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Apsaras en Gandharvas tydlyn

Apsaras en Gandharvas tydlyn


Gandharva

In Hindoeïsme, Boeddhisme en Jainisme, Gandharva is 'n klas hemelse wesens wie se manne goddelike sangers is en vroulike goddelike dansers. Dit is ook 'n term vir vaardige sangers in Indiese klassieke musiek.


1 Antwoord 1

Wat is die verskil tussen Yakshas en Gandharvas?

Die belangrikste verskil is hul oorsprong. Puranas beskryf die oorsprongsverhaal van Yakshas:

Vishnu Purana - Volgende van heer Brahma, in 'n vorm wat bestaan ​​uit die kwaliteit van rajas, is honger veroorsaak, uit wie woede gebore is: en die god wat in die duisternis voortgebring word, wek uit van honger, van afskuwelike aspekte en met lang baard. Daardie wesens het haastig die heer Brahma gehaas. Sommige van hulle het geskreeu: "Beskerm ons", en is daarvandaan Rákshasas genoem. Ander wat geskree het, "Laat ons eet!", Is Yakshas genoem.

Nog 'n verhaal in die Bhagavata Purana sê dat Yakshas voor Rakshasas deur Brahma geskep is. Die Yakshas wou toe Brahma eet, so Brahma het uitgeroep: "Beskerm my!", En daaruit het hy Rakshasas geskep wat hom beskerm het. Die woord & quotrakshasa & quot het die woord & quotraksha & quot daarin, wat "beskerm" beteken. Yaksha beteken & quoteat & quot.

Uit hierdie en ander verse kan ons sien dat Rakshasas en Yakshas nou verwant is.

Gandharvas het 'n ander oorsprong, soos daarna in dieselfde Vishnu Purana genoem:

Die Gandharvas is daarna gebore, met 'n melodie: drink van die godin van spraak, hulle is gebore, en vandaar hul benaming.

Gandharva bevat hier ook Apsaras, aangesien Gandharvas en Apsaras basies die manlike en vroulike eweknie van mekaar is. Gandharvas en Apsaras is baie aantreklik. Gandharvas is die mans van Apsaras:

Atharva Veda - Die Apsaras, jy weet, is jou vrouens Jy, die Gandharvas, is hulle mans. Spoed weg, julle onsterflikes, moenie agter sterflinge (mense) aan loop nie!

Hulle is bekend vir hul losbandige lewenstyl, en daarom is die & quotgandharva vivaha (liefdeshuwelik) & quot na hulle vernoem.

Nog 'n beskrywing van Yakshas:

Vishnu Purana - Eer aan Heer Vishnu, wat die Yakshas is, wie se geaardheid met klanke bekoor is, en wie se ligsinnige harte volmaakte kennis nie kan deurdring nie.

Ek het gelees dat Gandharvas verband hou met musiek en dat Yakshas verband hou met die natuur.

Reg. Yakshas woon graag in woude.

Is albei goddelik? Semi-goddelik? Hemel?

Hulle is almal hemelse wesens. Yakshas en Gandharvas is nie-strydlustige, materialistiese, hemelse wesens:

Manusmriti 12.47 - Gandharvas, Guhyakas, 'Yakṣas, 'Die dienaars van die gode, en al die Apsaras, verteenwoordig die hoë staat onder diegene wat aan 'Rajas' deelneem.

Rakshasas, aan die ander kant, is bloeddorstig en baie gewelddadig, alhoewel hulle gereeld met Yakshas gepaard gaan.

Manusmriti 12.44 - Cāraṇas, Suparṇas, skynheilige mans, Rākṣasas, en Piśācas - verteenwoordig die hoogste staat onder diegene wat deelneem aan die kwaliteit van 'Tamas.’

Eer aan Heer Vishnu, wat alle Rakshasas is, wat snags loop, voortspruit uit die kwaliteit van tamas, kwaai, bedrieglik en wreed.

Die belangrikste verskil tussen Yakshas en Gandharvas is die oorsprong en fisiese voorkoms. Die belangrikste ooreenkoms is dat hulle rajasies is en deelneem aan materiële genot en nie strydlustig is nie.


Inhoud

Kaart van "Gandharva -gebiede word hoofsaaklik in Mahabharata genoem"

Gandharvas word 505 keer in die epiese Mahabharata genoem. Die 27 stamme van die Gandharvas en Apsaras is genoem by (2,11).

Vermelding van Gandharva -gebiede

Himalaya -streek

Die Himalajas word deur die Devas en die Gandharvas toegejuig en vereer, en dit was skynbaar bedek met Vediese skoonheid. (13,14). Daar was 'n piek met die naam Munjaban op die kruine van die Himalaya -berge. Gandharvas woon daar saam met ander stamme. Marutta's goudmyn was daar (14,8). Die Gandharvas, die Yakshas en die Siddhas was volop in die noorde (5,111). 'N Klein bevolking van "Gandhava" word nog steeds in die middel- en westelike deel van Nepal aangetref, veral in die Kaski -distrik. Hierdie mense speel "SARANGI" en vermaak en vermaak mense op feeste. Hulle sing liedjies en speel baie goed "Sarangi".

Langs die Saraswatirivier

Die Rishis, die Siddhas, die Charanas, die Gandharvas, die Apsaras, die Yakshas en die Nagas herstel gereeld na Kurukshetra wat suid van die Saraswatirivier lê en ten noorde van die Drishadwati -rivier. (3,83)

Tydens die pelgrimstog van Bala Rama langs die Saraswatirivier het hy baie Gandharva -nedersettings daar gesien

Beskrywing van 'n plek met die naam Subhumika van Saraswatirivier  : Die Devas en die Gandharvas herstel daar. Die Gandharvas en die verskillende stamme van Apsaras word daar bymekaar gesien en die tyd so gelukkig verbygegee as wat hulle wil. Die plek is die pragtige sportveld van die Apsaras, daarom is die tirtha op die uitstekende oewer van die Sarasvati, Subhumika genoem. Bala Rama van Madhu se ras, gebad in die tirtha. Hy hoor die geluid van die Gandhrava -liedjies en musiekinstrumente. Hy het ook baie woonplekke van Devas, Gandharvas en Rakshasas gesien. Die seun van Rohini gaan toe na die heilige plek wat genoem word Gandharva Teertha. Daar is baie Gandharvas onder leiding van Viswavasu en besit van asketiese verdienste, hulle spandeer tyd in dans en sang van die mees sjarmante soort. (9,37)

Die Adityas, die Vasus, die Rudras, die Sadhyas, die Maruts, die Gandharvas en die Apsaras is ooit teenwoordig in Pushkara (Pushkar -meer Rajasthan naby Saraswati) (3,82)

Daar word melding gemaak van Gandharvas wat op die Sauvira -koninkryk (naby Saraswatirivier) toegeslaan het (1 141): Arjuna en die ander Pandava -vorste het so magtig geword dat hulle die groot Sauvira -koning in die geveg doodgemaak het wat 'n offer wat oor drie jaar strek, onaangeraak deur die aanvalle op die Gandharvas. (1,141)

Langs die riviere Ganges en Yamuna

Die gebied, naby die bron van die Ganges, word na bewering deur Gandharvas gebruik (3,81) Die plek waar Ganges verbystorm en die voorste berge klou wat deur Gandharvas en Yakshas en Rakshasas en Apsaras bewoon word en deur jagters bewoon word, en Kinnaras, word Gangadwara (die gat van die Ganges) genoem (3,90). Angaraparna self woon in 'n woud met die naam Angaraparna aan die oewer van die rivier die Ganges. (1 172) Gedurende die tyd van Yayati het Nagas, Yaksas en Gandharvas mekaar ontmoet Prayaga (5,120). Arjuna het 'n paar Gandharva -stamme (saam met Asuras, Yakshas, ​​Rakshasas en Nagas) in die Khandava -bos (naby Yamuna -rivier) teëgekom toe dit verbrand is (1 229). In Khandava het Arjuna Gandharvas en Nagas verbyster (3,159)

Suidelike streke

Die oewers van die rivier Narmada word beskryf as die geboorteplek van Yaksha -koning Kuvera (Vaisravana), waar sy vader Visravas, wat 'n wyse was, gewoon het. Dit is ook 'n gebied van Gandharvas. (3,89). Gokarna (Gokarn, Karnataka) word ook genoem as 'n plek van Yakshas en Pisachas, en Kinnaras en die groot Nagas, en Siddhas en Charanas en Gandharvas. (3,85) Dit is waarskynlik die bron van Yakshagana, 'n dansvorm wat in Karnataka en in die noorde van Kerala beoefen word.

