeld altare opgerig vir die "Moeders van die veld" (Kampeerders, van kampus, "veld", met die titel Matres of Matrone). [8] Sien ook Magna Mater (Grootmoeder) wat volg.

Gode ​​is geroep Pater ("Vader") om hul voortreflikheid en vadersorg te kenne te gee, en die vriendelike respek wat hulle toekom. Pater is gevind as 'n bynaam van onder meer Dis, Jupiter, Mars en Liber.

Magna Mater Edit

'The Great Mother' was 'n titel wat Cybele in haar Romeinse kultus gegee het. Sommige Romeinse literêre bronne gee dieselfde titel aan Maia en ander godinne. [9]

Selfs in aanroepings, wat oor die algemeen presiese benaming vereis het, het die Romeine soms van gode as groepe of kollektiewe gepraat eerder as om hulle as individue te noem. Sommige groepe, soos die Camenae en Parcae, word as 'n beperkte aantal individuele gode beskou, alhoewel die getal hiervan nie konsekwent in alle periodes en alle tekste gegee kan word nie. Die volgende groepe is egter talle kollektiewe.

Ruimtelike driedeling Redigeer

Varro het die gode breedweg in drie afdelings van die hemel, aarde en onderwêreld gegroepeer:

  • di superi, die gode daarbo of hemelse gode, waarvan die altare aangewys is altaria. [10]
  • di terrestres, "aardse gode", wie se altare aangewys is as arae.
  • di inferi, die gode hieronder, dit wil sê die gode van die onderwêreld, infernale of chtoniese gode, wie se altare fokuspunte, vuurputte of spesiaal gemaakte vuurherde.

Meer algemeen is 'n dualistiese kontras tussen superi en inferi.

Di indigetes en nuwelinge Redigeer

Die di indigetes word deur Georg Wissowa beskou as die inheemse gode van Rome, in teenstelling met die di novensides of nuwelinge, "nuwelinggode". Geen antieke bron stel egter hierdie tweespalt voor nie, wat nie algemeen onder geleerdes van die 21ste eeu aanvaar word nie. Die betekenis van die bynaam indiges (enkelvoud) het geen wetenskaplike konsensus nie, en noven kan beteken "nege" (roman) eerder as "nuut".

Triades wysig

Groeperings van twaalf Edit

Lectisternium van 217 v.C. Redigeer

'N Lektisternium is 'n banket vir die gode, waarop dit verskyn as beelde wat op die banke sit, asof dit teenwoordig is en deelneem. In die beskrywing van die lectisternium van die twaalf groot gode in 217 vC plaas die Augustynse historikus Livy die gode in geslagsgebalanseerde pare: [13]

Goddelike manlik-vroulike komplemente soos hierdie, sowel as die antropomorfiese invloed van die Griekse mitologie, het bygedra tot die neiging in die Latynse letterkunde om die gode voor te stel as 'getroude' paartjies of (soos in die geval van Venus en Mars) liefhebbers. [ aanhaling nodig ]

Dii Consentes Redigeer

Varro gebruik die naam Dii Consentes vir twaalf gode waarvan die vergulde beelde in die forum gestaan ​​het. Dit is ook in ses man-vroulike pare geplaas. [14] Alhoewel individuele name nie gelys word nie, word aangeneem dat dit die gode van die lectisternium is. 'N Fragment van Ennius, binne wie se leeftyd die lectisternium plaasgevind het, noem dieselfde twaalf gode op hul naam, hoewel in 'n ander volgorde as dié van Livy: Juno, Vesta, Minerva, Ceres, Diana, Venus, Mars, Mercurius, Jove, Neptunus, Vulcanus, Apollo. [15]

Die Dii Consentes word soms beskou as die Romeinse ekwivalent van die Griekse Olimpiërs. Die betekenis van Toestemmings is onderhewig aan interpretasie, maar word gewoonlik bedoel dat dit 'n raad vorm of 'n konsensus van gode is.

Di Flaminales Redigeer

Die drie Romeinse gode wat deur groot vlamme verbou word [16] Redigeer

Twaalf Romeinse gode bygewoon deur die klein vlamme Edit

Di selecti Redigeer

Varro [18] gee 'n lys van twintig vernaamste gode van die Romeinse godsdiens:

Sabine gode Edit

Varro, wat self van Sabine -oorsprong was, gee 'n lys van Sabine -gode wat deur die Romeine aangeneem is:

Elders beweer Varro Sol Indiges, wat 'n heilige bos in Lavinium gehad het, as Sabine, maar hom terselfdertyd gelykstel aan Apollo. [21] Van die gelysdes skryf hy, "verskeie name het hul wortels in beide tale, aangesien bome wat op 'n eiendomslyn groei, in beide velde kruip. Daar kan byvoorbeeld gesê word dat Saturnus 'n ander oorsprong het, en so ook Diana. " [22] Varro maak verskillende bewerings vir Sabine -oorsprong gedurende sy werke, sommige meer aanneemlik as ander, en sy lys moet nie op sigself geneem word nie. [23] Maar die belangrikheid van die Sabines in die vroeë kulturele vorming van Rome word byvoorbeeld bewys deur die bruidontvoering van die Sabine -vroue deur Romulus se mans, en in die Sabine -etnisiteit van Numa Pompilius, tweede koning van Rome, aan wie word toegeskryf aan baie van Rome se godsdienstige en regsinstellings. [24] Varro sê egter dat die altare van die meeste van hierdie gode deur koning Tatius in Rome gevestig is as gevolg van 'n gelofte (votum). [25]


Inhoud

Die teologie van Neptunus kan slegs tot 'n mate gerekonstrueer word, aangesien hy sedert die vroeë tye met die Griekse god Poseidon geïdentifiseer is: sy teenwoordigheid in die lectisternium van 399 vC is 'n getuienis daarvan. [8] So 'n identifikasie kan baie goed berus op die streng verhouding tussen die Latynse en Griekse teologieë van die twee gode. [9] Daar word geargumenteer dat Indo-Europese mense, wat geen direkte kennis van die see gehad het nie, aangesien hulle uit binnelandse gebiede afkomstig was, die teologie van 'n god wat oorspronklik chonies was of die mag gehad het oor die vars vars waters as die god van die see, hergebruik het. [10] Hierdie eienskap is besonder goed bewaar in die geval van Neptunus, wat beslis 'n god van bronne, mere en riviere was voordat hy ook 'n god van die see geword het, soos getuig deur die talle bevindings van inskripsies wat hom in die nabyheid noem van sulke plekke. Servius, die grammatikus, sê ook uitdruklik dat Neptunus in beheer is van al die riviere, bronne en waters. Hy is ook die heer van perde omdat hy saam met Minerva saamgewerk het om die wa te maak. [11]

Hy vind moontlik 'n parallel by die Ierse god Nechtan, meester van die put waaruit al die riviere van die wêreld uitstroom en terugvloei.

