Geskiedenis Podcasts

Die grootste demonstrasies teen oorlog - geskiedenis

Die grootste demonstrasies teen oorlog - geskiedenis

15 November 1969

Grootste demonstrasies teen oorlog

Corretta King by Moratorium

Toenemende protesoptogte teen die oorlog het gelei tot groter en groter betogings in die Verenigde State teen die oorlog. Op 15 Oktober 1969 is landwye stakings uitgevoer en honderde duisende het regdeur die VSA deelgeneem. Op 15 November 1969 is 'n optog in Washington gehou. Dit was die grootste betoging teen die oorlog met 500 000 bywoning. By die saamtrek sing Pete Seeger "Give Peace a Chance".



Standpunt: Waarom is die grootste protes in die wêreldgeskiedenis geïgnoreer?

Vandag tien jaar gelede het die wêreld gesien wat volgens sommige die grootste enkele gekoördineerde protes in die geskiedenis was. Maar waarom is die teenoorlogse beweging geïgnoreer?

Mense marsjeer buite Rome se Colosseum om die oorlog in Irak op 15 Februarie 2003 te protesteer

Vandag tien jaar gelede het die wêreld gesien wat volgens sommige die grootste enkele gekoördineerde protes in die geskiedenis was. Ongeveer 10 miljoen tot 15 miljoen mense (ramings wissel baie) het in meer as 600 stede vergader en opgeruk: tot 3 miljoen het die strate van Rome oorstroom, meer as 'n miljoen het in Londen en Barcelona geskat, na raming 200.000 in San Francisco en New York. Stad. Van Auckland tot Vancouver - en oral tussenin - het tienduisende na vore gekom en hul stemme saamgevoeg in 'n eenvoudige, wêreldwye boodskap: nee vir die oorlog in Irak.

Ek was een van die teenoorlogse kontingente wat op 15 Februarie 2003, 'n winterse Saterdag, in die middestad van Manhattan gewemel het. Ons versprei oor kilometers van stadsblokke en loop verby verlate polisversperrings terwyl ons probeer om na die VN te gaan, waar tien dae tevore toe die minister van buitelandse sake, Colin Powell, voorgehou het wat ons nou weet, illusoriese intelligensie is oor Irak se vermeende vernietigingswapens. Die menigtes in New York was uiteenlopend en legio. Daar was anargiste en militêre veterane, luidrugtige studente (ek was toe 'n eerstejaar op die universiteit) en 'n bont grys grys peaceniks. En daar was talle ander: 'n groep preppy -voorstede met baniere wat hulself aankondig - 'Soccer Moms Against the War' - musikante, straatkunstenaars en New Yorkers op die werkdag. My oom, 'n dokter met mediese praktyke in beide die Verenigde Koninkryk en Indië, het ingevlieg vir die betoging en was net nog 'n gesig in 'n groot menigte.

Die oorweldigende gevoel in die strate van New York, ondanks die grimmigheid van die NYPD en die byt van daardie middag in Februarie, was 'n eenheid en hoop. 'N Woord het deurgedring oor die omvang van die betogings elders, en dit was moeilik om nie te dink aan ons gevoel van kollektiewe doel nie. 'N Artikel in die New York Tye sou binnekort basuin: "Daar is twee supermoondhede: die Verenigde State en die wêreldopinie." Hier is Sofia Fenner, destyds 'n hoërskoolleerling in Seattle (nou 'n doktorale kandidaat aan die Universiteit van Chicago, wat tans proefskrifwerk in Kaïro doen): ek was net trots om saam met al die mense te staan, trots dat ons as andersdenkend was Amerikaners het nie tuisgebly terwyl die hele wêreld ons saak aangeneem het nie. ” In Los Angeles het 'n swanger Laila Lalami 'n kilometer gestap met mede -betogers in Hollywood Boulevard. 'Ek het gedink honderde duisende mense in die VSA maak hul stem dik. Dit kan beslis nie geïgnoreer word nie, '' het die Marokkaans-Amerikaanse romanskrywer hierdie week aan TIME gesê. “Maar hulle was.”

En daar was dit. Ons het misluk. 'N Bietjie meer as 'n maand later was die VSA skokkend en het hulle deur die Irakse stede en Saddam Hussein se verdediging en beddegoed gewaai - alhoewel hulle dit nog nie geweet het nie - vir 'n byna dekadelange besetting. Die protesoptredes, wat in elk geval 'n wêreldhistoriese gebeurtenis was, is deur die Bush-administrasie en 'n rubberstempelkongres wat die oorlog goedgekeur het, opsy geslaan. Die VN se Veiligheidsraad is omseil, en die grootliks onbesonne, vrymoedige Amerikaanse hoofstroommedia het min gedoen om die oorlogsoorloë van Washington te demp.

'N Dekade later is dit moeilik om te verstaan ​​waarom die vertoning van mense se krag op 15 Februarie so ondoeltreffend was. Die regverdigheid van Amerika na 9/11 het gewapen geslinger vir 'n nederiger Weste, belas met onoorwinlike oorloë, finansiële krisisse en 'n half permanente funksie van politieke disfunksie. Boonop het die ontploffing van sosiale media die afgelope jare die voorheen onduidelike episodes van onenigheid in staat gestel om die wêreldwye gesprek te bereik en te hervorm. Betogings maak weer saak. Openbare ruimtes - van die Tahrir -plein in Kaïro tot die Puerta del Sol in Madrid tot die klein Zuccottipark in New York - het 'n hernieude demokratiese lewenskrag geword. Tog kon die massiewe protesoptogte wat Europa of selfs die grootste optrede van Occupy Wall Street ontstel het, nie ooreenstem met die omvang van wat op 15 Februarie 2003 plaasgevind het nie.

Daar sal nog tyd wees om die regverdigings agter die inval deur die VS in Irak, tien jaar later, te herhaal. Die geledere van die cheerleaders van die oorlog het in die tussendeur minder geword, met 'n magdom joernaliste en kundiges in die VSA wat hul mening gee om die oorlog so ongetwyfeld te ondersteun. 'N Diktator is weg, maar meer as 100,000 Irakezen is dood, asook 4,804 Amerikaanse en koalisiesoldate. Die VSA het byna 'n triljoen dollar bestee aan 'n voorkomende oorlog wat nie hoef te gebeur nie en 'n nasiebou-oefening wat slegs brose, onseker winste behaal het. Die Amerikaanse avontuur in Irak is verreweg 'n sukses wat bereik is, en het 'n waarskuwende verhaal geword oor hubris en swak beplanning. Dit is duidelik dat die huidige onwilligheid van die Weste om meer direkte stappe te neem om die bloedige burgeroorlog van Sirië te beëindig, deels 'n erfenis is van die Amerikaanse ervaring in Irak, waar die verbrokkeling van 'n regime 'n hele nuwe fase van sektariese aanleiding tot gevolg gehad het. slagting en chaos.

Maar daar is geen bevrediging om terug te kyk en te sê: 'Ek het jou dit gesê' - nie met die bloed wat gemors is en steeds gestort word nie. Die diepgaande solidariteit wat ek 10 jaar gelede gevoel het, het verval in 'n vorm van berusting en hartseer. In 'n gebied wat so kompleks en polities onbestendig is as die Midde -Ooste, is vaste morele standpunte moeilik. Ons eise was eenvoudig [op 15 Februarie], en ons was reg, ” sê Fenner, doktorale kandidaat aan die Universiteit van Chicago. Wat ek destyds nie besef het nie, was dat wanneer die oorlog voortgaan, niks ooit weer so eenvoudig sou wees nie. ”

MEER: Is Irak besig om uitmekaar te val?


Anti-oorlog beweging

'N Groeiende Amerikaanse ongevallelys en die onseker vooruitsigte om Hanoi uit die oorlog te verdryf, het geleidelik die byna eenparige goedkeuring van die resolusie van die Tonkin-golf van 1964 omskep in 'n wydverspreide kongres en gewilde opposisie teen die oorlog. Doves het kwaad geword. In die stede San Francisco en Chicago het anti-oorlog demonstrasies plaasgevind.