Gandharva word genoem as 'n koninkryk van Antieke Indië (Bharata Varsha)

. die Kasmiras, die Sindhusauviras, die Gandharvas, en die Darsakas die Abhisaras, die Utulas, die Saivalas en die Valhikas die Darvis, die Vanavadarvas, die Vatagas, die Amarathas en die Uragas. teen (6,9)

Dit kan ook die Koninkryk van Gandhara beteken. Maar die opvallende ooreenkoms laat 'n mens bespiegel dat Gandharvas oorspronklik Gandharas was.

Mense van Gandhara word genoem as Gandharvas

Daar was baie verwysings in Mahabharata waar mense van Gandhara Kingdom as Gandharvas genoem is. Dit was doelbewus, óf 'n verwarring van feite of foute het in die epos opgekom toe dit mondelings deur geslagte oorgedra is

Sakuni, die hoof van Gandharas
  • Die heerser van die Gandharvas (Sakuni) met sy seun is genoem op (8,79)
  • Die heerser van die Gandharvas (Sakuni), sny die kop van Kulinda -koning af (8,85)
  • Begeerlik van die koninkryk en vertrou op die heerser van die Gandharvas (Sakuni), het Duryodhana die Pandavas ontbied (8,91)
  • Die tweeling (Nakula en Sahadeva) en Satyaki, het die koning van die Gandharvas (Sakuni) (8,93)
  • Omring deur 'n 1 000 Gandharvas, Shakuni, toe hy sien hoe die seun van Adhiratha gedood is, stap hy vinnig na die laer. (8,95)
  • Daar is die magtige Shakuni, die hoof van Gandharvas, van dapperheid wat nie in staat was om verbyster te word nie, is deur Sahadeva vermoor (11,24)
  • Die magtige koning van die Gandharvas (Sakuni) word genoem op (9,23)
Sakuni se broers
Die mense van Gandhara Kingdom
  • Die heroïese Gandharvas saam met Sakuni omring Satyaki en Abhimanyu met 'n groot mag. (6,58)
  • Baie konings, onder wie Nagnajit die vernaamste was, terwyl hulle in Girivraja gebly het, asook die Amvashthas, die Videhas en die Gandharvas, is almal deur Karna oorwin (7,4)
  • Watter pligte moet uitgevoer word deur die Yavanas, die Kiratas, die Gandharvas, die Chinas, die Savaras, die Barbaras, die Sakas, die Tusharas, die Kankas, die Pathavas, die Andhras, die Madrakas, die Paundras, die Pulindas, die Ramathas, die Kamvojas  ? (12,64)
  • Die Gandharvas, die Sindhus en die Sauviras veg die beste met hul naels en lansies. (12 100)

Gandarva -koninkryk bekend vir sy perde

Die lande wat bekend is vir perde, is almal in die noord- en noordwestelike streke van antieke Indië geleë

Koning Gandharva Angaraparna noem vir Arjuna oor 'n land Gandhravas wat bekend was vir sy perde. Dit is deur Devas en Gandharvas gebruik. Hulle was maer, maar vinnig en word nie maklik moeg nie. (1 172).

Verspreiding van die epiese Mahabharata in die Gandharva -streek

Die verspreiding van Mahabharata as 'n epiese gedig word genoem, het ook die streke van Gandharvas bereik.

Die aanvanklike samestelling van Mahabharata deur Krishna Dwaipayana Vyasa, bestaande uit 24000 verse, saam met 'n toonbeeld van 150 verse, het later groter geword en versprei na verskillende streke, insluitend die streek Gandharvas. Vyasa se dissipel Vaisampayana en die storieverteller Ugrasrava Sauti het dit versprei Aryavarta (Gangatiese vlakte). Vyasa se seun Suka het dit in die omgewing van Gandharvas, Yakshas en Rakshasas gepubliseer. (1,1)

Tuine van Chitraratha Gandhrava

Hierdie tuine word op baie plekke genoem (1-70,75,78)

  • Koning Yayati het saam met Apsara Viswachi by die tuine van Chitraratha (1,75) gespeel
  • Asura priester se dogter Devayani en Asura koning se dogter Sarmista het daar beoefen (1,78)

Gandharvas in die Yaksha -koninkryk

Yaksha -koning Vaisravana (Kubera, Kuvera, ens. Was sy ander name) het sy koninkryk gehad in die suide van Tibet, rondom die Kailas -reeks van die Himalajas.

Kuvera, die koning van Yakshas, ​​verlaat Lanka en gevolg deur Gandharvas, Yakshas, ​​Rakshasas en Kinnaras, gaan woon op die berg Gandhamadanaweens 'n geskil met sy stiefbroer en Rakshasa -koning Ravana. (3,273)

Koel bries vloei deur hoë woude Mandaras, naby rivier Alaka en Nandana-tuine bestaan ​​in die koninkryk van die Yakshas. Daar sing die Devas met die Gandharvas omring deur verskillende stamme van Apsaras in koornote van hemelse soetheid. Misrakesi en Rambha, en Chitrasena, en Suchismita en Charunetra, en Gritachi en Menaka, en Punjikasthala en Viswachi Sahajanya, en Pramlocha en Urvasi en Ira, en Varga en Sauraveyi, en Samichi, en Vududa en Lata - hierdie en duisend ander Apsaras en Gandharvas, almal vaardig in musiek en dans, kyk na Kuvera (Vaisrvana), die koning van Yakshas. Sy paleis is altyd gevul met die note van instrumentale en vokale musiek, asook die klanke van dans van verskillende stamme van Gandharvas en Apsaras. Die Gandharvas het Kinnaras genoem, en ander wat Naras genoem word en baie Yaksha -hoofmanne saam met Rakshasas, Pisachas en Vidyadharas wag op Kuvera. Honderde hoofde van Gandharva, geklee in hul onderskeie gewade soos Viswavasu, en Haha en Huhu en Tumvuru en Parvatta, en Sailusha (ook Sailusha genoem in Ramayana. Raghava Rama se broer Bharata het Sailusha Gandharva se koninkryk verslaan) en Chitrasena vaardig in musiek en ook Chitraratha, hierdie en ontelbare Gandharvas aanbid die koning van Yakshas. (2,10)

Die Yakshas, ​​die Guhyakas, die Rakshasas, die Gandharvas en Apsaras en die Deva wat die bul vir sy voertuig het, word in die hof van Yaksha king gevind. (2,12). Baie Gandharvas woon in Alaka, die stad Kuvera. (3.161). Gandhamadana ('n berg in die noordelike Himalaja in Tibet) is bewoon deur Siddhas en Gandharvas (5,64). Die leër van Yaksha -koning Kuvera bestaan ​​uit Gandharvas, Devas en Yakshas met rooi oë, goue glans en met groot liggame, sterk gebou, toegerus met wapens en swaarde. (3,160). *Die Yakshas van Kuvera onder leiding van Manibhadra, en baie Gandharvas en Kinnaras genoem op (13,19). Die streek, genaamd Mandakini, van koning Vaisravana, daar woon die Gandharvas en Yakshas en Apsaras, ook in Uttara Kuru (13,102)

Gandharvas verbonde aan die Devas

Die streke van Devas was verder noord na die Yaksha -streke.

Gandharvas word genoem as geallieerd met Devas saam met Sadhyas, Vasus, Rudras en Adityas (1,32). Gandharvas onder Deva-koning Indra saam met die Yakshas, ​​die Nagas, die Rakshasas is baie keer genoem (5-10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18). Sowat 42 000 Gandharvas het voor Indra gedans (12 222). Die Danavas, Rakshasas, Gandharvas en Nagas en mensvreters is deur die Devas onderwerp (1,65). Agni na Indra: Laat hierdie koning van die Gandharvas daar as u boodskapper herstel (14,9). (Dat Gandharva se naam Dhritarashtra was. Hy moes die boodskap aan koning Marutta oordra.) (14,10).