Poseidon daarenteen het op 'n baie vroeër tydstip die proses ondergaan om die hoofgod van die see te word, soos in die Ilias getoon word. [12]

In vroeër tye was dit die god Portunus of Fortunus wat bedank is vir die oorwinning oor die see, maar Neptunus het hom in hierdie rol verdring deur ten minste die eerste eeu vC toe Sextus Pompeius homself 'seun van Neptunus' genoem het. [13] 'n Tyd lank is hy gekoppel aan Salacia, die godin van die soutwater. [14]

Neptunus word ook beskou as die legendariese stamvader van 'n Latynse stam, die Faliscans, wat hulself genoem het Neptunia rolprente. In hierdie opsig was hy die ekwivalent van Mars, Janus, Saturnus en selfs Jupiter onder Latynse stamme. Salacia sou die viriele krag van Neptunus verteenwoordig. [15]

Neptunalia Redigeer

Die Neptunalia was die fees van Neptunus op 23 Julie, op die hoogtepunt van die somer. Die datum en die bou van boomtakke [16] dui op 'n primitiewe rol vir Neptunus as god van waterbronne in die somer se droogte en hitte. [17]

Die oudste Romeinse kalender stel die feriae van Neptunus op 23 Julie, twee dae na die Lucaria van 19 en 21 Julie en twee dae voor die Furrinalia van 25 Julie.

Georg Wissowa het reeds opgemerk dat feeste wat binne drie dae val, aanvullend is. Dumézil het uitgebrei dat hierdie feeste op een of ander manier verband hou met die belangrikheid van water gedurende die somerhitte (canicula) en droogte, wanneer rivier- en fonteinwater die laagste is.

Met sy analise oor die werke van Palladius en Columella Dumézil, is dit aangevoer dat terwyl Lucaria was toegewy aan die aanmaak van bos, die verwydering van die ondergroei bosse deur die 19 te sny, dan deur die ontworteling en verbranding van die 21, [18] was die Neptunalia gewy aan die bewaring en afvoer van oppervlakkige waters, wat dus ooreenstem met die Lucaria van 19, wat slegs werk bo die grond vereis het.

Dan die Furrinalia van 25 Julie, heilig vir die Furrina -godin van bronne en putte, is gewy aan die waters wat deur boor gevang moes word, d.w.s. die werk van 'n mens vereis, wat daarmee ooreenstem met die Lucaria van 21, wat eweneens menslike optrede op die grond meegebring het.

Die Furrinalia word deur Dumézil verduidelik op grond van die hidrouliese werk wat Palladius op hierdie dag voorgeskryf het, dit wil sê die boor van putte om ondergrondse water op te spoor en op te vang: die sigbare en die verborge waters word dus op afsonderlike, alhoewel volgende geleenthede, hanteer: die Neptunalia en Furrinalia. Hierdie komplementariteit tussen Neptunalia en Furrinalia stem ooreen met dié tussen die eerste en tweede Lucaria, wat in werklikheid twee komplementêre koepels vorm.

In aangetekende tye is die Neptunalia in uitstappies onder takhutte deurgebring (umbrae, casae frondeae), in 'n bos tussen die Tiber en die Via Salaria, drinkwater en wyn om die hitte te ontsnap. Dit lyk asof die Neptunalia 'n tyd was van algemene, vrye en onbeperkte vreugde, waartydens mans en vroue vermeng het sonder die gewone Romeinse tradisionele sosiale beperkings. [19] Hierdie karakter van die fees sowel as die feit dat Neptunus die offer van 'n bul aangebied is, dui op 'n landbouvrugbaarheidskonteks. [20]

Tempels wysig

In Rome het Neptunus slegs een tempel gehad. Dit het naby die Circus Flaminius, die Romeinse renbaan, in die suidelike deel van die Campus Martius gestaan. Dit het reeds in 206 vC bestaan. [21] Dit verskyn op 'n muntstuk wat deur Gn. Domitius Ahenobarbus omstreeks 40 vC ongetwyfeld as gevolg van 'n herstel deur hierdie persoon. Dit bevat 'n beroemde beeldhouwerk van 'n mariene groep deur Scopas Minor. [22] [23] Die Basilica Neptuni, is op die Campus Martius gebou en deur Agrippa toegewy ter ere van die vlootoorwinning van Actium. [24] Hierdie gebou het die ouer tempel vervang, wat op sy beurt 'n meer antieke altaar vervang het. [25]

Offer Redigeer

Neptunus is een van slegs vier Romeinse gode aan wie dit gepas was om bulle op te offer, terwyl die ander drie Apollo, Mars en Jupiter was, hoewel Vulcan ook toegelaat is om 'n rooi bul en 'n rooi kalf te offer. [26] Die verkeerde offer sou 'n piaculum benodig as gevolg van onbedoeldheid of noodsaaklikheid. Die tipe aanbod impliseer 'n strenger verband tussen die godheid en die wêreldse koninkryk. [27]

Paredrae Edit

Paredrae is entiteite wat 'n god koppel of vergesel. Hulle verteenwoordig die fundamentele aspekte of die magte van die god met wie hulle geassosieer word. In die Romeinse godsdiens is hulle dikwels vroulik. In latere tye, onder helleniserende invloed, word dit as afsonderlike gode en medes van die god beskou. [28] Hierdie wanopvatting was egter wydverspreid in vroeëre volksgeloof. [29] Volgens die mening van Dumézil, [30] Neptunus se twee paredrae Salacia en Venilia verteenwoordig die oorweldigende en die rustige aspekte van water, beide natuurlik en mak: Salacia verpersoonlik die bruisende, oorheersende waters en Venilia die stil of stil vloeiende waters. [31] Die interpretasie van Dumézil is egter uiteenlopend, aangesien hy ook verklaar dat die ruk wat die naam van Salacia impliseer, die houding salaks wellustig, moet 'n kenmerk van die god onderstreep. [32]

Salacia en Venilia is deur antieke sowel as die moderne geleerdes bespreek. Varro verbind die eerste met salum, see, en die tweede tot ventus, wind. [33] Festus skryf van Salacia dat sy die godheid is wat die beweging van die see genereer. [34] Terwyl Venilia die golwe na die strand sou laat kom, sou Salacia veroorsaak dat hulle terugtrek na die see. [35] Die kwessie is in baie gedeeltes bespreek deur die Christelike filosoof St. Augustinus. Hy bestee een volledige hoofstuk van hom De Civitate Dei om die teenstrydighede wat inherent is aan die teologiese definisie van die twee regte te bespot: aangesien Salacia die onderste deel van die see sou aandui, wonder hy hoe dit moontlik is dat sy ook die golwe is wat terugtrek, aangesien golwe 'n verskynsel is van die oppervlak van die see see. [35] Elders skryf hy dat Venilia die 'hoop wat kom' sou wees, een van die aspekte of magte van die allesomvattende Jupiter wat verstaan ​​word as anima mundi. [36]

Servius skryf in sy kommentaar aan die Aeneïs ook in verskillende gedeeltes oor Salacia en Venilia, bv. V 724: "(Venus) dicitur et Salacia, quae proprie meretricum dea appellata est a veteribus":" (Venus) word ook Salacia genoem, wat veral deur die antieke as godin van prostitute aangewys is. "Elders skryf hy dat Salacia en Venilia inderdaad dieselfde entiteit is. [37]

Onder moderne geleerdes fokus Dumézil met sy volgelinge Bloch en Schilling hul interpretasie van Neptunus op die meer direkte, konkrete, beperkte waarde en funksies van water. Gevolglik sal Salacia die kragtige en gewelddadige aspek van stromende en oorstromende water verteenwoordig, Venilia die rustige, sagte aspek van stil of stadig vloeiende water.

