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Archibald Wavell

Archibald Wavell


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Archibald Wavell, die seun van 'n generaal, is gebore in Colchester, op 5 Mei 1883. Opvoed aan Winchester School en Sandhurst Military Academy (waar hy in die top van sy klas gegradueer het) het hy in 1901 in diens van die Britse leër geword.

Wavell het in die Boereoorlog geveg waar hy vyf versierings gewen het. Hy het ook met onderskeiding aan die grens van Noordwes in Indië geveg. Hy was ook 'n uitstekende student aan die Camberley Military College.

By die uitbreek van die Eerste Wêreldoorlog is Wavell, nou 'n brigade -majoor, as lid van die Britse ekspedisiemag na Frankryk gestuur. Hy het die Militêre Kruis in Ieper gewen, maar is ernstig gewond wat die verlies van sy linkeroog tot gevolg gehad het. Later is Wavell na die Palestina oorgeplaas waar hy onder generaal Edmund Allenby gedien het as brigadier -generaal van die 20ste korps.

Wavell het in die Britse leër gebly en in Julie 1939 het hy die taak gekry om die kommando in die Midde -Ooste te skep en die Suez -kanaal en die oliereserwes in die streek te beskerm teen Nazi -Duitsland. Na die uitbreek van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog was dit egter Italië wat die grootste bedreiging vir hierdie streek gebied het.

Benito Mussolini het meer as 'n miljoen mans in die Italiaanse leër na Libië gestuur. Wavell, met slegs 36 000 man, was maklik in die minderheid. Op 13 September 1940 begin Marshall Rodolfo Graziani en vyf Italiaanse afdelings 'n vinnige opmars na Egipte, maar stop voor die belangrikste Britse verdediging by Mersa Matruh.

Wavell beveel 'n Britse teen-offensief op 9 Desember 1940. Die Italianers het groot ongevalle opgedoen en is meer as 800 km (500 myl) teruggedruk. Britse troepe het langs die kus beweeg en op 22 Januarie 1941 verower hulle die hawe van Tobruk in Libië van die Italianers.

Adolf Hitler was geskok oor die nederlae wat die Italiaanse weermag gely het, en stuur in Januarie 1941 generaal Erwin Rommel en die onlangs gestigte Deutsches Afrika Korps na Noord -Afrika. Rommel het sy eerste aanval op 24 Maart 1941 uitgevoer, en na 'n week se geveg het hy die Britse leër uit die grootste deel van Libië gestoot. Onder generaal Leslie Morshead het die Britte dit egter reggekry om 'n belangrike voorwaartse voorraadbasis by Tobruk te hou.

Wavell het op 17 Junie 1941 'n teenaanval probeer, maar sy troepe is by Halfaya-pas gestop. Alhoewel Wavell hoog geag word deur generaal Alan Brooke, die hoof van die algemene staf, het Winston Churchill vertroue in hom verloor en vervang deur generaal Claude Auchinleck.

Wavell is nou aangestel as die opperbevelhebber van die Britse troepe in Indië. Nadat Japan die oorlog betree het deur Pearl Harbor op 7 Desember 1941 te bombardeer, is Wavell na Birma gestuur om sy verdediging teen die Japanse leër te organiseer. Weereens maklik in getal, toe hy nie die nodige versterkings kry nie, bedank hy in Februarie 1942.

In Januarie 1943 word Wavell bevorder tot die rang van veldmaarskalk. Hy keer terug na Indië waar hy probeer om die bevryding van Birma te organiseer. Gedurende die lente van 1943 het sy troepe, onder leiding van generaal William Slim, egter misluk in verskeie pogings om die Japanners uit die gebied te verdryf.

Op 19 Junie 1943 word Wavell onderkoning van Birma en word die daaropvolgende maand as die eerste graaf van Cyrenaica tot die eweknie verhef. Een van sy eerste dade was om die kongresleiers uit die gevangenis te bevry. Hy het ook hard gewerk om die verskille tussen die Hundu-Moslems op te los.

Nadat Wavell in 1947 as onderkoning deur Lord Mountbatten vervang is, keer hy terug na Engeland en word in 1949 luitenant van die County of London. Boeke deur Wavell sluit in Die Palestynse veldtogte (1928), Allenby (1940), Generaals en generaalskap (1941), Allenby in Egipte (1943) en The Good Soldier (1947).

Archibald Wavell is op 24 Mei 1950 oorlede.

Al ons pogings om 'n front op die Balkan te vorm, is gegrond op die seker instandhouding van die woestynflank in Noord -Afrika. Dit is moontlik reggestel by Tobruk; maar Wavell se vinnige opmars na die weste en die verowering van Benghazi het ons almal Cyrenaica besorg. Hiernatoe was die see-hoek by Agheila die poort. Dit was gemene saak tussen alle owerhede in Londen en Kaïro dat dit ten alle koste en by voorrang bo elke ander onderneming gehou moet word. Die totale vernietiging van die Italiaanse magte in Cyrenaica en die lang padafstande wat geneem moes word voordat die vyand 'n nuwe leër kon bymekaarbring, het Wavell laat glo dat hy nog 'n geruime tyd sou kon bekostig om hierdie lewensbelangrike westelike flank met matige magte vas te hou en te verlig sy beproefde troepe met ander minder goed opgeleide. Die Desert Flank was die pen waaraan alles hang, en daar was geen idee in 'n kwartaal om dit te verloor of te waag ter wille van Griekeland of iets op die Balkan nie.

Einde Februarie is die 7de Britse Pantserdivisie teruggetrek na Egipte om te rus en op te knap. Hierdie beroemde eenheid het die hoogste diens gelewer. Sy tenks het ver gereis en is grootliks opgebruik. Sy getalle het gekrimp deur gevegte en slytasie. Tog was daar 'n kern van die mees ervare, hard gebytte woestynwaardige vegters, van wie ons nie kon vind nie. Dit was jammer om nie die kern van hierdie unieke organisasie te bly nie, en sy krag te herbou deur konsepte van offisiere en manne wat opgeleide, vars en ywerige uit Engeland aankom, en hulle die keuse te stel van watter nuwe tenks of ekstra dele kon gevind word. So sou die 7de Pantserdivisie 'n kontinuïteit van die lewe behoue ​​gebring het en met krag herleef het.

Die grootste militêre probleem in Indië was afhanklik van toekomstige politieke besluite. Wavell het vir my gesê dat hy oortuig is dat die Britte die land aan die Indiane sal moet oorhandig; daar was geen werwing in die staatsdiens nie en ons kon nie veel langer daaroor beheer nie. Hy wou dit geleidelik doen, begin in die suide; die Britse regering wou dit vinnig laat doen. Die kabinetsending was destyds in Delhi. Ek was bekommerd oor die militêre gevolge van watter plan ook al uiteindelik aanvaar is. As ontwikkelings tot burgerlike versteurings lei, sal die weermag die taak van die beskerming van Britse lewens en belange kry; in hierdie verband sou die houding van die Indiese leër 'n faktor van die grootste belang wees.


Archibald Percival Wavell, 1ste graaf Wavell

Ons redakteurs gaan na wat u ingedien het, en bepaal of hulle die artikel moet hersien.

Archibald Percival Wavell, 1ste graaf Wavell, tenvolle Archibald Percival Wavell, 1st Earl Wavell (van Eritrea en van Winchester), Burggraaf Wavell van Cyrenaica en van Winchester, Burggraaf Keren van Eritrea en van Winchester, (gebore op 5 Mei 1883, Colchester, Essex, Engeland - oorlede op 24 Mei 1950, Londen), Britse veldmaarskalk en regeringsadministrateur wie se oorwinnings teen die Italianers in Noord -Afrika gedurende die vroeë deel van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog teengewerk is deur sy onvermoë om die Duitse Afrika Korps onder generaal Erwin Rommel (1941) te verslaan en sy versuim om die Japannese in 1942 in Malaya (Maleisië) en Birma (Myanmar) te stop.