Vergesel deur die Rudras, die Vasus, die Adityas, die Aswins, die hemelse Rishis, die Gandharvas, die Siddhas en ander superieure wesensordes, het Indra, wat in prag sit op sy vier-tande olifante, Airavata genoem, oor die hele wêreld. (12 226). Varuna, die seun van Aditi, het vroeër in die omgewing van Yamuna opgetree, 'n Rajasuya -offer. Nadat hy in die geveg beide Aryas en Devas en Gandharvas en Rakshasas onderwerp het, het Varuna sy groot offer gebring. By die aanvang van daardie opofferings het 'n geveg ontstaan ​​tussen die Devas en die Danavas. Dit was 'n vreeslike stryd tussen die Kshatriyas. (9,49)

Gandharvas is ook verbonde aan Kartikeya die algemeenste van die leër van Devas (9-45,46)

Gandharvas verower deur Asuras en Rakshasas

Die Devas, Arya -konings, die Gandharvas, die Nagas en die Rakshasas was almal onder die heerskappy van Asura -koning Vali. (12,223). Die twee Asura's, naamlik Sunda en Upasunda, het die Devas, die Gandharvas, die Yakshas, ​​die Nagas, die Rakshasas en die konings Aryavarta verslaan. (1,214). Rakshasa Ravana het die Devas, die Danavas, die Gandharvas, die Yakshas en die Kimpurushas verower (3,279)

Arjuna se verowering van die Gandharva -gebied

Arjuna het in sy militêre veldtog vir die insameling van huldeblyk vir Pandava -koning Yudhisthira se Rajasuya -offer, die noordelike streke bereik waar hy die koninkryke Kimpurushas, ​​Guhakas, Yakshas en Gandharvas gevind het

Arjuna word genoem as die verowering van 'n Gandharva -koninkryk naby die Kailas -reeks in Tibet (2,27)

Die kruising van die Wit berge (sommige sê dat dit die bergkettings is wat die Kailasa -piek bevat, wat vermoedelik die woonplek van Siva is. Hierdie bergreeks staan ​​nou bekend as die Kailas -reeks in Tibet), het die land van die Kimpurushas onderwerp deur Durmaputra (ook bekend as Druma, onderwerp) 'n bondgenoot van die Yaksha -koning Kuvera (2,10)), na 'n botsing wat 'n groot slagting van Kshatriyas behels, en die streek heeltemal onder die knie het. Nadat hy die land verminder het, bereik Arjuna die land genaamd Harataka, onder leiding van die Guhakas ('n klas Yakshas). Die Kuru -prins het hulle in 'n versoeningsbeleid onderwerp en in daardie streek gesien hoe 'n uitstekende meer genoem word Manasa (die Manasa -meer is in Tibet naby die Kailas -piek) en verskeie ander mere en tenks wat vir die Rishis heilig is. Arjuna het by die meer van Manasa aangekom, verower die streke wat deur die Gandharvas beheer word wat rondom die Harataka -gebiede lê. Hier het die veroweraar, as huldeblyk uit die land, talle uitstekende perde genaamd Tittiri, Kalmasha, Manduka geneem. Arjuna het uiteindelik die land van Noord -Harivarsha en wou dit oorwin. Daarop het sekere grenswagte van groot lyke met dapper harte na hom gekom en gesê: 'O Arjuna, hierdie land kan nooit deur u oorwin word nie. As u u goed soek, keer dan terug. Die Uttara Kurus (sien ook Kuru Kingdom) woon hier. Hier kan nie oorlog wees nie. '

Pandavas besoek die streek Yakshas en Gandharvas

Pandvas, gelei deur die wyse Lomasa, besoek die streek Yakshas en Gandharvas in die hooglande van Himalaya

Lomasa het gesê: 'O koning Yudhisthira, nou het u die berge Usiravija, Mainaka en Sweta agtergelaat, sowel as die Kala -heuwels, o seun van Kunti, o afstammeling van Bharata, hier vloei die sewe Gangas voor u uit. Nou sal u die speelveld van die Devas, gemerk met hul voetspore, sien terwyl ons die berg Kala verbygesteek het. Ons sal nou die wit rots bestyg, die berg Mandara, bewoon deur die Yakshas, ​​Manibhadra en Kuvera, koning van die Yakshas. O koning, op hierdie plek tagtig duisend vloot Gandharvas, en vier keer soveel Kimpurushas en Yakshas van verskillende vorms en vorms, met verskillende wapens, sorg vir Manibhadra, koning van die Yakshas. In hierdie streke is hul krag baie groot. Hulle kan sonder twyfel selfs die heer van die Devas (Indra) van sy sitplek verplaas. Deur hulle beskerm, en ook deur die Rakshasas bewaak word, is hierdie berge ontoeganklik gemaak. Daar is kwaai predikante van Kuvera en sy Rakshasa -familie. Die berg Kailasa is ses yojanas hoog. Ontelbare Devas en Yakshas en Rakshasas en Kinnaras en Nagas en Suparnas en Gandharvas gaan hierdie kant toe, in die rigting van Kuvera se paleis. (3 139)

Pandavas het heuwels gewemel van verskillende minerale, vol van Vidyadharas, bewoon aan alle kante deur bosbouers en Kinnaras en Kimpurushas, ​​en Gandharvas (3-144,157)

Die Siddhas, die Charanas, die Gandharvas, die Kinnaras en die slange (Nagas) is vooraf ingestel in die Saugadhika bos (3,83)

Bhima op pad na Saugadhika -woud sien baie heuwels bewoon deur Yakshas en Gandharvas (3,145). Die vroue van die Devas en Gandharvas neem hierdie plek toe, en die tyd van hul aankoms is nag. (3,150) Bhimasena het die Saugandhika -meer in die omgewing van die Kailasa -krans gesien. Dit was 'n lotusmeer, bewaak deur die Rakshasas. En dit het uit die watervalle aangrensend tot by die woning van Kuvera gespruit. Dit is op die rotsagtige hoogte geleë. Hierdie meer was die sportgebied van die hoë siel Kuvera, die koning van die Yakshas. Dit is hoog geag deur die Gandharvas die Apsaras en die Devas. Dit word gereeld besoek deur die wyses van die Deva -streke en die Yakshas en die Kimpurushas en die Rakshasas en die Kinnaras. Daar stroom 'n rivier daarin. (3.152)

Op die bergtoppe is verliefde Kimpurushas met hul voorouers gesien, onderling aan mekaar geheg, asook baie Gandharvas en Apsaras geklee in wit syklere en mooi Vidyadharas, met kranse en magtige Nagas, en Suparnas, en Uragas, en andere . (3.158)

Deur die styg van die Gandhamadana berg, bewoon deur Kinnaras, en groot Nagas, en wyses, en Gandharvas, en Rakshasas, het Bhima die stad Kuvera gesien (Alaka), versier met goue kristalpaleise aan alle kante omring deur goue mure met die prag van alle edelstene, versier met tuine rondom, hoër as 'n bergpiek, mooi met skanse en torings, en versier met deurpaaie en poorte en rye penne. (3,159)

Die oorsprong van Gandharvas

In die Krita -tydperk was daar nie Devas, Asuras, Gandharvas, Yakshas of Rakshasas of Nagas nie. En daar was geen koop en verkoop nie. (3.148).

Die geboortes van die Devas, die Danavas, die Nagas, die Gandharvas, die Apsaras, mans (Aryas), Yakshas en Rakshasas word genoem by (1,65). Hier is die name van sommige van die prominente Gandharvas ook genoem. Die verifieerbaarheid van hierdie inligting is baie beperk.

  • Vroue van Kasyapa (soos Muni, Pradha en Amrita) het geboorte geskenk aan Gandharvas (12.206)
  • Chitraratha, seun van Muni
  • Kali (die oorsprong van die Kali -ouderdom), seun van Muni
  • Ativahu, seun van Pradha of Amrita
  • Haha, seun van Pradha of Amrita
  • Huhu, seun van Pradha of Amrita
  • Tumvuru, seun van Pradha of Amrita
  • Dogters van Pradha (Alamvusha, Misrakesi, Vidyutparna, Tilottama, Aruna, Rakshita, Rambha, Manorama, Kesini, Suvahu, Surata, Suraja en Supria) - was almal Apsaras.
  • Baie Gandarvas en Apsaras is ook uit Kapila gebore

Gandharvas en Apsaras

Gandharvas en Apsaras word genoem as 'n enkele groep (1-63,64,120), (2-7,8,9,10) (3-24,42,43,147,165,167,230) (5,44) (7,67) (en baie meer verwysings). Dit is waarskynlik omdat Apsaras vroulike Gandharvas was.