Preller, Fowler, Petersmann en Takács skryf aan die teologie van Neptunus 'n groter betekenis toe as 'n god van universele wêreldse vrugbaarheid, veral relevant vir landbou en menslike voortplanting. Vandaar interpreteer hulle Salacia as die verpersoonliking van wellus en Venilia as verwant aan venia, die houding van ontevredenheid, aantrekkingskrag, verbind met liefde en begeerte om voort te plant. Ludwig Preller merk op 'n belangrike aspek van Venilia en noem dat sy ook in die indigitamenta aangeteken is as 'n god van verlange, begeerte. Hy dink dat hierdie feit dit moontlik sou maak om die teoniem op dieselfde manier as Venus s'n te verduidelik. [38] Ander gegewens wys in dieselfde rigting: Salacia sou die parallel van Thetis wees as die moeder van Achilles, terwyl Venilia die moeder sou wees van Turnus en Iuturna, wat sy gebore het met Daunus, koning van die Rutuliërs. Volgens 'n ander bron sou Venilia die vennoot wees van Janus, met wie sy die nimf Canens wat Picus liefgehad het, geboorte gegee het. [39] Hierdie mitiese gegewens onderstreep die voortplantingsfunksie wat in die figure van Neptunus se paredrae voorgestel word, veral dié van Venilia tydens bevalling en moederskap. 'N Legendariese koning Venulus is by Tibur en Lavinium onthou. [40]

Poseidon was sedert die vroegste tye aan die perd gekoppel, lank voordat enige verband met hom met die see getuig is, en kan selfs oorspronklik onder perdevorm bedink gewees het. So 'n kenmerk is 'n weerspieëling van sy eie chroniese, gewelddadige, brutale aard as aardbewing, sowel as die koppeling van die perd met bronne, dit wil sê ondergrondse water, en die psigopompiese karakter wat inherent is aan hierdie dier. [41]

Daar is nie so 'n direkte verband in Rome nie. Neptunus toon geen direkte perdekarakter of koppeling nie.

Verhouding tot Consus Edit

Aan die ander kant was die Romeinse god Consus geassosieer met perde: sy ondergrondse altaar was geleë in die vallei van die Circus Maximus aan die voet van die Palatine, die plek van perdewedrenne. Op die dag van sy somerfees (21 Augustus) het die Consualia aestiva, was dit gebruiklik om perde en muile in optog met blomme te bring en dan perdewedrenne in die sirkus te hou. [42] Volgens oorlewering is hierdie geleentheid gekies om die ontvoering van die Sabine (en Latynse) vroue in te stel. Die episode weerspieël moontlik die tradisionele seksuele lisensie van sulke geleenthede. [43] Op daardie dag het die flamen Quirinalis en die maagdelike maagde op die ondergrondse altaar van Consus geoffer. Die feit dat die twee feeste van Consus na 'n gelyke interval van vier dae gevolg is deur die twee feeste van Ops (Opeconsivia op 25 Augustus en Opalia op 19 Desember) getuig van die streng verhouding tussen die twee gode, wat beide met betrekking tot landbougewasse verband hou, of in Dumeziliaanse terminologie tot die derde funksie. Volgens Dumézil is hierdie feit die radikaal verskillende simboliese waarde van die perd in die teologie van Poseidon en van Consus. Tertullianus (De Spectaculis V 7) verklaar dat Consus volgens die Romeinse tradisie die god was wat Romulus aangeraai het oor die ontvoering van die Sabines. [44]

Miskien is onder die invloed van Poseidon Ίππιος Consus, wie se fees perdewedrenne behels het, herinterpreteer as Neptunus equestris en vir sy ondergrondse altaar ook geïdentifiseer met Poseidon Ένοσίχθων. Boonop is die etimologie van Poseidon, verstaan ​​vanaf Posisie heer, man en De graan of aarde, het moontlik bygedra tot die identifisering van Consus met Neptunus. [45] Die argaïese en boosaardige karakter van sy kultus, wat die opgrawing van die altaar vereis het, is tekens van die groot oudheid van hierdie godheid en van sy chtoniese karakter. Op grond van Augustinus (De Civitate Dei IV 8 oor die rol van Tutilina om die veiligheid van gestoorde graan te verseker), interpreteer Dumézil sy naam soos afgelei van werkwoord kondereer om weg te steek, op te slaan, as 'n verbale selfstandige naamwoord in -u parallel aan Sancus en Janus, wat die god van gestoorde korrels beteken. [46] 'n Direkte identifisering van Consus met Poseidon, ondanks al die gegewens wat daarop dui, is dat Poseidon nêrens op ondergrondse heiligdomme of altare aanbid word nie. [47]

Martianus Capella plaas Neptunus en Consus saam in gebied X van die hemel: dit kan wees dat hy 'n reeds ou interpretatio graeca van Consus gevolg het, of dat hy 'n Etruskiese idee van 'n chtoniese Neptunus weerspieël, wat blyk uit die aanbeveling van die De Haruspicum Responso [48] ​​waarin die noodsaaklikheid van afskrywings na Neptunus aangedui word vir die wonderkind van die krakende geluide wat ondergronds in die ager latiniensis. Etruske was veral lief vir perderesies. [49]

Nethuns is die Etruskiese naam van die god. In die verlede is geglo dat die Romeinse teoniem afkomstig is van Etruskies, maar meer onlangs is hierdie siening verwerp. [50] [51]

Nethuns was beslis 'n belangrike god vir die Etruske. Sy naam word aangetref op twee gevalle van die Piacenza lewer, naamlik omhulsel 7 aan die buitenste rand en omhulsel 28 op die galblaas (plus een keer in geval 22 saam met Tinia). Hierdie laaste plek strook met Plinius die Ouere se getuienis dat die galblaas heilig is vir Neptunus. [52] Die naam Nethuns kom agt keer voor in kolomme VIII, IX en XI van die Liber Linteus (flere, flerchva Nethunsl), wat wyn aanbied. [53]

Op 'n spieël uit Tuscania (E. S. 1. 76) word Nethuns voorgestel terwyl hy met Uśil (die son) en Thesan (die godin van die dageraad) praat. Nethuns is aan die linkerkant, sit en hou 'n tweeledige drietand in sy regterhand en met sy linkerarm omhoog terwyl hy instruksies gee, staan ​​Uśil in die middel van die prentjie en hou sy regterhand Aplu se boog, en Thesan is aan die regterkant, met haar regterhand op Uśil se skouer: albei gode lyk vasbeslote om Nethuns se woorde te luister. Die identifisering van Uśil met Aplu (en sy verbintenis met Nethuns) word verder beklemtoon deur die angsbevange demoon wat twee dolfyne van die onderstaande exergue vashou. Die toneel beklemtoon die identiteit en assosiasie van Nethuns en Aplu (hier geïdentifiseer as Uśil) as die belangrikste gode van die wêreld en die lewensiklus. Thesan en Uśil-Aplu, wat geïdentifiseer is met Śuri (Soranus Pater, die songod van die onderwêreld) maak die verbygaande karakter van die wêreldse lewe duidelik. [54] Die assosiasie van Nethuns en Uśil-Aplu stem ooreen met een weergawe van die teorie van die Etruskiese penate (sien afdeling hieronder).