Meer en meer studente het begin protesteer. Hulle wou hê dat die oorlog vinnig moes eindig. Doves het kwaad geword. In die stede San Francisco en Chicago het anti-oorlog demonstrasies plaasgevind. Meer en meer studente het begin protesteer. Hulle wou hê dat die oorlog vinnig moes eindig. Teenstand teen die oorlog en die regering se oorlogsbeleid het gelei tot groter en groter protesoptogte. Studies is gedoen om die mening van Amerikaners oor die kwessie te meet. In 'n studie in Julie 1967 het 'n bietjie meer as die helfte van die mense ondervra dat hulle nie die president se beleid goedkeur nie.

Na die demonstrasie in Oktober 1967 in die Pentagon, het die leier van die Demokratiese Huis, Carl Albert, gesê dat die optoggangers 'elke kommunistiese en kommunistiese simpatiseerder insluit wat die reis kon onderneem'. Hy het ook aangekla dat die betoging “basies deur internasionale kommunisme gereël is”. Die Republikeinse vloerleier Gerald Ford onthul toe dat president Johnson tydens 'n Withuis -vergadering vir hom en ander Republikeinse leiers 'n geheime verslag voorgelees het wat onthul dat die betoging deur internasionale kommunisme gereël is. Hy het gevra dat die verslag openbaar gemaak word. Prokureur -generaal, Ramsey Clark, het Ford besoek en gesê dat die verslag nie onthul kan word sonder om inligtingbronne in gevaar te stel en 'n nuwe golf van 'McCarthyism' te skep nie. Hierdie eis is ook deur die minister van buitelandse sake, Dean Rusk, gemaak. Ford het aangevoer dat die Amerikaanse volk volwasse genoeg is om sulke inligting te ontvang sonder om histeries te reageer.

Onder druk van die Johnson en Nixon White Houses om te bepaal of daar 'buitelandse invloed' is agter protesoptogte en swart militante aktiwiteite, het die CIA begin met die insameling van intelligensie oor binnelandse politieke groepe. Joseph Califano, 'n hoofassistent van president Johnson, het op 27 Januarie 1976 aan die intelligensiekomitee van die senaat getuig dat hoë regeringsamptenare nie kon glo dat ''n saak wat so duidelik vir die land reg is, soos hulle dit sien, so wyd aangeval sal word nie as daar nie 'n [vreemde] mag daaragter was nie. " Die direkteur van die CIA, Richard Helms, het getuig dat die enigste manier waarop die CIA sy gevolgtrekking dat daar geen beduidende buitelandse invloed op die binnelandse meningsverskil was nie, ondanks ongeloof in die Withuis kon ondersteun, was om die dekking van CHAOS voortdurend uit te brei. Slegs deur te kan aantoon dat dit alle anti-oorlogspersone en alle kontakte tussen hulle en enige vreemde persoon ondersoek het, kon die CIA "negatief" bewys dat niemand onder buitelandse oorheersing was nie.

CIA berig 15 November 1967 "Diversiteit is die mees opvallende kenmerk van die vredesbeweging in die buiteland en in die buiteland. Dit is juis hierdie diversiteit wat dit onmoontlik maak om spesifieke politieke of ideologiese etikette aan enige belangrike deel van die beweging te heg. Diversiteit beteken dat Daar is geen enkele fokus in die beweging nie. Gesamentlike optrede op internasionale skaal is slegs moontlik omdat koördinasie hanteer word deur 'n klein groep toegewyde mans, waarvan die meeste radikaal georiënteerd is, wat hulself aangewend het vir aktiewe leierskap in die sleutelorganisasies. Kontakte met die amptenaar van Hanoi, Amerikaanse vredesaktiviste in die algemeen handel nie met buitelandse regerings nie. Moskou misbruik en kan inderdaad die Amerikaanse afgevaardigdes beïnvloed. hierdie Amerikaanse aktiviste en buitelandse regerings is beperk.

Die belangrikste meganisme vir die koördinering van binne- en buitelandse protesaktiwiteite met betrekking tot Viëtnam was die "mobiliseringskomitee" [die "mobe"]. Uit die Studentemobiliseringskomitee van 1966 ontwikkel die Spring Mobilization Committee (SMC), wat op sy beurt opgevolg is deur die huidige National Mobilization Committee (NMC). Die beamptes wat in die uitvoerende liggame van die NMC aangestel is, was talle, wat die breë basis van die koalisie weerspieël, maar die werklike verantwoordelikheid was blykbaar in die hande van 'n paar. Die name van hierdie sleutelkoördineerders het gereeld verskyn, waar die aksie ook al gebeur.

David Dellinger, die voorste Amerikaanse vredesaktivis, het in Mei 1963 gesê dat hy ''n Kommunis, maar nie van die Sowjet -tipe was nie', volgens 'n FBI -bron. organisasies sedert die 1930's en later met die Trotskyite Socialist Workers Party en verskillende kommunistiese frontgroepe. Hy is ook bekend vir sy betrokkenheid by pro-Castro-organisasies.

Noue persoonlike koördinasie tussen Amerikaanse aktiviste en die Noord -Viëtnamese het blykbaar in 1965 begin. Die destydse DRV nooi Herbert Aptheker, prominente CPUSA -teoretikus en direkteur van die American Institute for Marxist Studies, om Hanoi te besoek. Aptheker stel op sy beurt voor dat hy vergesel word van Staughton Lynd, voormalige professor in Yale en 'n leier van die Amerikaanse komitee vir nie -gewelddadige optrede (CNVA), en Thomas Hayden, 'n militante burgerregte -werker en 'n stigter van die SDS. Die drietal het Hanoi in Desember 1965 besoek.

Die NMC, hoofborg van die vredesdemonstrasie in Oktober 1967 in Washington, was 'n direkte uitvloeisel van die Spring Mobilization Committee om die oorlog in Viëtnam (SMC) te beëindig. SMC is gestig om die demonstrasie in April 1967 teen die Viëtnam -oorlog en die konsep te koördineer. Die NMC was nie 'n aksiegroep nie. Dit is 'n koördinerende uitrusting wat verantwoordelik is vir die verspreiding van inligting en literatuur aan ander vredesgroepe en aan die algemene publiek. Dit het demonstrasies gekoördineer, die nodige permitte verkry, met die burgerlike owerhede onderhandel vir geriewe en verleen regshulp indien nodig. Behalwe vir die min betaalde professionele bestuurders, kan die NMC eenvoudig as 'n versameling plaaslike vredesgroepe gekategoriseer word.

Kommunistiese penetrasie van die organisasie was op verskeie vlakke duidelik, maar die NMC was so uiteenlopend in sy samestelling en organisatories los, dat dit nie 'n maklike teken was vir klassieke kommunistiese manipulasie nie. Baie lede van die NMC-leierskap, waaronder voorsitter David Dellinger en ondervoorsitter Jerry Rubin, het deur die jare kennis gehad met en verbintenis met kommuniste en kommunistiese groepe. Beide Dellinger en Rubin was ook sterk ondersteuners van Castro en sy beweging.

Die "Amerikaanse vredesbeweging" was nie een nie, maar baie bewegings en die betrokke groepe is so uiteenlopend as wat hulle talryk is. Die mees opvallende kenmerk van die vredesfront is die diversiteit daarvan. Onder die vredesparaplu vind u pasifiste en vegters, idealiste en materialiste, internasionaliste en isolationiste, demokrate en totalitariërs, konserwatiewes en revolusionêre, kapitaliste en sosialiste, patriotte en subversiewe, prokureurs en anargiste, staliniste en trotskiete, muskoviete en pekingese, rassiste en universaliste, yweraars en ongelowiges, puriteine ​​en hippies, doogoods en kwaaddoeners, gewelddadig en baie gewelddadig. Een ding bring hulle almal bymekaar: hul verset teen Amerikaanse optrede in Viëtnam.