Nadat hy in die Eerste Wêreldoorlog diens gedoen het, het Wavell, wat erken is as 'n uitstekende troepe -afrigter, die Britse opperbevelhebber vir die Midde -Ooste geword (1939). Op die hoogtepunt van sy loopbaan vernietig hy die getalle wat baie beter Italiaanse leërs in Noord -Afrika was (Desember 1940 - Februarie 1941). In Februarie 1941 moes Wavell egter byna 60 000 van sy troepe oorsee stuur om die Duitse verowering van Griekeland en Kreta te probeer voorkom. Met sy oorblywende magte het hy in Januarie -Mei 1941 'n oorwinnende offensief teen die Italianers in Oos -Afrika onderneem. Wavell was egter nie 'n wedstryd vir die swak Duitse magte in Noord -Afrika onder Rommel nie, en hy is in Julie 1941 vervang. Suidoos -Asië as opperbevelhebber verloor hy Malaya en Singapoer (Desember 1941 - Februarie 1942) en Birma (Januarie - Mei 1942) aan die Japannese. Wavell word weer in Junie 1943 vervang, en word bevorder tot veldmaarskalk, word as burgemeester aangewys as burggraaf Wavell van Cyrenaica en Winchester, en word aangestel as onderkoning van Indië, 'n pos wat hy beklee het tot 1947. In 1947 word 'n graaf aangestel. By sy dood het sy enigste seun, Archibald John Arthur Wavell (1916–53), die titels opgevolg, wat uitgesterf het toe hy in Kenia in 'n Mau Mau -aanval vermoor is.

Hierdie artikel is onlangs hersien en bygewerk deur Kenneth Pletcher, senior redakteur.


Generaal Archibald Wavell

Generaal Archibald Wavell was 'n senior figuur in die Britse leër wat in die Boereoorlog, die Eerste Wêreldoorlog en die Tweede Wêreldoorlog geveg het. Tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog dien hy in Noord -Afrika, Indië en die Stille Oseaan.

Generaal Archibald Wavell, gebore in 1883, is opgelei in Winchester en Sandhurst. By Sandhurst was hy eerste in sy klas en het hy by die weermag aangesluit in 1901. In die Boereoorlog het hy vyf medaljes vir uitstekende diens verower.

Aan die begin van die Eerste Wêreldoorlog reis Wavell na Frankryk vir die British Expeditionary Force (BEF). Hy het geveg in die Slag van Ieper, waar hy ernstig gewond is en sy linkeroog verloor het. Ongeag sy beserings, was Wavell steeds in die Britse leër en het later in die oorlog met die 20ste korps in Palestina gedien.

In 1939 het Wavell die taak om die Midde -Ooste -kommando te skep. Die hoofrol van hierdie eenheid was om die Suez -kanaal en die oliereserwes te beskerm. 'N Aanval deur Italië was heel waarskynlik in hierdie tyd.

Generaal Archibald Wavell

In 1940 stuur Benito Mussolini meer as 'n miljoen mans na Noord -Afrika, hoewel Wavell se mag slegs 36 000 man bevat. Uit Libië het die Italianers aansienlike vordering gemaak in die rigting van die Suez -kanaal, maar het by die Britse verdediging by Mersa Matruh tot stilstand gekom. Wavell het beveel dat daar teen Desember 1940 'n groot Britse teenaanval sou wees. Dit het die Italianers byna 500 myl teruggejaag, en Tobruk is in Januarie 1941 van hulle weggeneem.

Hierdie sukses van die Geallieerdes het Hitler egter aangemoedig om troepe na Noord -Afrika te stuur. Die Afrika Korps, onder leiding van Erwin Rommel, het spoedig aangekom. Rondom Maart 1941 was Rommel gereed om 'n aanval op die Britte te loods. Hy het hulle suksesvol uit Libië verdryf, maar die Britte het Tobruk aangehou. Wavell het in Junie 1941 probeer teenaanval, maar die Duitsers het dit tydens die Halfaya-pas gestrem. Dit was 'n knou vir Wavell se reputasie en Winston Churchill het vertroue in hom verloor. Generaal Claude Auchinleck vervang Wavell.

Na sy tyd in Noord-Afrika kry Wavell die rol van opperbevelhebber van Britse troepe in Indië. Na die aanval op Pearl Harbor in Desember 1941, is die Stille Oseaan deur oorlog oorweldig. Wavell's moes die plaaslike Britse magte organiseer en verseker dat Britse gebiede beskerm word teen 'n aanval deur die Japannese.

Toe Japan in Desember amptelik oorlog aan die Britte verklaar, word Wavell die opperbevelhebber van die Amerikaans-Brits-Nederlands-Australiese kommando. Soos in Noord -Afrika, het hy weer beheer oor 'n onbemande gebied gekry.

Teen Februarie 1942 was die situasie van die Geallieerdes in die Verre Ooste wankelrig. Malaya is deur die Japannese geneem, wat ook van plan was Sumatra en Java te neem. Die Amerikaanse-Brits-Nederlands-Australiese bevel is gestaak en Wavell keer terug na sy rol as opperbevelhebber van Indië. Een van sy verantwoordelikhede was om Birma teen die Japannese te beskerm, maar die geallieerde troepe het teen Mei 1942 onttrek.

Wavell is aan die begin van 1943 bevorder tot Field Marshall. 'N Paar maande later in Junie vervang Auchinleck hom weer in sy militêre pos. In Julie 1943 word hy Burggraaf van Cyrenaica, en in September word hy tot goewerneur-generaal en onderkoning van Indië aangestel. Lord Louis Mountbatten het Wavell in Indië in 1947 vervang.


  • Laat ons duidelik wees oor drie feite. Eerstens word alle gevegte en alle oorloë uiteindelik deur die infanteris gewen. Tweedens dra die infanteris altyd die swaarste. Sy sterftes is swaarder, hy ly aan groter ongemak en moegheid as die ander arms. Derdens is die kuns van die infanteris minder gestereotipeer en baie moeiliker om in moderne oorlog aan te skaf as dié van enige ander arm ... Die infanteris moet inisiatief en intelligensie gebruik in byna elke stap wat hy beweeg, elke aksie wat hy op die slagveld neem. Ons behoort dus ons manne met die beste intelligensie en uithouvermoë in die infanterie te plaas.
    • In Praise of Infantry, The London Times, Donderdag, 19 April 1945.
    • Ek kan net sê dat ek altyd daaraan geglo het om alles moontlik in die oorlog te doen om die teenstander te verdoesel en te mislei ...
      • Inleiding deur Wavell aan ...
      • Clarke D. (1948). Sewe opdragte. Jonathan Cape. bl. 7.

      "Generaals en generaalskap" (1939) Redigeer

      "Generals and Generalship" The Lees Knowles Lectures, Trinity College, Cambridge, Februarie 1939.


      Na die Tweede Wêreldoorlog Wavell Heights

      Queensland Housing Commission straatbeeld, Webster Road, Stafford, September 1949. Fotokrediet: CC-BY/Queensland State Archives/Flickr

      Met die vinnige bevolkingsgroei in Wavell Heights na die Tweede Wêreldoorlog, was daar 'n behoefte aan die lewering van dienste en infrastruktuur, insluitend skole. Die behuisingsprojek vir Wavell Heights bevat funksies soos die ontwikkeling van 'n winkelsentrum, parke, sportterrein, staatskool en kinderwelsynsentrum.

      Fotokrediet: Wavell Heights State School/Facebook

      Die eerste skool wat in die omgewing geopen is, was die Wavell Heights State School wat in 1950 geopen het. Dit is gevolg deur die opening van 'n Katolieke laerskool.

      Regerings was voorheen traag om staatse sekondêre onderwys in Queensland te vestig, omdat dit in 'n bedryfsgebaseerde ekonomie as onontbeerlik beskou is.