In Martianus Capella se voorstelling van die hemel is Neptunus geleë in streek X saam met die Lar Omnium Cunctalis (van almal), Neverita en Consus. Die teenwoordigheid van die Lar Omnium Cunctalis kan verband hou met die teologie van Neptunus as 'n god van vrugbaarheid, insluitend die mens, terwyl Neverita 'n teoniem is wat afkomstig is van 'n argaïese vorm van Nereus en Nereid, voor die val van die digamma. [55] Sien die paragraaf hierbo vir die verhouding van Neptunus met Consus. Martianus se plasing van Neptunus is belaai met vrae: volgens die orde van die drie belangrikste gode moet hy in gebied II geleë wees (Jupiter is inderdaad in gebied I en Pluto in streek III). In gebied II is daar egter twee gode wat verband hou met Neptunus, naamlik Fons en Lymphae. Stephen Weinstock veronderstel dat terwyl Jupiter in elk van die eerste drie streke teenwoordig was, maar in elk onder verskillende aspekte wat verband hou met die karakter van die streek self, Neptunus oorspronklik in die tweede moes wees, soos getuig deur die teenwoordigheid van Fons en Limfe, en Pluto in die derde. Die rede vir die verplasing van Neptunus na gebied X bly onduidelik, maar kan dui op 'n tweede voorkoms van die drieklanke in die derde kwartaal, wat gepaard gaan met die ligging van Neth in geval 7 van die lewer. [56] Dit is egter in ooreenstemming met die samestelling in die derde kwadrant van die gode wat direk verband hou met die menslike wêreld. [57]

Bloch merk op die moontlike chtoniese karakter en die strenger skakel van Nethuns met Poseidon, wat 'n reeks omstandighede sou aandui, veral die feit dat hy onder die vier gode was (Jupiter, Saturnus, Neptunus en Tellus in volgorde) die haruspices wat aangedui word dat dit nodig is om die wonderkind wat verband hou met Cicero's De haruspicum responso 20, dit wil sê 'n krakende geluid wat uit die ondergrondse in die ager latiniensis.

Neptunus en die Etruskiese penate wysig

Onder antieke bronne verskaf Arnobius belangrike inligting oor die teologie van Neptunus: hy skryf dat Neptunus volgens Nigidius Figulus as een van die Etruskiese penate beskou is, tesame met Apollo, die twee gode wat erkenning verleen het aan Ilium met sy onsterflike mure. Op 'n ander plek van sy werk, boek VI, skryf Nigidius dat hy volgens die Etrusca Disciplina een van die vier was geslagte, tipes Penates: van Iupiter, van Neptunus, van die onderwêreld en van sterflike mense. Volgens 'n ander tradisie wat deur 'n Caesius verband hou [58], ook gebaseer op dieselfde bron, sou die Etruskiese Penates Fortuna, Ceres, Genius Iovialis en Pales wees, en die laaste was die manlike Etruskiese god (ministerie Iovis et vilicum, huishoudelik en boer van Jupiter). [59]

Die etimologie van Latyn Neptunus is onduidelik en betwis. [60] Die antieke grammatikus Varro het die naam ontleen aan nuptus dws "bedek" (opertio), met 'n min of meer eksplisiete verwysing na die nuptiae, "huwelik van hemel en aarde". [61]

Onder moderne geleerdes het Paul Kretschmer 'n afleiding van Indo-Europees voorgestel *neptu- "klam stof". [62] Net so het Raymond Bloch veronderstel dat dit 'n byvoeglike naamwoord kan wees -geen van *nuptu-, wat beteken "hy wat klam is". [63]

Georges Dumézil maak beswaar daarteen dat woorde wortel put *nee- word nie getuig in ander Indo-Europese tale as Vedies en Avestan nie. Hy het 'n etimologie voorgestel wat Neptunus saambring met die Indiese en Iraanse teonieme Apam Napat en Apam Napá sowel as met die Oud -Ierse teoniem Nechtan, wat alles 'afstammeling van die waters' beteken. Deur die vergelykende benadering te gebruik, sou die Indo-Iraanse, Avestaanse en Ierse figure algemene kenmerke toon met die Romeinse historiese legendes oor Neptunus. Dumézil het dan voorgestel om die selfstandige naamwoorde van 'n Indo-Europese wortel af te lei népōts-, "afstammeling, suster se seun". [64] [65] Sy voormalige student, die Estse Indo-Europeanis, Jaan Puhvel, veronderstel dat die naam uiteindelik 'kind (neve, neef) van die water' kon beteken as deel van 'n Indo-Europese 'vuur in die water' -mite. [66]

'N Ander etimologie wat gebaseer is op die legendariese geskiedenis van Latium en Etruria, is voorgestel deur die 19de-eeuse geleerdes Ludwig Preller, Karl Otfried Müller en Wilhelm Deeke: die naam van die Etruskiese god Nethuns of Nethunus (NÈDVNVZ) sou 'n byvoeglike naamwoord wees van die toponiem Nepe (t) of Nepete (tans Nepi), stad van die ou Faliscus naby Falerii. Die distrik was tradisioneel verbind met die kultus van die god. Daar word geglo dat Messapus en Halesus, die gelyknamige held van Falerii, sy eie seuns was. Messapus het die Falisci en ander na die oorlog in die Aeneïs gelei. [67] Nepi en Falerii is sedert die oudheid beroemd om die uitstekende kwaliteit van die water van hul bronne, versprei in weilande. Nepetkan egter beskou word as 'n hidronimiese toponiem van pre-Indo-Europese oorsprong, uit 'n appellatiewe betekenis van 'klam wye vallei, vlakte', gepaard met pre-Grieks νάπη, "beboste vale, kloof". [68]

Vrugbaarheidsgodheid en goddelike voorouer Redigeer

Meer onlangs, in sy lesings wat by verskeie geleenthede in die 1990's gelewer is, het die Duitse geleerde Hubert Petersmann 'n etimologie voorgestel uit die Indo-Europese wortelstam *neb- verwant aan wolke en mis, plus agtervoegsel -tu wat 'n abstrakte verbale naamwoord aandui, en byvoeglike agtervoegsel -no wat verwys na die aktiwiteitsgebied van 'n persoon of sy prerogatiewe. Die Indo-Europese wortel *neb-, met die oorspronklike betekenis van "klam, nat", het Sanskrit gegee nābhah, Hetitiese nepis, Latyn knoppe, newel, Duits Nebel, Slawies nebo ens. Die konsep sou naby wees aan die uitdrukking in die naam van die Griekse god Συράνος (Uranus), afgelei van die wortel *h2wórso-, "om nat te maak, besproei" en *h2worsó-, "die besproeier". [69] [70] Hierdie etimologie stem meer ooreen met Varro's.

