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Jubal Early

Jubal Early

Jubal Anderson Early is gebore in Franklin County, Virginia, op 3 November 1816. Nadat hy in 1837 aan die Amerikaanse Militêre Akademie by West Point afgestudeer het, het hy by die Amerikaanse weermag aangesluit en sien hy optrede in die Seminole-oorlog (1838-42) en die Mexikaanse Oorlog (1846-1848).

Nadat hy die Amerikaanse weermag verlaat het, het hy vroeg advokaat geword in Rocky Mount, Virginia. Vroeg was hy 'n teenstander van afstigting, maar toe Virginia die Unie verlaat, maar met die uitbreek van die Amerikaanse burgeroorlog aanvaar hy die bevel oor die 24ste Virginia Infanterie. Hy het hierdie regiment by Bull Run gelei nadat hy daarna tot die rang van brigadier -generaal bevorder is.

Vroeg in Antietam en Fredericksburg goed geveg en op 23 April 1863 tot generaal -majoor bevorder. Hy het sy troepe by Chancellorsville, Gettysburg en die Wildernis gelei.

In Junie 1864 verslaan Early suksesvol generaal -majoor David Hunter in Shenandoah Valley. Robert E. Lee stuur hom daarna met 14 000 man noordwaarts in 'n poging om troepe uit Grant se weermag af te trek. Generaal -majoor Lew Wallace kom vroeg by die Monacacy -rivier teë, en hoewel hy verslaan is, kon hy sy vordering na Washington vertraag. Early se pogings om die ringforte rondom die stad deur te breek, het misluk. Abraham Lincoln, wat die aanval van Fort Stevens aanskou het, het die eerste president in die Amerikaanse geskiedenis geword wat in sy amp optree.

In Augustus 1864 het die Unie -weermag nog 'n poging aangewend om beheer oor die Shenandoah -vallei te neem. Philip Sheridan en 40 000 soldate het die vallei binnegekom en gou troepe teëgekom onder leiding van Early wat pas uit Washington teruggekeer het. Na 'n reeks geringe nederlae het Sheridan uiteindelik die oorhand gekry. Sy manne verbrand en vernietig enigiets van waarde in die omgewing en nadat hulle vroeg in 'n ander grootskaalse geveg op 19 Oktober verslaan het, het die Unie-leër beheer oor die Shenandoah-vallei geneem.

Toe Early hoor dat Robert E. Lee oorgegee het aan Ulysses S. Grant in Appomattox, is hy na Mexiko. Hy het ook in Kanada gewoon voordat hy teruggekeer het na die regte in Lynchburg.

Sy herinneringe, Outobiografiese skets en vertelling verskyn in 1866. Vroeg het hy as president van die Southern Historical Association gehelp om die militêre reputasie van Robert E. Lee, Thomas Stonewall Jackson, James Jeb Stuart en ander generaals in die Konfederale Weermag te bevorder. Jubal Anderson Early is op 2 Maart 1894 in Lynchburg, Virginia, oorlede.


Jubal Early - Geskiedenis

Die Hollingsworth - Parkins -begraafplaas is 'n ou begraafplaas van die Quaker, net langs Jubal Early Drive agter die PolyOne -aanleg. Dit is een van die oudste (indien nie die oudste) bestaande begraafplase in die stad Winchester.

Om die belangrikheid van hierdie begraafplaas te waardeer, moet u 'n bietjie verstaan ​​van die families Hollingsworth en Parkins en die belangrikheid daarvan vir die vroeë geskiedenis van Winchester en die omliggende omgewing.

Abraham Hollingsworth was 'n Quaker wat in 1686 in Delaware gebore is. Hy het ongeveer 1729 na hierdie gebied gekom en hom gevestig in die gebied genaamd Shawnee Springs waar sy seun, Isaac Hollingsworth, in 1754 'Abram's Delight' gebou het. Familietradisie sê dat Abraham Hollingsworth het sy grond drie keer betaal: "Eerstens 'n koei, 'n kalf en 'n stuk rooi lap aan die Shawnee -Indiane: daarna 'n som geld aan die agent van die koning en laastens 'n som geld aan Lord Fairfax." Abraham en sy gesin was lede van die Hopewell Friends Meeting, wat in 1734 gestig is. Hopewell is in Frederick County naby Clearbrook geleë. Die Hollingsworth -gesin het 'n meelmeul naby die bronne gestig en was besig met baie ander ondernemings.

'N Ander prominente Quaker -gesin gedurende hierdie era was die Parkins -gesin. Isaac Parkins het in 1735 1,425 hektaar in drie stukke verkry. Een terrein van 725 hektaar sluit die begraafplaas en die ligging van die Parkins -gesinshuis in, wes van die begraafplaas in die huidige Valley Avenue op die suidwestelike hoek van Jubal Early Drive en Valley Avenue. Hierdie groot baksteenhuis (wat nie meer staan ​​nie) is 'Milltown' en later 'Willow Lawn' genoem.

Toe Frederick County in 1743 gestig word, het Isaac Parkins baie prominent geword in sy aangeleenthede en dien hy as justisie en lid van die House of Burgesses. Hy het 'n saagmeule en twee meelmeulens opgerig. Die Parkins -gesin was 'n belangrike bydrae tot die stigting van Center Friends Meeting, wat eers naby die Parkins -gesinshuis geleë was. Die sentrum is in 1819 verder na Winchester verskuif. Naby die oorspronklike plek van Center Meeting was nog 'n klein begraafplaas wat in 1961 na Hopewell verskuif is.

John Parkins het die begraafplaas verlaat vir die gebruik van Quakers in 1815. Sy testament, gedateer 5 Mei 1815, lui:

Die grootste grafmerker in die Hollingsworth - Parkins -begraafplaas is die van Isaac Hollingsworth. Dit is egter nie die Isak wat die seun van Abraham was nie. Hierdie Isak was 'n neef en is 'n paar geslagte later. Hierdie Isaac was die seun van Zebidae Hollingsworth en Lydia Allen. Hy is gebore in 1771 en oorlede in 1842. Hy trou met Hannah Parkins wat ook daar begrawe is. Sommige van die ander familiename van diegene wat in die begraafplaas begrawe is, is Lytle, Brown, Smith, Richards, Neill en Gilkison. By die Handley -argief is 'n lys van al die grafte wat uit 'n begraafplaas -sensus in 1931 geneem is.

Die begraafplaas, wat ongeveer 'n kwart akker beslaan, was tussen die Hollingsworth- en die Parkins -gesinshuise geleë. Die begraafplaas was jare lank afgesonder en die enigste toegang was om langs Papiermeulweg met die spoor te loop. Toe Jubal Early Drive in die 1990's gebou is, het die begraafplaas baie meer toeganklik geword.

Dit blyk dat daar na die middel van die 1800's min begrawe in die Hollingsworth - Parkins -begraafplaas was. Baie familielede het teen daardie tyd weggetrek en daar was ander Quaker -begraafplase in die omgewing, waarvan die grootste by Hopewell was. Gedurende die 1800's het die Henry -gesin 'n deel van die omliggende grond bekom en soms sien u verwysings na die Hollingsworth - Parkins - Henry begraafplaas.

Die muur rondom die begraafplaas is omstreeks 1930 gebou om 'n ouer klipmuur wat agteruitgegaan het, te vervang. Toe hierdie muur gebou is, was daar geen opening vir 'n hek ingesluit nie. In plaas daarvan is trappe, 'n 'styl' genoem, in die muur ingebou. Sedertdien het die agterste hoek van die muur gesink en 'n opening gemaak, sodat dit moontlik is om die begraafplaas binne te gaan sonder om teen die muur te klim. Die voet in die begraafplaas is gevaarlik, so besoekers moet baie versigtig wees.