"As gevolg van hul infiltrasie in die leierskap van belangrike vredesgroepe, slaag die kommuniste daarin om 'n oneweredige invloed uit te oefen op die groepe se beleid en optrede. Dit bly egter te betwyfel dat hierdie invloed beheers word. Die grootste deel van die 'Viëtnam-protes aktiwiteit sou daar wees met of sonder die kommunistiese element. Die CPUSA benut met ander woorde baat by anti -regeringsaktiwiteit, maar dit blyk nie dat dit dit inspireer of lei nie. "

FBI-verslagdoening oor protesoptredes teen die Viëtnam-oorlog bied 'n voorbeeld van die manier waarop die inligting wat aan besluitnemers verstrek word, skeefgetrek kan word. In ooreenstemming met 'n uitspraak wat reeds deur president Johnson uitgespreek is, het die Buro se verslae oor betogings teen die oorlog in Viëtnam beklemtoon dat kommunistiese pogings om die anti-oorlogsbeweging te beïnvloed, beklemtoon word en dat die oorgrote meerderheid van die betogers nie kommunisties beheer word nie.

RL Shackleford, 'n hoof van die afdeling vir intelligensie -afdeling van die FBI, het op 13 Februarie 1976 aan die Senaat -intelligensiekomitee gesê dat hy nie 'aan baie' groot demonstrasies in hierdie land kon dink 'wat die afgelope jare nie' veroorsaak is deur 'die Kommunistiese Party of die Sosialistiese Werkers nie Partytjie. In reaksie op die ondervraging het die Afdelingshoof elf spesifieke demonstrasies sedert 1965 gelys. Drie hiervan was hoofsaaklik SDS -demonstrasies, hoewel sommige individuele kommuniste wel aan een daarvan deelgeneem het. Ses ander is gereël deur die Nasionale (of Nuwe) Mobiliseringskomitee, wat volgens die Afdelingshoof onderhewig was aan die "invloed" van die Kommunistiese en Sosialistiese Arbeidersparty. Maar die afdelingshoof het erken dat die mobiliseringskomitee 'waarskynlik' 'n wye spektrum mense uit alle elemente van die Amerikaanse samelewing insluit. Die FBI het nie beweer dat die Socialist Workers Party deur enige buitelandse regering oorheers of beheer word nie.

Die 1969 'valaanval' wat duisende betogers in Oktober en November 1969 na Washington gebring het, het vier organisasies betrek: Die Vietnam Moratorium Committee, die Student Mobilization Committee, die New Mobilization Committee [New MOBE] en die SDS. Die doel van die valoffensief was om die administrasie te druk tot onmiddellike, eensydige onttrekking van Amerikaanse troepe uit Viëtnam.

Vanaf geboorte was Student Mobe 'n verenigde frontorganisasie, 'n kombinasie van verskillende groepe, baie openlik kommunisties, wat hul pogings verenig om soveel moontlik jongmense by die anti-Viëtnam-oorlogsbeweging te betrek. In die middel van 1968 het daar egter 'n belangrike verandering plaasgevind. As gevolg van 'n lang pruttende vete, het die CPUSA-element in 'n geraas uitgestap en die jong "Trots" in bevel gelaat. Soos J. Edgar Hoover in 1969 gesê het, word Student MOBE "beheer deur lede van die Young Socialist Alliance, die jeuggroep van die Socialist Workers Party." Sedert die stigting daarvan, het Student MOBE gedien as die regterarm van die naamsveranderende volwasse MOBE, wat studente-ondersteuning gereël het vir die Vietnamweek, die Pentagon-konfrontasie, ens.

Meer as 500 000 Amerikaners het in Oktober 1969 by 'n 'moratorium' aangesluit om die Amerikaanse militêre betrokkenheid in Suid -Viëtnam teë te staan. 'N Maand later het die grootste demonstrasie teen oorlog in die geskiedenis van die Verenigde State, wat vir dieselfde doel opgevoer is, in Washington self plaasgevind. Die nasionale moratorium, met miljoene wat deelgeneem het aan die grootste demonstrasie teen oorlog in 'n westerse demokrasie, Die Amerikaanse vlag by die Departement van Justisie is afgetrek en - indien slegs kortliks - vervang deur die vlag van die Viet Cong. Op dieselfde dag, 15 November, het demonstrasies teen die VS-in-Viëtnam in baie lande plaasgevind. Dit was geen toeval nie. Dit is alles noukeurig gekoördineer.

Die Nuwe Mobiliseringskomitee, tegnies die borg van die demonstrasies in Washington op 15 November, het baie verklarings afgelê dat dit geweld ontken en slegs 'n vreedsame, ordelike betoging wil hê. Die studentemobilisasie het dieselfde gedoen. Die Moratoriumkomitee het nog altyd die standpunt ingeneem. SDS het ook belowe dat dit nie geweld sal aanhits nie.

Daar is net nie genoeg volwaardige kommunistiese partylede in hierdie land nie - selfs die Moskowiete, die Pekingese, die Trotskyiste en al die splintergroepe, saam - om 'n demonstrasie van so 'n omvang te toon dat dit nasionale en internasionale belang kan hê. Hulle het nie -kommuniste by hul optrede aangewend - baie van hulle: die 100 persent medereisigers wat altyd op die saak kan saamstem, sowel as die minder medereisigers wat reageer op sekere kwessies, die onafhanklike radikale en ekstremiste, die nie -party -marxiste, die pasifiste (veral handig vir 'vredes' -operasies), die wanbestandheid en enigiemand anders wat hulle kan lok, uitroei of laat dink om vir hul doel te werk. Dit moet egter beklemtoon word dat New MOBE nie 'n kommunistiese "front" was in die tradisionele sin van die term nie.

Die aankondiging deur president Nixon op die aand van 30 April 1970 dat hy 'n gesamentlike inval in die VS.-Suid-Viëtnam in Kambodja goedgekeur het, het 'n onmiddellike openbare terugslag veroorsaak en 'n anti-oorlogsbeweging herleef wat steeds steun onder die groter bevolking verloor het. as gevolg van studente se toenemend gewelddadige en vernietigende taktiek.

In Mei 1970 begin 'n periode van drie weke van protesoptogte en betogings op universiteitskampusse regoor die land, wat op 4 Mei 'n hoogtepunt bereik het met die dood van vier betogers aan die hand van National Guardsmen aan die Kent State University. Die uitbarsting van studente -protes in die hele land was ongekend. Met meer as die helfte van die meer as 2 500 universiteite en kolleges wat een of ander vorm van protesoptog teen anti-oorlog beleef het, en na raming 1,5 miljoen studente wat deelgeneem het, was dit die grootste reeks massademonstrasies in die Amerikaanse geskiedenis.

Ondanks die dood van betogers by Kent State en aan die Jackson State University in Mississippi tien dae later, was die betogings wat in Mei 1970 aan die kampusse geraak het, oorweldigend vreedsaam. Volgens 'n studie het slegs 1,350 kolleges en universiteite wat protesoptogte gedurende die maand beleef het, slegs drie-en-sewentig getuies van geweld gesien.

Die gebeure van Mei 1970 by universiteite regoor die land was die laaste groot snak na die anti-oorlogsbeweging van studente. Met studente wat die somer vertrek, het kampusse weer stil geword. Die Kambodjaanse inval en die gevolglike protesoptogte het nuwe lewe geblaas in 'n beweging wat lewensondersteunend was, maar die momentum wat so vinnig ontstaan ​​het, het ewe skielik tot stilstand gekom. Soos 'n historikus dit stel, het die studentebeweging "nooit herstel van die somervakansie van 1970 nie".


