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Een van die belangrikste prehistoriese terreine in die Verenigde State wat in Miami gevind is

Een van die belangrikste prehistoriese terreine in die Verenigde State wat in Miami gevind is

Argeoloë wat die afgelope paar maande 'n beplande ontwikkelingsgebied in die middel van die middestad van Miami opgegrawe het, het 'n ou en uitgebreide inheemse Amerikaanse dorp ontdek, wat volgens navorsers een van die belangrikste prehistoriese terreine in die Verenigde State is.

Die bevinding bevat agt groot sirkels wat bestaan ​​uit eenvormig gekerfde gate in die inheemse kalksteen, wat vermoedelik fondamentgate is vir Tequesta -Indiese wonings wat al 2000 jaar oud is, asook honderde postgate wat die fondament vir ander strukture aandui, moontlik promenades wat die wonings verbind. Die webwerf het ook duisende Tequesta -artefakte opgelewer, insluitend been- en skulpgereedskap.

'Wat ongewoon en uniek aan die terrein is, is dat dit hierdie groot stuk grond is waar 'n groot deel van hierdie ou Tequesta -dorpsplek bewaar word,' het die veteraan van die Suid -Florida -argeoloog Bob Carr gesê. 'Dit is een van die vroegste stedelike planne in die ooste van Noord -Amerika. U kan eintlik hierdie buitengewone opset van hierdie geboue en strukture sien. ''

Ongelukkig beslaan die Tequesta-dorpsgebied ongeveer die helfte van 'n lang vakante, twee hektaar groot stadsblok aan die noordekant van die rivier, waar die ontwikkelaar, MDM Development Group, beplan om filmteaters, restaurante en 'n hotel met 34 verdiepings te bou. Die stad Miami het MDM -sonerings- en ontwikkelingsgoedkeurings verleen vir die Met Square -projek, hoewel dit nie 'n finale boupermit was nie, voordat die volledige omvang van die argeologiese vondste bekend was of verstaan ​​is.

MDM sê dit kan 'n aansienlike bedrag geld verloor as hul planne ingekort word en hulle geen beloftes maak om die ou terrein te bewaar nie. Die beste wat hulle in hierdie stadium aangebied het, is 'n blote teken om die kalksteen uit te sny met een of twee van die groter sirkels op die perseel en dit op 'n beplande openbare plein te vertoon. Bewaringsamptenare druk die stadsraad egter om alternatiewe te oorweeg wat 'n beduidende deel of selfs die volledige argeologiese terrein sou red. MDM was immers van die begin af deeglik bewus daarvan dat hul ontwikkelingsterrein binne 'n aangewese argeologiese gebied was en dat hulle 'n risiko loop toe hulle die eiendom 'n dekade gelede gekoop het.

Bewaringsdeskundiges sê dat daar sterk en toenemende steun is vir maatreëls om 'n groot uitstalling rondom ten minste sommige van die argeologiese terreine te bespaar en te skep. 'Dit is uiters belangrik,' het Gerald Marston, lid van die stadsbewaring, gesê. 'As hulle dit 'n naam gegee het, is dit die geboorteplek van Miami.' '

Voorgestelde foto: C.W. Griffin / Miami Herald -personeel


    'N Boer in Xi'an met die naam Yang was besig om water te boor toe hy die Terracotta -leër in 1947 kry. . Qin Shi Huang was die eerste keiser wat China verenig het en word net so beledig vir sy tirannie as wat hy as 'n visioen bewonder word. Tienduisende mens- en dierbeelde is in verskeie stukke geskep en dan saamgestel, wat elkeen uniek is. Werklike wapens en wapens is gebruik in die vervaardiging van die krygers, maar dit is gesteel kort na die skepping van die graf. Ondanks die indrukwekkende ontdekkings in Xi'an, moet die graf van die keiser nog gevind word.

    Die Terracotta -leër is ons deur om te verstaan ​​hoe die werklike leër van die Qin -dinastie funksioneer. Deur hierdie kleikrygers te ondersoek, kan ons die formasies van die weermag bepaal en watter wapens hulle gebruik het, sowel as die kwaliteit daarvan. Fyn brons -swaarde, dolke, snawelhake, spiese, halbers, byle, kruisboogsnellers en pylpunte is almal in die kuipe by Xi’an gevind.


    Cahokia -heuwels

    Die opvallendste kenmerk van Cahokia is die erdeheuwels. Kenners meen duisende werkers het na raming 55 miljoen kubieke voet aarde oor 'n tydperk van dekades beweeg. Die werkers het nie ingewikkelde tegnologie of boutegnieke nie, dus dit was nie presies die piramides van Egipte nie.

    Werkers het elke heuwel met die hand in geweefde mandjies met die hand opgedra en elke dag verskeie reise gemaak.

    Die grootste word genoem Monnikeheuwel en word aangeneem dat dit die middelpunt van die Grand Plaza van Cahokia - die plein self beslaan 40 hektaar. Monks Mound is 28 m hoog, 290 m lank, 255 m breed en beslaan 14 hektaar.

    Die bokant van Monks Mound het 'n groot, plat versterkte gebied, wat volgens historici die tuiste was van 'n massiewe tempel van 5000 vierkante meter, ongeveer 50 voet hoog. Daar word vermoed dat hierdie tempel die woning van die opperhoof was en dat dit oral in Cahokia sigbaar was.

    Van die 120 erdehope wat die Cahokiërs gebou het, bly daar vandag slegs 80 oor. Ongelukkig het die boerdery en industrialisering van die gebied sy tol geëis: 'n geskatte 40 heuwels is die afgelope 200 jaar om verskeie redes gelykgemaak of geslyp.

    Van die 40 heuwels wat sedertdien gesny is, is 29 deur argeoloë opgespoor.


    Op die onderwaterplek vind die navorsingspan 9 000 jaar oue klipartefakte

    'N Onderwater-argeoloog van die Universiteit van Texas in Arlington is deel van 'n navorsingspan wat 9 000 jaar oue klipwerktuigkundige artefakte wat in die Huronmeer ontdek is, bestudeer het, wat afkomstig is van 'n obsidiaanse steengroef meer as 2 000 myl daarvandaan in die middel van Oregon.

    Die obsidiaanse vlokkies van die onderwater argeologiese terrein verteenwoordig die oudste en verste eksemplare van die westelike obsidiaan wat ooit in die kontinentale Verenigde State gevind is.

    In hierdie geval onthul hierdie klein obsidiaanse artefakte 9 000 jaar gelede sosiale verbindings in Noord -Amerika, het Ashley Lemke, assistent -professor in sosiologie en antropologie aan UT Arlington, gesê. Die artefakte wat onder die Groot Mere gevind word, kom uit 'n geologiese bron in Oregon, 4000 kilometer daarvandaan-wat dit een van die langste afstande wat vir obsidiaanse artefakte oral ter wêreld aangeteken is, maak. ”

    Die unieke studie was 'n veelvlakkige strewe met duikers in die water en navorsers in die laboratorium van UTA, die Universiteit van Michigan, Lake Superior National Marine Conservation Area, die University of Missouri Research Reactor Center, die Northwest Research Obsidian Studies Laboratory en die Universiteit van Georgia. Hul gekombineerde werk, Obsidiaan in Oregon in die middel van 'n vroeë ondergedompelde argeologiese terrein onder Holocene onder die Huronmeer, is verlede maand in die tydskrif gepubliseer PLOS One.