Petersmann stel 'n heel ander interpretasie van die teologie van Neptunus voor. [71] Ontwikkel sy begrip van die teoniem soos gewortel in IE *nebh, beweer hy dat die god 'n ou god van die bewolkte en reënerige hemel sou wees in samewerking met en in teenstelling met Zeus/Jupiter, god van die helder helder hemel. Soortgelyk aan Caelus, sou hy die vader wees van alle lewende wesens op aarde deur die bemestingskrag van reënwater. Hierdie hieros gamos of Neptune and Earth would be reflected in literature, e.g. in Vergil Aen. V 14 pater Neptunus. The virile potency of Neptune would be represented by Salacia (derived from salax, salio in its original sense of salacious, lustful, desiring sexual intercourse, covering). Salacia would then represent the god's desire for intercourse with Earth, his virile generating potency manifesting itself in rainfall. While Salacia would denote the overcast sky, the other character of the god would be reflected by his other paredra Venilia, representing the clear sky dotted with clouds of good weather. The theonym Venilia would be rooted in a not attested adjective *venilis, from IE root *ven(h) meaning 'to love, desire', realised in Sanskrit vánati, vanóti, he loves, Old Island vinr friend, German Wonne, Latin Venus, venia. Reminiscences of this double aspect of Neptune would be found in Catullus 31. 3: "uterque Neptunus". [72]

In Petersmann's conjecture, besides Zeus/Jupiter (rooted in IE *dei(h), 'to shine', who originally represented the bright daylight of fine weather sky), the ancient Indo-Europeans venerated a god of heavenly damp or wet as the generator of life. This fact would be testified by Hittite theonyms nepišaš (D)IŠKURaš of nepišaš (D)Tarhunnaš - "the lord of sky wet", that was revered as the sovereign of Earth and men. [73] Even though over time this function was transferred to Zeus/Jupiter who became also the sovereign of weather, reminiscences of the old function survived in literature: e.g. in Vergil Aen. V 13-14 reading: "Heu, quianam tanti cinxerunt aethera nimbi?/ quidve, pater Neptune, paras?": "What, why have so many clouds enringed the sky? What are you preparing, father Neptune?". [74] The indispensability of water for its fertilizing quality and its strict connexion to reproduction is universal knowledge. [75] Takács too points to the implicit sexual and fertility significance of both Salacia and Venilia on the grounds of the context of the cults of Neptune, of Varro's interpretation of Salacia as eager for sexual intercourse and of the connexion of Venilia with a nymph or Venus.

Müller and Deeke had already interpreted the theology of Neptune as that of a divine ancestor of a Latin stock, namely the Faliscans, as the father of their founder heroes Messapus and Halesus. Sharing this same approach Fowler considered Salacia the personification of the virile potency that generated a Latin people, parallel with Mars, Saturn, Janus and even Jupiter among other Latins. [76]

The French Department of Subaquatic Archaeological Research divers (headed by Michel L'Hour) discovered a lifesize marble statue of Neptune, in the Rhône River at Arles it is dated to the early fourth century. [77] The statue is one of a hundred artifacts that the team excavated between September and October 2007. [77] [78]

Etruscan representations of the god are rare but significative. The oldest is perhaps the carved carnelian scarab from Vulci of the 4th century BC: Nethuns kicks a rock and creates a spring. (Paris: Bibliothèque Nationale, Cabinet des Medailles).

Another Etruscan gem (from the collection of Luynes, inscribed Nethunus) depicts the god making a horse spring out of the earth with a blow of his trident. [79]

A bronze mirror of the late 4th century in the Vatican Museums (Museo Gregoriano Etrusco: C.S.E. Vaticano 1.5a) depicts the god with Amymone, daughter of Danaus, whom he prevents being assaulted by a satyr and to whom he will teach the art of creating springs.

A bronze mirror from Tuscania dated to 350 BC also in the Vatican Museums (Museo Gregoriano Etrusco E. S. 1. 76). Nethuns is talking to Usil and Thesan. In the lower exergue is an anguiped demon who holds a dolphin in each hand (identification with Aplu-Apollo is clear also because Uśil holds a bow). Nethuns holds a double-ended trident, suggesting he might be one of the gods who can wield lightningbolts. [80]


Festivals

Two events dedicated to Minerva were marked on the Roman Calendar. The first was known as the Quinquatria, celebrated by students and artisans on March 19-23, just after the Ides of March, made famous by the assassination of Julius Caesar and subsequent play by William Shakespeare. On June 13, a shorter observance called the minor Quinquatrus was celebrated. The Quintratrus was also the time of school holidays and when fees for schooling became due. Thus, Minerva was seen as a patron of schoolchildren as well as the skilled workers they would someday become. Minerva shared her festivals with the war god Mars. She was often identified with Nerio, the Sabine goddess who became the consort of Mars.


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Inhoud

Die naam Minerva stems from Proto-Italic *meneswo' ('intelligent, understanding'), and ultimately from Proto-Indo-European (PIE) *menos ('thought'). Helmut Rix (1981) and Gerhard Meiser (1998) have proposed the PIE derivative *menes-ueh₂ ('provided with a mind, intelligent') as the transitional form. [8]

Following the Greek myths around Athena, she was born of Metis, who had been swallowed by Jupiter, and burst from her father's head, fully armed and clad in armour. [9] Jupiter raped the titaness Metis, which resulted in her attempting to change shape (or shapeshift) to escape him. Jupiter then recalled the prophecy that his own child would overthrow him as he had Saturn, and in turn, Saturn had Caelus.

Fearing that their child would be male, and would grow stronger than he was and rule the Heavens in his place, Jupiter swallowed Metis whole after tricking her into turning herself into a fly. The Titaness gave birth to Minerva and forged weapons and armour for her child while within Jupiter's body. In some versions of the story, Metis continued to live inside of Jupiter's mind as the source of his wisdom. Others say she was simply a vessel for the birth of Minerva. The constant pounding and ringing left Jupiter with agonizing pain. To relieve the pain, Vulcan used a hammer to split Jupiter's head and, from the cleft, Minerva emerged, whole, adult, and in full battle armour.