Teen die vroeë negentigerjare is die begraafplaas verwaarloos en baie van die graftekens is beskadig. Vanweë die geïsoleerde ligging was die begraafplaas toegegroei en nie gereeld onderhou nie. In 1995 het 'n plaaslike Boy Scout as deel van 'n Eagle Scout -projek 'n uitgebreide opknapping onderneem. Destyds is 'n gedenkplaat aan die muur vasgemaak wat die begraafplaas aandui. Sedertdien het vrywilligers die begraafplaas onderhou en baie van die grafmerkers is herstel. In 1996 is die begraafplaas formeel aan die kurators van Hopewell Monthly Meeting en Winchester Center Monthly Meeting van die Society of Friends gestuur.


Vroeë jare

Jubal Anderson Early is op 3 November 1816 gebore in Rocky Mount, Franklin County, Virginia, die seun van Joab Early, 'n prominente boer en politikus, en Ruth Hairston, wie se familie baie slawe besit. Hy studeer aan die United States Military Academy in West37 in 1837, agtiende in 'n klas wat ook toekomstige generaals van die Unie, Joseph Hooker en John Sedgwick, insluit. Hy was 'n tyd lank 'n klasmaat van die toekomstige Konfederale generaal Lewis A. Armistead, wat in 1836 uit West Point bedank het nadat hy 'n bord oor die kop van Early gebreek het.

Nadat hy 'n kommissie in die 3de Amerikaanse artillerie ontvang het, dien Early kortliks in die andersins lang en duur Tweede Seminole -oorlog (1835-1842) in Florida. Hy bedank uit die weermag op 31 Julie 1838 om regte te studeer, en begin sy praktyk in Rocky Mount in 1840. Die jaar daarna verteenwoordig hy Franklin County vir 'n termyn in die Huis van Afgevaardigdes (1841-1842) as lid van die Whig Party, en in 1843 word hy aangestel as sy prokureur in die land van die Gemenebest, wat tot 1852 dien. wat hom die res van sy lewe sou teister.

Early, 'n afgevaardigde van die Virginia -konvensie van 1861, was 'n vasberade Unionis, moontlik vanweë sy land se band met tabakhandel met die Noorde, en sy versigtigheid het hom die bynaam “the Terrapin van Franklin gegee. ” Hy het geglo dat die entoesiasme vir afstigting was kortsigtig en sou waarskynlik tot oorlog lei, en hy het aangevoer dat die regte van Suid-Afrikaners wat nie slawe besit nie, net so beskermend is as die regte van diegene wat dit wel het. Hy het teen afstigting gestem en met die hoop, en later geskryf, dat die botsing van wapens selfs dan vermy kon word.


Vroeg in die burgeroorlog

In 1861 het Early as kolonel in die Konfederale State se leër die 24ste Virginia -infanterie beveel. Hy word gou tot brigadier -generaal bevorder nadat hy dapperheid in die Eerste Slag van Bull Run getoon het. Vroeër in talle groot veldslae gestry en het die aandag getrek van Robert E. Lee, wat sy aggressiwiteit waardeer en hom sy "Slegte Ou Man" noem. Vir sy troepe was hy egter bekend as 'Old Jube' of 'Old Jubilee'.

Vroeg is hy gewond tydens die Slag van Williamsburg, en nadat hy herstel het, was hy onder bevel van generaal -majoor Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson, waar hy in die gevegte van Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville en Gettysburg geveg het. In 1864 is Early gestuur om die Unie -magte in die Shenandoah -vallei te beveg. Hy vertraag 'n inval in Washington en rus sy manne vir twee dae, wat die Unie in staat stel om hul verdediging te versterk. Terwyl generaal George Washington in paniek was, het Early se troepe wel aan die buitewyke van die hoofstad gekom, waar Abraham Lincoln gekyk het hoe 'n paar skermutselings tussen die twee magte plaasvind. In Oktober 1864, tydens die Slag van Cedar Creek, het Early 'n verrassingsaanval op die Unie -magte gedoen en 'n oorwinning geëis, maar 'n vertraging het die magte van die Unie tyd gegee om dieselfde middag te hergroepeer en terug te keer na oorwinning. Lee onthef hom van sy bevel nadat Early se arm in Maart 1865 byna vernietig is in Waynesboro, Virginia.


Jubal A. Vroeg

As bevelvoerder van die Confederate Army of the Valley, het Jubal Early die uniemagte in 1864 tydelik uit die Shenandoah verdryf - en Washington, DC self bedreig - voordat hy verslaan is in 'n reeks gevegte wat 'n hoogtepunt bereik het by Cedar Creek.

Jubal Early studeer aan West Point in 1837. Hy was bevelvoerder oor die 24ste Virginia Infanterie tydens die uitbreek van die burgeroorlog, waar hy pragtig presteer en vinnig deur die geledere beweeg.

Tydens die Tweede Slag van Winchester, 14-15 Junie 1863, lei Early sy afdeling op 'n flankerende optog vanaf Bowers Hill, net suidwes van Winchester, noord na West Fort, 'n afstand van byna tien myl. Early se flankmars en aanval op Unie -troepe by West Fort op 14 Junie het Konfederale magte in staat gestel om die federale troepe onder generaal Robert H. Milroy te verpletter.

Ons het Abe Lincoln soos 'n hel geskrik.

Na die Tweede Slag van Winchester dien hy met lof in die Army of Northern Virginia en keer terug na die Shenandoah-vallei in Junie 1864. Hy het die unie-generaal David Hunter se mag middel Junie van Lynchburg, Virginia, verdryf. Vroeg daarna deur die vallei en oor die Potomac gedruk tot binne sig van die koepel van die hoofstad van die Verenigde State. Op 24 Julie 1864 verslaan Early die Federale mag onder generaal George Crook tydens die Tweede Slag van Kernstown.

Sy Vallei -veldtog was 'n groot sukses, maar op 19 September 1864 ontmoet Early die oorweldigende numeriese krag van generaal Philip H. Sheridan. Alhoewel die manne van Early die hele dag hardnekkig baklei het, het Sheridan uiteindelik die oorhand van Early gekry. Sheridan het Early nog twee keer verslaan: op Fisher's Hill op 22 September, en daarna in die Slag van Cedar Creek op 19 Oktober. Early het vroeg in Maart weer te kampe met Sheridan in Waynesboro, Virginia, maar het 'n finale nederlaag gekry.

Generaal Early het in 1889 na Winchester teruggekeer om tydens die Confederate Memorial Day -seremonie te spreek. In sy toespraak op die Stonewall -begraafplaas vertel hy van sy nederlaag tydens die Derde Slag van Winchester en die moed van sy soldate. Hy bedank die vroue van Winchester en die Shenandoah -vallei vir hul toewyding aan die Konfederasie.

Na die oorlog keer hy terug na sy regspraktyk in Lynchburg, Virginia, en word hy die eerste president van die Southern Historical Society. 'Old Jube', soos hy gereeld genoem is, is in 1894 oorlede.