    Omdat die terrein onder water en ongestoord was, het navorsers die obsidiaan stelselmatig en wetenskaplik herwin, 'n vorm van vulkaniese glas wat in die grootste deel van die menslike geskiedenis wyd gebruik en verhandel is as 'n gewaardeerde materiaal vir die maak van skerp gereedskap.

    Dit is baie klein stukke met baie groot stories om te vertel, het Lemke gesê. Obsidiaan uit die verre westelike Verenigde State word selde in die ooste aangetref. ”

    Lemke is 'n leier en innoveerder op die gebied en dien as voorsitter van die Advisory Council on Underwater Archaeology, 'n internasionale groep wat toegewy is aan onderwaterargeologie en die behoud van onderwater kulturele hulpbronne. Sy is 'n kenner van ondergedompelde ou plekke in die Amerikas en het ander gebiede ondersoek, soos die Golf van Mexiko en die Atlantiese Oseaan.

    Die vonds in die Huronmeer is deel van 'n breër studie om die sosiale en ekonomiese organisasie van kariboejagters aan die einde van die laaste ystydperk te verstaan. Die watervlakke was baie laer as wat wetenskaplikes gevind het, byvoorbeeld ou plekke soos klipmure en jagblindings wat nou 100 voet onder die water is.

    Hierdie spesifieke ontdekking is regtig opwindend, want dit wys hoe belangrik onderwaterargeologie is, het Lemke gesê. Die bewaring van ou onderwaterterreine is ongeëwenaard op land, en hierdie plekke het ons 'n wonderlike geleentheid gebied om meer te leer oor vorige mense. ”


    7 Armoede -punt

    In Louisiana is daar 'n uitgebreide kompleks van grondwerke bekend as Poverty Point. Die kompleks bevat 'n reeks heuwels en rante en is tussen 1700 en 1100 vC deur inheemse Amerikaners gebou. Wat Poverty Point interessant maak, is dat dit die enigste bekende voorbeeld is van 'n groot konstruksie wat deur 'n jagter-versamelaarsvereniging gedoen is.

    Niemand weet presies watter doel Poverty Point gedien het nie. Sommige argeoloë stel voor dat die terrein gebruik is vir periodieke seremoniële geleenthede, terwyl ander beweer dat dit 'n permanente nedersetting was. Net so weet ons nie watter kultuur dit gebou het nie, aangesien daar min artefakte gevind is wat na spesifieke mense verwys.


    4. Houston

    Houston van Buffalo Bayou Park | Foto Kopiereg: Lana Law

    Houston is die perfekte stad vir 'n wegbreek met vriende, 'n paartjie -wegbreek of 'n gesinsvakansie. Met direkte vlugte uit stede regoor die Verenigde State en Kanada, kan u maklik inkom om 'n sportwedstryd te sien, deur te dwaal Houston se museumdistrik, sit by 'n swembad in een van die vele luukse hotelle en bring u aande deur en geniet ongelooflike maaltye. Houston het ontwikkel tot 'n warm plek om te eet in die Verenigde State en is nou bekend vir buitengewone kookkuns.

    As u 'n ontspanne, maar buite -stedelike ervaring wil hê, huur 'n fiets en ry deur die kilometers se verharde paadjies in die parke of in die strate in die middestad. Huur 'n kajak en roei langs Buffalo Bayou in Buffalo Bayou Park.

    Binne minder as 'n uur kan u op die nabygeleë strande by Galveston wees, en langs die pad kan u stop by Space Center Houston.


    Tydlyn van die geskiedenis van Indiana

    Prehistoriese inheemse Amerikaners arriveer in die omgewing van Indiana, ongeveer 11 000 vC. Sommige van die prehistoriese mense is jagters-versamelaars, terwyl ander boere is. Hulle laat heuwels agter wat as begraafplase, tempels, platforms vir godsdienstige strukture en erde forte gebruik is. As Europese ontdekkingsreisigers die streek binnekom, bly daar slegs 'n paar honderd inheemse Amerikaners oor. Die meeste behoort aan die Miami -stam Indiana, soos sy leuse beweer, op die kruispad van Amerika.

    Indiana grens aan Lake Michigan en die staat Michigan in die noorde, Ohio in die ooste, Kentucky in die suide en Illinois in die weste, wat dit 'n integrale deel van die Amerikaanse Midde -Weste maak. Behalwe Hawaii, is Indiana die kleinste deel wes van die Appalachiese berge. Indiana is op 11 Desember 1816 as die 19de staat van die vakbond toegelaat

    17de eeu Indiana geskiedenis tydlyn

    1614,1615 - Samuel de Champlain, goewerneur van Nieu -Frankryk en die stigter van Quebec, is vermoedelik die eerste van die Franse ontdekkingsreisigers wat met die Maumee -streek verbind was. Daar word vermoed dat hy die Maumee in 1614 of 1615 gesien het.

    1671 - Simon Daumont de Saint-Lusson verklaar die lande van die westelike binneland vir Frankryk in Sault Ste. Marie. Louis Jolliet was een van die ondertekenaars van hierdie verklaring wat die gebied insluit wat later Indiana geword het. Rene-Robert Cavelier de La Salle (1643-1687) betree die gebied wat Indiana sou word.

    1679 -Rene-Robert Cavelier de La Salle (1643-1687) en Louis de Baude de Frontenac, goewerneur van Nieu-Frankryk, besluit oor planne wat hulle in staat sal stel om beheer te verkry oor die gebied wat die handelsroete Maumee-Wabash moontlik maak (via die port van 1670). Een deel was die verskuiwing van die Miami -Indiane na die hoofwater van die Maumee -rivier om die gebied te beveilig. Hierdie Miami -dorpie, geleë op die plek van die huidige stad Fort Wayne, het bekend gestaan ​​as Kekionga, oftewel Kiskakon, en het later bekend geword as "Miamitown". Dit is teen 1686 as handelspos gebruik, en word beskou as die oudste, voortdurend besette gemeenskap in die daaropvolgende Indiana en die algemene gebied suid van die Great Lakes.

    1689-1697 - King William's War

    18de eeu Indiana geskiedenis tydlyn

    1702-1713 - Queen Anne's War

    1702 - 'n Groot vervoerkompleks van die Midde -Weste, die gebied wat nou Indiana bekend staan, is die eerste keer deur die Franse verken. Hulle het meestal die eerste permanente nedersetting by Vincennes gevestig

    1717 - Die Franse Fort Quiatenon is gestig, naby die huidige stad Lafayette, om die westelike grens te beskerm

    • Fort Philippe, later Fort Miami genoem, is gebou aan die St. Mary's River, naby die gebied in Fort Wayne, waar die St. Mary's, St. Joseph's en Maumee Rivers mekaar ontmoet.
    • Pierre Charlevois beskryf die Miami -Indiese spel wat die voorouer is van die moderne spel LaCrosse.

    1732 - Vincennes versterk in 1732 en Vincennes word die eerste permanente nedersetting van Indiana

    1744 - Koning Nicolas Oorlog (bekend as "King George's War" in Europa) het begin.

    1747 - Britte beïnvloed Huron -hoof, koning Nicolas, wat die Franse Fort Miami aanval.

    1749 - Tweede Franse fort

    1752, 1753 - 'n Pokkepest het die Indiese bevolking getref wat dramatiese lewensverlies veroorsaak het.