      Na die Tweede Wêreldoorlog is sekondêre onderwys egter algemeen as noodsaaklik aanvaar en word dit meer deur die regering ondersteun.


      Die geskiedenis heroorweeg

      Archibald Wavell is waarskynlik die moeilikste generaal van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog om 'n billike beoordeling te gee. Sy prestasies teen die kans is byna net so verstommend as sy mislukkings om enigiets finaal te lewer. Hy was ongetwyfeld 'n groot man, en sommige van sy optrede voer aan dat hy 'n groot generaal was. Maar daardie gebreke.

      Sy prestasies is bekend. Hy gebruik die klein westelike woestynmag van O'Connor om 'n Italiaanse weermag tien keer sy eie grootte te blitskreig en stuur hulle skelm terug. Daarna verower hy 'n ewe groot mag in Italiaanse Oos -Afrika met 'n klassieke dubbele tang, terwyl hy verskeie ander klein probleme in Palestina, Irak, Vichy Sirië, ens. Opruim. Hy het in 'n bietjie meer as twee jaar 9 groot veldtogte uitgevoer, waarvan die meeste suksesvol was , ondanks 'n ontsettende minderwaardigheid by mans en materiaal.
      Intussen
      Sy mislukkings is egter ewe bekend. Hy het die Italianers in Libië losgemaak toe hulle verslaan is, sodat hulle kon herstel terwyl hy hom op Italiaanse Oos -Afrika toegespits het. Die Italo/Duitse teenaanval het hom heeltemal verras. hy is ondanks sy twyfel in Griekeland gepraat, en het die Britse oorlogspoging twee jaar teruggesit deur baie kraaktroepe en baie noodsaaklike toerusting in 'n 'verlate hoop' te verloor. Dit sou jare se harde poging duur om die posisie wat deur hierdie besluite verlore gegaan het, terug te kry.

      Byna net so erg, toe Churchill hom stuur om 'onder 'n pagodeboom' in Indië te gaan sit, het hy hom vasgevang in die maalstroom van die Japannese blitskreig deur die Amerikaanse, Britse en Nederlandse besittings in Asië. Hier het hy weer eens sy vyand onderskat en sy direkte inmenging tussen die bevelvoerders op die slagveld (of dit nou Percival ondermyn sonder om hom te ontslaan, of om Bennett te ondersteun sonder om hom te herken as 'n hopelose windbag, of om Hutton in 'n veldopdrag te dwing - Birma - Hy was nie geskik daarvoor nie), het gevolge gehad wat slegs vermy het om self rampspoedig te wees omdat die situasie al so erg was dat dit net 'n kersie op die koek geword het.

      Aan die sukseskant is dit geen geringe oorweging om te wonder watter ander generaal met so min hulpbronne kon gedoen het wat hy gedoen het nie. Sy oorwinnings in Noord -Afrika en Oos -Afrika en die Midde -Ooste was op 'n skouer wat Montgomery korwe sou gee, en Eisenhower pas. (MacArthur sou 'n tantrum gegooi het en geweier het om selfs sonder beter hulpbronne te probeer.) Nie een van die suksesvolle geallieerde generaals van later in die oorlog het naby gekom om te bereik wat hy met so min hulpbronne gedoen het nie, en waarskynlik sou geen van hulle kon hê nie. (Alhoewel ek oplet dat O'Connor die een was wat die swaar werk gedoen het, en moontlik die oefening later kon herhaal.)

      Aan die ander kant is sy foute erg. Die besluit om van die verbygaande vervoer gebruik te maak om die 4de Indiese afdeling uit die suksesvolle opmars van O'Connor te verwyder en na Oos -Afrika te stuur, was 'n klassieke voorbeeld van die ondermyning van 'n wenhand. Selfs nadat die Australiese 6de afdeling byna gewig gemaak het, het hy die behoefte gevoel om die poging weer te ondermyn deur na Griekeland te kyk deur na die strewe tot in Libië voort te gaan. Toe Rommel in Libië aankom, het hy slegs 'n herroepingsbataljon gehad om die Britse opmars te probeer keer. As Wavell hulle die taak laat voltooi het, sou Libië in 1941 geval het! (En moontlik het Rommel die res van die oorlog in 'n krygsgevangenekamp deurgebring). As die 4de Indiër nog teenwoordig was, of die Australiese 7de daarheen was in plaas van na Griekeland, sou dit 'n sekerheid gewees het.

      Griekeland was 'n nog erger fout. Churchill was beslis entoesiasties, en daar was beslis 'n morele voordeel om almal te help wat bereid was om teen Hitler te staan. Maar Wavell het die plig gehad om, soos Brooke dit gestel het, die een taak af te handel voordat hy met die ander begin. Veral werk het met soveel bloed gewen. Sy swig voor Eden en Dill se oormatige entoesiasme (ondanks Churchill se laaste versigtigheid), was beswaarlik inspirerende legendes.

      Wavell, 'n opvallende intellektuele generaal, het gedurende die dertigerjare 'n reeks lesings gelewer met die titel 'Generals and Generalship', wat ywerig deur internasionale opleidingskole gebruik is. (Dit is opmerklik dat terwyl Wavell 'n boek gehad het as gedigte langs sy bed tydens die Noord -Afrikaanse veldtogte, Rommel 'n vertaalde eksemplaar van Wavell se boek by syne gehou het.)

      Wavell was een van drie moontlike keuses vir die hoof van die keiserlike generale staf (CIGS) in 1938, en volgens die gedagtes van mans wat later die pos beklee het soos Dill en Brooke, was hy ongetwyfeld die opvallendste. Ongelukkig het 'n slim-politici gedoen wat hulle die beste doen, en 'n aantreklike jonger aangestel as 'n PR-oefening (verskoon Lord Gort se voor die hand liggende grense met die idee dat sy adjunk Adam vir hom sou kon dink). Die besluit om Wavell eerder na die Midde -Ooste te stuur, word daarna as 'n geskenk beskou (ten minste tot 1941), óf as 'n fout (daarna).

      Sou Wavell 'n beter CIGS gemaak het? as Gort? Beslis. Dit is beslis onwaarskynlik dat hy sal vlug na die opgewondenheid om bevelvoerder van die BEF te wees en die grootste deel van die oorlogskantoor saam te neem. Hy sou byna sekerlik Dill aangestel het, of waarskynlik die tweetalige en Franse wat Brooke grootgemaak het om die BEF te bestuur, en die weermag en die nasie sou baie beter daaraan toe gewees het.

      Aan die ander kant was sy grootste gebrek sy onvermoë om met die politici te kommunikeer. Hy het uitgebrei geskryf oor die belangrikheid van goeie kommunikasie tussen peilings en generaals, en dit was 'n belangrike deel van sy beroemde lesings, maar hy kon dit nie in die veld nakom nie. Brooke het hom herhaaldelik 'n beroep gedoen om met Churchill te praat, of geselsies te skryf, maar Wavell pas nie by die vorm nie. (Ek veronderstel dat dit net Churchill was, 'n berugte moeilike karakter. Maar die punt van Wavell se geskrifte was die noodsaaklikheid om met enige politieke leier oor die weg te kom.)

      Terugskouend as Wavell in 1938 - 1941 CIGS was en daarna vir Brooke gaan staan ​​het, sou die resultaat dalk vir almal beter gewees het. Veral as Wavell dan 'n pos gekry het wat die beste by sy vaardighede pas, soos koördinering met die Sowjets. (Een van die talle tale wat hy gepraat het, was Russies, en hy het uitgebreide reise en navorsing in Rusland gedoen. Hy was een van die min manne in die oorlog wat Stalin teenstaan ​​en hartstogtelike toesprake gehou het tydens Russiese etes wat selfs Stalin toegejuig het.)

      Maar ter wille van bespiegeling, Wavell moet beoordeel word oor wat hy eintlik bereik het, en hier is hy beslis die moeilikste beoordeling van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog.