Stoor 'n slagveld

Maak 'n verskil en help om die historiese slagvelde van die vallei te bewaar


10 000 kavalleries teen vier

Middel Februarie, terug in Virginia, het Custer uitgevind wat sy volgende reis sou wees, toe hy 'n nuwe opdrag van Sheridan ontvang het. Grant het die afgelope vier maande Sheridan aangemoedig om die Virginia Central Railroad in Charlottesville te sny en ooswaarts na Richmond te beweeg om die agterkant van Robert E. Lee se lyne in Petersburg te bedreig. Met verwysing na slegte weer, Mosby se guerrilla's en die (onwaarskynlike) bedreiging van Konfederale versterkings in die vallei, het Sheridan vertraag. Grant, wat nog koppiger was as Sheridan, het volgehou en 'n nuwe stel bevele aan sy ondergeskikte gestuur. Sheridan sou die spoorlyn en die James River -kanaal vernietig, Lynchburg vang en dan terugkeer na Winchester of skakel met genl.maj. William T. Sherman se weermag in Noord -Carolina. Sheridan sou gehoorsaam wees - maar net tot op 'n sekere punt.

Met dagbreek op 17 Februarie 1865 breek Sheridan kamp by Winchester en ry suidwaarts met twee volle kavalleriedivisies, 'n gedeelte artillerie en 'n lang trein voorraadwaens, pontons, ambulanse en mediese waens. Elke soldaat het vyf dae rantsoene vir homself uitgereik, 30 pond voer vir sy perde en 75 rondes ammunisie. Inwoner van Winchester, Emma Reily, kyk hoe die indringers vertrek. 'Ek was een van die wonderlikste brille wat ooit gedink kan word terwyl hulle vertrek,' het sy geskryf. '10 000 ruiters wat by ons huis verbyloop, vier op die hoogte, volledig toegerus in elke detail. Die perde, wat al so lank in die winterkwartiere was, is hoog gevoer en gebraai en gevryf totdat hul jasse soos satyn blink. Elke man het 'n nuwe saal, toom en rooi kombers gehad, en al hul toebehore, soos swaarde, gordels, ens., Blink soos goud. Dit was 'n wonderlike gesig, wat ure verbygegaan het. ”

Terug by Staunton was Jubal Early nie so opgewonde oor die vertrek van die Federals nie. Omdat hy Sheridan teen hierdie tyd nog maar net te goed geken het, het die Konfederale bevelvoerder met reg aangeneem dat die vyandelike beweging nuwe gevegte voorgehou het. Spioene in Winchester en soldate wat waarnemingsposte op die nabygeleë Massanuttenberg beman, het reeds tekens van die naderende Unie -opmars opgespoor. Die konfederale privaat Henry Berkeley het sy bevelvoerende generaal se vrese in sy dagboek opgesom. "Ons hoor dat die Yanks 'n baie groot kavalleriemag by Winchester versamel en na verwagting die dal sal opkom sodra die weer dit toelaat," het Berkeley geskryf. 'Ek sien nie hoe dit moontlik is vir ons klein mag om teen hulle op te kom nie. Ons is slegs 1 500, hulle is 15 000. Hulle sal ons oorloop deur die gewig van getalle. Wie sal oorbly om die verhaal te vertel? ”

Soos dit was, het Berkeley die krag van die Federale met 'n derde oorskat, maar sy vrese is deur Early gedeel. Die hele winter het die generaal gebroei oor sy drie nederlae, veral die verlore geleentheid by Cedar Creek. Vroeër het Early sy eie mislukking op sy manne blameer en by Robert E. Lee gekla: "Ons het 'n heerlike oorwinning in ons greep gehad en dit verloor deur die onbeheerbare geneigdheid van ons manne om plundering." Omdat hy sy eie vertraging, selfs na Gordon se aansporing, om die aanvanklike aanval op te volg geïgnoreer het, het hy sy eie daaropvolgende terugtog die skuld gegee vir “paniek wat veroorsaak word deur 'n kranksinnige angs om geflankeer te word en 'n skrik vir die vyand se kavalerie.” Die terreur - of ten minste die vrees - was goed verdien. Twee keer tevore was die Konfederate by Winchester en Fisher's Hill buite die flank, en hul eie kavallerie is op Tom's Brook laat woel. Die gewone Konfederale voetsoldaat het goeie rede om die blou-bedekte Unie-ruiters te vrees, wat nie dieselfde vrees vir hul rebelle-eweknieë gehad het nie.


Jubal Early

Jubal Early was 'n senior Konfederale generaal tydens die Amerikaanse burgeroorlog. Vroeg is waarskynlik bekend vir sy gewaagde aanval op Washington DC teen die einde van die oorlog wat paniek in die hoofstad veroorsaak het en daartoe gelei het dat president Lincoln beveel het dat General Grant troepe van die Unie na die stad stuur om Early te verslaan.

Jubal Early is gebore op 3 November 1816 in Franklin County, Virginia. Hy is in 1833 opgeneem in die Amerikaanse Militêre Akademie by West Point en studeer in 1837. Na sy gradeplegtigheid het Early by die 3de Amerikaanse artillerieregiment aangesluit. Vroeg bedank sy kommissie in 1838 en neem die reg waar hy naam maak as aanklaer. Vroeg terug na die weermag van 1846 tot 1848 toe hy in die Mexikaans-Amerikaanse oorlog geveg het, voordat hy met sy regsloopbaan voortgegaan het.

Met sy suidelike agtergrond, sou verwag word dat Early die idee van afstigting ondersteun het sodra al die verskillende kwessies wat uitgeloop het op die uitbreek van die Amerikaanse burgeroorlog na vore gekom het. Dit is in werklikheid nie die geval nie. Teen April 1861 het dit duidelik geword dat Amerika op pad was na 'n burgeroorlog. Toe Virginia egter 'n byeenkoms gehou het om die standpunt van die staat te bespreek oor wie se kant dit was, het Early hom uitgespreek teen die uittrede van die Unie. Wat sy gedagtes verander het, was Lincoln se oproep om 75 000 vrywilligers uit die Noorde om die rebelse element in die Suide te onderdruk. Hierdie Early kon dit nie aanvaar nie, en hy het by die Virginia Militia aangesluit met die rang van brigadier -generaal. Sy taak was om drie regimente in te samel om die staat te verdedig. Vroeg is bevel gegee oor die 24ste Virginia Infanterie en die rang van kolonel in die Konfederale Weermag.

Tydens die Amerikaanse burgeroorlog het Early hoofsaaklik geveg in die sogenaamde Eastern Theatre. Sy eerste groot veldtog was die Eerste Slag van Bull Run in Julie 1861. Daar word algemeen aanvaar dat Early goed geveg het tydens hierdie geveg. Early het ook manne beveel tydens die grootste en beroemdste gevegte van die Amerikaanse burgeroorlog - Antietam, Gettysburg, Fredericksburg, ens. - en manne onder bevel van die vroeë gevange geneem York in Pennsylvania, die grootste uniedorp wat tydens die Amerikaanse burgeroorlog deur die Konfederasie verower is. Mans onder sy bevel het ook die Susquehanna -rivier bereik - die verste ooste in Pennsylvania wat enige Konfederale troepe tydens die oorlog gekry het.

Early se reputasie vir dapperheid in die veld en vasberade benadering het hom die liefde en bewondering van die soldate wat hy beveel het, gewen. Hy het die bynaam 'Old Jube' gekry. Senior bevelvoerders soos Robert E Lee en 'Stonewall' Jackson respekteer ook sy gevegsgeesdrif. Early was egter minder gewild onder junior offisiere onder sy bevel, aangesien hy kort van humeur was en hulle gereeld blameer vir besluite wat hy geneem het wat nie geslaag het nie. Terwyl Early dapper was op die gebied van die geveg - hy is in 1862 in Williamsburg gewond en sy manne in die geveg gelei het - het hy sy militêre mislukkings elders gehad. Vroeër het hy nooit die kuns bemeester om 'n groot aantal mans akkuraat te beweeg tydens 'n geveg nie, aangesien sy navigasievaardighede op die slagveld swak was. Maar dit was as 'n aggressiewe aanvallende bevelvoerder dat hy roem gevind het. Hierdie vroeë vertoon op Antietam, Cedar Mountain en Fredericksburg. Sy leierskapsvaardighede en algemene gewildheid onder sy manne het ook promosie meegebring en teen Januarie 1863 beklee Early die rang van generaal -majoor.