    1754-1763 - Die Franse en Indiese oorlog

    1763 - Engeland kry beheer oor die Indiana -streek en Vincennes Die proklamasie van 1763 verbied die vestiging van lande wes van die Appalachianberge. Uit hul poste noord van die Ohio -rivier het die Britte Indiese oorlogspartye gestuur teen die setlaars wat die proklamasie -lyn geïgnoreer het.

    1772 -General Gage het die Franse in die Wabash -vallei beveel om hul nedersettings te verlaat en het die titelaktes op hul lande geëis.

    1774 - (2 Junie) Die Britse parlement het die Quebec -wet aangeneem, waardeur die Kanadese Franse wette en gebruike kon behou en die Katolieke Kerk toegelaat het om al sy regte te handhaaf. Die Franse nedersettings in die Weste, in ons huidige Michigan, Indiana, Illinois en Wisconsin, is by die wet in die provinsie Quebec opgeneem.

    1776-1787 - Die Revolusionêre Oorlog

    1777 - Indiane aan die Trans-Appalachiese grens is deur die Britte aangemoedig om die Amerikaners aan te val.

    • (Somer) 'n Ekspedisie van Virginia onder leiding van kolonel George Rogers Clark het langs die Ohio -rivier geloop en daarna die Britse poste by Kaskaskia en Cahokia langs die Mississippirivier, naby St. Alhoewel hierdie poste onder Britse bewind ná die Franse en Indiese oorlog was, is hierdie poste bevolk deur Franse setlaars wat geen groot geneentheid vir die Britte gehad het nie. Clark het vinnig hul steun gekry. Vader Pierre Gibault en dr. Jean Laffont het vrywillig namens die Amerikaners na Vincennes gereis, en hierdie skikking het Clark ook sy steun gegee. Die Franse in Detroit en ander noordelike poste het egter die uiterlike steun van die Britte gehandhaaf.
    • Die Britse goewerneur Henry Hamilton het Fort Sackville herower
    • Francis Vigo (gebore in Italië in 1747) het hulp verleen aan Clark en die Amerikaners wat Clark gehelp het om die oorgawe van Fort Sackville in 1779 te bekom.

    1779 - Britse luitenant-goewerneur Henry Hamilton het Fort Sackville aan die Amerikaanse kolonel George Rogers Clark oorgegee

    1783 - Indiana -gebied gegee aan die gebied van die Verenigde State. & quot Verklaring onderteken in Parys deur die Amerikaanse kommissarisse - 20 Februarie 1783 Deur die Gevolmagtigde Ministers van die Verenigde State van Amerika, om vrede te sluit met Groot -Brittanje. 'N Verklaring van die beëindiging van die vyandelikhede sowel as die see as die land, waarop sy majesteit, die koning van Groot -Brittanje en die Verenigde State van Amerika ooreengekom het. & quot
    Die Britse provinsie Quebec het al die lande onder die Groot Mere verloor met die ondertekening van die 1783 -verdrag.

    1787-1800 - Die Noordwestelike gebied

    1787 - Verdrag van Fort Harmer is onderteken, en 'n oorlog het in die somer begin wat tot 1794 sou duur.

    • John Jay het 'n verdrag met Engeland onderteken wat bepaal dat Britte teen 1 Junie 1796 troepe binne die grense van die Verenigde State moet onttrek.
    • Tecumseh het die Shawnee -Indiane gelei in die geveg naby die stroomversnellings van die Maumee. Anthony Wayne het die Indiane oorweldig.
    • Anthony Wayne stig 'n fort in Kekionga en noem dit 'Fort Wayne'.

    Tydlyn van die geskiedenis van die 19de eeu in Indiana

    1800-1816 - Die Indiana -gebied

    • Indiana-gebied is gestig uit die noordwestelike gebied met William Henry Harrison (1773-1841) as die eerste goewerneur en Vincennes die hoofstad.

    1803 - Potawatomi en ander het verdrae onderteken by Fort Wayne, Fort Industry (1805) en Grouseland (1805), wat gedeeltes van Ohio, Indiana en Illinois afstaan. & quot

    • Elihu Stout het die wette van die gebied gedruk, en die & quotIndiana Gazette & quot.
    • Vincennes, die hoofstad van die Indiana -gebied, was in 1804 ook nege maande lank die hoofstad van die Louisiana -aankoop.
    • Elihu Stout het die wette van die gebied gedruk, en die & quotIndiana Gazette & quot.

    1805 - Michigan -gebied geskei van die Indiana -gebied.

    1809 - Illinois -gebied geskei van die Indiana -gebied.

    1811 - Indiërs word verslaan in die Slag van Tippecanoe onder W. H. Harrison

    1811-1812 - Aardbewings in die Midde -Weste

    1813 - Territoriale kapitaal verskuif na Corydon.
    Michikinikwa (Chief Little Turtle) is op 14 Julie 1812 in Fort Wayne oorlede.

    1814 - Die Oorlog van 1812 wat op 24 Desember 1814 geëindig het met die ondertekening van die Verdrag van Gent 22 Julie 1814: & quotA -verdrag van vrede en vriendskap tussen die Verenigde State van Amerika, en die stamme van Indiërs wat die Wyandots, Delawares, Shawanoese, Senecas, en Miamies. & quot

    8 September 1815: Verdrag tussen die Verenigde State van Amerika en die Wyandot, Delaware, Seneca, Shawanoe, Miami, Chippewa, Ottawa en Potawatimie, stamme van Indiërs, woonagtig binne die perke van die staat Ohio en die gebiede van Indiana en Michigan

    1816 - Indiana word die 19de staat met die hoofstad in Corydon. Jonathan Jennings (1784-1834) was die eerste goewerneur van Indiana.

    1818 - St. Marys, Ohio, het verskeie Indiese stamme (Delawares, Wea, Kickapoos, Miamis en Potawatomis) hul aanspraak op 'n gedeelte van die sentrale deel van Indiana prysgegee, genaamd die & quotNew Purchase. & Quot

    1822 - Indiana en Illinois het saamgespan in 'n plan om die Maumee- en Wabash -riviere te verbind, en in 1826 het die kanaal 'n werklikheid geword, met die eerste gedeelte wat Fort Wayne met Huntington verbind, wat in 1835 voltooi is.

    1825 - Indianapolis word die hoofstad van die staat

    1842 - Die Universiteit van Notre Dame is in South Bend gestig

    1851 - Indiana het 'n staatsgrondwet aanvaar wat 'n maatreël insluit wat die eiendomsreg van getroude vroue beskerm.

    1889 - Die Standard Oil Company bou 'n olieraffinadery in Whiting

    1897 - Die stamstatus van die Indiana Miami is beëindig, maar daar was nog steeds 90 Miami op die 1910 -sensus van Indiana.

    Tydlyn vir die geskiedenis van die 20ste eeu in Indiana

    1906 - US Steel Company bou staalfabriek en stig die stad Gary

    1911 - Die eerste Indy 500 -motorwedren vind plaas

    1915 - Wet op werkersvergoeding word wet

    1932 - 'n Kwart van die arbeidsmag was werkloos.

    1956 - Die Noord -Indiana tolpad is voltooi.