Tumvuru, Bhimasena, Ugrasena, Urnayus, Anagha, Gopati, Dhritarashtra, Suryavarchas, Yugapa, Trinapa, Karshni, Nandi, Chitraratha, Salisirah, Parjanya, Kali, en Narada, Vrihatta, Vrihaka, Karala, Brahmacharin, Vahuguna, Suvarna, Viswavasu, Bhumanyu, Suchandra, Sam en die gevierde stamme van Haha en Huhu is gesamentlik genoem as Gandharvas (1,123) Anuchana en Anavadya, Gunamukhya en Gunavara, Adrika en Soma , Misrakesi en Alambusha, Marichi en Suchika, Vidyutparna en Tilottama en Ambika, Lakshmana, Kshema Devi, Rambha, Manorama, Asita, Suvahu, Supriya, Suvapuh, Pundarika, Sugandha, Surasa, Pramathini, Kamya en Saradwati, en , Punjikasthala, Ritusthala, Ghritachi, Viswachi, Purvachiti, die gevierde Umlocha, Pramlocha en Urvasi is beskryf as Apsaras (1,123)

Viswavasu, die Hahas, die Huhus, die Gandharva Chitrasena met ander Gandharvas is genoem op (12,199)

Kulturele uitruilings

Ugrasrava Sauti ken die geskiedenis van mans (Aryas), slange (Uragas) en Gandharvas (1,4). Die Yakshas, ​​Rakshasas, Gandharvas, Pisachas, Uragas en Danavas beskik oor wysheid en intelligensie en is vertroud met die geskiedenis van die Kuru -ras. Gandharva Angaraparna beskou die oorsprong van Kurus as afkomstig van Tapati ('n rivier in Sentraal -Indië, in Maharashtra) (1,172)

Die Gandharvas wat in Mahabharata genoem word

Gandharva Kali

Kali word genoem as 'n Gandharva op (1,123). Hy word genoem saam met sy metgesel Dwapara] op (3-58), waar hy gesê het dat hy afgunstig word op Nishadha, koning Nala (3-59,72,76,78,79). Die laaste twee tydperke onder die vier, (naamlik Krita -ouderdom (1728000 jaar), Treta -ouderdom (1296000 jaar), Dwapara -ouderdom (864000 jaar) en Kali -ouderdom (432000 jaar), genoem in antieke Indiese tekste), is vernoem na Dwapara en Kali Ander bronne beskou Kali as Dwapara as Gandharvas. (By (1,67) word Dwapara gelykgestel aan Sakuni en Kali met Duryodhana). Bhagavata Purana noem dat Kali 'n ontmoeting met Kuru -koning Parikshit het.

In die Kalki Purana sterf Kali naby die einde aan wonde wat deur Dharma en Satya Yuga verpersoonlik is.

Gandharva -koning Viswavasu

Dit lyk asof hierdie Gandharva -koning die oudste onder die Gandhravas is. (Verwys Angaraparna) (1 172). (12 282). Gandharva -koning Viswavasu verwek 'n dogter in die Apsara -dame Menaka. Hierdie dogter is grootgemaak deur salie Sthulakesha. Haar naam was Pramadwara. (1,8). Hy is ook genoem as 'n bediende in die paleis van Yaksha -koning Kuvera (2,10). Raghava Rama ontmoet Gandharva, Viswavasu in die vorm van 'n Rakshasa in die Dandaka -woud (3,277). Die Gandharva Viswavasu was goed vertroud met die Vedanta geskrifte (12 318)

Gandharva King Chitrangada en die Kuru king Chitrangada

Kuru -prins Chitrangada, seun van Santanu, is deur 'n Gandharva -koning (1,95) vermoor. Hierdie geskiedenis word weer uitgebrei by (1 101): Bhishma het sy stiefbroer Chitrangada op die troon van die Kuru -koninkryk geïnstalleer. Chitrangada, die magtige koning van die Gandharvas, het die Kuru King Chitrangada genader vir 'n ontmoeting. Tussen die Gandharva -koning en die Kuru -koning het daar op die veld van Kurukshetra 'n hewige geveg plaasgevind wat drie jaar lank aan die oewer van die Saraswatirivier geduur het.

Gandharva Chitrasena

Tumvuru en die Gandharva Chitrasena is genoem as vriende van Arjuna (2-4,5). In die paleis van Deva -koning Indra het Arjuna musiek en dans by Chitrasena geleer. Chitrasena het gedurende die tyd die musiek wat die nuutste treffer was, onder die Devas geleer. Arjuna het gelukkig in vrede met Chitrasena geleef. En Chitrasena het Arjuna die hele tyd onderrig in sang, instrumentaal en dans. Toe sy vriendskap met Chitrasena egter ten volle ryp geword het, het hy soms die ongeëwenaarde dans en musiek onder die Gandharvas geleer. (3-44,45,46)

Die kuns van musiek en dans self is die Gandharva Veda (die kennis van die Gandharvas) (3,91). Arjuna het hierdie kennis by Chitrasena geleer. Arjuna het in die heilige woning van Indra saam met die kinders van die Gandharvas gewoon (3 173). Die Gandharvas en die Apsaras was baie vaardig in musiek (13,14)

Chitrasena het Duryodhana by die Dwaita -meer aangeval

Die soldate van Duryodhana, nadat hulle die gebied van die Dwaita meer, op die punt was om die hekke van die hout binne te gaan, het 'n aantal Gandharvas verskyn en hulle verbied om in te gaan. Die koning van die Gandharvas, vergesel van sy volgelinge, het vooraf daarheen gekom uit die woonplek van Kuvera. Die koning van die Gandharvas, Chitrasena was ook vergesel deur die verskillende stamme van Apsaras, asook die seuns van die Devas. Met die oog op sport, het hy na die plek gekom vir vreugde, en dit besig gehou, dit teen alle komers gesluit. (3-238). Duryodhana het die Gandharvas aangeval. Die woedende Chitrasena, hulle koning, het besluit om die Kuru-leër uit te roei. (3-239). Gandharvas het Duryodhana en bondgenote gevange geneem (3,240). Onder bevel van Yudhisthira veg Arjuna met die Gandravas. Aangesien sy ou vriend Chitrasena, sy ou vriend, was, het Arjuna opgehou veg. Gandharvas het daarna Duryodhana vrygelaat. (3-241,242,243,244). Hierdie voorval word weer genoem by (3-245,246,247,251) (4-44,49,63) (5-49,54,56,138,159) (7-125,155) (8-9,37,41

Gandharva Tumburu

Tumburu en die Gandharva Chitrasena is genoem as vriende van Arjuna (2-4,5). Die Gandharva Tumburu het met graagte honderd perde aan Yudhisthira gegee as huldeblyk aan Rajasuya. (2,51). Die vriend van Arjuna, Tumburu, en die Gandharva Chitrasena saam met sy predikante, en vele ander Gandharvas en Apsaras, vaardig in vokale en instrumentale musiek en in kadens en Kinnaras ook goed vertroud in musikale maatreëls en bewegings wat hemelse deuntjies sing in behoorlike en bekoorlike stemme, gewag op Pandava-koning Yudhisthira (2-4,5)

Gandharva King Chitraratha

Chitraratha (1,75), die koning van Gandharvas, die vriend van Indra, het aan Yudhisthira vierhonderd perde gegee wat die windsnelheid begaaf het as 'n huldeblyk aan Rajasuya. En die Gandharva Tumvuru het met graagte honderd perde gegee. (2,51), (3,80). Die ruiters van die Tittiri-, Kalmasha- en Gandharva -rasse, versier met ornamente, is deur Chitraratha gegee, nadat hulle in die geveg oorwin is, aan Arjuna. (2,60). Chitraratha onder die Gandharvas is die belangrikste (6,34)

Gandharva Angaraparna en Arjuna

Koning Gandharva Angaraparna het Arjuna aangeval terwyl hy die rivier Ganges oorgesteek het, wat oor die woud met die naam Angaraparna aan die oewer van die Ganges geheers het. Hierdie plek was naby die Panchala -koninkryk. (1 172). Arjuna noem hom 'n veldwagter. Hy het 'n wa gehad. Die naam Angaraparna beteken die brandende voertuig. Hy het hierdie naam gehad sedert hy hierdie brandende wa besit het. Hy vertel aan Arjuna dat dit te wyte is aan die wetenskap van die vervaardiging van illusies Chakshushi dat Gandharvas beter is as die konings van Aryavarta. Hy het ook aan elk van die vyf Pandavas gegee, honderd ruiters gebore in die land van die Gandharvas. Dit lyk asof hy baie weet van perde. In ruil hiervoor het Angaramparna sy uitstekende vuurwapen van Arjuna geneem, waarmee hy die wa van Angaraparna vernietig het (1,172). (Sommige beweer dat Angaraparna en Chitraratha dieselfde persoon is, met die verwysing (2,60))

Oorlogsvaardighede van Gandharvas

Baie militêre konfigurasies wat in oorlogvoering gebruik is, was gebaseer op die Gandharva-vorm van gevegsarrays.