In 1864 beveel Lee Early om Unie -magte uit die Shenandoah -vallei te verwyder ter voorbereiding op 'n aanval op Washington DC. Lee het gehoop dat Lincoln, met die kapitaal van die Unie bedreig, Grant sou beveel om duisende Unie -troepe terug te trek om die hoofstad te verdedig en sodoende die konstante druk op die Konfederale magte te verlig - veral van mans onder bevel van William Sherman en Grant self. Early se 'Valley Campaign' het goed begin, maar hy het toe 'n fundamentele fout begaan. In plaas daarvan om sy manne dringend vorentoe te stoot na Washington, gee Early hulle twee dae rus van 4 Julie tot 6 Julie. Alhoewel dit sy mans in staat gestel het om te rus en te herstel, het dit Grant tyd gegee om mans na Washington te verhuis. Vroeër is die Slag van Monocacy verder vertraag en kon hy slegs aan die buitewyke van die stad kom. Die teenwoordigheid van sy leër naby die stad het egter paniek veroorsaak. Teen 12 Julie het dit vir Early duidelik geword dat hy nie oor voldoende manne beskik om die stad in te neem wat nou deur duisende troepe van die Unie verdedig is nie, en hy trek terug na Virginia. Grant en Lincoln het egter steeds geglo dat Early se mag 'n gevaar vir Washington inhou en 'n bevel is aan generaal -majoor Philip Sheridan gegee dat Early verslaan moes word. Wat in die Shenandoah-vallei ontstaan ​​het, was 'n mini-weergawe van Sherman se 'Total War' in Georgië. Sheridan het baie plase en boerderytoerusting vernietig sodat hulle nie die voortgesette bewegende weermag van Early kon voorsien nie. Een soldaat wat die resultate gesien het, het geskryf dat 'n groot deel van die vallei 'verwoes is'.

Die aanval op Early bereik 'n hoogtepunt in die Slag van Cedar Creek op 19 Oktober 1864. Early se weermag het goed gevaar aan die begin van die geveg. Wat daarna gebeur het, is nie heeltemal bekend nie. Vroeër later vir Lee in kennis gestel dat sy manne honger en uitgeput is en dat hulle die rye gebreek het, na die voormalige kwartiere van die Unie -leër gegaan het wat hulle teruggedruk het en dit deur die kos en drank geroof het. Daarom was hulle heeltemal onvoorbereid op 'n offensief deur Sheridan se manne later die middag en het hulle die stryd verloor. 'N Ondergeskikte offisier van Early's, John Gordon, het egter later geskryf dat dit Early self was wat sy manne beveel het om ses uur lank op te staan, waartydens hulle voedsel en ander broodnodige voorrade gevind het. Early beweer dat sy manne dissipline verloor het en hul eie geledere verbreek het. Gordon het beweer dat dit Early was wat hulle beveel het om op te staan. Hoe dan ook, hulle was onvoorbereid op die middagaanval en het die stryd verloor.

Die meeste van die manne van Early het teruggetrek om by Lee's Army of Northern Virginia aan te sluit. Vroeg het sommige van sy manne in die vallei gebly om die magte van die Unie daar te belemmer. In Maart 1865 het Early 'n nederlaag op Waynesboro gely en Lee het Early onwillig van sy bevel onthef, omdat hy geglo het dat Early nie meer inspirerende leierskap kon bied nie.

Early aanvaar die oorgawe op 9 April 1865 nie en vlug na Texas waar hy die stryd wil voortsit. Toe dit duidelik word dat die magte van die Suide ernstig verswak is, het hy na Mexiko, Kuba en daarna Kanada gegaan. Terwyl hy in Toronto was, het Early sy memoires geskryf, wat konsentreer op die Valley -veldtog: "A Memoir of the Last Year of the Independence of War, in the Confederate States of America". Eerder as om die oorlog as 'n burgeroorlog te beskou, beskou Early dit as 'n oorlog van suidelike onafhanklikheid uit die noorde.

Jubal Early het in 1868 'n presidensiële kwytskelding gekry en in 1869 na Virginia teruggekeer waar hy sy loopbaan in die regte hervat het. Diegene wat nog steeds geglo het in waarvoor die Suide geveg het, het rondom hom saamgedrom en hy het 'n voorstander geword van die 'Lost Cause' -beweging. Alhoewel dit duidelik was dat die Suide nie na 1865 militêr die stryd aangesê het nie, het Early en sy talle ondersteuners geglo dat hulle 'n plig het om die wêreld te vertel van die Amerikaanse burgeroorlog vanuit hul oogpunt.


Stop Jubal vroeg

Die boodskap van die oorlogsekretaris kom tot die punt.

"Mnr. President, daar word berig dat die vyand vorder na Tenallytown en Seventh street road, ”skryf Edwin M. Stanton aan Abraham Lincoln. 'Hulle is groot en het ons Kavallerie teruggedryf. Ek dink dit is beter om vanaand die stad in te kom. ”

Laat op die aand van 10 Julie 1864, het Stanton se waarskuwing gelei deur 'n ontwikkeling wat net weke tevore ondenkbaar gelyk het: 'n Konfederale mag van ongeveer 15 000 troepe, wat in die Shenandoah -vallei marsjeer en dan oos deur Maryland, het die buitewyke van die District of Columbia en dreig om na die hoofstad van die Verenigde State te trek.

Stanton het kennis geneem van 'n gemeenskap noord van die stad Washington en 'n belangrike deurpad wat die hoofstad met die noorde verbind. Maar sy onmiddellike bekommernis was baie meer betekenisvol. Lincoln en sy gesin, wat die onderdrukkende hitte van Washington vermy het, het die somer by hul huisie by die Soldiers 'Home drie myl noord van die Withuis deurgebring. Aangesien Rebelle onder bevel van luitenant -generaal Jubal Early gevorder het na die noordelike dele van die hoofstad, was die veiligheid van die Lincolns in gevaar, weg van die Executive Mansion.

Baie hang in die weegskaal toe die president voldoen aan die pleidooi van Stanton. Behalwe dat die beleërde Rebelle 'n verstommende militêre triomf gegee het na 'n bestendige reeks terugslae, het 'n suksesvolle aanval op Washington belowe om die politieke fondamente van die Noordelike oorlogspoging omver te werp deur Lincoln se herkiesingsvooruitsigte te laat sterf.

Die Lincoln -administrasie was veral kwesbaar in die somer van 1864. Die Army of the Potomac, diep in Virginia, is deur 'n desperate vyand vasgeval in 'n reeks bloedige verbintenisse. Net in Mei, toe unie- en rebellemagte in die gevegte van die Wilderness and Spotsylvania Court House verstrengel geraak het, het die noordelike slagoffers 44 000 getel, met min te toon vir hierdie enorme opoffering.

Namate die offensief van die Unie in Virginia tot stilstand gekom het, het die verset teen Lincoln se bestuur van die oorlog toegeneem. "Copperhead" -demokrate wat vrede met die Suide bevoordeel het, het meer uitgesproke geword. Die onluste deur Ierse immigrante het die jaar tevore in New York uitgebreek, maar anti-oorlogsgevoelens het hoog geloop, selfs in die Republikeinse hart van die Ou Noordwes. In die oostelike setelstad Charleston in die oostelike Illinois, nie ver van waar Lincoln se stiefma gewoon het nie, het Copperheads en soldate teruggekeer na hul regimente einde Maart. Die geveg, wat nege dood en 12 gewond gelaat het, was slegs een van verskeie sulke voorvalle wat in die omgewing ontplof het.