    1963 - Studebaker Automobile Corporation het die motorproduksie by die South Bend -aanleg gestaak

    1974 - 'n Reeks van 148 tornado's het die Midde -Weste en die suidelike state getref (insluitend Indiana - baie mense is dood met ernstige saakbeskadiging

    1980 - Die sakeman van Indianapolis, Herbert Baumeister, het 16 mans vermoor, die meeste gay

    1984 - NFL Baltimore Colts verhuis na Indianapolis

    1985 - VIGS -pasiënt, Ryan White, is verbied om die openbare skool by te woon

    1987 - Lugmagvliegtuig het in Ramada Inn naby Indianapolis -lughawe neergestort, tien dood

    1988 - Indiër J. Danforth Quayle, verkies tot Amerikaanse vise -president

    1998 - Ontploffing by Southern Energy Co. in Hammond het 16 mense gedood

    1999 - Lilly Endowment Inc. het 'n toekenning van $ 50 miljoen aan Hispanic Scholarship Fund oorhandig

    Tydlyn vir die geskiedenis van die 21ste eeu in Indiana

    • Cicero se stadspresident, nege ander, word aangekla van diefstal van $ 10 miljoen in belastingbetalersgeld
    • Oklahoma City -bomwerper, Timothy McVeigh, tereggestel by Federal Penitentiary in Terre Haute

    2003 - Goewerneur Frank O'Bannon het 'n ernstige beroerte gekry, is dood

    2004 - Peyton Manning van Indianapolis Colts het Dan Marino se pasrekord gebreek

    2005 - Maselsuitbraak onder skoolkinders se tornado tref Evansville, 22 sterf, 200 beseer

    2007 - Indianapolis Colts het Super Bowl XLI gewen

    2010 - Agt tieners het tydens die konsert in Gary op die skaatsbaan geskiet

    2011 - Vyf mense sterf, meer as 40 beseer tydens die ineenstorting op die Indiana State Fair

    2012 - 'n Reeks kragtige storms en tornado's het 13 doodgemaakte, verwoeste stad Marysville gelaat


    Top 10 groot monumente van antieke Egipte

    4 Washington -monument, Washington DC

    Washington -monument is 'n ikoniese struktuur en historiese monument wat gebou is ter ere van die eerste president van die Verenigde State, George Washington. Op 169,2 meter is dit die hoogste klipstruktuur ter wêreld. Die konstruksie van die monument is in 1854 begin. Maar die gebrek aan geld en die Amerikaanse burgeroorlog het die bou van 'n monument tussen 1854 en 1877 gestaak. Dit is uiteindelik in 1884 voltooi. .

    Die aardbewing in Virginia in 2001 lei tot ernstige skade aan die Washington -monument. Dit het twee en 'n half jaar geneem vir die herstelwerk. Die Washington -monument het 'n obelagtige vorm en is gemaak van marmer en graniet. Daar is 897 trappe om die top van die monument te bereik. Die binnekant van die monument bevat 'n versameling van honderde gedenkstene uit verskillende lande regoor die wêreld. Vandag lok Washington -monument elke jaar meer as 'n halfmiljoen besoekers.

    3 Mount Rushmore National Memorial, Suid -Dakota

    Mount Rushmore se nasionale gedenkteken verteenwoordig vier groot beelde van die hoofde van vier invloedryke Amerikaanse presidente. Die presidente op die berg Rushmore is George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt en Abraham Lincoln. Die beelde is op die granietvlak van die berg Rushmore gesny. Die historiese monument van Suid -Dakota is deur Gutzon Borglum en Lincoln Borglum gevorm. Die 60 voet hoë gesigte op die berg Rush verteenwoordig die presidensiële grootheid en een van die belangrikste kunswerke in die land.

    Die historikus Doane Robinson van Suid -Dakota het 'n idee voorgestel om naalde op die voorkant van die berg Rushmore te sny om meer toeriste na die staat te lok. Om sy idee 'n werklikheid te maak, het hy die beroemde Amerikaanse beeldhouer Doane Robinson in 1920 genader. Maar met inagneming van die kwaliteit van die rotswand en die nasionale belang stel beeldhouer Doane Robinson 'n ander idee voor om die gesigte van George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt en Abraham Lincoln op die berg te sny Rushmore.

    Die projek het in 1927 begin en na twee jaar het president Calvin Coolidge $ 25000 vir die projek ingesamel. Dit het veertien jaar geneem om die beelde met die hulp van 400 werkers te voltooi. Ongeveer 45 000 ton gesteentes is van die rotsvlak verwyder tydens die konstruksie waarin dinamiet gedagvaar is. Die neuse van die beelde op die berg Rushmore is 20 voet lank en die monde is 18 voet breed. Die monument lok nie net miljoene besoekers regoor die wêreld nie, maar versprei ook die grootheid van vier grootste presidente van die VSA vir geslagte lank.

    2 Verenigde State Capitol, Washington D.C

    Die Amerikaanse hoofstad is 'n belangrike historiese monument en setel van die huis van verteenwoordiger en senaat. Die hoofstadgebou wat in verskillende tydperke en vandag gebou is, is 'n uitstekende voorbeeld van die neoklassieke styl van die 19de eeu. Die hoofstadgebou huisves senaatskantore, hooggeregshof, galery, kongresbiblioteek en huiskantoor. Daar is altesaam 540 kamers in die monument.

    Die hoeksteen van die hoofstad -monument is gelê deur die eerste president van die Verenigde State, George Washington, op 18 September 1873. Die bou van die eerste deel van die hoofstad wat in 1800 voltooi is, ontwerp deur drie opeenvolgende argitekte van daardie tyd, waaronder Stephen Hallet, George Hadfield en James Hoban. Teen die einde van 1811 is die huisvleuel by die monument gevoeg. Ongelukkig het die Britse troep die Amerikaanse hoofstad in 1814 aan die brand gesteek. Gebou en senaat van die Hooggeregshof is in 1819 bygevoeg. Die uitbreiding en opknapping van die monument is in 1850 voltooi.


    Indiana

    Ten minste 10 000 jaar gelede het mense gewoon in die gebied wat nou Indiana genoem word. Ongeveer 2 000 jaar gelede het 'n geheimsinnige kultuur wat nou Hopewell Tradition heet, erdeheuwels gevul met tienduisende artefakte, wat Indiana een van die belangrikste argeologiese terreine in die Verenigde State gegee het. Inheemse Amerikaanse stamme, waaronder die Illini, Miami en Shawnee, het duisende jare later op die grond gewoon. (En die Miami-, Shawnee- en Potawatomi -stamme woon vandag nog hier.)

    Omstreeks 1614 het die Franse ontdekkingsreisiger Samuel de Chaplain die gebied besoek, een van die eerste Europeërs wat die land gesien het. Teen die laat 1600's is die land deur die Franse beheer. Tussen 1754 en 1763 het die Franse en Engelse geveg om beheer oor die streek in die Franse en Indiese oorlog. Die Engelse het gewen en die land gewen. Later sou hierdie lande bekend staan ​​as die Indiana -gebied.

    Aan die einde van die Amerikaanse rewolusie, in 1783, het Brittanje Indiana aan die Verenigde State afgestaan, en in 1816 het Indiana die 19de staat geword. Tydens die Burgeroorlog (1861-1865) het die staat ten gunste van die Unie geveg.

    WAAROM HET DIT GEDIEN?

    Indiana is vernoem na die Amerikaanse Indiese stamme wat daar gewoon het toe die Europeërs daar aankom.

    Die bynaam Hoosier is gedurende die 1820's die eerste keer gebruik om 'n persoon te beskryf, maar kenners stem nie saam oor die betekenis daarvan nie. Die woord kan afkomstig wees van 'n ou Engelse term vir 'heuwel' wat as 'n jargon gebruik is vir mense wat op die heuwelgebied van Indiana gewoon het.