      Hy het gedoen wat min ander in die maer jare kon doen op die belangrike punte. Merk. Maar baie daarvan het ongedaan gemaak deur swak kommunikasie met die politici. Kwaad. (Ek sluit Griekeland in hierdie kategorie in). Hy was 'n ramp in ABDA, maar was moontlik te uitgeput en siek om daarvoor te blameer. ('N teken van meerderes wat die verkeerde opdragte op die verkeerde tyd doen.) Daarna het hy sy kopieboek verder uitgevee deur die terugtrekkende Birma -leër met minagting deur die oostelike bevel te laat behandel. of miskien deur nie voldoende aandag te skenk om bewus te wees van wat aan die gang is nie. En deur rampspoedige pogings tot aanvalle deur die Oos -kommando later. (Selfs die gewone soldaat, wat hom in die beginjare aanbid het, het egter laasgenoemde gely.)

      Miskien was dit nie sy skuld nie. Brooke het voor Wavell se afdanking gevoel dat hy uitgeput is en 'n paar maande rus by die huis nodig het. Hy het beslis 'n deurslaggewende posisie beklee deur meer stres net in die Midde -Ooste langer as enige ander Geallieerde generaal wat gedurende die hele oorlog beklee het. Ongelukkig wou Churchill hom nie in Londen hê om onrus in die parlement op te wek nie, en stuur hy hom na 'n rustige gebied, net betyds om nuwe dreigemente die hoof te bied. Selfs dan was sy mislukking waarskynlik meer as gevolg van die toewysing van 'n pos wat verantwoordelik was vir 'n gebied waarvan hy niks nuuts nie, meer as onvoldoende hulpbronne. (Hy het immers wonderwerke met onvoldoende hulpbronne behaal toe hy tyd gekry het om hom voor te berei en in 'n gebied wat hy redelik goed ken.)

      Was Wavell dus 'n goeie of 'n slegte generaal?

      Hy was beslis beter as baie wat meer krediet gekry het omdat hulle later baie makliker werk gedoen het. Hy het 'n beter begrip van strategie as Dill of Marshall (maar nie beter as Brooke of MacArthur nie) 'n beter begrip van teaterbeheer as Eisenhower of Alexander (maar nie Nimitz of Brooke nie), en 'n beter leierskap van troepe as Bradley of Anderson (maar nie Montgomery of Truscott). In praktiese terme was hy dus een van die beste generaals van die oorlog, wat beteken dat hy heel moontlik kon skitter in die rolle waarvoor Dill of Marshall of Eisenhower of Alexander of Bradley of Anderson onverdiende krediet gekry het.

      Sy foute was grootliks te danke aan sy politieke meerderes en om daardeur misbruik te word. Wat uiteindelik beteken dat sy meerderes die skuld gehad het dat hulle te veel keer die onmoontlike gevra het en hom nooit 'n blaaskans gegee het met voldoende leiding of ondersteuning nie.

      Wavell het die potensiaal gehad om te wees, en was in baie opsigte een van die beste generaals aan alle kante tydens die oorlog. Maar hy is gevra om te doen wat baie min ander kon probeer, en dus het swakhede van die karakter wat die meeste van sy tydgenote in eenvoudiger rolle kon verberg, uiteindelik uitgekom. Brooke, wat blykbaar sy sterk- en swakpunte verstaan ​​het, het sy bes gedoen om hom te help sodra hy CIGS geword het, maar te laat.

      Uiteindelik verdien Wavell dit as 'n baie goeie generaal. Net soos almal het hy mislukkings gehad, maar dit het eers 'n probleem geword toe hy deur sy meerdere gebruik en misbruik was. Eintlik sou ek al sy probleme in die Verre Ooste, waar hy onkundig en uitgeput was (en later beseer) afskryf, en konsentreer op die twee foute wat hom sleg weerspieël. Deur nie 'n verslane vyand in Libië af te handel nie, en sy begeerte om die politici tevrede te stel, laat sy aandag aflei na Griekeland ondanks die ooglopende risiko's.

      Die tweede was die skuld van sy meerderes (veral Eden en Dill, maar Churchill ingesluit), en hy moet 'n bietjie oorweging neem om sy herhaalde eise dat generaals voor die politici te buig, sy oordeel te ondermyn. Onvergeeflik, maar miskien verstaanbaar.

      Maar die gebrek aan vasberadenheid wat die verslane vyand in die Libiese veldtog nie beëindig het voordat hy met twee ander veldtogte begin het nie, kan nie as gevolg van druk van buite afgeskryf word nie. Dit was sy fout, en grotendeels sy alleen. Dit is onmoontlik om te dink dat Brooke of Montgomery of Patton of Truscott so 'n fout begaan. Dit, en dit alleen, val hom uit die geledere van topgeneraals.

      Gegewe wat hy wel bereik het, is dit 'n harde oordeel. Veral as in ag geneem word dat soveel ander generaals later in die oorlog baie makliker maniere gehad het om as 'groot' beskou te word. (Montgomery en Patton ingesluit.) Maar nietemin, die sleutel tot die oorgang van wat Montgomery ''n goeie gewone kok' genoem het, na ware grootheid: moet die moordenaarinstink insluit en 'n genadelose wil om dit na te streef. Wavell, die briljante akademiese en passievolle digter, was net te veel van 'n heer (in albei sin) om die grens oor te steek.


      Straatprofiele: Die geskiedenis van Wavelllaan

      Huidige straatnaam: Wavelllaan
      Voormalige straatname: Sesde Laan (1911-1944)
      Eerste vasgestel: 1911

      Sir Archibald Wavell (1883-1950)
      Foto geneem 1938 (Bron: alchetron.com)
      Naam betekenis: Die straat is vernoem na Sir Archibald Wavell, 'n senior offisier van die Britse leër. Hy het gedien in die Tweede Boereoorlog, die Bazar Valley -veldtog en die Groot Oorlog, waartydens hy in die Tweede Slag van Ieper gewond is. Hy het in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog gedien, aanvanklik as opperbevelhebber in die Midde-Ooste, in watter rol hy die Britse magte na die oorwinning oor die Italianers in Wes-Egipte en Oos-Libië gelei het tydens Operasie Kompas in Desember 1940, net om deur die Duitser verslaan te word Weermag in die Westelike Woestyn in April 1941. Hy het gedien as opperbevelhebber, Indië, van Julie 1941 tot Junie 1943 (afgesien van 'n kort toer as bevelvoerder van ABDACOM) en het daarna as onderkoning van Indië gedien tot met sy aftrede in Februarie 1947 Sy rang by aftrede was van veldmaarskalk.

      Hoe vernoem: Die paaie van McKellar Park het oorspronklik almal genommerde strate gehad. In afwagting dat die woonbuurt by die stad Ottawa geannekseer word, sal straatname verander moet word. Dit was ook destyds die patriotiese ding om strate te herdoop na helde van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. Nepean Township Council het hierdie nuwe name gekies en op 8 April 1944 Bylaw 24067 aangeneem en amptelik die veranderinge aangebring. Sesde Laan is dus in hierdie tyd patrioties herdoop na Wavelllaan.

      Vroeë dae en eerste huise:
      Die geskiedenis van die vroeë dae van die McKellar-plaas en -buurt het ek in 'n vorige artikel oor Fraserlaan uiteengesit (sien: http://kitchissippimuseum.blogspot.ca/2015/01/street-profiles-history-of-fraser-avenue .html). Hierdie artikel behandel dus die spesifieke geskiedenis van Wavelllaan self, wat begin nadat die McKellar Farm 'n residensiële onderafdeling geword het. Hierdie artikel bevat ook 'n ekstra klem op die speelgronde en velde van McKellar Park, wat natuurlik so nou gekoppel is aan Wavelllaan.

      Wavelllaan ontwikkel baie stadig, miskien stadiger as enige ander straat in McKellar Park. In die vroeë dae as Sesde Laan het dit tot in die middel van die veertigerjare eintlik net twee huise bevat!