Minerva is a prominent figure in Roman mythology. She appears throughout many famous myths. Many of the stories of her Greek counterpart Athena are attributed to Minerva in Roman mythology, such as that of the naming of Athens [10] resulting from a competition between Minerva and Neptune, [11] in which Minerva created the olive tree. [2]

Minerva and Arachne Edit

Arachne was a mortal highly proficient in weaving and embroidery. Not only were her finished works that were beautiful, but also her process, so much so that nymphs would come out of their natural environments to watch her work. Arachne boasted that her skills could beat those of Minerva, and if she were wrong she would pay the price for it. This angered Minerva, and she took the form of an old woman to approach Arachne, offering her a chance to take back her challenge and ask forgiveness. [11] When Arachne refused, Minerva rid herself of her disguise and took Arachne up on her challenge. Arachne began to weave a tapestry which showed the shortcomings of the gods, while Minerva depicted her competition with Neptune and the gods looking down with disgust on mortals who would dare to challenge them. [11] Minerva's weaving was meant as a final warning to her foe to back down. Minerva was insulted by the scenes which Arachne was weaving, and destroyed it. She then touched Arachne on the forehead which made her feel shame for what she had done, leading her to hang herself. Minerva then felt bad for the woman, and brought her back to life. However, Minerva transformed her into a spider as punishment for her actions, and hanging from a web would forever be a reminder to Arachne of her actions which offended the gods. This story also acted as a warning to mortals not to challenge the gods. [2]

Minerva and Medusa Edit

Medusa was once a beautiful human, a priestess of Minerva. Later on, Minerva found out that Neptune and Medusa were kissing in a temple dedicated to Minerva herself. Because of this Minerva turned her into a monster, replacing her hair with hissing snakes and removing her charm. Medusa turned any living creature she looked upon into stone. When Perseus approached Medusa he used her reflection in his shield to avoid contact with her eyes, and then beheaded her. [10] He delivered the severed head to Minerva, who placed its image on her Aegis. [2]

Taming of Pegasus Edit

When Perseus beheaded Medusa some of the blood spilled onto the ground, and from it came Pegasus. Minerva caught the horse and tamed it before gifting the horse to the Muses. It was a kick from the hoof of Pegasus which opened the fountain Hippocrene. [11] When Bellerophon later went to fight the Chimera he sought to use Pegasus in the fight. In order to do this he slept in Minerva's temple, and she came to him with a golden bridle. When Pegasus saw Bellerophon with the bridle the horse immediately allowed Bellerophon to mount, and they defeated the Chimera. [2]

Turning Aglauros to Stone Edit

Metamorphoses by Ovid tell the story of Minerva and Aglauros. When Mercury comes to seduce mortal virgin Herse, her sister Aglauros is driven by her greed to help him. Minerva discovers this and is furious with Aglauros. She seeks the assistance of Envy, who fills Aglauros with so much envy for the good fortune of others that she turns to stone. Mercury fails to seduce Herse. [11]

Minerva and Hercules Edit

Minerva assisted the hero Hercules. In Hyginus' Fabulae she is said to have helped him kill the Hydra (30.3). [10]

Minerva and Odysseus Edit

Minerva assisted the hero Odysseus. Hyginus describes in his work Fabulae that Minerva changes Odysseus' appearance in order to protect and assist him multiple times (126). [10]

Inventing the Flute Edit

Minerva is thought to have invented the flute by piercing holes into boxwood. She enjoyed the music, but became embarrassed by how it made her face look when her cheeks puffed out to play. Because of this she threw it away and it landed on a riverbank where it was found by a satyr. [12]

Minerva was worshipped at many locations in Rome, most prominently as part of the Capitoline Triad. She was also worshipped at the Temple of Minerva Medica, and at the "Delubrum Minervae", a temple founded around 50 BC by Pompey on the site now occupied by the church of Santa Maria sopra Minerva.

The Romans celebrated her festival from March 19 to March 23 during the day which is called, in the neuter plural, Quinquatria, the fifth day after the Ides of March, the nineteenth, an artisans' holiday. This festival was of deepest importance to artists and craftsmen as she was the patron goddess of crafting and arts. [13] According to Ovid (Fasti 3.809) the festival was 5 days long, and the first day was said to be the anniversary of Minerva's birth, so no blood was to be shed. The following four days were full of games of "drawn swords" in honour of Minerva's military association. [14] Suetonius tells us (Life of Domitian 4.4) that Domitian celebrated the Quinquatria by appointing a college of priests who were to stage plays and animal games in addition to poetry and oratory competitions. [15] A lesser version, the Minusculae Quinquatria, was held on the Ides of June, June 13, by the flute-players, as Minerva was thought to have invented the flute. [12] In 207 BC, a guild of poets and actors was formed to meet and make votive offerings at the temple of Minerva on the Aventine Hill. Among others, its members included Livius Andronicus. The Aventine sanctuary of Minerva continued to be an important center of the arts for much of the middle Roman Republic.

Soos Minerva Medica, she was the goddess of medicine and physicians. Soos Minerva Achaea, she was worshipped at Lucera in Apulia where votive gifts and arms said to be those of Diomedes were preserved in her temple. [16] [17]

We know due to the Acta Arvalia that a cow was sacrificed to Minerva on October 13 58 AD along with many other sacrifices to celebrate the anniversary of Nero coming to power. On January 3 81 AD, as a part of the New Year vows, two cows were sacrificed to Minerva (among many others) to secure the well-being of the emperor Titus, Domitian Caesar, Julia Augusta, and their children. On January 3 87 AD there is again record of a cow being sacrificed to Minerva among the many sacrifices made as a part of the New Year vows. [18]

In Fasti III, Ovid called her the "goddess of a thousand works" [14] due to all of the things she was associated with. Minerva was worshipped throughout Italy, and when she eventually became equated with the Greek goddess Athena, she also became a goddess of battle. Unlike Mars, god of war, she was sometimes portrayed with sword lowered, in sympathy for the recent dead, rather than raised in triumph and battle lust. In Rome her bellicose nature was emphasized less than elsewhere. [19]

According to Livy's Die geskiedenis van Rome (7.3), the annual nail marking the year, a process where the praetor maximus drove a nail into to formally keep track of the current year, happened in the temple of Minerva because she was thought to have invented numbers. [20] [21]

There is archaeological evidence to suggest that Minerva was worshipped not only in a formal civic fashion, but also by individuals on a more personal level. [21]

Roman coinage Edit

Minerva is featured on the coinage of different Roman emperors. She often is represented on the reverse side of a coin holding an owl and a spear among her attributes. [22]

During the Roman occupation of Britain, it was common for carpenters to own tools ornamented with images of Minerva to invoke a greater amount of protection from the goddess of crafts. Some women would also have images of her on accessories such as hairpins or jewellery. She was even featured on some funerary art on coffins and signet rings. [23]

Bath Edit

During Roman rule Minerva became equated with the Celtic goddess Sulis, to the degree where their names were used both together and interchangeably. [23] and was believed to preside over the healing hot springs located in Bath. [24] Though Minerva is not a water deity, her association with intellectual professions as Minerva Medica she could also be thought of as a healing goddess, the epigraphic evidence present makes it clear that this is how Minerva was thought of in Bath. [24]

Some of the archaeological evidence present in Bath leads scholars to believe that it was thought Minerva could provide full healing from things such as rheumatism via the hot springs if she was given full credit for the healing. [23]

The temple of Sulis Minerva was known for having a miraculous altar-fire which burned coal as opposed to the traditional wood. [23]

Carrawburgh Edit

There is evidence of worship of Minerva Medica in Carrawburgh due to archaeological evidence such as a relief depicting her and Aesculapius. [24]

Stemming from an Italic moon goddess *Meneswā ('She who measures'), the Etruscans adopted the inherited Old Latin name, *Menerwā, thereby calling her Menrva. It is presumed that her Roman name, Minerva, is based on this Etruscan mythology. Minerva was the goddess of wisdom, war, art, schools, justice and commerce. She was the Etruscan counterpart to Greek Athena. Like Athena, Minerva burst from the head of her father, Jupiter (Greek Zeus), who had devoured her mother (Metis) in an unsuccessful attempt to prevent her birth.