    Spaanse en Latynse erfenis en geskiedenis in die Verenigde State

    Binne die Verenigde State dien 'Amerika' as 'n afkorting vir die land alleen - maar die nasionale grense wat die Verenigde State skei van die res van die landmassa wat 'die Amerikas', Noord en Suid vorm, is relatief onlangse skeppings. Selfs met die bekendstelling en evolusie van hierdie grense, het die geskiedenis van die Verenigde State en wat ons Latyns -Amerika nou noem, deeglik verweef gebly, verbind deur aardrykskunde, ekonomie, imperialisme, immigrasie en kultuur.

    Sedert 1988 het die Amerikaanse regering die tydperk van 15 September tot 15 Oktober opsygesit as die Nasionale Spaanse Erfenismaand om die vele bydraes wat Spaans -Amerikaners tot die Verenigde State van Amerika gelewer het, te eerbiedig. Ons Onderwysersgids bring hulpbronne bymekaar wat tydens NEH-somerseminare en -institute geskep is, lesplanne vir K-12-klaskamers en dinkstukke oor gebeure en ervarings oor die Spaanse geskiedenis en erfenis.

    Leidende vrae

    Wie is by u kurrikulum ingesluit en wie kan bygevoeg word as u Spaanse geskiedenis onderrig?

    Wat is die blywende bydraes van Spaanse mense en groepe tot die kultuur en geskiedenis van die Verenigde State?

    Hoe is die Latynse geskiedenis verweef in die weefsel van die Amerikaanse geskiedenis?

    Wat is 'n paar historiese en kulturele verbande tussen Latyns -Amerika en die Verenigde State?

    Mission Nuestra Señora de la Concepción (Spaanse weergawe: Misión de Nuestra Señora de la Concepción, San Antonio, Texas, 1755) is een van die oudste oorlewende klipkerke in Amerika. In die EDSITEment -lesplan, Mission Nuestra Señora de la Concepción en die Spaanse sending in die nuwe wêreld, word studente uitgenooi om die beeld van die sending te gebruik om die manier waarop Spaanse sendelinge en inheemse Amerikaanse stamme saamgewerk het om 'n geloofsgemeenskap op te bou, te ondersoek Suidwes in die middel van die 17de eeu. Die NEH Summer Landmark for School-onderwysers, The Fourteenth Colony: A California Missions Resource for Teachers het 'n versameling K-12 onderrigbronne gelewer met multimedia wat oor die inheemse Californiërs, missies, Presidios en Pueblos van die Spaanse, Mexikaanse en vroeë Amerikaanse tradisies strek en tydperke. Belangrike bronne vir die bestudering van hierdie kulturele erfenis sluit in primêre bronne, kaarte en beelde om die kulturele en historiese geografie van die missies in Kalifornië te dokumenteer.

    'N Ander waardevolle bron is die PBS-reeks wat deur NEH befonds word Latino -Amerikaners, wat die ryk en uiteenlopende geskiedenis van Latino's beskryf vanaf die eerste Europese nedersettings tot vandag. Die webwerf bevat sleepwaens van alle episodes, 'n tydlyn en die geleentheid om u eie videogeskiedenis op te laai. Dit bevat 'n nuwe opvoedingsinisiatief wat onderwysers en leerders uitnooi om die vele maniere waarop Latino's in die verhaal van die Verenigde State verweef is, te ondersoek.

    Verslae oor ondernemings in onbekende gebiede deur Spaanse ontdekkingsreisigers en sendelinge van die suidooste en suidweste vorm 'n belangrike deel van die Amerikaanse literêre en historiese erfenis. 'N Goeie voorbeeld, die reis van Alvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, kan gevind word deur 'n besoek aan die EDSITEment-hersiene hulpbron New Perspectives on the West. Studente kan dan The Road to Santa Fe: A Virtual Excursion aanpak om na een van Amerika se oudste en mees historiese stede langs die antieke Camino Real te reis om die meerjarige erfenis van die mense wat New Mexico hul vaderland noem, te ontdek. Vir 'n ander perspektief op Spaanse verkenning en vestiging, besoek Web de Anza, 'n webwerf wat deur EDSITEment aanbeveel word, propvol primêre brondokumente en multimedia-bronne wat Juan Bautista de Anza se twee ekspedisies oor die land dek wat gelei het tot die kolonisering van San Francisco in 1776.

    Hierdie afdeling bied 'n historiese konteks en raamwerk vir EDSITEment se hulpbronne oor Latyns-Amerikaanse en Latino-geskiedenis, asook maniere om projekte wat deur NEH befonds word, in die klaskamer te integreer. Lesse word in vier tematiese en chronologiese groepe gegroepeer: die inheemse samelewings van Meso -Amerika en die Andes, die kolonisering van die Amerikas deur Spanje, die Mexikaanse revolusie en immigrasie en identiteit in die Verenigde State. Hierdie groepe is geensins uitputtend nie; hulle doel is om konteks te bied vir leermateriaal wat beskikbaar is deur EDSITEment- en NEH-befondsde projekte, en om te dien as 'n wegspringpunt vir verdere verkenning en leer. Vir elke tema bied 'n reeks raamvrae en aktiwiteite voorstelle om die lesse en hulpbronne wat vir daardie onderwerp gelys is, aan te sluit en uit te brei.

    Inheemse Meso -Amerika en die Andes

    'N Model van Tenochtitlan soos dit ooit gestaan ​​het. Museo Nacional de Antropología, Mexico -stad, Mexiko.

    Inheemse mense het die Amerikas bewoon lank voor hul 'ontdekking' deur Europeërs aan die einde van die vyftiende eeu. Groot beskawings het hier opgestaan ​​en geval, net soos in Eurasië. Een van die beroemdste argeologiese terreine in die Amerikas, Teotihuacan, was die tuiste van 'n komplekse en welgestelde samelewing wat byna 'n millennium in duie gestort het voordat Christopher Columbus in 1492 uit die Spaanse hawe Palos vertrek het. Studente kan die geskiedenis en kultuur van die beste bestudeer -bekend van die belangrikste Meso -Amerikaanse beskawings in die lesse The Aztecs: Mighty Warriors of Mexico and Aztecs Find a Home: The Eagle Has Landed. In die Suid -Amerikaanse Andes het die Inkas 'n uitgestrekte gebied beheer wat deurkruis is met 'n indrukwekkende netwerk paaie wat deur koeriers geloop is. Studente kan meer leer oor die Inca -ryk en sy kommunikasiestelsel in Couriers in the Inca Empire: Getting Your Message Acrossover. Die projek wat deur NEH befonds word, Meso-Amerikaanse kulture en hul geskiedenis, bied tientalle bykomende lesplanne oor inheemse samelewings en kulture.