Inhoud

1945 Redigeer

  • Die eerste protesoptogte teen die Amerikaanse betrokkenheid by Viëtnam was in 1945, toe Amerikaanse handelsvaarders van die Verenigde State die Amerikaanse regering veroordeel het vir die gebruik van Amerikaanse handelskepe om Europese troepe te vervoer om die inheemse bevolking van Viëtnam te onderwerp. [1]

1963 Redigeer

  • Mei. Oorlogsbetogings teen Viëtnam in Engeland en Australië.
  • 21 September organiseer War Resisters League die eerste Amerikaanse protesoptog teen die Viëtnam-oorlog en 'anti-Boeddhistiese terrorisme' deur die Suid-Viëtnamese regime wat deur die VSA gesteun word, met 'n betoging by die Amerikaanse sending by die VN in New York. [2]
  • 9. Oktober WRL onder ander groepe het 300 optredes teen 'n spreekbeurt deur Madame Ngo Dinh Nhu in die Waldorf-Astoria-hotel in New York City. [3]

1964 Wysig

  • Maart. 'N Konferensie by Yale beplan demonstrasies op 4 Mei.
  • 25. April. Die Interne Beskermer 'n belofte van konsepweerstand deur sommige van hierdie organiseerders gepubliseer.
  • 2. Mei. Honderde studente betoog op die Times Square in New York en gaan van daar na die Verenigde Nasies. 700 het in San Francisco opgeruk. Kleiner betogings het in Boston, Madison, Wisconsin en Seattle plaasgevind. Hierdie protesaksies is gereël deur die Progressive Labour Party, met die hulp van die Young Socialist Alliance. Die Beweging van 2 Mei was die jeugmaatskappy van die PLP.
  • 12 Mei. Twaalf jong mans in New York verbrand hul konsepkaarte in die openbaar om die oorlog te protesteer — die eerste sodanige oorlogsweerstand. [4] [5]
  • Val. Free Speech Movement aan die Universiteit van Kalifornië in Berkeley verdedig die reg van studente om politieke organisasie op die kampus te doen. Stigter: Mario Savio.
  • Begin Augustus. Wit en swart aktiviste het naby Philadelphia, Mississippi, vergader vir die gedenkdiens van drie burgerregtewerkers. Een van die sprekers het bitter uitgespreek teen Johnson se gebruik van geweld in Viëtnam en dit vergelyk met geweld wat teen swartes in Mississippi gebruik is. [6]
  • 19 Desember. Die eerste gekoördineerde landwye protesoptogte teen die Viëtnam-oorlog het protesoptredes in New York ingesluit (geborg deur War Resisters League, Fellowship of Reconciliation, Committee for Non-Violent Action, the Socialist Party of America en die Student Peace Union en bygewoon deur 1500 mense), San Francisco (1000 mense), Minneapolis, Miami, Austin, Sacramento, Philadelphia, Chicago, Washington DC, Boston, Cleveland en ander stede. [7]

1965 Redigeer

  • 2 Februarie - Maart. Betogings aan die Universiteit van Kansas in Lawrence, Kansas, gereël deur die RA Student Peace Union. [8]
  • 12-16 Februarie. Anti-VSA betogings in verskillende stede in die wêreld, "insluitend 'n inbraak by die Amerikaanse ambassade in Boedapest, Hongarye, deur ongeveer 200 Asiatiese en Afrikaanse studente." [9]
  • 15. Maart 'n Debat wat deur die inter-universiteitskomitee vir 'n openbare verhoor oor Viëtnam gereël word, word gehou in Washington, DC, radio- en televisiedekking.
  • 16. Maart 'n 82-jarige Detroit-vrou met die naam Alice Herz is selfbeskuldig om 'n verklaring af te lê teen die gruwels van die oorlog. Sy is tien dae later oorlede. [10]
  • 24. Maart Eerste SDS georganiseerde onderrig aan die Universiteit van Michigan in Ann Arbor. 3 000 studente woon dit by en die idee versprei vinnig.
  • Maart. Berkeley, Kalifornië: Jerry Rubin en Stephen Smale se Vietnam Day Committee (VDC) organiseer 'n groot protes van 35,000. [aanhaling nodig]
  • April. Studente in Oklahoma het honderde duisende pamflette met foto's van dooie babas in 'n gevegsgebied gestuur om 'n boodskap oor gevegte in Viëtnam uit te beeld.
  • 17 April. Die SDS-georganiseerde Maart teen die Viëtnam-oorlog in Washington, DC, was die grootste demonstrasie teen oorlog in die VSA tot nog toe, met 15 000 tot 20 000 mense wat dit bygewoon het. Paul Potter eis 'n radikale verandering van die samelewing.
  • 5. Mei. Etlike honderde mense wat 'n swart kis dra, het na die konsepbord van Berkeley, Kalifornië, opgeruk en 40 mans het hul konsepkaarte verbrand. [11]
  • 21–23 Mei. Die Vietnam-dagkomitee het groot onderrig by UC Berkeley gereël. 10–30 000 bywoon.
  • 22 Mei. Die Berkeley -konsepbord is weer besoek, met 19 mans wat hul kaarte verbrand het. President Lyndon B. Johnson is in beeld getrek. [11]
  • Somer. Jong swartes in McComb, Mississippi, hoor dat een van hul klasmaats in Viëtnam vermoor is en 'n pamflet versprei waarin gesê word: "Geen Mississippi -negers behoort in Viëtnam te veg vir die vryheid van die witman nie". [6]
  • Junie. Richard Steinke, 'n West Point -gegradueerde in Viëtnam, het geweier om aan boord van 'n vliegtuig te gaan wat hom na 'n afgeleë Viëtnamese dorp geneem het, en verklaar dat die oorlog "geen enkele Amerikaanse lewe werd is nie". [6]
  • 27 Junie. Beëindig jou stilte, 'n oop brief in die New York Times deur die groep Kunstenaars en skrywers protesteer teen die oorlog in Viëtnam. [12]
  • Julie. Die Vietnam Day Committee het militante protesoptogte in Oakland, Kalifornië, gereël met 'n roemryke debakel, toe die organiseerders die optog van Oakland na Berkeley beëindig om 'n konfrontasie met die polisie te vermy.
  • Julie. A Vroue staak vir vrede- afvaardiging onder leiding van Cora Weiss ontmoet sy eweknie van Noord -Viëtnam en Vietcong in Jakarta, Indonesië.
  • 30. Julie 'n Man van die Katolieke Arbeidersbeweging word gefotografeer terwyl hy sy konsepkaart in Whitehallstraat in Manhattan voor die Armed Forces Induction Center verbrand. Sy foto verskyn in Lewe tydskrif in Augustus. [13]
  • 15. Oktober. David J. Miller het sy konsepkaart verbrand tydens 'n saamtrek wat weer naby die gewapende magte se induksiesentrum in Whitehallstraat gehou is. Die 24-jarige pasifis, lid van die Katolieke Arbeidersbeweging, word die eerste man wat gearresteer en skuldig bevind is onder die wysiging van die Wet op Selektiewe Diens van 1965. [14]
  • 15-16 Oktober.
  • Europa, 15-16 Oktober. Eerstens Internasionale dae van protes. Anti-VSA betogings in Londen, Rome, Brussel, Kopenhagen en Stockholm.
  • 20. Oktober Stephen Lynn Smith, 'n student aan die Universiteit van Iowa, het tydens 'n saamtrek by die Memorial Union in Iowa City, Iowa, gepraat en sy konsepkaart verbrand. Hy is gearresteer, skuldig bevind en drie jaar proeftydperk opgelê. [15]
  • 30 Oktober. Pro-Viëtnam-oorlogsmars in New York bring 25 000 mense.
  • 2 November Voor die Pentagon in Washington, toe duisende werknemers laatmiddag uit die gebou stroom, staan ​​Norman Morrison, 'n twee-en-dertigjarige pasifis, pa van drie, onder die vensters op die derde verdieping van die minister van verdediging, Robert McNamara, met kerosine besprinkel en homself aan die brand gesteek en sy lewe prysgegee uit protes teen die oorlog. [6]
  • 6. November Thomas C. Cornell, Marc Paul Edelman, Roy Lisker, David McReynolds en James Wilson het hul konsepkaarte verbrand tydens 'n openbare saamtrek wat deur die Committee for Non-Violent Action in Union Square, New York City, gereël is. [16]
  • 27. November SANE-geborgde Maart in Washington in 1965. 15 000 tot 20 000 betogers.
  • 16–17 Desember. Hoërskoolleerlinge in Des Moines, Iowa, word geskors omdat hulle swart armbande gedra het om 'aan beide kante te sterf' en ter ondersteuning van die oproep van Robert F. Kennedy om 'n Kersfeesstilstand. Die studente het die Des Moines -skooldistrik gedagvaar, wat gelei het tot die Amerikaanse beslissing van die Hooggeregshof in 1969 ten gunste van die studente, Tinker v. Des Moines.