'Ons het nog altyd geglo', het die Joliet, Ill., Sein verklaar, "dat hierdie oorlog deur die Republikeinse party aangevoer is en deur die party gevoed en aan die lewe gehou is." Namate die oorlog voortgesit het, het dit gelyk asof hierdie oortuiging veld wen.

Ook in Republikeinse kringe het ontevredenheid met Lincoln hoog geloop. In wat beskou is as 'n slag vir die radikale vleuel van die party, bedank die tesourie -minister, Salmon P. Chase van Ohio, een van Lincoln se mededingers vir die Republikeinse presidensiële nominasie in 1860, einde Junie. 'Daar was twee elemente in die kabinet, die konserwatiewe en die radikale. Dit was in 'n oorlog, soos altyd, onder alle omstandighede en op alle plekke, "het die Emporia, Kan. Nuus geskryf het. 'Aan die hoof van laasgenoemde het mnr. Chase gestaan.'

Kort voordat Republikeine in Baltimore vergader het om Lincoln vir 'n tweede termyn aan te wys, het die party se presidentskandidaat in 1856, John C. Frémont, die benoeming aanvaar van 'n rump -konvensie van Republikeinse radikale en Copperheads wat verenig was in hul opposisie teen die president. Intussen het George B. McClellan, nog steeds baie gewild, ondanks die feit dat hy in 1862 as bevelvoerder van die Army of the Potomac ontslaan is, bereid om die Demokratiese benoeming vir president te ontvang tydens die party se kongres in Augustus in Chicago.

Met die sentiment teen die oorlog wat toeneem en die Republikeine demoraliseer en verdeeld is, kyk die Demokrate vooruit na die herfsverkiesings en ruik na oorwinning. Robert E. Lee, neergeval teen Ulysses S. Grant in die omgewing van die beleërde Petersburg, kyk wes na die Shenandoah -vallei en sien kans.

'Ek dink 'n baie goeie offisier moet dadelik na die vallei gestuur word om daar bevel te neem,' skryf Lee op 6 Junie aan die Konfederale president Jefferson Davis. plaaslike inwoners. Maar binne 'n week het sy denke oorgegaan tot iets meer ambisieus.

Op 12 Junie het Lee vir Early gesê om 'n infanteriekorps met twee bataljons artillerie voor te berei om vanuit die omgewing van Cold Harbor weswaarts te gaan. Later die dag het Early sy skriftelike bevele van Lee ontvang. Hulle was asemrowend in hul vermetelheid.

Lee wou hê dat Early en sy troepe na die Shenandoah -vallei moes vertrek en die uniemagte sou aanval onder bevel van genl.maj David Hunter. Nadat hulle Hunter verslaan het, moes hulle noordwaarts in die vallei marsjeer na Winchester, die Potomac oorsteek by Harpers Ferry of Leesburg, Va. Boonop hoop Lee ook dat Early troepe kan stuur om rebelle te bevry wat in die krygsgevangenekamp in Point Lookout, Md.

Die generaal wat aangekla is van die uitvoering van Lee se ambisieuse plan, was 'n ywerige rebel. Jubal Anderson Early, gebore in 1816 in Franklin County, Va., Studeer aan West Point met 'n kommissie as tweede luitenant. Sy loopbaan in die Amerikaanse weermag het min meer as 'n jaar geduur, maar Early het later onder die Stars and Stripes in die Mexikaanse oorlog geveg as majoor in 'n regiment van vrywilligers in Virginia.

Toe die Virginia -konvensie in 1861 oor afstigting debatteer, tel Early aanvanklik onder sy teenstanders, maar word hy gou 'n toegewyde kampioen van opstand. Hy het ook geen twyfel oor slawerny gehad nie. "Rede, gesonde verstand, ware menslikheid vir die swartes, sowel as veiligheid vir die blanke ras, vereis dat die minderwaardige ras ondergeskik moet bly," het hy gemeen.

Toe die oorlog 'n kolonel was, veg hy by First Bull Run en kry lewensgevaarlike wonde in die Slag van Williamsburg in 1862, maar herstel en word bevorder tot brigadier-generaal. Hy dien die volgende jaar onder Lee in Gettysburg en veg in die Wildernis, Spotsylvania en Cold Harbour. Die mercurial bachelor, besit van wat Die Washington Post in 1894 genaamd "eienaardige temperament -eksentrisiteite waardeur hy vriendelike vriende net so maklik verloor het as wat hy hom gemaak het", is nou 'n operasie toevertrou wat die verloop van die oorlog dramaties kan verander.

Aangevuur deur sy passie vir die Konfederale saak, het Early min tyd mors. Die volgende dag om 02:00 - een uur voor die vertrektyd wat Lee bepaal het - vertrek hy na die vallei.

Die element van verrassing was noodsaaklik, het Lee vir Davis gesê. "Aangesien geheimhouding 'n belangrike element van genl. Early se ekspedisie is, smeek ek u Edele om kennis te stuur aan al die koerante om nie te verwys na enige beweging, deur insinuasie of andersins nie."

Hunter, wat oos van die vallei na Lynchburg gevorder het, het in elk geval vinnig uitgevind oor Early se bewegings. Nadat hy vroeg in die omgewing van Lynchburg teëgekom het, het hy diep in Wes -Virginia teruggetrek en die vallei vir die rebelle oorgelaat. Die oorwinning het Early in staat gestel om sy honger en moeë troepe, wat byna voortdurend op pad was sedert die ekspedisie begin het, 'n rusdag te gee.

Nou vergesel van magte onder bevel van genl.maj John C. Breckinridge, het Early kortliks nadink oor sy volgende stap. Miskien gepla deur tweede gedagtes, het Lee verskeie telegramme gestuur wat daarop dui dat Early kan besluit om in die Shenandoah -vallei te bly of terug te keer na die stryd teen Grant se magte eerder as om na Washington te gaan. Maar Early was gretig om voort te gaan. 'Ek het vasbeslote om die oorspronklike ontwerp ten alle gevare aan te hou uitvoer, en my doel om die beweging voort te sit, aan generaal Lee getelegrafeer.'

Vroeg het vinnig in die vallei gevorder. Teen 2 Julie het sy magte in Winchester aangekom, waar hy besluit het om die Potomac by Harpers Ferry oor te steek eerder as Leesburg. Twee dae later het die Unie -magte Harpers Ferry ontruim. Gryp gou die beheer oor die wapendorp en neem die Unie terug in vestings in Maryland Heights. Die Rebelle beset daarna Hagerstown, Md., Waar hulle 'n heffing van $ 20 000 onttrek het. Hulle was nou gereed om ooswaarts te gaan.

In Washington, terwyl die kabinet van Lincoln geniet het van die ondergang van die Konfederale aanvaller voor die kus van Frankryk in Junie, Alabama Early se vooruitgang veroorsaak iets tussen selfgenoegsaamheid en ligte kommer. '' N Someraanval deur die rebelle in die vallei van die Shenandoah en die vang van Harper's Ferry is opwindende sake, en tog is die oorlogsdepartement nie geneig om die feite bekend te maak nie, 'het vlootsekretaris Gideon Welles in sy dagboek op 6 Julie opgemerk.' Ons het altyd het groot skrik uit daardie kwartaal, en soms redelik ernstige realiteite. ”

Gedurende die volgende paar dae het die Rebel -bedreiging skrikwekkender geword namate die Konfederate Boonsboro beset en verder Washington toe gegaan het. Welles het geglo dat die oorlogsdepartement oorval is met onbewuste "dunderheads" wat blind was vir die gevare wat vroeg inhou, maar dit was nie heeltemal akkuraat nie. Lew Wallace, 'n inwoner van Indiana wat die bevel gehad het oor die VIII Corps in Baltimore, was noukeurig besig om die opmars van die Konfederasie te monitor.