    Stel vrae en aktiwiteite op:

    • Terminologie en periodisering: Dikwels word name en tydperke as vanselfsprekend aanvaar. Hierdie besprekingsvrae laat studente krities dink oor die name wat gebruik word om na groepe mense te verwys en oor die manier waarop hulle dink oor die verdeling van tyd rondom die tydperk van Europese kontak met die Amerikas.
      • Terwyl ons vandag die term “die Asteke” die algemeenste gebruik, was dit nie wat die inwoners van Tenochtitlan hulself sou genoem het nie. Historians usually use either Nahuas/Nahua-speaking, to refer to the language these people spoke (and which is still spoken to this day), or Mexica, which refers to the most powerful of the three groups in the Triple Alliance that controlled Tenochtitlan and the Valley of Mexico when Hernán Cortés arrived in 1519. Ask students to reflect on these different names. Why might “Aztec,” which is not what the Mexica specifically or Nahuas generally would have called themselves, have become so common? What is gained from a better understanding of the history of these names and their meanings?
      • Ask students to read and explore this timeline of Mesoamerican civilizations. Reflect on the words often used to describe these civilizations and what happened to them after the arrival of Europeans to the New World. What words come to mind? Have students research indigenous language use in Mexico. This map, from Mexico’s National Institute of Indigenous Peoples, is a good place to start. How does what they find complicate the use of tools like a timeline to understand indigenous civilizations and cultures, or the use of common phrases like “the fall” of a particular civilization? Ask them to reflect on the terms “Pre-Hispanic” and “Pre-Columbian.” What do these terms communicate, and what do they omit? Why do these questions about terminology and periodization matter? Can they think of alternative ways to refer to these time periods? What are the pros and cons of these alternatives?

      Contact, Conquest, Colonization

      A segment of Diego Rivera's mural in the Palacio Nacional (Mexico City), depicting the burning of Maya literature by the Catholic Church.

      When Spanish conquistadors reached the New World, they encountered these complex indigenous societies with their sophisticated, surplus-producing economies, as well as smaller, nomadic societies. The early Spanish colonizers, far fewer in number than the populous New World civilizations they sought to conquer, often attempted to graft onto existing tribute systems to extract this surplus wealth, with major indigenous cities like Tenochtitlan (situated where Mexico’s capital city is to this day) serving as the geographic loci of early colonization. Spanish colonization was helped along by Spain’s military technology, alliances with rival indigenous groups, and, most crucially, disease. The Spaniards introduced contagious diseases, such as smallpox, to which indigenous people had little immune resistance. Indigenous populations were decimated by the combination of warfare, disease, and harsh labor on Spanish plantations. As Spain’s empire expanded, the Spanish crown depended heavily on the Catholic Church to subjugate indigenous peoples, both settled and nomadic, and integrate them into the colonial economy. Along New Spain’s northern frontier, which stretched into the present-day United States and where contact and conflict with other burgeoning European empires was likely, fortified missions relying on coerced indigenous settlement and labor were important institutions for expanding the geographic and demographic reach of the Spanish empire. In the EDSITEment lesson plan, Mission Nuestra Señora de la Concepción and the Spanish Mission in the New World, students are invited to use the image of the mission to explore one instance of the missionary institution in the mid-17th century. This lesson might be further enriched with an exploration of Spanish mission sites in California in The Road to Santa Fe: A Virtual Excursion.

      The processes of conquest and colonization were often carefully documented by Spaniards, creating a rich—and problematic—historical and literary record. A prime example, the journey of Alvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, can be found by visiting New Perspectives on the West. For another perspective on Spanish exploration and settlement, visit Web de Anza, which is packed with primary source documents and multimedia resources covering Juan Bautista de Anza's two overland expeditions that led to the colonization of San Francisco in 1776. Surviving indigenous perspectives are more difficult to find. Even when available, these sources pose significant interpretive challenges because they were often mediated through Spanish individuals or institutions. For grades 11-12, The Conquest of Mexico provides a plethora of primary and secondary sources (including texts produced by indigenous people), lesson plans, and exercises in historical analysis. Finally, Southwest Crossroads offers lesson plans, in-depth articles, and hundreds of digitized primary sources that explore the many narratives people have used to make sense of this region, from colonization to the present.

      Framing questions and activities:

      • Source interpretation: In several EDSITEment lessons about Spanish colonization, students are asked to analyze images to glean information about colonial institutions and practices. They have also confronted the problem of authorship and perspective in primary sources from this period, with the archive of the colonizer serving as the main paradigm through which the processes of conquest and colonization are understood. Two lessons from the NEH-funded website, Southwest Crossroads: Cultures and Histories of the American Southwest, throw this problem into sharp relief. In Encounters—Hopi and Spanish Worldviews, students work with texts written by both Hopi and Spanish authors, as well as maps and images, to learn about missionaries’ violent attempts to convert Hopi villagers to Catholicism and to reflect on the lasting impacts of those attempts for Hopi culture and society. In Invasions—Then and Now, students work with a Spanish account of a sixteenth-century expedition, a map of similar expeditions, and a twentieth-century poem to reflect on the echoes and reverberations of the colonial past.
      • Image analysis: The EDSITEment lesson Mission Nuestra Señora de la Concepción and the Spanish Mission in the New World is based on the analysis of a watercolor painting of the mission. Students can learn more about the architecture of Spanish missions from the National Park Service, and use their insights to analyze the architecture of other missions pictured in the University of California’s digital exhibition of Spanish mission sites in California. They can explore additional photographs of Spanish missions, as well as get a sense for the distribution of missions in what is now the United States, from Designing America, a website created by the Fundación Consejo España-Estados Unidos and the National Library of Spain. Ask students to think critically about this last source in particular as they read through its descriptions of mission architecture and function. How does this information compare with, for example, this Hopi author’s account of the construction of a Spanish mission? Why might this be?

      The Mexican Revolution

      Stereograph cards, like this one of Pancho Villa's headquarters in Juárez, could be viewed with stereoscopes to create the illusion of a three-dimensional scene. They were popular souvenirs this one was produced by the Keystone View Company, in Pennsylvania.

      Beginning in 1910 and continuing for a decade, the Mexican Revolution had profound ramifications for both Mexican and U.S. history. The EDSITEment Closer Readings Commentry on the Mexican Revolution provides background on the conflict and its cultural, artistic, and musical legacies. A lesson plan for the Mexican Revolution covers the context for, unfolding of, and legacies of the Revolution for later social movements. Students can learn about the role played by the United States in the Mexican Revolution in the EDSITEment lesson plan “To Elect Good Men”: Woodrow Wilson and Latin America.

      Framing questions and activities:

      • Guided research: Ask students to explore the Mexican Revolution in greater detail. Useful sources, in addition to those already mentioned, include:
        • The Newberry’s Perspectives on the Mexican Revolution
        • The Library of Congress’s The Mexican Revolution and the United States
        • The Getty’s Faces of the Mexican Revolution
        • Journalist John Reed’s 1914 analysis of the Mexican Revolution

        The following questions and prompts can guide their research:

        • Describe Mexican political, economic, and social conditions during the Porfiriato.
        • What were some of the causes of the Mexican Revolution?
        • Who were some of the major military actors in the Mexican Revolution? Why were they involved, and what were they fighting for?
        • How have different people experienced and understood the Mexican Revolution? Provide at least two different individuals’ perspectives.

        Before students begin their research, ask them to review the sources provided and give examples of primary and secondary sources. As they answer the guiding questions, they should use at least one primary and one secondary source to support each of their answers.

        • Comparing and contrasting: After studying the Mexican Revolution and U.S. involvement in it, ask students to make comparisons with another revolution or conflict that they have studied. They might consider the following factors:
          • Major divisions and conflicts
          • The role of foreign intervention
          • Outcomes of the conflicts
          • Major actors involved in the conflict
          • The way the conflict was represented in contemporary accounts (for example, by researching coverage in historic newspapers on Chronicling America)
          • Ways the conflict is commemorated today

          Students should create presentations of their findings to present to each other. As they listen to their classmates, ask students to take notes about the various revolutions. Use their observations to start a discussion about the word “revolution.” What should be classified as a revolution? Could a coup be a revolution? A civil war? Why do they think some civil wars are classified as such, while others are labeled revolutions, even though the impacts of both might be equally profound?