      Lot het in Maart 1911 te koop aangebied deur die McKellar Townsite -eiendomsgroep, en die eerste verkope het in Junie begin registreer. Die eerste erf wat op Wavell (Sesde) Laan verkoop is, was lot 942, nou die ligging van Wavelllaan 530 (alhoewel #530 eers omstreeks 1950 gebou is). Hierdie kavel is verkoop vir Daniel Robertson vir $ 450, wat drie dae later ook die aangrensende perseel 941 (532 Wavell's lot) vir $ 500 opgehaal het (die premie van $ 50 moes vir die ligging van die hoek gewees het), 'n Ander lot is in Junie verkoop, lot 945 (514 Wavell in die suidwestelike hoek van Byron) na JR Breckenridge.

      Die eerste huis wat op Wavell gebou is, was wat nou Wavelllaan 540 is. Dit is in die somer van 1912 op die hoek van Sixth en Wilton (Wavell en Crossfield) gebou deur Albert Edward Wright, 'n 48-jarige kondukteur by die Canadian Pacific Railroad. Hy was een van die eerste beleggers in die McKellar Townsite -projek en het op 23 Oktober 1911 drie lotte aan die westekant van Sixth Avenue op die hoek van Wilton vir $ 1,250 verkry. Hy verkoop sy gesinshuis in Somersetstraat in Maart 1912, en die bou van die nuwe huis het waarskynlik in April begin.

      Hierdie verhaal het egter 'n hartseer wending, want in Januarie 1913, waarskynlik voordat die huis volledig voltooi is, het mnr. Wright se vrou Emma tuis gesterf as gevolg van hartversaking.

      Albert E. Wright sou later weer trou, en die gesin het in die huis gebly totdat sy in 1923 verkoop is. Wright werk 42 jaar lank vir KPR, word voorsitter van die Order of Railway Conductors en was 'n gerespekteerde lid van baie broederlike organisasies in Ottawa.

      'N Promosiekaartjie deur die McKellar Townsite wat omstreeks 1915 uitgereik is, toon die Wright -huis in sy oorspronklike glorie, met niks daaraan nie!

      Wavelllaan 540, omstreeks 1915.
      (Foto met vergunning van Ken Elder Collection)

      540 Wavell vandag (Google Streetview)

      Lotverkope op Sixth Avenue sal stadig voortgaan. Behalwe die vier aankope in 1911 wat hierbo genoem is, het Erasmus Earle in Oktober 1911 lotte 936 en 937 (die perseel van 554 en 556 Wavell) gekoop, drie lotte is in 1912 verkoop, geen in 1913, een in 1914 en nie weer in 1915 nie .

      Eiendomsagent William H. Tate het in 1914 'n groot huis aan die onderkant van Wavell aan die voorkant van Byron gebou, eintlik op die hoek van Courtenay. Maar dit geld natuurlik nie as 'n Wavell -huis nie.

      Die tweede huis op straat is vroeg in 1918 voltooi, op perseel 920, gebou deur Thomas Magee, 'n 48-jarige verkoopsman, vir sy gesin van 7 persone. Die huis is stadig gebou, en het begin as 'n klein kothuis. Dit is geleidelik uitgebrei oor die eerste paar jaar, miskien omdat Magee dit sou kon bekostig om dit te vergroot. Dit het later die jare lange tuiste van die Bedford-gesin geword. Ongelooflik, hierdie huis het oorleef tot 2008, toe dit afgebreek en vervang is met 'n groot nuwe gebou, op 626 Wavell.

      626 Wavell in September 2007
      (Bron: Google Streetview)

      Die onderstaande aansig toon Sixth Avenue in 1920, van die vroegste stel lugfoto's wat ek ooit van Wes -Ottawa gevind het. Dit toon groot detail van die straat. Richmond/Byron is regs, en die straat het indrukwekkend 'n voltooide sypaadjie aan die westekant van die straat wat van Byron na die Magee -huis loop. wat net noord van Dovercourt geleë was. Buite Dovercourt is daar 'n klein struktuur wat sigbaar is (daar is ook 'n ander in die weste waar Courtney sou loop), maar ek het geen idee wat dit was nie. Dit hou nie verband met die gholfbaan nie, want die baan het eers in 1927 aangekom. Die ou herehuis het tot in die sewentigerjare aan die voet van Wavell gestaan ​​en direk in die middel van die straat gekyk.

      Lugfoto van Sixth Avenue (Wavell) in 1920

      McKellar Golf & amp tot in die 1930's:

      Die grootste hoogtepunt vir Wavelllaan gedurende die 1920's, was die toevoeging van die McKellar -gholfbaan in 1927. Die baan het gespeel na Courtneylaan aan die westelike grens, Carling in die suide, halfpad tussen Keenan en Dovercourt in die noorde en agter. van die Fraserlaan -eiendomslyne in die ooste. Die Magee -huis het op die rand van die baan gesit, en eintlik was die 16de setperk in hul agterplaas, en die 17de tee was net suid. Ek is seker Jean en Phyllis Courtenay, die weduwee en haar dogter wat omstreeks 1926-1927 (en die daaropvolgende gesinne) in die huis ingetrek het, kon op die voorstoep sit en kyk hoe gholfspelers net 'n paar meter verder wegspring.

      Die klubhuis is vroeg in 1927 gebou en front na Gainsborough, waar 614 en 618 Gainsborough nou staan. It would also have backed onto Wavell Avenue, situated at the rear of the lots where 613 and 617 Wavell now stand. A little has been written about the golf course already (you can read Bob Grainger's excellent article about it here: https://kitchissippi.com/2014/05/01/mckellar-park-golf-course/), and there is even more to be written about the golf course (I'm working on an extensive article about it now, to be published sometime this fall, so I'll save the details for that).

      Below are two photos of McKellar park from 1928, taken from an aircraft at an oblique angle. I love these photos because it shows so much detail of the area! (Click on any photo to enlarge it, or I encourage you to right-click and save to view off your computer, which will allow you to zoom in a little more).

      The first photo shows the detail of all of McKellar Park. You can see Nepean High School and Broadview in the background. That is Crossfield coming down the left edge of the photo. The Wright house (540 Wavell) is the larger white-roofed house towards the bottom left corner (where Crossfield ends). If you follow that to the right, then you'll eventually get to the golf clubhouse near the right edge (white building with two large distinct windows on the back side). Dovercourt (then called Balmoral) can be seen running off at the right edge.

      McKellar Park 1928

      The photo below was taken on the same day, but from a different photograph (closer up). It doesn't show the detail as far east (Nepean and Broadview aren't shown), but it does give clearer detail of Wavell. The photo starts at the River at left, then the large Wayside Inn can be seen, the Tate house on the south side of Byron, then Crossfield and the Wright house again. The golf clubhouse is out of view in the photo.

      McKellar Park 1928

      Below are some true aerial photos of Wavell from 1933. The top photo shows Byron at the top, and the Wright house on the west side. Still nothing anywhere else, and the future park property has a few trees and little else of note. I like the 1933 set because they were taken at a very low altitude, and have a great resolution for details:

      May 1933 aerial view of north end of Wavell

      The photo below is from the same series of photos, but showing Wavell and the golf course. So the Magee house is at the top left corner, and the golf clubhouse is across the street and a bit to the north from it, at the top edge. Fraser Avenue is at the far right, and Carling Avenue is at the bottom. Keep in mind this photo was taken in early May, so it was before the grounds were manicured for the season. But you can definitely see distinct markers of the greens and tees throughout the McKellar Park area.

      />
      May 1933 aerial phograph showing
      most of the golf course.