1966 Wysig

  • Van September 1965 tot Januarie 1970 is 170 000 mans opgestel en nog 180 000 aangestel. Teen Januarie het 2 000 000 mans verseker uitstel van die kollege.
  • Februarie. Plaaslike kunstenaars in Hollywood bou 'n toring van 60 meter lank op Sunset Boulevard. [6]
  • 25–26 Maart. Tweedens Dae van internasionale protes. Georganiseer deur die nasionale koördinerende komitee om die oorlog in Viëtnam te beëindig, gelei deur GESOND, Vroue staak vir vrede, die Komitee vir Gewelddadige Aksie en die SDS: 20,000 tot 25,000 alleen in New York, betogings ook in Boston, Philadelphia, Washington, DC, Chicago, Detroit, San Francisco, Oklahoma City. In die buiteland, in Ottawa, Londen, Oslo, Stockholm, Lyon en Tokio.
  • 31. Maart David Paul O'Brien en drie metgeselle verbrand hul konsepkaarte op die trappe van die South Boston Courthouse. Die saak is deur die Hooggeregshof in Verenigde State teen O'Brien.
  • Lente. Predikante en leke wat bekommerd is oor Viëtnam gestig.
  • 15 Mei. Maart teen die Viëtnam -oorlog, gelei deur SANE en Women Strike for Peace, met 8 000 tot 10 000 wat deelgeneem het. (Cassius Clay) het geweier om oorlog toe te gaan en het beroemd gesê dat hy 'geen twis met die Viet Cong' het nie en dat 'geen Viet Cong my ooit 'n neger' genoem het nie. Ali het ook gesê dat hy nie '10 000 myl' sou gaan om ander mense te help vermoor, dood te maak en aan die brand te steek om net te help om die oorheersing van wit slawemasters oor donker mense voort te sit nie. [17] In 1967 is hy tot 5 jaar gevangenisstraf gevonnis, maar is in appèl deur die Amerikaanse hooggeregshof vrygelaat.
  • Somer. Ses lede van die SNCC val 'n induksiesentrum in Atlanta binne en word later gearresteer. [6]
  • 3. Julie Menigte van meer as 4 000 betoog buite die Amerikaanse ambassade in Londen. Botsings ontstaan ​​tussen die betogers en die polisie, en minstens 31 mense word gearresteer. [18]
  • 10–11 September. Eerste nasionale oorlog Mobilisering Komitee gestig as die Mobiliseringskomitee van 8 November.
  • 7. November Protes teen sekretaris McNamara aan die Harvard Universiteit.
  • 26. November. Die 8 November Mobiliseringskomitee word die Spring Mobilization Committee om die oorlog in Viëtnam te beëindig, geformaliseer tydens die Cleveland -konferensie. Nasionale direkteur is dominee James Bevel.
  • Einde Desember. Studente -mobiliseringskomitee gevorm.

1967 Wysig

  • 29 Januarie - 5 Februarie Angry Arts Week deur die Kunstenaars protesteer groep.
  • 4. April praat Martin Luther King Jr. in die Riverside -kerk in New York oor die oorlog: "Beyond Vietnam: A Time to Break Silence". King verklaar dat "op een of ander manier hierdie waansin moet ophou. Ons moet nou stop. Ek spreek as kind van God en broer met die armes van Viëtnam. Ek spreek vir diegene wie se grond verwoes word, wie se huise vernietig word, wie se kultuur Ek praat namens die armes van Amerika wat die dubbele prys van gebroke hoop tuis en dood en korrupsie in Viëtnam betaal. Ek praat as 'n Amerikaner met die leiers van my eie nasie. Die groot inisiatief in hierdie oorlog is ons s'n. Die inisiatief om dit te stop, moet ons s'n wees. " [6]
  • 15 April. In Sheep Meadow, Central Park, New York, het ongeveer 60 jong mans, waaronder 'n paar studente van die Cornell -universiteit, bymekaargekom om hul konsepkaarte in 'n Maxwell House -koffieblik te verbrand. [19] Meer sluit by hulle aan, waaronder die uniform van die Green Beret Army Reservist Gary Rader. Tot 158 ​​kaarte word verbrand. [20]
  • 15 April. Lente Mobe protes in New York (300 000) en in San Francisco.
  • 20–21 Mei. 700 aktiviste tydens die Spring Mobilization Conference, Washington, DC Die Spring Mobilization Committee om die oorlog in Viëtnam te beëindig, word die National Mobilization Committee om die oorlog in Vietnam te beëindig (die Mobe). , Swede (Mei) en Roskilde, Denemarke (November_. Internasionale Oorlogsmisdaadtribunaal (Russell Tribunal) unanimously finds the US government and its armed forces "guilty of the deliberate, systematic and large-scale bombardment of civilian targets, including civilian populations, dwellings, villages, dams, dikes, medical establishments, leper colonies, schools, churches, pagodas, historical and cultural monuments".
  • June 1. The Vietnam Veterans Against the War is formed. Veteran Jan Barry Crumb participated in a protest on April 7 called the "Fifth Avenue Peace Parade" in New York City. On May 30 Crumb and ten like-minded men attended a peace demonstration in Washington, D.C.
  • June 23. The Bond, the first G.I.underground paper established. [21]
  • June 23. 1,300 police attack 10,000 peace marchers at The Century Plaza Hotel in Los Angeles, where President Lyndon B. Johnson was being honored.
  • In the summer of 1967, Neil Armstrong and various other NASA officials began a tour of South America to raise awareness for space travel. Volgens First Man, a biography of Armstrong's life, during the tour, several South American college students protested the astronaut, and shouted such phrases as "Murderers get out of Vietnam!" and other anti-Vietnam War messages.
  • October 16. A day of widespread war protest organized by The Mobe in 30 cities across the U.S., with some 1,400 draft cards burned. [22]
  • October 18. "Dow Day", University of Wisconsin–Madison. This was the first university Vietnam War protest to turn violent. Thousands of students protested Dow Chemical (maker of napalm) recruiting on campus. Nineteen police officers and about 50 students were treated for injuries at hospitals. [23][24]
  • October 20. Resist leaders present draft cards to the Department of Justice, Washington, D.C. .
  • October 21–23. National Mobe organized the March on the Pentagon to Confront the War Makers. 100,000 are at the Lincoln Memorial on the National Mall in Washington DC, 35,000 (or up to 50,000?) go on to the Pentagon, some to engage in acts of civil disobedience. Norman Mailer's The Armies of the Night describes the event.
  • October 27. Father Philip Berrigan, a Josephite priest and World War II veteran, led a group now known as the Baltimore Four who went to a draft board in Baltimore, Maryland, drenched the draft records with blood, and waited to be arrested. [6]
  • December 4. National draft card turn-in. At San Francisco's Phillip Burton Federal Building, some 500 protesters witnessed 88 draft cards collected and burned. [11]
  • December 4–8. Stop the Draft Week demonstrations in New York. 585 arrested, amongst them Benjamin Spock.
  • Sweden, December 20. Seventh Year of the Viet Cong (the Front National de Libération du Vietnam du Sud, of FNL) celebrated with violent clashes in Stockholm. Demonstrations in forty Swedish towns.

1968 Edit

  • Peace Corps volunteers in Chile spoke out against the war. 92 volunteers defied the Peace Corps director and issued a circular denouncing the war. [6]
  • January. Singer Eartha Kitt, while at a luncheon at the White House, spoke out against the war and its effects on the youth, exclaiming, "you send the best of this country off to be shot and maimed," to her fellow guests. "They rebel in the street. They will take pot. and they will get high. They don't want to go to school because they're going to be snatched off from their mothers to be shot in Vietnam." [25]
  • January 15. Jeannette Rankin leads a demonstration of thousands of women in Washington, D.C. .
  • London, Sunday, March 17. Violent protest in London (street occupation), not supported by the Old Left. Over 300 arrests.
  • Frankfurt, Germany, April 2. Gudrun Ensslin and Andreas Baader, joined by Thorwald Proll and Horst Söhnlein, set fire to two department stores.
  • April 3. National draft-card turn-in. About 1,000 draft cards were turned in. In Boston, 15,000 protesters watched 235 men turn in their draft cards. [22]
  • April 4. Assassination of Martin Luther King Jr. silences one of the leading voices against the war.
  • Late April. Student Mobe sponsored national student strike, demonstrations in New York and San Francisco.
  • April–May. Protesters occupy five buildings at Columbia University. Future leading Weather Underground member Mark Rudd gains prominence.
  • Berlin, Germany, April 11. Rudi Dutschke shot and wounded. Massive riots against Axel Springer publishers.
  • May. FBI's COINTELPRO campaign launched against the New Left.
  • May. Agricultural Building at Southern Illinois University (SIU) bombed.
  • May 1. Boston University graduate Philip Supina wrote to his draft board in Tucson, Arizona, that he had "absolutely no intention to report for [his] exam, or for induction, or to aid in any way the American war effort against the people of Vietnam." [6]
  • May 17. Philip Berrigan and his brother, Daniel, led seven others into a draft board office in Catonsville, Maryland, removed records, and set them afire with homemade napalm outside in front of reporters and onlookers. [6]
  • June 4–5. The hope of the antiwar movement, presidential candidate Robert F. Kennedy, is shot after celebrating victory in the California primary. He dies the next morning, June 6.
  • Late June. Student Mobe ruptures.
  • August 28. Democratic National Convention in Chicago. Police Violence.
  • October 14, 1968. Presidio mutiny sit-down protest carried out by 27 military prisoners at the U.S. Army's Presidio stockade in San Francisco, California.
  • October 21. In Japan, a group of 290,000 activists occupied the Shinjuku Station, protesting an earlier incident in August 1967 where a JNR freight train hauling kerosene to the Tachikawa Airbase collided with another train and exploded. The activists managed to disrupt all railway traffic at the station and led to clashes with riot police and acts of vandalism it was the largest anti-war protest in Japan at the time.
  • November 14. National draft-card turn-in.