Net soos Early, 'n veteraan uit die Meksikaanse Oorlog, het Wallace die 3de afdeling van Grant gelei tydens die Unie -oorwinning in Fort Donelson in Februarie 1862. Toe in April in Shiloh is hy kritiek gekritiseer omdat sy afdeling, wat 'n paar uur vertraag was op swak paaie, nie bereik die slagveld tot 19:00, te laat om by te dra tot die eerste dag se geveg. Daaropvolgende stryery met Grant, wat Wallace ná die geveg van sy bevel onthef het, en die generaal-generaal van die Unie, Henry W. Halleck, het Wallace 'n tyd lank van kant gemaak, maar nou was Hoosier al wat tussen Early en Washington was.

In 'n memoir wat die verhaalvertellings weerspieël wat 'n mens sou verwag van die skrywer van Ben-Hur, Onthou Wallace dat hy telegramme ontvang het wat hom in kennis gestel het van rebellebewegings na die weste. Deur die steeds kommerwekkender nuus, het Wallace 'n treinrit van middernag na Monocacy Junction op 5 Julie geneem om 'n eerstehandse blik op die strategies belangrike posisie te kry, wat toevallig die westelike grens van die militêre departement onder sy bevel was.

Terwyl hy die terrein bestudeer, kon Wallace sien dat brûe vir die Baltimore & Ohio Railroad sowel as die Georgetown Pike - die pad na Washington - oor die rivier strek. Drie myl na die weste, sy kerktorings wat van die rivier af sigbaar was, was die stad Frederick, verbind met Baltimore deur 'n derde brug oor die Monocacy.

Alhoewel onseker was of die rebelle van plan was om na Baltimore of Washington te beweeg, het Wallace een feit oor Early duidelik begryp: 'Alles wat bekend is en alles wat moontlik is', het aangedui dat die opkomende Konfederate die troepe op sy bevel aansienlik groter was.

Wallace het beraam dat hy 2300 troepe gehad het, baie “rou en onbeproefd”. Maar op 7 Julie het B & ampO Railroad President J.W. Garrett het meegedeel dat 'n 'groot aantal veterane' wat deur Grant gestuur is, in Baltimore aangekom het en so gou moontlik na Frederick gestuur sal word.

En nie 'n oomblik te gou nie. Op 8 Julie kampeer Breckinridge en genl.maj. Stephen D. Ramseur naby Middletown terwyl brig. Genl Watt Ransom het Catoctin Mountain gehou. Wallace het rebellebewegings dopgehou en onwillig teruggetrek van Frederick. 'Die stad het ongetwyfeld sy ontroue faksie gehad', onthou hy, maar ook 'sy legioen het siel en beursie aan die Unie gewy. En dit was moeilik om hulle te laat vaar. ” Deur Wallace se vrese te bevestig, het Early Frederick die volgende dag beset en 'n heffing van $ 200 000 van sy burgers afgestaan.

Terug aan die oostekant van die Monocacy, wag Wallace angstig op versterkings. In die vroeë oggendure van 9 Julie het 'n geringe oorgewig besoeker, "vinnig en bluf in sy manier en spraak, Celtic in voorkoms en gelaatskleur", hom uit 'n goeie slaap opgewek. Dit was brig. Genl. James B. Ricketts, bevelvoerder oor 'n afdeling van die VI Corps, met ongeveer 5000 troepe. Hulle het die situasie langs die rivier kortliks bespreek voordat Ricketts vertrek het. 'N Verligte Wallace gaan slaap terug "en slaap nooit meer rustig nie."

Na ontbyt die oggend, het hy langs die blaas langs die spoorwegbrug langs die rivier gestap om sy verdediging te ondersoek. Op die nabygeleë John T. Worthington -boerdery het slawe wat in die veld werk, geglo buzzards wat oor die hoof vlieg, was 'n slegte teken, maar Wallace is deur die pastorale toneel voor hom getref. 'Orals lees ek die belofte van 'n pragtige somersdag. Daar was nie 'n spikkeltjie in die lug nie, en die nag wat vertrek het, het 'n koelte in die lug heerlik en verfrissend gelaat. "

Die seisoenale idille was laat in die oggend verby, toe die Konfederale kavallerie onder leiding van brig. Genl John McCausland het die Monocacy oorgesteek. Toe hulle oor die rivier was, het die afgetrede rebelle versigtig deur Worthington se velde gegaan. Toe hulle gevorder het, het 'n lyn van Union infanterie uit die Ricketts -afdeling skielik agter 'n heining en rye koring gestyg. Terwyl hulle hul muskiete op die reling laat rus, het die Unie -troepe oopgemaak

weer met 'n 'moorddadige volley' wat die troepe van McCausland uitgeskakel het. 'Van ver af het die hele Rebel -lyn verdwyn asof dit in die aarde ingesluk is,' onthou Worthington se seun, Glenn, wat as 'n seuntjie van 6 die stryd aanskou het uit 'n keldervenster van die plaashuis van sy gesin. Die oorlewende Rebelle het verstom teruggekeer in wanorde. McCausland het 'n paar uur later 'n tweede aanval uitgevoer. 'Dit was vrag en vuur, vrag en vuur,' onthou Worthington. 'Dood, vermoor, vermoor, en hulle was broers, ook almal Amerikaanse burgers, nou vreemd verdeeld en teenoor mekaar in 'n dodelike geveg.' Die uitslag was baie soos die eerste aanval. Die troepe van Ricketts het hul posisie beklee en die Konfederate het teruggetrek.

Terwyl hy die vordering van die geveg volg, hou Wallace die tyd dop. Elke uur is Vroeg vertraag, mits Grant, wat die gebeure vanuit Virginia dopgehou het, meer tyd gehad het om verdediging rondom Washington te ondersteun. Laatmiddag probeer die Konfederate weer. Hierdie keer het Breckinridge en genl.maj John B. Gordon daarin geslaag waar McCausland misluk het. Die opmars het Ricketts se manne gedwing om grond te gee en het die spoorbrug oopgemaak sodat Ramseur se troepe kon oorsteek.

Die Rebelle het die dag gedra, maar Wallace het geglo dat hy iets belangriker bereik het. '' N Gevoel van verligting het by my opgekom ', het hy later geskryf, want' as die dag vir my verlore sou gaan, sou General Early dalk nie daarby baat nie. Gemeet aan sy ontwerpe en die belangrikheid van tyd vir sy saak, was my verlies skaars 'n knippie goeie ou Skotse snuif werd. "

Miskien het trots op sy taktiese triomf Wallace die tol van die geveg in die menslike lewe laat verdwyn. Die ongevalle van die getal Unie -magte het byna 1300 bereik, terwyl Early 900 van sy mans verloor het. Onder die gewondes was kolonel William Seward Jr., die seun van Lincoln se minister van buitelandse sake, wat beseer is toe sy perd geval het nadat hy geskiet is. Die Konfederate het 'n ander kabinetsgesin pyn toegedien toe hulle die landgoed Montgomery Blair, Lincoln se posmeester -generaal, afgedank en verbrand het.