      The beginnings of the McKellar Park

      As part of the agreement for annexation, Nepean Township was required to acquire and prepare playground land in each neighbourhood of the portions of Nepean to be annexed to Ottawa. Nepean Council had shortages of available land, and in some cases had to provide smaller areas than required, even going so far as to reclaim old swamp land and package it as park space (i.e. the area we now know as the Dovercourt Community Centre park, was known as "Cole swamp", and had to be purchased by the Township for $5,000). Nepean could not put together sufficient space in two areas, Highland Park and Carlington, so Councillor Ernest Jones, who was also chairman of the city's playground committee, noted that Ottawa should move quickly to acquire land in those fast-developing communities soon.

      In April of 1949, the 15 parcels of land which Nepean would hand over to Ottawa were announced, and on that list was what we now know as McKellar Park (the park space itself). The grounds were described as being in a "well-preserved and well-drained condition". The site was ideal, and made possible by the coincidence that no house had ever been built on the land, and that all landowners had surrendered their property to the Township during the 1930s. Had even one house been built in this area, or if a vacant lot owner had refused to sell, its possible that another site may have been chosen for the park.

      In November of 1950, it was announced that the ice rink and playground facilities at Woodroffe (adjacent to the public school) was to be moved to McKellar Park. A lack of available water was given as the reason water sufficient only for the school purposes forced the Ottawa playgrounds committee to find an alternate site, and any potential spots in the immediate Woodroffe area were deemed to costly to develop. The public rink facilities which came to McKellar included a public address system, skating circle and hockey rink, which was to be set up at the north end of the park.

      Soon after annexation as well, the city built a recreation building, a swimming pool designed for tots and elementary school children, and laid out two baseball diamonds.

      As reported in the Journal in 1963, McKellar Park was one of the first associations to be handed control over the park, the recreation building and the programming. This apparently happened in 1954, as an experiment to see if a community association could take over the duties of the city's Recreation and Parks Department.

      June 24, 1963 Ottawa Journal photo of
      McKellar Park children.

      Tennis courts were added later, sometime in the late 1970s or early 1980s I believe.

      In May of 1983, the Community Association received $7,500 funding from the City towards their $13,262 project to install playground equipment for children. Part of the project included that the residents themselves would install the equipment, under the supervision of a foreman from the manufacturer, saving the city $2,647.

      One of the key promises of annexation was the arrival of water and sewer to McKellar Park. Up until 1950, neither existed in most of the neighbourhood. Residents obtained water from wells, and used outhouses on the back corner of their property. Storm and surface water was carried away through informal ditches and holes which were both dangerous and unhealthy. From several news reports of the era, Wavell sounded especially bad in terms of open pits and stagnant water. Thus in April of 1950, it was announced that water mains would begin to be installed by the City Water Works Department to the area of McKellar Park north of Dovercourt (i.e. north of the golf course). This would supply city water to 600 new households, from Denbury to Wavell, north to Byron.

      This was actually made possible by the erection of the old elevated water tower behind the Royal Ottawa Hospital, which could hold 750,000 gallons of water. The tank was first put into use in May of 1950, and still stood until just a few years ago. The tower was required because the Lemieux Island plant was already working at capacity, and could not have handled the extra load required of the McKellar Park neighbourhood. A reservoir built in Carlington a couple of years later would further assist as the city continued to grow west and south.

      The fall of 1950 saw the work begin on the excavation of trenches down Wavell, and the installation of 6" cast iron water mains on Wavell from Byron to about 200 feet south of Keenan (the property line between 605 and 609 Wavell was the limit).

      In 1951, plans were made to install sewers, and in fact the main sewer trunk was to run down Wavell Avenue (hence why it was and likely still is referred to as the Wavell Avenue Storm Sewer), with branch lines connecting to the other streets, and an outlet running under Byron and Richmond to the River. However, it was not easy. The cost of the sewers became a hot political battle. The City of Ottawa argued that abutting property owners should pay a large percentage of the total cost, calculated per foot of lot frontage, which differed from their usual (pre-annexation) policy that the city paid the full cost for sewers. It also went against the agreement made prior to annexation that residents believed had been made, whereby the property owners would not be charged. The estimate on the project was $566,500 for 51,500 lineal feet of sewer. The benefiting property owners would be required to pay $338,255, or $2.79 per foot frontage charge, the City would pay the rest. Despite the fight by local Alderman Howard Henry and the McKellar Park Community Association, the City won out, though it would be a battle waged for two years until they were installed finally in the fall of 1953.

      The McKellar Golf Club was last played on in the fall of 1952. In the spring of 1953, the owners announced that the 80 acres of land would be put up for sale. Many potential buyers put in bids, including one for a major sports centre with swimming pools and tennis courts. Many residents argued the City should purchase the land and keep it as a golf course or at least park space.

      However, on May 22nd, 1953, much to the shock west Ottawans, it was announced that a syndicate (Principle Investments from Toronto) had purchased the land for $300,000, and had plans to build an enormous shopping centre on the property, with parking spaces for 2,640 cars.

      The Community Association fought hard against this proposal, which was to decide the future of the neighbourhood. Residents argued the city should step in and expropriate all or most of the property, to maintain park space, or at minimum to limit construction to single family homes. A vote at City Council in October became a circus when council voted to send the expropriation decision to the Board of Control. After the initial vote saw the motion approved, much to the delight of all McKellar residents in attendance, a recount showed that one vote had been recorded incorrectly, and in fact the motion had actually been lost by a single vote. Thus, the developer was free to do with the property as they wished. Soon after, the development plan was published in the newspapers:

      October 31, 1953

      In November of 1953, the syndicate sold 100 lots to a Toronto-based developer called Community Housing Projects for $250,000, nearly the full price they had paid for their entire 80 acre purchase only months earlier. Home building started south of Dovercourt in early 1954. Meanwhile, within a year, the company had backed down on their intentions to build the large shopping centre, and instead began selling lots to developers as per the original McKellar plan. Soon after it was announced they had acquired more land to the west, and in 1956 completed Carlingwood Mall. But it is shocking how close Carlingwood came to being built where streets like Sherbourne, Wembley and Lauder now run!

      By 1955, construction on Wavell was in full swing. Essentially by 1957 the street had a house on just about every lot, including south of Dovercourt. The ad below is from the fall of 1955 when the construction was going full bore. Dugas Construction (run by Henri Dugas) and Leroux Construction (run by Wilfrid Leroux) are mentioned as the builders on Wavell, and certainly both were responsible for the construction of many houses in the west end in the 50s and 60s, particularly in the Britannia Heights neighbourhood.

      October 1, 1955
      Ottawa burger

      Meanwhile the water mains and sewers were installed to the new growing portions of Wavell. In June of 1954, it was announced water mains would go in on Wavell south of Dovercourt, at $3.62 per foot for frontage. In 1956 sewer pipes south of Keenan were laid to connect to the original line.

      A view looking north down the east side Wavell, apparently
      from in front of 621 Wavell. The Wayside Inn can be seen
      at the very end of the street. From April 9, 1956
      (Source: Ottawa Archives, CA-19415)

      The photo below was taken on Wavell a week later, but facing south from the corner of Dovercourt, showing the drainage ditch, the raw conditions of the road, and all of the new houses on Wavell.

      Wavell at Dovercourt south-east corner drainage ditch.
      April 16, 1956
      (Source: Ottawa Archives, CA-19404)

      Storm sewer drainage plans were announced in December of 1956 for the southern portion of Wavell (south of Dovercourt), at a cost of $383,200 (the main drain ran from Dovercourt to Tillbury, then east on Tillbury to Broadview, then to Carling), homeowners paying $2.79 per foot frontage. The contractor given the job (Strano Construction) by the Board of Control to install the storm sewers was fought against by Alderman Henry who argued that they were incapable of doing the job, and cited a job the contractor had done the previous year with one broken down truck and one backbone. "As far as I know, that contractor's status is now approximately the same as it was then." hy het bygevoeg. He was skeptical of the low bid for the job, and wanted his capabilities better examined. Presumably all went well with the work, as there are no other stories related to this job.