1969 Edit

  • The whole year major campus protests take place across the country.
  • January 19–20. Protests against Richard Nixon's inauguration.
  • March 22. Nine protesters smashed glass, hurled files out a fourth floor window, and poured blood on files and furniture at the Dow Chemical offices in Washington, D.C.
  • March 29. Conspiracy charges against eight suspected organizers of the Chicago Convention protests.
  • April 5–6. Antiwar demonstrations and parades in several cities, New York, San Francisco, Los Angeles, Washington, D.C. and others.
  • May 21. Silver Spring Three Les Bayless, John Bayless, and Michael Bransome walked into a Silver Spring, Maryland Selective Service office where they destroyed several hundred draft records to protest the war.
  • June. At the Brown University commencement, two-thirds of the graduating class turned their backs when Henry Kissinger stood up to address them. [6]
  • June 8. The Old Main building at SIU burns to the ground. Units of firefighters from all over the area tried to salvage the building but could not put out the fire before everything was destroyed. [26]
  • June. Chicago. SDS national convention. The SDS disintegrates into SDS-WSA and SDS. The Worker Student Alliance of the Progressive Labor Party (PLP) has the majority of delegates (900) on its side. The smaller Revolutionary Youth Movement fraction (500) divide into RYM-I/Weatherman, who retained control of the SDS National Office, and maoist RYM-II. This fraction will further divide into the various groups of New Communist Movement.
  • July 4–5. Cleveland: national antiwar conference established National Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam.
  • October 8–11. Weatherman's disastrous Days of Rage in Chicago. Only 300 militants show up, not the expected 10,000. 287 will be arrested.
  • October 15. National Moratorium against the War demonstrasies. Huge crowds in Washington and in Boston (100,000). Anti-war Senator George McGovern gave a speech to the large crowd in Boston. [27]
  • November 15. The Mobe's Moratorium to End the War in Vietnam mobilizes 500,000. March against Death, Washington, D.C.
  • November 15. San Francisco. [verduideliking nodig]
  • November 26. Selective Service System (draft-lottery) bill signed.
  • December 1. The Selective Service System of the United States conducted two lotteries
  • December 7. The 5th Dimension performs their song "Declaration" on the Ed Sullivan Show. Consisting of the opening of the Declaration of Independence (through "for their future security"), it suggests that the right and duty of revolting against a despotic government is still relevant.

1970 Edit

  • February, March. Wave of bombings across the US.
  • March. Antidraft protests across the US.
  • March 14. SS Columbia Eagle incident: Two American merchant marine sailors, Clyde McKay and Alvin Glatkowski, seized the SS Columbia Eagle and forced the master to sail in to Cambodia as opposed to Thailand, where it was on its way to deliver napalm bombs to be used by the US Air Force in Vietnam.
  • March 30: About 100 people protest in Albany, New York against the draft. [28]
  • April. New Mobe, Moratorium en SMC protests across the country.
  • April 4. A right-wing Victory March. organized by Reverend Carl McIntire calls for victory in the Vietnam War. 50,000 attend.
  • April 19: Moratorium announces disbanding.
  • May 2: violent anti-war rallies at many universities. , Ohio, May 4: Kent State Shootings: U.S. National Guard kill four young people during a demonstration. As a result, four million students go on strike at more than 450 universities and colleges. The best-known cultural response to the deaths at Kent State was the protest song "Ohio", written by Neil Young for Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young.
  • May 8, New York. Hard Hat Riot: after a student anti-war demonstration, workers attack them and riot for two hours.
  • May 8. Jim Cairns, a member of the Australian parliament, led over 100,000 people in a demonstration in Melbourne. [27] Smaller protests were also held on the same day in every state capital of Australia.
  • May 9. Mobe sponsored Kent State/Cambodia Incursion Protest, Washington, D.C. between 75,000 and 100,000 demonstrators converged on Washington, D.C. to protest the Kent State shootings and the Nixon administration's incursion into Cambodia. Even though the demonstration was quickly put together, protesters were still able to bring out thousands to march in the National Mall in front of the Capitol. It was an almost spontaneous response to the events of the previous week. Police ringed the White House with buses to block the demonstrators from getting too close to the executive mansion. Early in the morning before the march, Nixon met with protesters briefly at the Lincoln Memorial.
  • May 14, Jackson State College. Jackson State killings: Two dead and twelve injured during violent protests.
  • May 20, New York. An estimated 60,000 to 150,000 are at a pro-war demonstration on Wall Street.
  • May 28, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennesse. Nixon at Billy Graham Crusade in Neyland Stadium. 800 students carry "Thou Shalt Not Kill" signs into the stadium. Many are arrested and charged with "disrupting a religious service" with only Republican candidates on the stage with Graham and Nixon. [29]
  • June. Before a commencement at the University of Massachusetts, students stenciled red fists of protests, white peace symbols, and blue doves onto their black gowns. [6] , August 24. Sterling Hall bombing: aimed at the Army Math Research Center on the 2nd, 3rd and 4th floors of the building, in missing its target, a Ford van packed with explosives hit the physics laboratory on the first floor and killed young researcher Robert Fassnacht and seriously injured another person.
  • August 29, Chicano Moratorium. 20–30,000 Mexican-Americans participated in the largest antiwar demonstration in Los Angeles. Police are attacked with clubs and guns and kill three people, including Rubén Salazar, a TV news director and LA Times reporter. [30]

1971 Edit

  • March 1. Weathermen plants a bomb in the Capitol building in Washington, D.C., causing $300,000 in damage, but no casualties. [aanhaling nodig]
  • April. Die Vancouver Indo-Chinese Women's Conference (VICWC), a six-day protest, gathers close to a thousand women in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
  • April 19–23. Vietnam Veterans against the War (VVAW) stages operation Dewey Canyon III. 1,000 camping on the National Mall. [31]
  • April 22–28. Veterans Against the War (and John Kerry) testify before various congressional panels. [aanhaling nodig]
  • April 24. Peaceful Vietnam War Out Now rally on the National Mall, Washington, D.C., with 200,000-500,000 [32][33] calling for an end to the Vietnam War, 156,000 participate in the largest demonstration so far on the West Coast, in San Francisco. [31]
  • April 26. More militant attempts in Washington, D.C. to shut down the government are futile against 5,000 police and 12,000 troops. [aanhaling nodig]
  • May 3–5, May Day Protests. Planned by Rennie Davis and Jerry Coffin of the War Resisters League, later joined by Michael Lerner militant mass-action tries to shut down the government in Washington, D.C. 12,614 arrested, a record in American history. [aanhaling nodig]
  • August. A group of nuns, priests, and laypeople raid a draft board in Camden, New Jersey. They came to be known as the Camden 28. [aanhaling nodig]
  • December. VVAW protests across the USA. [aanhaling nodig]