Dhrishtadyumna, wat bekend is met die gevegte van mense, Deva, Gandharva en Asura, lei die gasheer. (5,54). Bhishma is bekend met al die militêre metodes wat onder die Devas, Gandharvas en menslike konings voorkom. (5,166), (6,19). Kaurava generalissimo Bhishma, soos elke dag aanbreek, het soms die troepe in die menslike leër, soms in die Deva, soms in die Gandharva en soms in die Asura, beskore. (6,20). Abhimanyu, die seun van Arjuna, het toe die Gandharva -wapen en die illusie daaruit voortvloei. By die beoefening van asketiese boetes het Arjuna die wapen van die Gandharva Tumvuru en ander gekry. Met die wapen het Abhimanyu nou sy vyande in die war gebring. (7,43)

Gandhrarva -huweliksgebruik

Huwelik sonder die toestemming van ouers, tussen twee geliefdes word beskou as 'n huwelik gebaseer op die bewaring van Gandharvas. Daar is altesaam agt soorte huwelike. Dit is Brahma, Daiva, Arsha, Prajapatya, Asura, Gandharva, Rakshasa en Paisacha, die agtste. (1,73)

As die vader van die meisie, sonder om sy eie wense in ag te neem, sy dogter skenk aan iemand van wie die dogter hou en wat die meisie se gevoelens, die huweliksvorm, weergee, word Gandharva genoem deur diegene wat vertroud is met die Vedas. (13,44)

Gandharvis, die vroulike Gandharvas

Lys van vroulike Gandharvas wat in Mahabharata genoem word:

  • 'N Gandharvi (vroulike Gandharva) word met perde verbind (1,65)
  • 'N Gandharvi, met die naam Dundubhi, word genoem in (3,274) (Sy het geboorte geskenk as Manthara, die bediende van Kaikeyi, die vrou van Dasaratha (3,274)
  • Talle Gandharvi -meisies word in Deva -streke gesien (12,98)
  • Kichaka het Draupadi gevra of sy 'n Gandharvi is (4,9)
  • Die vrou van Angaraparna word genoem as 'n Gandharvi (1 172)
  • Vroulike Gandharvas is soms Gandharvis genoem en soms Apsaras. Urvasi was 'n Apsara. Apsaras was vry en onbeperk in hul keuse van huweliksmaat. (3,45)
  • Kadru (moeder van die Nagas) word genoem as die moeder van die Gandharvas (3,229)

Tekens van Gandharva -aanbidding

Gandharva -gees word genoem by (3,229). Hulle is ook beskryf as sangers in die Deva -streek. *Gandharvas sing psalms wat die hart en die verstand wegneem. (5 109). Wie oor wysheid beskik, moet kranse van waterblomme, soos die lotus en dergelike, aan die Gandharvas en Nagas en Yakshas bied. (13,98). Gandharvas word naby watertenks (13,58) aangetref.

Inkarnasie mites

Die vyf hoogs geseënde Gandharvas was die seuns van Draupadi (18,4). Dhritarashtra, die koning van die Gandharvas was die Dhritarashtra, die vader van Duryodhana (18,4). Gandharvi Dundhubhi is gebore as Manthara (3,274).

Gevarieerde verwysings

Gandharvas, van liggame wat soos die son brand, is gesien hoe Arjuna op die punt was om na die gebied van Devas te reis (3,42)

Misdaad van Gandharvas

Draupadi het die gerug versprei dat sy vyf Gandharva -mans by die hof van Virata het om veilig te voel. (Dit is 'n voorbeeld van die verdowing van die Gandharva-stam) (4-12,14,16,21,22,23,24,25,30,71). Die seun van Virata, Uttara, het dieselfde stappe geneem (4-43,45). Gandharvas word gesê dat hy oorloë besoek. Byvoorbeeld, die oorlog tussen Matsyas, Trigatas en Kurus om vee te steel (4-56,58) en ook die Kurukshetra-oorlog ((6,35), baie ander verwysings) en belangrike gebeure in die epiese Mahabharata en Ramayana. Dit blyk suiwer dramaties en mitologies te wees.

Gandharva en Kurukshetra Oorlog

Die Asuras en die Daityas met die Danavas sal oorwin word, en die Adityas, die Vasus, die Rudras sal wen. Indeed, the Devas, and Asuras, and human beings, and Gandharvas, and Snakes, and Rakshasas, will in rage slaughter one another in Kurukshetra War (5,128). Arjuna's bow Gandiva was well known even to the Devas and Gandhravas (1,227) (4,43)

The Rishis, the gods, the Gandharvas, and Apsaras, always worship Siva and his emblem (7,199). Siva sometimes assume the form of a Gandharva (13-14,17). Siva was also surrounded by Kinnaras and Yakshas and Gandharvas and Rakshasas (13-140,146)

Churning the entire universe, a mass of energy was found. That energy is gold. It is for this reason that the Devas and Gandharvas and Uragas and Rakshasas and humans and Pisachas hold it with care. All these beings shine in splendour, with the aid of gold, after converting it into crowns and armlets and diverse kinds of ornaments. (13,83)

The Science of Gandharvas

The science of reasoning, as also the science of words, the science of the Gandharvas, and the four and sixty branches of knowledge known by the name of Kala, the Puranas and the Itihasas were mentioned at (13,104)


Profile [ edit | wysig bron]

Shin Megami Tensei [wysig | wysig bron]

Shin Megami Tensei IMAGINE [wysig | wysig bron]

Apsaras can be contracted on the Suginami and Shinagawa fields.

Shin Megami Tensei IV [wysig | wysig bron]

Apsaras can be found in the 4th and 5th stratums of Naraku. She can teach Flynn the Media, Dormina and Posumudi skills through her Demon Whisper. Apsaras is needed to fuse David using special fusion.

Apsaras is also the client in the Challenge Quest, Tokyo Bay Mixer. She asks for Vasuki hides so they can make a rope in order for the gods to create the divine wine, Soma, in Tokyo Bay. She is found in Infernal Tokyo's Shinjuku. She is impressed that Flynn defeated two and mentions they'll always need more for the project. The quest can be done multiple times.

Shin Megami Tensei IV Apocalypse [wysig | wysig bron]

Apsaras can be found within Kanda-no-yashiro. She can teach the Diarama, Marin Karin, Posumudi and Mabufu skills during Demon Whisper. Apsaras benefits from learning Ice and healing skills.

Persona 3 [wysig | wysig bron]

Persona 5 [wysig | wysig bron]

Apsaras is the second Persona of the Priestess Arcana and can be found in Madarame's Palace and the Chemdah area of Mementos, with the title "Waterside Nymph." She is the first Persona accessible to the protagonist that learns Media and Elec Wall. When itemized through Electric Chair execution, Apsaras yields the Freeze Boost Skill Card.

DemiKids Light & Dark [wysig | wysig bron]

Apsaras can perform the combo Ice Wing with War Lion, Ice Wind with Sylph and Hurricane with Frezberg. Apsaras also has the power WindProof.


Apsaras Part V – Through The Silk Route To China

Apsaras, the celestial beauties of Devalok as described in Indic and Puranic scriptures gracefully immigrated to China through the ancient Silk Route. These flying Chinese Apsaras, the mythical cosmic creations of Indian origin trekked along with the envoys of Bodhisattva to the Chinese landscape.

Apsaras or Feitian as they are referred to in Chinese are magnificent flying figures seen dancing and playing celestial music in the frieze paintings and sculptures of Buddhist cave sites in China. These sacred floating Apsaras can be seen in the Magao Caves, Yulin Caves, and the Yungana and Longmen Grottoes.

The Chinese Feitian is much similar to the Indian Apsara and is regarded as a Goddess of cloud and water, dwelling in tarns and swamps. She is also said to be the lover of a God named Jiletian. In Buddhist scripture, the Feitian is called the Divine deity of heavenly music, carrying a whiff of aroma. She is also referred to as the fragrant Goddess with a sweet voice. These water nymphs could be seen flying pleasantly and freely below the Bodhi tree.

Thus, Apsara originally made its way from India to China along with Buddhism and was later classified as sacred Buddhist figures.

The propagation of Buddhism from India to neighboring China was initiated between or before the 1st century. The Han Dynasty took Buddhism to China through the Silk Route via the Kushan Empire into the Chinese territory bordering the Tarim basin.

An account in the Mouzi Lihuolun, the classic Chinese Buddhist text, gives credit to Emperor Ming Ti of the Han dynasty for introducing Buddhism in China. Mouzi writes that once emperor Ming dreamt of a God whose body carried the brilliance of the Sun and then he saw God flying around Ming’s palace.

The next day the emperor asked his officials: “What God is this?” Fu Yi, a scholar in his court responded and informed that he had heard that in India there is somebody who has attained the Dao and who is called Buddha. He further added that this God could fly in the air his body had the brilliance of the Sun and finally concluded that He must be the same God the emperor had dreamt of. Thereafter Emperor Ming Ti sent emissaries to India and Buddhism made its entry into China.

Buddhism promoted the concept of Bodhisattva, the branch of Buddhism written mainly in Sanskrit, popularly known as Mahayana Buddhism. The first documented translation of Buddhist scriptures from various Indian languages into Chinese occurred in 148 CE by Parthian, the prince-turned-monk.