      In June of 1959, tenders were opened for the asphalt paving and creation of curbs on Wavell from Keenan to Byron, and also a sidewalk on this portion of the street (but a sidewalk just on the west side of the street).

      Businesses on Wavell Avenue

      You would probably not expect that any commercial businesses had been operated on Wavell Avenue over the years. As a strictly residential street, that is mostly true. There is evidence of a couple of small businesses operating on the street, one for a fairly long period of time.

      Morrison's Refrigeration (early on called "Morrison's Refrigeration and Radio Service") operated out of 580 Wavell, I assume mostly out of the large attached double-garage that exists there now. The business was operated by Jack Morrison, starting in 1952. Morrison's must have handled a fairly large amount of sales and service, it could afford to run newspaper ads almost daily during this period. In 1964, Jack moved the business to 257 Preston Street, and later Stirling Avenue.
      

      May 14, 1953

      Two other business comes up in searches. One was "Rent-a-Floral", a flowers business at 663 Wavell in the early 1970s, and the second was Penguin Productions, which operated out of 626 Wavell (the Thomas Magee house) in the mid 1970s.
      
      May 21, 1976

      Interesting Stories & Photos & Newspaper Articles

      Here are a few random stories and photographs that I came across in my research on Wavell Avenue. The first is an early story from the Sixth Avenue days about an accident occurring at the corner of Byron:

      May 1, 1929

      In the fall of 1946, it was discovered that there were six sets of twins attending Nepean High School! One of the pairs were Beatrice and Bernice Bedford, who resided in the Magee-built house.

      />
      September 12, 1946

      An ad for 600 Wavell when it was finished in 1950:

      December 15, 1950

      In May of 1951, the front page news in Ottawa was the mysterious disappearance of 500 feet of pipe which cut off the McKellar golf course from water, leaving the greens dry and damaged, and the golf club threatening law suits against the City. The missing pipe was later found in possession of the City Works Department. The pipe line had been installed by the Club years earlier to the River, to supply water for the greens. Water was pumped into the intake at the River's edge, through the 3" iron pipeline to the golf course.

      Club officials were stumped when the saw that pumping equipment was working fine, but upon investigation found that the pipeline had been cut and removed at Wavell. A huge ditch had been dug and the pipe removed. A series of calls to various departments in the City found no answers until finally it was discovered that a work crew installing a drainage ditch had removed the pipe, knowing no city pipe to exist in the area, and believing it to be decommissioned.
      

      Ottawa Journal, May 23, 1951


      The photo below was published when local residents complained of the inconsistency of the sidewalks on Dovercourt Avenue, and the dangers it posed to school children. The sidewalks on the north side of Dovercourt did stop at Gainsborough at the time. So the photo at right appears to be taken with Wavell just in the background.

      June 4, 1963

      The hot topic across Canada in 1964 was the design of the Canadian flag. Known as the Great Flag Debate, everyone had strong opinions on the subject. Well worth Googling/reading about! One such strong opinion was held by an L. U. Smith of 604 Wavell Avenue, whose letter to the editor in 1964 is symbolic of the intensity of the debate that raged throughout the country in 1964.

      February 1, 1964
      Ottawa Journal

      Mary Wilson's first walk to school in the fall of 1965 was captured on the front page of the Ottawa Journal:

      In 1975, a house could still be had for less than $50,000. Here is an ad for 601 Wavell:


      Wavell: Soldier & Statesman by Victoria Schofield

      Archibald Wavell, as his name implies (his grandfather, father, and son were all soldiers, and all were called Archibald Wavell) was a General of the old school: conservative, steady as a rock, upright, unflappable – and often very unlucky. Of him, it can truly be said, as his fellow British Indian Rudyard Kipling wrote in If, that he met the two impostors, triumph and disaster, with the same calm and impervious integrity.

      A child of the Raj born in 1883, Wavell had a conventional upper-class education at Winchester and Sandhurst he spent a year attached to the Russian army, and fought in his native India and the Boer War. A Staff Captain in 1914, he lost an eye – but gained a Military Cross – at Ypres in 1915. Between the wars, Wavell proceeded up the ranks in a zig-zag fashion, once forced to go down in rank, and twice spending periods of unemployment on half pay.

      His mixed fortunes reflected the serious neglect suffered by the Armed Forces in what passed for peacetime, but was really only an interval between wars – and could stand as an object lesson to Government in our own day as it implements damaging military cuts.

      In 1935, Wavell found his feet combatting an Arab insurgency in British-ruled Palestine, and thereafter progressed rapidly up the ladder. By 1940, he was a full General commanding the vital Middle East theatre, sitting astride embattled Britain’s communications with India and the Far East.

      His greatest military triumph came early when his miniscule and ill-equipped forces smashed the numerically superior Italians in Libya and drove them out of the Horn of Africa. The whole of North Africa was his for the taking when he was forced by Churchill to divert scarce men and resources to the futile attempt at saving Greece and Crete from the German invaders.

      By the time the defeated troops returned to North Africa, the Germans had a formidable foothold there, too, in the shape of Rommel’s Afrika Korps. But the Desert Fox proved a less daunting foe than the one Wavell faced in Downing Street.

      The voluble, mercurial Churchill was the polar opposite of taciturn, immobile Wavell, and their dislike was mutual. Churchill’s distrust had been kindled by Wavell’s reluctance to go into Greece. The fact that he was proved right rankled, and when Wavell seemed similarly slow to invade Iraq and put down a pro-Nazi coup, Churchill seized his opportunity to make him swap jobs with Auchinleck, the Commander-in-Chief in India.

      Once again, Wavell did wonders with few men and resources, and once again he irritated Churchill by correctly predicting the fall of Singapore. The Prime Minister interpreted Wavell’s cold military realism as pessimism, and his calmness as inertia and finally got rid of him by kicking him upstairs to be India’s Viceroy. An old India hand, Wavell proved an unexpected success in this role but his attempts to bring the sub-continent’s squabbling politicians together was frustrated (again) by Churchill, who opposed Indian independence. When Wavell handed over to Mountbatten, the last Viceroy, and retired, it must have been with some relief. In a display of petty meanness Churchill refused to attend his funeral in 1950.

      Victoria Scholfield, herself an old India hand and a rare woman in the male-dominated field of military history, has done Wavell proud in a fine and full biography (first published in 2006 and now handsomely re-issued) that pays due attention to his happy family life and the sensitive poetry-loving man behind the gruff and silent facade. He may not have had the dazzle and ego of Monty or Mountbatten, but Wavell was a far finer and sounder man in the mould of his rival and replacement Auchinleck.

      And to cross Churchill in World War Two was a very brave thing to do.
      Review by Nigel Jones


      1883: Lord Wavell – Viceroy of India During World War II

      The seat of the viceroy was in an enormous palace in Delhi, in which Indian presidents live today. The situation in India at that time was not easy because of the desire for independence from Britain.

      British Field Marshal Archibald Wavell was born on this day in 1883. He is one of only two British field marshals during World War II that were awarded the high title of Earl. The other is Field Marshal Harold Alexander, who became “Earl Alexander of Tunis”. Other British field marshals got lower titles of viscount (among them the famous Field Marshal Montgomery of Alamein) or baron (the lowest aristocratic title in Britain).

      Field Marshal Wavell was born to a general and went in his footsteps. He enrolled at the renowned British Royal Military Academy Sandhurst. The academy is roughly the British equivalent of the American West Point and is located about twenty kilometers from London, southwest of Windsor Castle. After graduating from Sandhurst, Archibald Wavell fought first in South Africa against the Boers, and was then transferred to India.

      In World War I, Wavell lost his left eye in the famous Battle of Ypres (known for being the first time in history the Germans used poison gas on a large scale). Already at the age of 34, Wavell reached a temporary wartime rank of general. During World War II, he became field marshal, which is the highest British military rank. He also received the title of lord.