Op 'n dag na die Rebel -oorwinning by Monocacy, het Welles verneem dat 'n buurman se seun deur die konfederate in die District of Columbia gevang is.

Maar Wallace het korrek beweer dat die weerstand van die Unie by Monocacy Junction kritieke tyd gekos het. Nadat hy die afdeling van Ricketts na Baltimore gestuur het, stuur Grant ekstra troepe - die res van die VI -korps onder genl.maj. Horatio G. Wright en die XIX -korps wat pas uit Louisiana teruggekeer het - om te help met die verdediging van die land se hoofstad.

'Die rebelle is op ons', skryf Welles in sy dagboek op 11 Julie. Maar toe sy troepe bymekaarkom vir die aanval, het Early en sy bevelvoerders ''n stofwolk agter in die werke in die rigting van Washington gesien'. Die Unie -versterkings wat Grant gestuur het, het aangebreek. Before long, columns of Federal troops fled into Fort Stevens. Artillery and skirmishers deployed. Without the element of surprise working in his favor, Early chose to wait.

Early had other reasons to hesitate. Weeks of marching and battle had weakened the host massed before Fort Stevens. Dust and intense heat on the road from Monocacy Junction made matters worse, and Early lost some troops to sunstroke as he approached Washington. Many of his fighters lacked shoes, and casualties incurred at Lynchburg and Monocacy had reduced the number of Rebels under arms. Meanwhile, newspaper reports indicated that Gen. Hunter was headed back by way of the Ohio River and would soon be at Harpers Ferry.

After consulting with his commanders on the evening of July 11, Early decided to attack the next day. But as dawn broke and he surveyed the scene before him, he realized how unfavorable his prospects had become. Early spied Union troops at the parapets of Fort Stevens, and had received reports that Grant was sending more reinforcements. With the Capitol dome in view, Early concluded that, although he had “given the Federal authorities a terrible fright,” he was not going to capture Washington.

Nevertheless, the Rebels engaged with Federal troops over the course of two days. As at First Bull Run, the fighting drew the curious from the city, who lined nearby hills, climbed into trees and perched on fences to watch the battle unfold. Among those drawn to the action was Lincoln, who made two visits to Fort Stevens and was roughly told by someone in blue—possibly future Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr.—to get out of the line of fire.

Lincoln survived the skirmishing at Fort Stevens and prospered at the polls that November. Frémont abandoned his bid for the White House in September. Wallace went on to a distinguished career as an author and diplomat, serving as U.S. minister to Turkey. After failing to seize Washington or win the freedom of Southern POWs at Point Lookout, Early retreated into Virginia and continued to fight until he was relieved of command weeks before the surrender at Appomattox. He died in 1894, unreconciled to the Southern defeat but comforted by the knowledge that he had terrified Washington 30 years before.

Journalist Robert B. Mitchell has written about the Trent Affair, the Underground Railroad and Davis County, Iowa for America’s Civil War. He loves bluegrass, as long as he doesn’t have to cut it.

Originally published in the July 2014 issue of America’s Civil War. Klik hier om in te teken.


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About Lt. General Jubal Early (CSA)

The profile picture, original is in the Special Collections at the Library of Congress.

Jubal Anderson Early (November 3, 1816 – March 2, 1894) was a lawyer and Confederate general in the American Civil War. He served under Stonewall Jackson and then Robert E. Lee for almost the entire war, rising from regimental command to lieutenant general and the command of an infantry corps in the Army of Northern Virginia. He was the Confederate commander in key battles of the Valley Campaigns of 1864, including a daring raid to the outskirts of Washington, D.C. The articles written by him for the Southern Historical Society in the 1870s established the Lost Cause point of view as a long-lasting literary and cultural phenomenon.

Early was born in Franklin County, Virginia, third of ten children of Ruth Hairston and Joab Early. He graduated from the United States Military Academy in 1837, ranked 18th of 50. During his tenure at the Academy he was engaged in a dispute with a fellow cadet named Lewis Addison Armistead. Armistead broke a mess plate over Early's head, an incident that prompted Armistead's resignation from the Academy. After graduating from the Academy, Early fought against the Seminole in Florida as a second lieutenant in the 3rd U.S. Artillery regiment before resigning from the Army for the first time in 1838. He practiced law in the 1840s as a prosecutor for both Franklin and Floyd Counties in Virginia. He was noted for a case in Mississippi, where he beat the top lawyers in the state. His law practice was interrupted by the Mexican-American War from 1846�. He served in the Virginia House of Delegates from 1841�.

Early was a Whig and strongly opposed secession at the April 1861 Virginia convention for that purpose. However, he was soon aroused by the actions of the Federal government when President Abraham Lincoln called for 75,000 volunteers to suppress the rebellion. He accepted a commission as a brigadier general in the Virginia Militia. He was sent to Lynchburg, Virginia, to raise three regiments and then commanded one of them, the 24th Virginia Infantry, as a colonel in the Confederate States Army.

Early was promoted to brigadier general after the First Battle of Bull Run (or First Manassas) in July 1861. In that battle, he displayed valor at Blackburn's Ford and impressed General P.G.T. Beauregard. He fought in most of the major battles in the Eastern Theater, including the Seven Days Battles, Second Bull Run, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, and numerous battles in the Shenandoah Valley. During the Gettysburg Campaign, Early's Division occupied York, Pennsylvania, the largest Northern town to fall to the Rebels during the war.

Early was trusted and supported by Robert E. Lee, the commander of the Army of Northern Virginia. Lee affectionately called Early his "Bad Old Man," because of his short temper. He appreciated Early's aggressive fighting and ability to command units independently. Most of Early's soldiers referred to him as "Old Jube" or "Old Jubilee" with enthusiasm and affection. His subordinate generals often felt little affection. Early was an inveterate fault-finder and offered biting criticism of his subordinates at the least opportunity. He was generally blind to his own mistakes and reacted fiercely to criticism or suggestions from below.

Early was wounded at Williamsburg in 1862, while leading a charge against staggering odds.

He convalesced at his home in Rocky Mount, Virginia. In two months, he returned to the war, under the command of Maj. Gen. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson, in time for the Battle of Malvern Hill. There, Early demonstrated his career-long lack of aptitude for battlefield navigation and his brigade was lost in the woods it suffered 33 casualties without any significant action. In the Northern Virginia Campaign, Early was noted for his performance at the Battle of Cedar Mountain and arrived in the nick of time to reinforce Maj. Gen. A.P. Hill on Jackson's left on Stony Ridge in the Second Battle of Bull Run.

At Antietam, Early ascended to division command when his commander, Alexander Lawton, was wounded. Lee was impressed with his performance and retained him at that level. At Fredericksburg, Early saved the day by counterattacking the division of Maj. Gen. George G. Meade, which penetrated a gap in Jackson's lines. He was promoted to major general on January 17, 1863. At Chancellorsville, Lee gave him a force of 5,000 men to defend Fredericksburg at Marye's Heights against superior forces (two corps) under Maj. Gen. John Sedgwick. Early was able to delay the Union forces and pin down Sedgwick while Lee and Jackson attacked the remainder of the Union troops to the west. Sedgwick's eventual attack on Early up Marye's Heights is sometimes known as the Second Battle of Fredericksburg.