          Immigration and Identity in the United States

          Photo of Cesar Chávez with farm workers in California, ca. 1970.

          The border between the United States and Mexico has changed over time, and much of the territory that now forms the southwestern United States was at one point Mexican. But the movement of people, goods, money, and ideas has always been a feature of this border. That movement, especially of people, has not always been voluntary. During the Great Depression, many thousands—and by some estimates as many as two million—Mexicans were forcibly deported from the United States. Over half of those deported were U.S. citizens.

          Less than a decade later, U.S. policy changed completely: rather than deporting Mexican-Americans and Mexicans, the United States was desperate to draw Mexican laborers into the country to ease agricultural labor shortages caused by World War II. As a result, the Mexican and U.S. governments established the Bracero Program, which allowed U.S. employers to hire Mexican laborers and guaranteed those laborers a minimum wage, housing, and other necessities. However, braceros’ wages remained low, they had almost no labor rights, and they often faced violent discrimination, including lynching. Oral histories from braceros, as well as several lesson plans about the program, can be found at the NEH-funded Bracero History Archive

          The Bracero program ended in 1964. Two years before, in 1962, César Chávez had co-founded the National Farm Workers Association (NFWA) with Dolores Huerta. The NFWA would later become the United Farm Workers (UFW). In response to the low wages and terrible working conditions experienced by farmworkers, Chávez and Huerta organized migrant farmworkers to press for higher wages, better working conditions, and labor rights. Students can learn more about Chávez and Huerta in the EDSITEment lesson "Sí, se puede!": Chávez, Huerta, and the UFW.

          The UFW was part of the larger civil rights movement of the 1960s and beyond. The Chicano movement fought for the rights of Mexican-Americans and against anti-Mexican racism and discrimination. It was also important in the creation of a new collective identity for, and sense of solidarity among, Mexican-Americans. Other ethnic categories sought to include a greater number of people of Latin American heritage and to capture aspects of their shared experience in the United States. In the 1970s, activists pushed for the inclusion of “Hispanic” on the U.S. Census in order to disaggregate poverty rates among Latinos and whites. Since then, different terms have emerged to describe this diverse population, including Latino and Latinx. The PBS project Latino Americans (available in English and Spanish) documents the experiences of Latinos in the United States and includes a selection of lesson plans for grades 7-12, as well as shorter, adaptable classroom activities. Additional resources for teaching immigration history include the Closer Readings Commentary “Everything Your Students Need to Know About Immigration History,” which provides an overview of immigration history in the United States, and Becoming US, a collection of teaching resources on migration and immigration created by the Smithsonian Institution.

          Framing questions and activities:

          • Terminology and identity: There are many words to describe the experiences and identities of Latinos in the United States. The words “Hispanic” and “Latino” are intentionally broad and meant to capture a wide diversity of identities and experiences, which means that they can also erase or diminish specific individuals and their stories. Teaching Tolerance has created and compiled a selection of educational materials, including readings, discussion questions, and suggestions for teachers, to help address this topic in the classroom. Within this Teacher’s Guide, the lessons in the section “Borderlands: Lessons from the Chihuahuan Desert” address questions of identity, belonging, and difference in greater depth.
          • Comparing and contrasting: Like "Sí, se puede!": Chávez, Huerta, and the UFW, the EDSITEment lesson Martin Luther King, Jr., Gandhi, and the Power of Nonviolence addresses the civil rights movement and the use of nonviolent protest to fight racism, discrimination, and exploitation. Ask students to research a specific protest organized by the UFW and one by leaders of the movement for African American civil rights. They might return to the lessons for some ideas, or work on a protest not included in the lesson plans. Ask them to discuss the following questions with respect to their chosen protests:
            • What actors were involved? What united them?
            • What were they protesting?
            • What strategies did they use? Describe the mechanics of the protest: its location and duration, what actions the protesters took, how they responded to any resistance or confrontations, how and why the protest ended. Depending on the protest they have chosen, a timeline and/or map may be a good way to represent this information.
            • Were there any divisions, controversies, or conflicts within the movement?
            • What responses met the protest? How was the protest represented in different media outlets from the time?
            • How has the protest been commemorated or remembered since it took place? How have those commemorations changed over time?
            • If you were to design a monument, event, or other public commemoration of this protest, what would you create? Hoekom?

            A large selection of reviewed websites that explore the cultural legacy of Mexico, Central America, parts of the Caribbean, as well as other Latin American nations is also featured on EDSITEment. NPR’s Afropop Worldwide introduces the great variety of music with African roots today in countries like Colombia. A Collector's Vision of Puerto Rico features a rich timeline. Other EDSITEment resources focus on the history and culture of other countries. The EDSITEment lesson plan, Mexican Culture and History through Its National Holidays, encourages students to learn more about the United States’ closest southern neighbor by highlighting Mexico’s Independence Day and other important Mexican holidays.

            Additional EDSITEment-created resources help students attain a deeper understanding of the history and cultural wealth of that large and diverse country. EDSITEment marked the Mexican Revolution’s centennial (1910-2010) with a special EDSITEment-created bilingual spotlight that explores the revolution’s historical background, including the muralist movement, and the musical legacy of the corrido tradition. EDSITEment also notes Mexico’s vital role in world literature by saluting one of the most important poets in the Spanish language and the first great Latin American poet, Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz in a fully bilingual academic unit. Here, teachers and students will find two lesson plans, accompanying bilingual glossaries, an interactive timeline, numerous worksheets, listening-comprehension exercises, and two interactive activities, one of which entails a detailed analysis of her portrait.

            Contemporary authors writing about Hispanic heritage in the United States include Pam Muñoz Ryan, whose award-winning work of juvenile fiction is featured in the EDSITEment lesson plan, Esperanza Rising: Learning Not to Be Afraid to Start Over (the lesson plan is also available in Spanish). Set in the early 1930s, twenty years after the Mexican Revolution and during the Great Depression, Esperanza Rising tells the story of a young Mexican girl's courage and resourcefulness when, at the tender age of thirteen, she finds herself living in a strange new world. Pam Muñoz Ryan also enriches her story with extensive historical background. Students are given an opportunity to engage in interesting classroom activities that encourage them to imagine the difficult choices facing those who decide to leave home and immigrate to the United States.

            On the literature front, both Latin America and Spain have a rich heritage. Set in the Dominican Republic during the rule of Rafael Trujillo, In the Time of the Butterflies fictionalizes historical figures in order to dramatize heroic efforts of the Mirabal sisters to overthrow this dictator’s brutal regime. EDSITEment lesson plan, Courage In the Time of the Butterflies, has students undertake a careful analysis of the sisters to see how each demonstrates courage. Students additionally analyze a speech delivered in 2006 by a daughter of one of the sisters to understand the historical legacy of these extraordinary women.

            A new EDSITEment curriculum unit of three lessons, Magical Realism in One Hundred Years of Solitude for the Common Core, has students uncover how Gabriel García Márquez meshes magical elements with a reality which is, in his view, fantastical in its own right. García Márquez actually recapitulates episodes in the history of Latin America through the novel's story of real and fantastical events experienced over the course of one century by the Buendía family.