By a process of folk etymology, the Romans could have linked her foreign name to the root men- in Latin words such as mens meaning "mind", perhaps because one of her aspects as goddess pertained to the intellectual. Die woord mens is built from the Proto-Indo-European root *men- 'mind' (linked with memory as in Greek Mnemosyne/μνημοσύνη and mnestis/μνῆστις: memory, remembrance, recollection, manush in Sanskrit meaning mind).

The Etruscan Menrva was part of a holy triad with Tinia and Uni, equivalent to the Roman Capitoline Triad of Jupiter-Juno-Minerva.

Universities and educational establishments Edit

As a patron goddess of wisdom, Minerva frequently features in statuary, as an image on seals, and in other forms at educational institutions. Listings of this can be found on Minerva in the emblems of educational establishments.

Societies and governments Edit

  • The Seal of California depicts the Goddess Minerva. Her birth fully-grown parallels California becoming a state without first being a territory. [25]
  • The U.S Military Medal of Honor for the Army, Navy/Marine Corps, and Coast Guard depicts Minerva in the center of it. The Air Force uses the head of the Statue of Liberty instead. [26]
  • According to John Robison'sProofs of a Conspiracy (1798), the third degree of the Bavarian Illuminati was called Minerval of Brother of Minerva, in honor of the goddess of learning. Later, this title was adopted for the first initiation of Aleister Crowley's OTO rituals. is a global four-year undergraduate program.
  • Minerva Hospital for Women and Children is a first-class hospital in Chengdu, China.
  • The Max Planck Society, association of research institutes mainly in Germany. is a leading private tuition and homeschooling agency, based in London, UK.

Public monuments, and places Edit

  • A statue of Minerva is the center of the Pioneer Monument in San Francisco's Civic Center created by Frank Happersberger in 1894.
  • A small Roman shrine to Minerva stands in Handbridge, Chester. It sits in a public park, overlooking the River Dee.
  • An imposing bronze statue of Minerva stands on the rooftop of the Círculo de Bellas Artes, Madrid, Spain. [27]
  • A statue to Minerva was designed by John Charles Felix Rossi to adorn the Town Hall of Liverpool, where it has stood since 1799. It remains extant and was restored as part of the 2014 renovations conducted by the city. [28] [29]
  • The Minerva Roundabout in Guadalajara, Mexico, located at the crossing of the López Mateos, Vallarta, López Cotilla, Agustín Yáñez, and Golfo de Cortez avenues, features the goddess standing on a pedestal, surrounded by a large fountain, with an inscription that says "Justice, wisdom and strength guard this loyal city".
  • A bronze statue of Minerva stands in Monument Square (Portland, Maine). "Our Lady of Victories Monument" dedicated in 1891, features a 14-feet-tall bronze figure by Franklin Simmons atop a granite pedestal with smaller bronze sculptures by Richard Morris Hunt. [30][31]
  • A sculpture of Minerva by Andy Scott, known as the Briggate Minerva, stands outside Trinity Leeds shopping centre.
  • Minerva is displayed as a statue in Pavia, Italy, near the train station, and is considered as an important landmark in the city.
  • Minerva is displayed as a cast bronze statue in the Minneapolis Central Library, rendered in 1889 by Jakob Fjelde. [32]
  • Minerva is displayed as a bronze statue in Frederick Ruckstull's 1920 Altar to Liberty: Minerva monument near the top of Battle Hill, the highest point of Brooklyn, New York, in Green-Wood Cemetery.
  • Minerva is displayed as an 11-ft statue in Jean-Antonin Carlès's 1895 "James Gordon Bennett Memorial" in New York City's Herald Square. [33]
  • A statue of Minerva is displayed at Wells College outside of Main Building. Each year, the senior class decorates Minerva at the beginning of the fall semester. Minerva remains decorated throughout the school year then during the morning of the last day of classes and after singing around the Sycamore tree, the senior class takes turns kissing the feet of Minerva, believed to be good luck and bring success and prosperity to all graduation seniors. [34][35][36]
  • A statue of Minerva stands atop the Ballaarat Mechanics' Institute in Ballarat, Victoria, Australia. There is also a mosaic tile of Minerva in the foyer of the building as well as a whole theatre name after her, called the 'Minerva Space'. [37]
  • A bronze statue of Minerva stands on the campus of The University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, North Carolina. It was commissioned in 2003 by the Class of 1953 and created by sculptor James Barnhill.

Letterkunde Redigeer

She is remembered in De Mulieribus Claris, a collection of biographies of historical and mythological women by the Florentine author Giovanni Boccaccio, composed in 1361–62. It is notable as the first collection devoted exclusively to biographies of women in Western literature. [38] Poet Elizabeth Carter is famously portrayed in an outfit inspired by Minerva, and also wrote poems in her honour.


Vulcan, Neptune, Mercury and Minerva, Herculaneum - History

When a person is leaving the Mutable Cross and is about to mount the Fixed, the effects of Vulcan are very noticeable. Vulcan rules that process which

Vulcan forges new tools for the expression of consciousness. Past patterns of behaviour are dissolved in favour of a growing awareness, which leads ultimately to detachment from the desires and compulsion of form.

We can summarise the effects of this particularly small but esoterically powerful planet by liking its effects to the earth element and the First Ray of Will Power. It is the stimulating effect of Vulcan which creates the need to penetrate thorough our material existence in order to detach ourselves from identification with the form life. The Soul centred individual can then utilise matter in order to shape those tools necessary for the externalisation of the Soul force. For example when there is a war matter is all too often used against humankind, and the power of this planet is inverted through the improper use of will. On a higher level of manifestation Vulcan&rsquos establishes the link between humanity and the Plan. This is due to Vulcan&rsquos First Ray energy, manifesting through it&rsquos Fourth Ray ruler Taurus, and the relationship that the latter has to the Fourth Kingdom of Nature.

Although Vulcan has an effect of the mass consciousness, through its function as a tool to unfetter humanity from its attachment to material forms, its purpose in terms of the evolutionary process is more specific, which is the primary use as a vehicle of transfer from the Mutable to the Fixed Cross. When on the Mutable Cross, the totally personality centred individual is not aware of the unconscious influence of Vulcan working to create detachment through the loss of visible objects and relationships. But when the evolving person is consciously beginning to put together the relationships existing between essence and form the perception of Vulcan&rsquos effects changes accordingly. At this point one is actively cultivating the first stages of conscious detachment of the form life, therefore in this respect Vulcan now serves as the agent which assists us in this transition of values.

Once Vulcan has done its work and the individual is firmly anchored on the Fixed Cross of Discipleship, we can then say that for all intents and purposes, Vulcan becomes a

. Its primary function in the reorientation of consciousness has been completed and one would then tend to move more into the domain and influence of Uranus as also discussed under the Moon section.

The Soul centred individual can now utilise the energies of the crisis producing presence of Vulcan in order to effect this necessary transformation, and would be carried out within the greater context undertaken by such a Soul centred person.