The introduction of Mahayana Buddhist teachings further facilitated in adding Indian influence on Chinese art, literature, and culture. Buddhist mythology consisted of tales of the Buddha’s life and information derived from Vedic texts as well as popular Indian folklore.

Along with Buddhist discourse, India had successfully transported the Sanskrit language, Indic myths, legends, epics, Gods, Demi-Gods, Apsaras, Gandharvas, and Rakshasas to China.

With the influence of Buddhism, cave temples were created in Dunhuang and other places. The Mogao Caves in the desert of Northwest China narrate the chronicle of art and Buddhism that started almost more than 1,500 years ago. A UNESCO World Heritage site, a collection of nearly 500 caves are collectively known as the Mogao caves.

These caves are carved in cliffs for about 15 miles in the town of Dunhuang in Gansu province. These grottoes reveal a fortune of sculptures, manuscripts, painted scrolls, and wall paintings dated from the 4th to the 14th century. The first Mogao cave was built in 366 CE, and later dynasties that followed continued to construct caves in Dunhuang for almost a thousand years until the decline of the Silk Route.

Indian Buddhism penetrated through all aspects of Chinese literature, art, poetry, and performing art. Indian dance began to spread to China. Within 2,000 years, Indian dance influenced the Chinese palace and folk dance directly or indirectly.

The modification, adaptation, and integration of Indian Buddhism dance lead to the creation of different styles of Chinese Buddhist dance forms. The Folk Buddhism dance, Tibetan Buddhism dance, Southern Buddhism dance and most importantly the Dunhuang dance draws its inspiration from the frescos of Mogao Caves in Dunhuang. During festivals or temple fairs, there would be rich and colorful Buddhism dance performances.

The Dunhuang wall frescos narrate the growth of Apsara images that developed in Dunhuang caves from the Northern Liang Dynasty to the Tang dynasty. The Dunhuang cave nymphs had long-lasting fame and authority. The Apsara motif was typical in Dunhuang art and almost five thousand pieces of Apsaras were shown on Dunhuang wall paintings.

There are two hundred and forty grottoes depicting dance and music. The frescoes in these caves show four thousand instruments in forty-four groups and three thousand performers, and five hundred groups of bands of all kinds.

The Dunhuang dance can be seen gathering its basics and inspiration from the Dunhuang frescoes. The unique contours of Apsaras- the Divine nymphs of Devalok and Gandharvas-the heavenly musicians as illustrated in the Hindu mythology were introduced by the Buddhist monks and have been expansively depicted in these frescoes.

These Apsaras as depicted in these Chinese frescos stand in the Tribhangi stance or the S-Shape, having its postural relation with the Indian classical dance form of Odissi. In these early fresco paintings, the Apsaras have been shown wearing costumes of Indian origin.

These Apsaras were seen with long hair in barefoot they have seen topless covered with jewelry, armlets, bracelets, and anklets. They wore colored drapes and wrapped free-flowing ribbons around their bodies. The lower part of the body was covered with short knee-length skirts or chinos.

These Apsaras in the cave paintings can be seen as having Greek, Roman, Gandharaian, Persian, Central Asian, and Indian influence. The multi-facet impact on the Chinese Apsaras added unique iconic features to the fresco Apsaras of Dunhuang.

The early Apsara figures illustrated in these caves are usually shown having a v-shape posture with a rigid and cumbersome body. These Apsaras looked much different from their Indian predecessors.

Instead of depicting the idealized female body, the early representations of Apsaras in the Dunhuang mural were muscular.

The Apsara figures during the period of Tang dynasty (618-904 CE) were naturalistic, vivid, and embodied Chinese perception of gorgeousness. Regarded as a high point in Chinese civilization and a golden age of cosmopolitan culture of China the Apsaras portrayed during this period display the pinnacle of Dunhuang art.

In nearly all the five hundred Mogao grottoes, there are more than two hundred caves that have flying Apsaras displaying diverse attitudes, full of spirit and energy. There are some Apsaras leaning against the fence and overlooking while some are free-flying.

There is a depiction of heroic King Kong and also of some gentle and dignified Bodhisattva. Distinct changes can be seen in these Apsaras almost in every dynasty during the thousand-year journey of their creation. All the dynasties had varied flying Apsara images that continued to evolve with the passage of time and history for a thousand years.

The Silk Route was a passage to trade and exchange silk, spices, indigo, precious gems, paper, and many other goods that were equally significant to those times. Besides trade and relocation, this route was also the path through which Buddhism traveled from India and spread throughout Central Asia.

The entry of Buddhism into China from India altered the visage of China. The Chinese landscape transformed forever with the creation of pagodas and monasteries and also with the fascinatingly exclusive airborne Apsaras embellishing them. The Apsaras had successfully made their way through the Silk Route to China.


Inhoud

The origin of 'apsara' is the Sanskrit अप्सरस्, apsaras (in the stem form, which is the dictionary form). NB The stem form ends in 's' as distinct from, e.g. the nominative singular Ramas/Ramaḥ (the deity Ram in Hindi), whose stem form is Rama. The nominative singular form is अप्सरास् apsarās, or अप्सरा: apsarāḥ when standing alone, which becomes अप्सरा apsarā in Hindi, from which in turn the English 'apsara' presumably is derived. Monier-Williams Dictionary gives the etymology as अप् + √सृ, "going in the waters or between the waters of the clouds".

The Rigveda tells of an apsara who is the wife of Gandharva however, the Rigveda also seems to allow for the existence of more than one apsara. [3] The only apsara specifically named is Urvashi. An entire hymn deals with the colloquy between Urvashi and her mortal lover Pururavas. [4] Later Hindu scriptures allow for the existence of numerous apsaras, who act as the handmaidens of Indra or as dancers at his celestial court. [3]

In many of the stories related in the Mahabharata, apsaras appear in important supporting roles. The epic contains several lists of the principal Apsaras, which lists are not always identical. Here is one such list, together with a description of how the celestial dancers appeared to the residents and guests at the court of the gods:

Ghritachi and Menaka and Rambha and Purvachitti and Swayamprabha and Urvashi and Misrakeshi and Dandagauri and Varuthini and Gopali and Sahajanya and Kumbhayoni and Prajagara and Chitrasena and Chitralekha and Saha and Madhuraswana, these and others by thousands, possessed of eyes like lotus leaves, who were employed in enticing the hearts of persons practising rigid austerities, danced there. And possessing slim waists and fair large hips, they began to perform various evolutions, shaking their deep bosoms, and casting their glances around, and exhibiting other attractive attitudes capable of stealing the hearts and resolutions and minds of the spectators. [5]

The Mahabharata documents the exploits of individual apsaras, such as Tilottama, who rescued the world from the rampaging asura brothers Sunda and Upasunda, and Urvashi, who attempted to seduce the hero Arjuna.

A story type or theme appearing over and over again in the Mahabharata is that of an apsara sent to distract a sage or spiritual master from his ascetic practices. One story embodying this theme is that recounted by the epic heroine Shakuntala to explain her own parentage. [6] Once upon a time, the sage Viswamitra generated such intense energy by means of his asceticism that Indra himself became fearful. Deciding that the sage would have to be distracted from his penances, he sent the apsara Menaka to work her charms. Menaka trembled at the thought of angering such a powerful ascetic, but she obeyed the god's order. As she approached Viswamitra, the wind god Vayu tore away her garments. Seeing her thus disrobed, the sage abandoned himself to lust. Nymph and sage engaged in sex for some time, during which Viswamitra's asceticism was put on hold. As a consequence, Menaka gave birth to a daughter, whom she abandoned on the banks of a river. That daughter was Shakuntala herself, the narrator of the story.

Natya Shastra Edit

Natya Shastra, the principal work of dramatic theory for Sanskrit drama, lists the following apsaras: Manjukesi, Sukesi, Misrakesi, Sulochana, Saudamini, Devadatta, Devasena, Manorama, Sudati, Sundari, Vigagdha, Vividha, Budha, Sumala, Santati, Sunanda, Sumukhi, Magadhi, Arjuni, Sarala, Kerala, Dhrti, Nanda, Supuskala, Supuspamala and Kalabha.