            Students can learn more about some of the most important poets from the Spanish Golden Age and from the twentieth century through the feature Six Hispanic Literary Giants (this feature is also available in Spanish).

            Borderlands narratives have historically been seen as peripheral to the development of American history and identity and the binational spaces border people occupy have been portrayed as dangerous, illegitimate, and as part of a distinct counter-culture. During "Tales from the Chihuahuan Desert: Borderlands Narratives about Identity and Binationalism," a summer institute for educators (grades 6-12) sponsored by the National Endowment for the Humanities and offered by The University of Texas at El Paso, scholars and teachers examine debates about American history and identity by focusing on the multicultural region and narratives of the El Paso-Ciudad Juárez metroplex.

            The lessons and materials provided below were created by institute attendees in the interest of developing "their own creative ways of implementing diverse storytelling methodologies into their teaching philosophies in order to more holistically reflect on the complex histories and identities of border peoples and of the binational spaces they inhabit." The complete portfolio of lesson plans is available at the "Tales from the Chihuahuan Desert: Borderlands Narratives about Identity and Binationalism" homepage.

            Smokestack Memories: A Borderlands History During the Gilded Age—The second industrialization also known as the Gilded Age from about 1870s-1900s is one of the most significant time periods in American history. In 1887, a smelter was established in El Paso which would become known as ASARCO. The purpose of this lesson is to understand and contextualize the global, national, border, and regional impact of industry during the Gilded Age. (Grade: 7, 8, 11) (Subject: U.S. History, AP U.S. History)

            Push/Pull Factors and the Quest for God, Gold, and Glory—Through these two lessons that connect early European exploration of US territories with contemporary immigration, students draw upon the familiar to understand the past and the long history of the United States as a nation by and for people of many cultures. (Grade: 8) (Subject: U.S. History, World History)

            Making a Nation—Through these lessons, students will produce an interactive map of North America in the earliest days of colonization that demonstrates the multiple nations and borderlands that cut across the physical space that we now consider to be clearly defined that they can then use throughout their study of American history. (Grade: 8) (Subject: Language Arts and Social Studies)

            Borders Near and Far: A Global and Local Investigation of Borderlands—This lesson is designed as an introduction for exploring the theme of borders and borderlands throughout a literature course. Compelling questions and text-based examples are provided to prepare students for independent close readings and discussions of borders at multiple points during the school year. (Grade: 11-12) (Subject: Literature and Language Arts)

            Know Thyself—This unit focuses on the topics of identity, stereotypes, culture, and biculturalism. It is a four-part unit intended to extend throughout the semester with supplemental activities and resources in between. This unit is presented in English to serve lower level Spanish courses, however, it can be adapted and taught in Spanish with additional vocabulary instruction and scaffolding. (Grade: 9-12) (Subject: Language, Spanish level 1, 2)

            Borders: Understanding and Overcoming Differences—Students will examine the concept of borders, both literal and figurative, as well as what a border is and how it is created. They will use this knowledge as they learn about the U.S.-Mexico border and will delve deeper into the idea of borders as they examine their own lives. (Grade: 8-10) (Subject: Spanish and Social Studies)

            Latino Americans is an NEH-funded documentary series that chronicles the rich and varied history and experiences of Latinos from the first European settlements to the present day. The website contains trailers from all episodes, a timeline, and an opportunity to upload your own video history. The related education initiative invites teachers and learners to explore the many ways that Latinos have contributed to the history and culture of the United States.

            To accompany Episode 3: War and Peace, Humanities Texas offers a collection of resources to explore the contributions of Latino Americans during the second world war and the experience of returning servicemen who faced discrimination despite their service. These lesson plans and activities include viewing guides to support students as they watch the episode and primary sources to draw out key themes and events introduced by the film.

            Social Studies and History

            The Mexican Revolution —In order to better understand this decade-long civil war, we offer an overview of the main players on the competing sides, primary source materials for point of view analysis, discussion of how the arts reflected the era, and links to Chronicling America, a free digital database of historic newspapers, that covers this period in great detail.

            Chronicling America's Spanish-language newspapers—The Spanish-language newspapers in Chronicling America, along with those published in English, allow us to look beyond one representation of the communities and cultures pulled into the United States by wars and treaties of the 19th century. Spanish-language newspapers reveal how these communities reported on their own culture, politics, and struggles to form an identity in a brand new context.

            Mission Nuestra Señora de la Concepción and the Spanish Mission in the New World—Focusing on the daily life of Mission Nuestra Señora de la Concepción, the lesson asks students to relate the people of this community and their daily activities to the art and architecture of the mission.

            Literature and Language Arts

            Esperanza Rising: Learning Not to Be Afraid to Start Over (also available in Spanish)—In this lesson students will explore some of the contrasts that Esperanza experiences when she suddenly falls from her lofty perch as the darling child of a wealthy landowner surrounded by family and servants to become a servant herself among an extended family of immigrant farm workers.

            Magical Realism in One Hundred Years of Solitude (Curriculum Unit)—Author Gabriel García Márquez meshes magical elements with a reality which is, in his view, fantastical in its own right. In One Hundred Years of Solitude, García Márquez vividly retells episodes in the history of Latin America through the story of real and fantastical events experienced over the course of one century by the Buendía family.

            Women and Revolution: In the Time of the Butterflies—In this lesson, students undertake a careful analysis of the main characters to see how each individually demonstrates courage in the course of her family’s turbulent life events in the Dominican Republic during the dictatorial rule of Rafael Trujillo.

            Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz: The First Great Latin American Poet (Curriculum Unit, also available in Spanish)—Through this curriculum unit students will gain an understanding of why Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz is considered one of the most important poets of Latin America, and why she is also considered a pioneering feminist writer and poet.

            "Every Day We Get More Illegal" by Juan Felipe Herrera—In his poem “Every Day We Get More Illegal” Juan Felipe Herrera, the former Poet Laureate of the United States, gives voice to the feelings of those “in-between the light,” who have ambiguous immigration status and work in the United States.

            "Translation for Mamá" by Richard Blanco—Richard Blanco wrote the poem “Translation for Mamá” for his mother, who came to the United States from Cuba to create a new life for herself and her family. Using both English and Spanish language translation, Blanco honors the bridge between his mother’s new identity and the losses she faced in emigration.

            Culture and Arts

            Picturing America (Available in Spanish)—The Picturing America project celebrates Hispanic heritage with a handsome visual reminder of the Spanish influence on American history, religion, and culture.

            La Familia—Students will learn about families in various Spanish cultures and gain a preliminary knowledge of the Spanish language, learning the Spanish names for various family members.

            De Colores—This lesson plan is designed for young learners at the novice or novice-intermediate level of proficiency in Spanish. The vocabulary, the colors, is appealing to young learners because colors are easy for them to comprehend and observe while connecting the newly acquired vocabulary to familiar objects.

            Origins of Halloween and the Day of the Dead—This EDSITEment feature can be used with students as a framework for discussing the origins and history of the Halloween festival and introducing them to the Mexican festival, the Day of the Dead (el Día de Muertos), recognizing the common elements shared these festivals of the dead as well as the acknowledging the differences between them.

            Mexican Culture and History through Its National Holidays—This lesson will focus on holidays that represent and commemorate Mexico's religious traditions, culture, and politics over the past five hundred years.


            Kyk die video: Trip in Miami, Florida (Januarie 2022).