The effects of Vulcan are only experienced by those who have mounted the Fixed Cross or who are very close to doing so. The conscious application of Vulcan&rsquos energy can only said to be utilised by one firmly anchored on the Path, and who is spiritually active in the service of humanity. It can also been seen that, due to Vulcan&rsquos proximity to the Sun and/or Mercury, the unfolding evolutionary process of a Son or Daughter of Mind is very much associated with the positive destructive force of this tiny planet. Once Vulcan has done its work, the energies of Uranus (in the creation of new archetypes for the expression of the Loving Will/Power of Creation) will supersede in the life.

One should note that the position of Vulcan in the natal chart is always conjunct the Sun and very often conjunct Mercury as well. It is within 8 degrees 20 minutes of the position of the Sun. One should also be aware that Vulcan is not always in the same sign as the Sun.

(For example in my own chart my Sun is at 4 degrees 39 in Pisces yet my Vulcan is at 26 degrees 42&rsquo in Aquarius (forming a trine to Uranus at 26 degrees 32&rsquo Gemini trine the South Node at 27 degrees Libra>. He is also conjunct my Venus at 21 degrees Aquarius (rather apt since they were husband and wife in mythological terms ) yet he is not conjunct my Mercury at 8 degrees 11&rsquo Aquarius.. )

Solarfire astrology software provides Vulcan calculations for the natal chart yet if you want a site on the web then Astrodienst at www.astro.com is the best free chart providing service on the web. If you go there and follow the links then select Extended chart Selection, Scroll down to Additional Objects and under that is a box to enter &ldquoadditional asteroids or hypothetical planets&rdquo. Enter h55 (the code for Vulcan) and the position will then show on the chart.

The following link will show Vulcan in the Signs pointing out the nature of Vulcan when operating at the point of transition from the Mutable to the Fixed Cross and its effects when operating through the life of the Soul centred individual who has securely mounted the Fixed Cross.

The artwork used on this page is by the wonderful artist Kagaya and is of course copyrighted to him. You can visit the Kagaya gallery by clicking either on the large picture above or on the link below and the site will open in a separate window..

Man cannot discover new oceans
Until he has courage to lose sight of the shore


Roman Gods

Principle Roman Gods and Goddesses
Who are all the Roman gods and what are the Roman gods and goddess names? The names of the principle Roman gods and the 'Dei Consentes', the Council of Gods, were Jupiter (aka Jove), Juno, Vesta, Minerva, Ceres, Diana, Venus, Mars, Mercury, Neptune, Vulcan & Apollo.

Roman Gods: Jupiter, who was also called Jove
Jupiter was the king of the Roman gods and of the sky and the heavens. Jupiter was the patron god of the Roman state ruling over laws and social order. Jupiter was the brother of Vesta, Pluto, Neptune and Ceres. He married his sister Juno and together they had three children Mars, Juventia and Vulcan. His symbols were the the aegis (a protective shield) the oak tree, the eagle, the bull and the thunderbolt. The largest temple in Rome was dedicated to the god Jupiter and situated on the Capitoline Hill.

Roman Gods: Juno
Juno was the Queen of the Roman gods and the goddess of the marriage. women, especially in association with childbirth. She married her brother Jupiter and together they had three children: Mars, Juventia and Vulcan. Juno is represented by the Romans with a spear in her hand, and sometimes with a patera (a shallow dish).

Roman Gods: Neptune
Neptune was the name of the god of the sea. He was a son of the Titans, Cronus and Rhea. The brother of Jupiter, Vesta, Pluto and Ceres

The Roman god Neptune in his chariot drawn by Hippocamps (Horses of the sea)

Roman Gods: Mars
Mars was the Roman god of war and the son of Jupiter and Juno. As Mars Gradivus, the god of war preceded the Roman armies and led them to victory. The name of Gradivus was one of the gods by whom a general or soldiers might swear an oath to be valorous in battle. The priests of Mars, the war god, were called the Salii who wore the full war-dress (trabea and tunica picta) and were was first instituted by Numa Pompilius.

Roman Gods: Venus
Venus was the goddess of love and beauty and the daughter of Jupiter and Dione. The name Venus derives from the Latin word 'vanati' meaning "desires, loves, wins". Venus had many children by her lovers including Cupid, god of love by Mars, the god of war. The Veneralia was the Ancient Roman festival of Venus Verticordia and was held on April 1.

Roman Gods: Mercury
Mercury was the messenger of the gods. He was also the Roman god of finance, gymnasts, thieves, gamblers, merchants and commerce. He had a temple and a sacred fount near the Porta Capena. A famous temple was erected to Mercury near the Circus Maximus.

Roman Gods: Bacchus
Bacchus was the Roman god of wine and merry-making and the son of the Jupiter and Semele. The name of his festival was 'Bacchanalia' which held between March 15 and 16 and been used to refer to any forms of drunken revelry. Bacchanalia were held in in the grove of Simila, near the Aventine Hill in Rome. The Latin word 'orgia' originally meant "secret rites" and from which the modern word 'orgy' is derived.

Roman Gods: Minerva
Minerva was the name of the goddess of wisdom, the daughter of Jupiter. Her symbols and weapons reflected her strategic approach and her preparation for war and were symbols of victory. Minerva was a member of the Capitoline Triad which consisted of three major gods - Jupiter, Juno and Minerva. The most important temples in Rome were dedicated to the triad of gods and situated on the Capitoline Hill.

Roman Gods: Ceres
Ceres was the goddess of agriculture. The sister of Vesta, Pluto, Neptune and Jupiter. The mother of Proserpina (by Jupiter) who was abducted by Pluto and carried off into the Underworld. Her name originates from the Latin word 'Cerealis' meaning "of grain" from which we derive the modern word 'cereal'.

Roman Gods: Vulcan
Vulcan was the name of the Roman god of fire and metal-working and the son of Jupiter and Juno. His name derives from the Latin word 'Vulcanus' meaning "fire, flames, volcano". Vulcan was highly honored by the Romans who debated the most important issues of the republic in his temple.

Roman Gods: Pluto
Pluto was the Roman god of the Underworld and the brother of Jupiter, Vesta, Neptune and Ceres. Animal Sacrifices were made to Pluto at the Roman Colosseum where a marble altar was set in the middle of the arena, complete with a burning fire. As the god of Death the name of Pluto was used in Roman curse tablets.

Roman Gods: Diana
Diana was the name of the goddess of the hunt and the moon. She was the daughter of Jupiter and Latona and the twin sister of Apollo. As an emblem of chastity she was especially venerated by young maidens, they sacrificed their hair to her before marrying. Her name was first known as Diviana meaning "to shine".

Roman Gods: Apollo
Apollo was the name of the god of the sun, music, healing, archery and prophecy. The son of Jupiter and Latona, twin of Diana. As the the source of harmony he was called Liber Pater and carried a shield to show he was the protector of mankind, and their preserver in health and safety.

Roman Gods: Cupid
Cupid was the name of the Roman god of erotic love and beauty.. His name derives from the Latin word 'Cupido' meaning "desire, love". Cupid had two different types of arrows which explains this Roman god's association with both romantic and erotic love. His daughter called Voluptus was the spirit of pleasure, desire, and enjoyment.


Kyk die video: Elite Roman Soldier Died a Hero in Pompeiis Mega Volcano (Januarie 2022).