1972 Edit

  • April 15–20. May. New waves of protests across the country. [aanhaling nodig]
  • April 17. Militant anti-ROTC demonstration at the University of Maryland. 800 National Guardsmen are ordered onto the campus. [aanhaling nodig]
  • April 22. Mass antiwar demonstrations sponsored by National Peace Action Coalition, People's Coalition for Peace and Justice, and other organizations attracted an estimated 100,000 people in New York and 12,000 in Los Angeles, 25,000 in San Francisco and other cities around the US and the world. [34][35][36] , Germany, May 11. Headquarters of the V Corps of the U.S. Army at the IG Farben Building: The Commando Petra Schelm of the Rote Armee Fraktion killed U.S. Officer Paul Bloomquist and wounded thirteen in a bombing attack. [37]
  • May 21. Emergency March on Washington, D.C., organized by the National Peace Action Coalition and the People's Coalition for Peace and Justice. 8 to 15,000 protest in Washington, D.C. against the increased bombing of North Vietnam and the mining of its harbors. [aanhaling nodig]
  • Heidelberg, Germany, May 24. The Red Army Faction detonates two car bombs at the European Headquarters of the US Army, killing three. [38]
  • June 22. Ring around Congress demonstration, Washington, D.C. [aanhaling nodig]
  • In July. Jane Fonda visits North Vietnam and speaks on Hanoi Radio, earning herself the nickname "Hanoi Jane". [aanhaling nodig]
  • August 22. 3,000 protest against the 1972 Republican National Convention in Miami Beach. Ron Kovic, a wheelchair-bound Vietnam veteran, led fellow veterans into the Convention Hall, wheeled down the aisles, and as Nixon began his acceptance speech shouted, "Stop the bombing! Stop the war!" [6]
  • October 14. The "Peace March to End the Vietnam War" was held in San Francisco. This "silent-march" demonstration began at City Hall and moved down Fulton Street to Golden Gate Park, where speeches were given. Over 2,000 were in attendance. Numerous groups (including many veterans) marched to support the so-called "7-Point" plan to peace. George McGovern had given a speech at the Cow Palace the night before, which energized the Saturday morning event. [39]
  • November 7. General election day. President Nixon defeats George McGovern in a landslide election victory, with 60.7% popular votes and 520 electoral votes.
  • December. Protests against Hanoi and Haiphong bombings. [aanhaling nodig]

1973 Edit

There are many pro- and anti-war slogans and chants. Those who used the anti-war slogans were commonly called "doves" those who supported the war were known as "hawks" [ aanhaling nodig ]


The Largest Protest Ever Was 15 Years Ago. The Iraq War Isn’t Over. What Happened?

Fifteen years ago, on Feb. 15, 2003, somewhere between 6 million to 11 million people turned out in at least 650 cities around the world to protest the United States’ push to invade Iraq. It was the largest anti-war protest and remains the largest one-day global protest the world has ever seen.

Today, there are still 5,000 U.S. soldiers in Iraq and continued war on terror operations in close to a dozen other Middle Eastern, Central Asian and African nations. The war is ongoing. The anti-war movement, practically speaking, is not. What happened?

One explanation is that the anti-war push of 2003-2007 was successful — not in ending the war, but in knocking out the political party that started it.

The anti-war movement was not purely an anti-war movement, as Indiana University professor Fabio Rojas pointed out. He described the anti-war protest movement as “two groups coming together”: the core peace movement and the larger group of people who were registered Democrats and opposed to the Iraq war and then-Republican President George W. Bush, in general.

“Once the Democrats win the White House,” he said, “the two groups start moving apart.”

Rojas studied the protest movement and its decline with University of Michigan political science professor Michael Heaney. After attending dozens of protests where they conducted more than 10,000 surveys of anti-war protest participants over the course of a decade, the two professors wrote a book, Party in the Street: The Antiwar Movement and the Democratic Party After 9/11, to explain it.

“When you study a massive social movement there is never one single factor, but what we do argue is a big factor is the turnover in party,” Rojas told HuffPost.

To understand the decline of the anti-war movement, you have to look at the different stages of its development. The initial movement began as a relatively small group formed immediately after the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks in opposition to the Oct. 7, 2001, invasion of Afghanistan. This was at a time when voicing anti-war sentiment was intensely unpopular and viewed in many quarters as outright treason.

“It was very dangerous for a while to be anti-war,” Phyllis Bennis, director of the Internationalism Project at the progressive Institute for Policy Studies, said, noting that Rep. Barbara Lee (D-Calif.), the only lawmaker to vote against the war on terror authorization, needed added security due to an increased volume of death threats.

The shift to a broader anti-war protest movement occurred as the Bush administration made clear its intentions to invade Iraq, a country that had no connection to the 9/11 attacks. Over the course of 2002, protests in the U.S. and around the world drew larger and larger crowds, up to the peak of the Feb. 15, 2003 protests.

Those protests occurred as the U.S., Britain and Spain pushed for a second resolution from the United Nations Security Council to approve an Iraq invasion. Ten days earlier, Colin Powell, then the secretary of state, had made his notorious presentation outlining the evidence that then-Iraqi President Saddam Hussein had weapons of mass destruction. Powell’s evidence would later turn out to be entirely false.

For this reason, the site of the United Nations in New York City marked the center of the protest. In freezing temperatures, somewhere between 400,000 and 500,000 protesters stretched along 30 or 40 city blocks on First Avenue. Organizers included the umbrella peace group United for Peace and Justice, the socialist group International ANSWER and a host of labor unions, environmental groups and progressive organizations like MoveOn.org.

Bennis connected protesters with the leadership of the United Nations to deliver their message. As the protest played out on the street, Bennis, actor and activist Harry Belafonte and Archbishop Desmond Tutu met with then-U.N. Secretary General Kofi Annan inside U.N. headquarters. Here Tutu told his old friend Annan that, on behalf of the protesters, “We claim the United Nations as our own.”

The U.S. quickly dropped its push for a second resolution that would have provided legitimacy for a war. President George W. Bush said that he could care less about protests, which he dismissed as a “focus group.” The protest organizers cheered their success in preventing a second resolution at the U.N.

But 33 days later, the U.S. and its “Coalition of the Willing” commenced a “shock and awe” bombing campaign and invaded Iraq. In 2004, Annan declared that the war, which never gained a legitimate stamp of approval from the U.N., was “illegal.” High-intensity protest mobilization continued, plateauing in 2007 and then attenuating over the next few years.

“The anti-war movement was pretty well sustained from 2003 through about 2006,” Heaney, the University of Michigan professor, told HuffPost. “During that time there were multiple large demonstrations. There was also coordinated activity and lobbying. There were numerous active coalitions. Lots of grassroots mobilization in numerous cities. It was a pretty big movement.”

Whereas anti-war protests brought out thousands of participants while Bush was president, participation collapsed with the 2008 election of Barack Obama. In their surveys of protest participants, Heaney and Rojas found that protesters cited anti-Bush and anti-Republican Party sentiment as among the top three issues until Obama was elected. After, this partisan-inflected sentiment did not crack the top 20 in reasons people attended the protests. This can be attributed to the fact that the people who were there to protest Bush and the Republicans simply stopped coming to protests, leaving behind the core anti-war movement activists, according to Rojas.

It is not as though this reveals some deep hypocrisy on the part of individuals with a partisan affiliation with the Democratic Party. By and large these people did not just oppose the Iraq War because a Republican president waged it or suddenly switch their position when Democrats won.

“They did [left behind the protests] for any of a variety of reasons,” Heaney said. “It could be that they felt that Barack Obama would deal with the war. It could be that they were attracted to other issues, like immigration and health care.”

Indeed, there were other developments around the time that the movement began to fizzle. The global economic crisis began in 2007, leaving many protesters with more immediate concerns — how to keep their job or house, for instance.

“One impact of the economic crisis, you have a whole set amount of people put their main political energy into the anti-war movement who suddenly were faced with an economic crisis they had never experienced,” Bennis said.

The prospect of unified Democratic control of the White House, and Congress also opened up possibilities for legislation on health care and immigration. In some cases, institutional support by groups linked to the Democratic Party ― labor unions, environmental groups and MoveOn.org ― was diverted from the anti-war cause to these issues. For many partisan Democrats, their attention shifted as well.