Khmer Culture Edit

Apsaras represent an important motif in the stone bas-reliefs of the Angkorian temples in Cambodia (8th–13th centuries AD), however, all-female images are not considered to be apsaras. In harmony with the Indian association of dance with apsaras, Khmer female figures that are dancing or are poised to dance are considered apsaras female figures, depicted individually or in groups, who are standing still and facing forward in the manner of temple guardians or custodians are called devatas. [7]

The bas-reliefs of Angkorian temples have become an inspiration of Khmer classical dance. The indigenous ballet-like performance art of Cambodia is frequently called "Apsara Dance". The dance was created by the Royal Ballet of Cambodia in the mid-20th century under the patronage of Queen Sisowath Kossamak of Cambodia. The role of the apsara is played by a woman, wearing a tight-fitting traditional dress with gilded jewelry and headdress modelled after Angkor bas-reliefs, [8] whose graceful, sinuous gestures are codified to narrate classical myths or religious stories. [9]

Malay Archipelago culture Edit

In the Malay language throughout medieval times, apsaras are also known as 'bidadari', being conflated with the 'vidyadharis' (from Sanskrit word vidhyadhari: vidhya, 'knowledge' dharya, 'having, bearer, or bringer') known as Bidadari in the modern Malay language (surviving in both Indonesian [10] and Malaysian [11] standards), the females of the vidyādharas, another class of celestial beings in Indian mythology. 'Vidyādhara' literally means 'possessed of science or spells', and refers to 'a kind of supernatural being . possessed of magical power' or 'fairy' according to Monier-Williams Dictionary. The bidadaris are heavenly maidens, [10] living in the svargaloka or in celestial palace of Indra, described in Balinese dedari (bidadari or apsara) dance.

Traditionally apsaras are described as celestial maidens living in Indra's heaven (Kaéndran). They are well known for their special task: being sent to earth by Indra to seduce ascetics who by their severe practices may become more powerful than the gods. This theme occurs frequently in Javanese traditions, including the Kakawin Arjunawiwaha, written by mpu Kanwa in 1030 during the reign of a king Airlangga. The story tells that Arjuna, in order to defeat the giant Niwatakawaca, engaged in meditation and asceticism, whereupon Indra sent apsaras to seduce him. Arjuna, however, managed to conquer his lust and then to win the ultimate weapons from the gods to defeat the giant.

Later in the Javanese tradition the apsara was also called Hapsari, ook bekend as Widodari (from Sanskrit word vidyādhari). The Javanese Hindu-Buddhist tradition also influenced Bali. In Balinese dance, the theme of celestial maidens often occurred. Dances such as Sanghyang Dedari en Legong depicted divine maidens in their own way. In the court of Mataram Sultanate the tradition of depicting heavenly maidens in dances still alive and well. The Javanese court dances of Bedhaya portray apsaras.

However, after the adoption of Islam, bidadari is equated with houri, the heavenly maiden mentioned in the Quran, in which God stated that the 'forbidden pearls' of heaven are for those men who have resisted temptation and borne life's trials. Islam spread in the Malay archipelago when Arabic traders came to trade spices with the Malays at that time, Hinduism formed the basis of the Malay culture, but syncretism with the Islamic religion and culture spawned the idea of a Bidadari. It is usually seen as a prized offer to those who lived a lifestyle in service to and pleasing to God after death, the Bidadari was the man's wife or wives, depending on what type of person he was. The worthiness of a man who was offered Bidadari depended upon his holiness: how often he prayed, how much he turned away from the 'outside world', and how little he heeded worldly desires.

Java and Bali, Indonesia Edit

Images of apsaras are found in several temples of ancient Java dating from the era of the Sailendra dynasty to that of the Majapahit empire. The apsara celestial maidens might be found as decorative motifs or also as integral parts of a story in bas-relief. Images of apsaras can be found on Borobudur, Mendut, Prambanan, Plaosan, and Penataran.

At Borobudur apsaras are depicted as divinely beautiful celestial maidens, pictured either in standing or in flying positions, usually holding lotus blossoms, spreading flower petals, or waving celestial clothes as if they were wings enabling them to fly. The temple of Mendut near Borobudur depicted groups of devatas, divine beings flying in heaven, which included apsaras. In the Prambanan temple compound, especially in Vishnu temple, along with the gallery, some images of male devata are found flanked by two apsaras.

Manipur, India Edit

In the ancient Manipur culture of the Meitei people of northeastern India, apsaras are considered as celestial nymphs or hellois as the flying creatures resembling the human female body attracting the male wanderers or any knights who lost their ways in the woods. They were known for their beauty, glamour, magical powers and enchanting supernatural Androphilic Magnetism. They are believed to be seven in number and are the daughters of the sky god or the Soraren deity.

Cambodia Edit

Angkor Wat, the largest Angkor temple (built-in 1113-1150 AD), features both Apsaras en Devata, however, the devata type are the most numerous with more than 1,796 in the present research inventory. [12] Angkor Wat architects employed small apsara images (30–40 cm as seen below) as decorative motifs on pillars and walls. They incorporated larger devata images (all full-body portraits measuring approximately 95–110 cm) more prominently at every level of the temple from the entry pavilion to the tops of the high towers. In 1927, Sappho Marchal published a study cataloging the remarkable diversity of their hair, headdresses, garments, stance, jewelry and decorative flowers, which Marchal concluded were based on actual practices of the Angkor period. Some devatas appear with arms around each other and seem to be greeting the viewer. "The devatas seem to epitomize all the elements of a refined elegance," wrote Marchal. [13]

Champa Edit

Apsaras were also an important motif in the art of Champa, medieval Angkor's neighbour to the east along the coast of what is now central Vietnam. Especially noteworthy are the depictions of apsaras in the Tra Kieu Style of Cham art, a style which flourished in the 10th and 11th centuries AD.

China Redigeer

Apsaras are often depicted as flying figures in the mural paintings and sculptures of Buddhist cave sites in China such as in the Mogao Caves, Yulin Caves, and the Yungang and Longmen Grottoes. They may also be depicted as dancers or musicians. They are referred to as feitian (飞天) in Chinese.

Fiction Edit

The Asuras also inspired the Askyas Powers of the tabletop roleplay game Gandariah Lords of Arcanas universe. [14]


In Buddhism

A Gandharva (Sanskrit) of Gandhabba (Pāli) is one of the lowest-ranking devas in Buddhist theology. They are classed among the Cāturmahārājikakāyika devas, and are subject to the Great King Dhṛtarāṣṭra , Guardian of the East. Beings are reborn among the Gandharvas as a consequence of having practiced the most basic form of ethics (Janavasabha-sutta, DN.18). It was considered embarrassing for a monk to be born in no better birth than that of a gandharva.

Gandharvas can fly through the air, and are known for their skill as musicians. They are connected with trees and flowers, and are described as dwelling in the scents of bark, sap, and blossom. They are among the beings of the wilderness that might disturb a monk meditating alone.

The terms gandharva and yakṣa are sometimes used for the same person yakṣa in these cases is the more general term, including a variety of lower deities.

Among the notable gandharvas are mentioned (in DN.20 and DN.32) Panāda, Opamañña, Naḷa , Cittasena, Rājā. Janesabha is probably the same as Janavasabha, a rebirth of King Bimbisāra of Magadha. Mātali the Gandharva is the charioteer for Śakra.

Timbarū was a chieftain of the gandharvas. There is a romantic story told about the love between his daughter Bhaddā Suriyavaccasā (Sanskrit: Bhadrā Sūryavarcasā) and another gandharva, Pañcasikha (Sanskrit: Pañcaśikha). Pañcasikha fell in love with Suriyavaccasā when he saw her dancing before Śakra, but she was then in love with Sikhandī (or Sikhaddi), son of Mātali the charioteer. Pañcasikha then went to Timbarū's home and played a melody on his lute of beluva-wood, on which he had great skill, and sang a love-song in which he interwove themes about the Buddha and his Arhats.

Later, Śakra prevailed upon Pañcasikha to intercede with the Buddha so that Śakra might have an audience with him. As a reward for Pañcasikha's services, Śakra was able to get Suriyavaccasā, already pleased with Pañcasikha's display of skill and devotion, to agree to marry Pañcasikha.

Pañcasikha also acts as a messenger for the Four Heavenly Kings, conveying news from them to Mātali, the latter representing Śakra and the Trāyastriṃśa devas.

Gandharva of gandhabba is also used in a completely different sense, referring to a being (or, strictly speaking, part of the causal continuum of consciousness) in a liminal state between birth and death.


The Apsaras in Rigveda

The Rigveda speaks of an apsara who is Gandharva’s wife however, the Rigveda also seems to allow the existence of more than one Apsara.

The only apsara specifically named in Rigveda is Urvashi.

Subsequent Hindu Scriptures take into account the existence of many apsaras, who act as Indra’s servants or as dancers at her heavenly court.

The history of Urvashi apsara

The legends concerning the birth of Urvashi are numerous the following is the most widespread:

The king of the gods, Indra, did not want the sages Narayana and Nara to acquire divine powers through meditation thus, he sent two apsaras to distract them.