      In the midst of World War II, Field Marshal Lord Wavell was appointed Viceroy of India. It was the highest colonial position in the vast area of ​​British India (which included the present-day Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Myanmar, i.e. Burma). The seat of the viceroy was in an enormous palace in Delhi, in which Indian presidents live today. Lord Wavell remained viceroy until 1947. The situation in India at that time was not easy because of the desire for independence from Britain.

      Lord Wavell was the second-last Viceroy of British India. The famous Lord Mountbatten (cousin of Prince Philip – husband of Queen Elizabeth II) came after him. As the last viceroy, Lord Mountbatten concluded the British episode in Indian history. Bearing the title of Earl since 1947, Lord Wavell died in London at the age of 68.


      Tweede Wêreldoorlog databasis


      ww2dbase Born in Colchester, Essex, England, United Kingdom, Archibald Percival Wavell was the son of a British Army general officer. He attended Winchester College and Sandhurst Royal Military Academy. Upon graduation, he was commissioned into the Black Watch regiment in 1901, and later fought in the Second Boer War in South Africa and the Bazar Valley campaign in India in 1908. He attended staff college in 1909. From 1911 and for about a year, he was an observer to the Russian Army. During WW1, at the Battle of Ypres in 1915, he was wounded and lost his left eye. Upon recovery, he was assigned to the Caucasus in 1916 as a liaison officer with the Russians. In 1917, he became a liaison officer with the Egyption Expeditionary Force. Between Jan and Mar 1918, he was attached to the Supreme War Council of Versailles. Later in 1918, he was transferre to Palestine. He was promoted to the rank of full colonel in 1922, and by 1933 he was made a major general. In 1937, he became the General Officer Commanding of the British Forces in Palestine and Transjordan. In 1938, he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant general and was made the General Officer Commanding of the United Kingdom Southern Command. In 1939, he was promoted to the rank of general and was placed in charge of the Middle East Command.

      ww2dbase In the first phases of WW2, Wavell made a name for himself by defeating the million-strong Italian Army in North Africa with a force that numbered less than 40,000, eliminating the Axis ambition of taking Egypt and the strategically-important Suez Canal. With the arrival of the Germans in North Africa in early 1941, the tide slowly turned against his favor. Several months later, Greece, the responsibility of which also fell on Wavell's shoulders, fell under German control at around the same time, the pro-German Rashid Ali al-Gaylani launched a coup d'état in Iraq. Losing the confidence of British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, in Jul 1941 Wavell was transferred out of the Middle East and was given the new role as the commander-in-chief in India.

      ww2dbase Although Wavell thought, like many British leaders at the time, that the Japanese were likely to invade, and become bogged down in, Malaya and Singapore, he nevertheless wished to bolster Burma's defense. In Sep 1941, he returned to London, England and requested the Chief of the Imperial Staff John Dill to transfer Burma under India's operational command (it was under Singapore at that time) Dill rejected his request. After much lobbying and after the war with Japan had broken out, he convinced Churchill, who gave him Burma on 10 Dec 1941. He was also made the head of the American, British, Dutch, and Australian Command (ABDACOM). On 11 Feb 1942, he fell over a barb-wired sea wall in Singapore and was rushed into a hospital his rendered him incommunicado for four days, causing some confusion at the command level. In the face of the stunningly successful Japanese expansion, ABDACOM was disbanded on 23 Feb 1942. On 1 Mar, Wavell replaced his subordinates Major General John Smyth and General Thomas Hutton shortly after, Churchill dispatched Harold Alexander to lead the British troops in Burma. By May 1942, Wavell, Alexander, and the also recently-arrived William Slim had pulled most British, Indian, and Commonwealth troops out of Burma.

      ww2dbase In 1943, Wavell was made viscount and was named Viceroy of India and Burma. He enjoyed strong popular support from the people for his ability to understand the needs of the people while not losing sight of the war against the Japanese in Burma.

      ww2dbase After WW2, Wavell worked hard to resolve the differences between Hindu and Muslim populations in India. He recommended taking a slow and cautious route in dealing with ethnic and religious tensions in the regions during the process to grant independence, but he was overruled by his superiors in London who preferred a speedy power transfer. In 1947, he was recalled to Britain and served as the lord lieutenant of the County of London. Wavell passed away in 1950.

      ww2dbase Bronne:
      Frank McLynn, The Burma Campaign
      Wikipedia

      Last Major Revision: Dec 2005

      Archibald Wavell Interactive Map

      Archibald Wavell Timeline

      5 May 1883 Archibald Wavell was born in Colchester, Essex, England, United Kingdom.
      10 Desember 1941 Winston Churchill transferred Burma under the operational command of Archibald Wavell in India.
      15 Desember 1941 Archibald Wavell received a cable from Winston Churchill, which warned him of a likely Japanese invasion of Burma.
      18 Dec 1941 Archibald Wavell flew to Calcutta, India to meet with General Henry Pownall.
      21 Desember 1941 General Wavell arrived in Rangoon, Burma already aware that most of the promised reinforcements had already been diverted to Malaya. Wavell still entertained hopes of receiving the two East African Brigades from Kenya and most of the 17th Indian Division (Major-General J. H. "Jackie" Smyth VC). When the American Lieutenant General George H. Brett arrived in Rangoon on his way to visit Chiang at Chongqing, Wavell decided to go too, telling his chief of staff, Thomas Hutton, to take over from the GOC Burma (Major General D. K. McLeod) whose proposed replacement had been taken sick.
      25 Dec 1941 Archibald Wavell arrived in Rangoon, Burma by aircraft, landing amidst a Japanese air raid.
      30 Dec 1941 General Sir Archibald Wavell assumed command of the newly created ABDA Command (American-British-Dutch-Australian) with his headquarters in Java, Dutch East Indies.
      5 Jan 1942 Archibald Wavell departed India.
      7 Jan 1942 Archibald Wavell inspected troops and defenses in Singapore.
      8 Jan 1942 Archibald Wavell inspected troops and defenses in central British Malaya.
      11 Feb 1942 Archibald Wavell fell over a barb-wired seawall at Singapore and was rushed to a hospital. His back was injured and he was incommunicado for four days.
      15 Feb 1942 Archibald Wavell recovered from his fall at Singapore and was released by the hospital.
      1 Mar 1942 In the face of defeats in Burma, Archibald Wavell replaced Major General John Smyth with Major General David Cowan and demoted General Thomas Hutton to be the chief of staff of Cowan.
      17 Sep 1942 Archibald Wavell ordered Noel Irwin to prepare an offensive from India into the Arakan Peninsula in Burma.
      19 Nov 1942 Archibald Wavell announced that British involvement in the planned upcoming offensive into Burma would be scaled back to a ground invasion of Akyab island only.
      17 Dec 1942 Archibald Wavell met with Joseph Stilwell during the meeting, despite Stilwell's insistence, Wavell refused to expand his current attack on Arakan, Burma into a larger coordinated joint-Chinese-American-British campaign.
      1 Jan 1943 Archibald Wavell was promoted to the rank of field marshal.
      1 Oct 1943 The Viscount Wavell, Archibald Wavell, was made the Viceroy and Governor-General of India, succeeding the Marquess of Linlithgow, Victor Hope.
      24 May 1950 Archibald Wavell passed away.

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      Besoekers ingedien kommentaar

      1. Rory A Curtis says:
      5 Dec 2010 02:34:34 PM

      Petrus
      I think the number of 1 milion Italian and only 40,000 British troops is wrong. I will try to find better numbers for you.

      Alle kommentaar wat besoekers ingedien het, is 'n mening van diegene wat die voorleggings lewer en weerspieël nie die sienings van WW2DB nie.


      Kyk die video: Archibald Wavell, 1st Earl Wavell (Julie 2022).


Kommentaar:

  1. Tariq

    Wonderlik, baie waardevolle antwoord

  2. Zoolal

    Ek vra om verskoning, maar na my mening erken u die fout. Voer ons bespreek.

  3. Ulmarr

    Dit het dit nie bedoel nie



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