Meanwhile, Obama, who as an Illinois state senator voiced opposition to the war in Iraq at a protest in 2002, in many ways continued the war on terror policies of the Bush administration after he gained the presidency. He did eventually draw down troop levels in Iraq, but he increased them in Afghanistan, as he had promised to do in his 2008 campaign. He ramped up drone strikes in Pakistan and Yemen, which even killed an American teenager who had committed no crime.

You may be tempted to think, then, that the Feb. 15 protest and the movement around it were ultimately fruitless. Any number of commenters have said as much. Bennis argued that that isn’t quite right.

“There was a lot of talk afterwards that this just proves protest is useless,” Bennis said. “I think that was really wrong, because it didn’t take into account what came next. There were a number of impacts from that protest that we are still feeling today.”

The clearest political impacts of the global protests occurred outside of the United States.

In Spain, which saw one of the highest-attended protests on Feb. 15, 2003, conservatives who backed the Iraq War lost the next election. In Britain, where 1 million people turned out in London on Feb. 15, the Labour Party has undergone a massive shift in power from the pro-war Tony Blair to Jeremy Corbyn, one of the leaders of the anti-war protests in 2003.

In Egypt, progressive activists noticed the lack of protest in their country on Feb. 15 and organized their own spontaneous protest that brought out tens of thousands on the day the U.S. invasion began. Those same activists helped launch the 2011 Tahrir Square protests that brought down the presidency of Hosni Mubarak. (They are also now the targets of the current U.S.-aligned government of President Abdel-Fattah el-Sissi.)

The protests surely had an effect on policy here in the United States, where the public has been far less interested in starting new wars since Iraq. When Obama sought authorization from Congress to bomb Syria, heavy grassroots opposition re-emerged in phone calls to lawmakers demanding that they oppose the action. Even in the Republican Party, opposition to the Iraq War, however illusory, helped Donald Trump win his party’s nomination.

Bennis said that the starting point of conversations about war no longer defaults to support. “Now it’s moving towards the other way around,” she said. “It’s not quite there yet, but it’s moving in that direction. And Feb. 15 was a huge part of why.”


Spanish-American War

Harry Gannes of the All-American Anti-Imperialist League speaking to a crowd.

NY Daily News Archive via Getty Images

With the United States finally emerging from an economic depression following the Panic of 1893, American business leaders feared war with Spain would lead to inflation and threaten the gold standard. “The anti-war class comprises those who are engaged in the creation and distribution of the national wealth—the industrialist, the merchant, the railroad investor,” reported the New York Journal of Commerce in March 1898.

Prominent politicians, academics, authors and businessmen who also had moral concerns about the Spanish-American War formed the Anti-Imperialist League in June 1898 to protest the annexation of the Philippines as a violation of American ideals. Mark Twain, Andrew Carnegie and Grover Cleveland were among the organization’s 500,000 members. The league failed, however, to stop the annexation of the Philippines, which led to a three-year counterinsurgency that claimed tens of thousands of lives.


April 24, 1971: Anti-War Protests in D.C. and San Francisco

On April 24, 1971, 500,000 people demonstrated against the Vietnam War in Washington, D.C. It was the largest-ever demonstration opposing a U.S. war. Simultaneously, 150,000 people marched at a rally in San Francisco.

Prior to the massive rally, Vietnam Veterans Against the War staged a week-long series of demonstrations culminating in a protest at the U.S. Capitol where veterans threw back their service medals.

During the weeks following the April 24 protest, massive civil disobedience was conducted attempting to shut down the U.S. government during the People’s Coalition for Peace & Justice and Mayday demonstrations.

A Vietnam veteran hurls his service recognition memorabilia toward the U.S. Capitol April 23, 1971.
That morning more than 800 veterans individually tossed their medals, ribbons, discharge papers, and other war mementos on the steps of the Capitol, rejecting the Vietnam War and the significance of those awards. Source: Washington Area Spark

Find teaching resources below, including a 100-page teaching guide from the Zinn Education Project on the long history of Vietnam War, the anti-war movement, and whistleblowers.

Related Resources

Teaching the Vietnam War: Beyond the Headlines

Teaching Activity. By the Zinn Education Project. 100 pages.
Eight lessons about the Vietnam War, Daniel Ellsberg, the Pentagon Papers, and whistleblowing.

“We Will Not Be Part of this Unjust, Immoral, and Illegal War”: Remembering the Fort Hood Three

On June 30, 1966, dozens of people assembled in the basement auditorium of the Community Church for a big announcement. All of them gathered to hear the words of three soldiers, Privates David Samas and Dennis Mora, and Private First Class James A. Johnson. The G.I.’s convened the press conference to perform a bold act: they intended to refuse their orders to go fight.

The Boys Who Said No

Film. Directed by Judith Ehrlich. 2020. A documentary uses interviews and found footage to tell the inspiring story and impact of the anti-Vietnam War draft resistance movement.

April 15, 1967: Massive Anti-Vietnam War Demonstrations

Amidst growing opposition to the U.S. war in Vietnam, large-scale anti-war protests were held in New York, San Francisco, and many other cities.

April 17, 1965: Largest Anti-War Protest

One of the largest anti-war protest was held in Washington, D.C.

April 23, 1968: Columbia Student Occupation

Students for a Democratic Society, Student Afro-American Society and others began a nonviolent occupation of campus buildings at Columbia University.

Apr. 26, 1968: Kiyoshi Kuromiya Led Protest of Vietnam War Napalm

Lifelong gay rights and anti-war activist Kiyoshi Kuromiya held a demonstration while in college against the use of napalm in Vietnam by announcing that a dog would be burned alive with napalm in front of the university library.

Aug. 29, 1970: Chicano Moratorium and Murder of Journalist Ruben Salazar

The National Chicano Moratorium March was held to protest the Vietnam War and Latino journalist Ruben Salazar was killed.

Aug. 21, 1971: Anti-war Protesters Raid Draft Offices

Twenty anti-war protesters were arrested for breaking into selective service offices and destroying draft records.


In 1997, two years after the Million Man March, anywhere from 500,000 to 2 million people convened for the Million Woman March. The event, which was held on a rainy Saturday in 1997, included prayer, musical performances, and speeches by local organizers and civil rights activists.

As a protest to George W. Bush's decision to invade Iraq, between 10 to 15 million people marched in 600 cities across the world in 2003. At least 500,000 people protested in American cities, including New York City, Los Angeles, and Seattle.

It's known as the biggest protest in world history.


Thousands protest the war in Vietnam

In Washington, D.C. nearly 100,000 people gather to protest the American war effort in Vietnam. More than 50,000 of the protesters marched to the Pentagon to ask for an end to the conflict. The protest was the most dramatic sign of waning U.S. support for President Lyndon Johnson’s war in Vietnam. Polls taken in the summer of 1967 revealed that, for the first time, American support for the war had fallen below 50 percent.

When the Johnson administration announced that it would ask for a 10 percent increase in taxes to fund the war, the public’s skepticism increased. The peace movement began to push harder for an end to the war—the march on Washington was the most powerful sign of their commitment to this cause. The Johnson administration responded by launching a vigorous propaganda campaign to restore public confidence in its handling of the war. The president even went so far as to call General William Westmoreland, commander of U.S. forces in Vietnam, back to the United States to address Congress and the public. The effort was somewhat successful in tempering criticisms of the war. However, the Tet Offensive of early 1968 destroyed much of the Johnson Administration’s credibility concerning the Vietnam War.

The protest was also important in suggesting that the domestic Cold War consensus was beginning to fracture. Many of the protesters were not simply questioning America’s conduct in Vietnam, but very basis of the nation’s Cold War foreign policy.


In November of 1969, D.C. saw the largest anti-war protest in America’s history. Between 500,000 and 600,000 rallied to peacefully protest the Vietnam War. In true flower-power style, the youthful crowd sang John Lennon’s “Give Peace a Chance.” This was one of many anti-war demonstrations in D.C., the movement continued to grow until the U.S. left Vietnam in 1973.

Conservative estimates show this march might have fallen short of its name with only 450,000 marchers, but other estimates put the crowd at 1.1 million. The Million Man March took place October 16, 1995. It was the answering to Louis Farrakhan for African-American men to gather on the National Mall and accept the responsibility of being the head of the family. There were no arrests or violence on the day of the march.


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