One of the wise men then struck his thigh, creating a woman so beautiful that Indra’s apsaras could not match her.

This beautiful woman was Urvashi, hence her name, Uru, thigh.

The meditation of the wise man could then reach its apogee.

Once this was completed, the wise man offered his creation to Indra.

Urvashi then took the place of honor in Indra’s courtyard.

Urvasi also became the wife of a human king, Pururavas

They united with the only condition that he would not discover his nakedness.

The story goes that Urvashi returned to heaven just before dawn with other apsaras, returning from Kubera Palace on Mount Kailasa, where she had completed her task of breaking the penance of the sage Vibhandaka, leaving their son with him.

She was with Chitralekha, Rambha, and many others when a demon named Keshin kidnapped Urvashi (or, depending on the version, Urvashi and Chitralekha), heading northeast with his captives.

According to the stories, the group of remaining Apsaras asked for help, and King Pururavas heard them.

He pursued the demon on his chariot and freed the apsara (or both apsaras) from his claws.

Urvashi and Pururavas fell in love at first sight, but the nymphs were immediately called to heaven.

The king returned home and tried to concentrate on his work, but he was unable to stop thinking about Urvashi.

He wondered aloud if this was a case of unshared love.

Urvashi, who had gone to see Pururavas in an invisible form because she could not manage not to think of him, then wrote a message on a birch leaf, confirming her love.

Unfortunately, the leaf was carried away by the wind, stopping only at the feet of Queen Aushinari, the Princess of Kashi, and Pururavas’ wife.

The queen was initially furious but later declared that she would not interfere between the two lovers.

Unfortunately, just before Urvashi and Pururavas could talk to each other, Urvashi was summoned back to heaven to perform in a play.

She was so distracted during the play that she missed her signal and incorrectly pronounced the name of her lover’s character during the performance, saying Pururavas instead of Purushottama.

As punishment, Urvasi was banished from the sky, a sentence modified by Indra as “until her human lover laid eyes on the child she would bear him.”

After a series of incidents, including the temporary transformation of Urvashi into a vine, the curse was finally lifted, and the lovers were allowed to stay together on Earth as long as Pururavas lived.


Apsaras : Vedic Origins Of The Cosmic Damsels

Apsaras, the celestial maidens of Indra Puri were enigmatic creations with enthralling elegance. These sensuous maidens of illusion created by Gods had a role to play. They had to lure, attract and amuse. Apsaras, were the free flowing female spirits endowed with supernatural powers, charm, calm and capability to commence or cease any moment. These Devanganas were endowed with oodles of creative brilliance. They were experts in dance and music these attractive damsels were the court entertainers of Indra Puri -The heavenly kingdom of Lord Indra. These cosmic nymphs were the companions of the Gandharvas, while some were created with a devoted mission to be a reason or a cause. Derived from the Sanskrit word, ‘apas’ meaning water, Apsaras are known to have evolved out of the clouds and water. Just like water is ever flowing, Apsaras are as fluid and uncontained like the gurgling chasm of celestial Divinity. Urvashi, Menaka, Rambha, and Tilottama are the most prominent in the Hindu Mythology.

Die Rigveda mentions these Apsaras as aquatic nymphs. Atharvaveda introduces Apsaras as the inhabitants of the waters. It discusses their heavenly association with the stars, clouds and rain. Die Satapatha Brahmana Samhita often describes Apsars as transforming themselves into a kind of a marine bird. The Apsaras are seen in close contact with the woods and the wet. Die Atharvaveda puts forward that the Apsaras are fond of the dice game and create the basis to bring in fortune at the dice play. They are also feared as causing mental void. There are two types of Apsaras -Aloukika (worldly) and daivika (Divine).

Gedurende die Samudra Manthan– the churning of the milky ocean many jewels came out of the sea that included some famed Apsaras namely Rambha, Menaka, Punjisthala . They are said to have emerged after the appearance of the Kalpavriksha. These Apsaras were gorgeous women , draped in attractive robes and bejewelled with golden ornaments. These celestial nymphs were engaged in alluring by their intoxicating movements and amorous glances. Manu Sastra asserts that Apsaras were created with the seven Manus to serve as wives of the Gods and daughters of pleasure.

As per Matsya Purana, Rishi Kashyapa is said to have married thirteen daughters of Daksha. In companionship with his thirteen wives he fathered the Devas, Asuras, Nagas, Gandgarvas, Apsaras, flora, fauna and all of humanity. The Apsaras are said to be the daughters of Rishi Kashyapa and his wife Muni. These celestial daughters of Rishi Kashyapa were – Alambusa, Misrakesi, Vidyutparna, Tilottama, Raksita, Rambha, Manorama, Kesini, Subahu, Suraja, Surata and Supriya. Die Brahmanda Purana has a mention of Brahma asking Lord Indra to send some chosen Apsaras from his palace to become the wives of Vasudeva Krishna.

Volgens die ya Śāstra, Apsaras were mental creations of the Universal Creator- Brahma . In the beginning of the Treta Yuga, Brahma went to deep rumination he recalled the four Vedas, picked up suitable parts from them and created a new Veda. He picked up hymns from the Rigveda, melody and music from the Samveda, gesticulation and emotion from Yajuveda and aesthetics of the rasas from the Atharveda . He further amalgamated all these selected essentials from all the four Vedas and called it Natyaveda- The scripture of Arts.

Brahma passed the Natyaveda to Indra and prescribed that the Devatas should practice the Natyaveda. But the Devatas were not dedicated enough to learn and perform the new scripture on performing art. Brahma then decided to train his hundred children in Natyaveda. Brahma delegated the task to Bharat Muni and assigned him with the duty to be the Natya Guru of his hundred children. Bharat Muni started educating them but in the process realized that Brahmas’ hundred children would not be able to perfect the Nāṭya Śāstra without female companions. Brahma then created the Apsaras. He endowed these celestial beauties with the skill of dance, music and enact. Thereafter Brahma passed these Apsaras to Bharat Muni as female companions to accompany, polish and train his hundred children. These Apsaras created by Brahma were called Natyaalankar– Jewels of Acting. The Apsaras mentioned in ya Śāstra are Manjukesi, Sukesi, Misrakesi, Sulocana, Saudamini, Dovadatta, Devasena, Manorama, Sudati, Sundari, Vidagdha, Sumala, Santati, Sunanda, Sumukhi, Magadhi, Arjuni, Sarala, Kerala, Dhrti, Nanda, Supuskala and Kalabha.

Die Vayu Purana refers to the origin of Apsaras from various sources. It describes Apsaras as Manasa Kanya- mental creation of Brahma gifted them with beauty, energy and force of nature. It presents them as dazzling maidens, similar to the stretched rays of the sun and also bearing the soft illumination from moon and benevolence. It confers their birth to the fire of the Yagna. They are also said to be born out of the ocean, elixir, wind and lightning. These Apsaras have varied characteristics like being caring, loving, magical, and ferocious. The Vayu Purana gives the physical description of these celestial maidens as golden hued with the whiff of sweet fragrance. They perform their errands without the assistance of wine and only with touch alone. The assemblage of Apsaras at Indra Puri includes- Misrakesi, Chasi, Varnini, Alambusa, Marichi, Putrika, Vidyutparna, Tilottama, Adrika, Laksana, Devi, Rambha, Manorama, Suvara, Subahu, Purnita, Supratisthita, Pundarika, Sugandha, Sudanta, Surasa, Hema, Saradvati, Suvrata, Subhuja and Hamsapada.

In die Vishnu Purana , Apsaras are mentioned as the attendants of Surya. They attend to Surya in the form of the twelve Adityas who are the indicators of the various seasonal changes that happen throughout the year. In the Vishnu Purana, Rishi Parashar describes that between the extreme northern and southern points, the sun has to traverse at one hundred and eighty degrees in a year, ascending and descending. The movement of his chariot is presided over by Divine Aditya, Rishis, Gandharvas and Apsaras, Yaksas, Nagas and Rakshasas.

Volgens Vamana Saromahatmya when Vamana shed his dwarf-like form, in a twinkling of an eye he manifested the form which consisted of all the Gods. His eyes were the moon and the sun, the sky was his head and the Earth his feet, his toes were the Pisachas and his fingers the Guhyakas. The Visvedevas were in his knees, the Sadhyas were in his skin. In his nails appeared the Yaksha and the Apsaras appeared in the contours of his body.

Apsaras have been a consistent part of Hinduism, having an insightful presence in Vedic literature. The commonality lies in the fact that these beautiful creations were females with captivating powers and immense dedication to their creators.


Kyk die video: Apsaras - Apsaras (November 2021).