During the Gettysburg Campaign, Early commanded a division in the corps of Lt. Gen. Richard S. Ewell. His troops were instrumental in defeating Union defenders at Winchester, capturing a number of prisoners, and opening up the Shenandoah Valley for Lee's oncoming forces. Early's division, augmented with cavalry, eventually marched eastward across the South Mountain range in Pennsylvania, seizing vital supplies and horses along the way. He captured Gettysburg on June 26 and demanded a ransom, which was never paid. Two days later, he entered York County and seized York, the largest Northern town to fall to the Confederates during the war. Here, his ransom demands were partially met, including a payment of $28,000 in cash. Elements of Early's command on June 28 reached the Susquehanna River, the farthest east in Pennsylvania that any organized Confederate force would penetrate. On June 30, Early was recalled as Lee concentrated his army to meet the oncoming Federals.

Approaching Gettysburg from the northeast on July 1, 1863, Early's division was on the leftmost flank of the Confederate line. He soundly defeated Brig. Gen. Francis Barlow's division (part of the Union XI Corps), inflicting three times the casualties to the defenders as he suffered, and drove the Union troops back through the streets of town, capturing many of them. In the second day at Gettysburg, he assaulted East Cemetery Hill as part of Ewell's efforts on the Union right flank. Despite initial success, Union reinforcements arrived to repulse Early's two brigades. On the third day, Early detached one brigade to assist Maj. Gen. Edward "Allegheny" Johnson's division in an unsuccessful assault on Culp's Hill. Elements of Early's division covered the rear of Lee's army during its retreat from Gettysburg on July 4 and July 5.

Early served in the Shenandoah Valley over the winter of 1863�. During this period, he occasionally filled in as corps commander during Ewell's absences for illness. On May 31, 1864, Lee expressed his confidence in Early's initiative and abilities at higher command levels, promoting him to the temporary rank of lieutenant general.

Upon his return from the Valley, Early fought in the Battle of the Wilderness and assumed command of the ailing A.P. Hill's Third Corps during the march to intercept Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant at Spotsylvania Court House. At Spotsylvania, Early occupied the relatively quiet right flank of the Mule Shoe. At the Battle of Cold Harbor, Lee replaced the ineffectual Ewell with Early as commander of the Second Corps.

Early's most important service was that summer and fall, in the Valley Campaigns of 1864, when he commanded the Confederacy's last invasion of the North. As Confederate territory was rapidly being captured by the Union armies of Grant and Maj. Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman, Lee sent Early's corps to sweep Union forces from the Shenandoah Valley and to menace Washington, D.C., hoping to compel Grant to dilute his forces against Lee around Richmond and Petersburg, Virginia.

Early delayed his march for several days in a futile attempt to capture a small force under Franz Sigel at Maryland Heights near Harpers Ferry. He rested his men from July 4 through July 6. Although elements of his army would eventually reach the outskirts of Washington at a time when it was largely undefended, his delay at Maryland Heights prevented him from being able to attack the capital.

During the time of Early's Maryland Heights campaign, Grant sent two VI Corps divisions from the Army of the Potomac to reinforce Union Maj. Gen. Lew Wallace. With 5,800 men, he delayed Early for an entire day at the Battle of Monocacy, allowing more Union troops to arrive in Washington and strengthen its defenses. Early's invasion caused considerable panic in Washington and Baltimore, and he was able to get to the outskirts of Washington. He sent some cavalry under Brig. Gen. John McCausland to the west side of Washington.

Knowing that he did not have sufficient strength to capture the city, Early led skirmishes at Fort Stevens and Fort DeRussy. The opposing forces also had artillery duels on July 11 and July 12. Abraham Lincoln watched the fighting on both days from the parapet at Fort Stevens, his lanky frame a clear target for hostile military fire. After Early withdrew, he said to one of his officers, "Major, we haven't taken Washington, but we scared Abe Lincoln like hell."

Early crossed the Potomac into Leesburg, Virginia, on July 13 and then withdrew to the Valley. He defeated the Union army under Brig. Gen. George H. Crook at Kernstown on July 24, 1864. Six days later, he ordered his cavalry to burn the city of Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, in retaliation for Maj. Gen. David Hunter's burning of the homes of several prominent Southern sympathizers in Jefferson County, West Virginia earlier that month. Through early August, Early's cavalry and guerrilla forces attacked the B&O Railroad in various places.

Realizing Early could easily attack Washington, Grant sent out an army under Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan to subdue his forces. At times outnumbering the Confederates three to one, Sheridan defeated Early in three battles, starting in early August, and laid waste to much of the agricultural properties in the Valley. He ensured they could not supply Lee's army. In a brilliant surprise attack, Early routed two thirds of the Union army at the Battle of Cedar Creek on October 19, 1864. In his post-battle dispatch to Lee, Early claimed that his troops were hungry and exhausted and fell out of their ranks to pillage the Union camp. This allowed Sheridan critical time to rally his demoralized troops and turn their morning defeat into victory over the Confederate Army that afternoon. One of Early's key subordinates, Maj. Gen. John B. Gordon, in his 1904 memoirs, attested that it was Early's decision to halt the attack for six hours in the early afternoon, and not disorganization in the ranks, that led to the rout that took place in the afternoon.

Most of the men of Early's corps rejoined Lee at Petersburg in December, while Early remained in the Valley to command a skeleton force. When his force was nearly destroyed at Waynesboro, Early barely escaped capture with a few members of his staff. Lee relieved Early of his command in March 1865, because he doubted Early's ability to inspire confidence in the men he would have to recruit to continue operations. He wrote to Early of the difficulty of this decision:

"While my own confidence in your ability, zeal, and devotion to the cause is unimpaired, I have nevertheless felt that I could not oppose what seems to be the current of opinion, without injustice to your reputation and injury to the service. I therefore felt constrained to endeavor to find a commander who would be more likely to develop the strength and resources of the country, and inspire the soldiers with confidence. . [Thank you] for the fidelity and energy with which you have always supported my efforts, and for the courage and devotion you have ever manifested in the service . & quot

– Robert E. Lee, letter to Early

.When the Army of Northern Virginia surrendered on April 9, 1865, Early escaped to Texas by horseback, where he hoped to find a Confederate force still holding out. He proceeded to Mexico, and from there, sailed to Cuba and Canada. Living in Toronto, he wrote his memoir, A Memoir of the Last Year of the War for Independence, in the Confederate States of America, which focused on his Valley Campaign. The book was published in 1867.

Early was pardoned in 1868 by President Andrew Johnson, but still remained an unreconstructed rebel. In 1869, he returned to Virginia and resumed the practice of law. He was among the most vocal of those who promoted the Lost Cause movement. He criticized the actions of Lt. Gen. James Longstreet at Gettysburg. Together with retired General P.G.T. Beauregard, Early was involved with the Louisiana Lottery.

At the age of 77, after falling down a flight of stairs, Early died in Lynchburg, Virginia. He was buried in the local Spring Hill Cemetery.

Tablet honoring Jubal Early, Rocky Mount, VirginiaEarly's original inspiration for his views on the Lost Cause may have come from General Robert E. Lee. In Lee's published farewell order to the Army of Northern Virginia, the general spoke of the "overwhelming resources and numbers" that the Confederate army fought against. In a letter to Early, Lee requested information about enemy strengths from May 1864 to April 1865, the period in which his army was engaged against Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant (the Overland Campaign and the Siege of Petersburg). Lee wrote, "My only object is to transmit, if possible, the truth to posterity, and do justice to our brave Soldiers." Lee requested all "statistics as regards numbers, destruction of private property by the Federal troops, &c." because he intended to demonstrate the discrepancy in strength between the two armies. He believed it would "be difficult to get the world to understand the odds against which we fought." Referring to newspaper accounts that accused him of culpability in the loss, he wrote, "I have not thought proper to notice, or even to correct misrepresentations of my words & acts. We shall have to be patient, & suffer for awhile at least. . At present the public mind is not prepared to receive the truth." All of these were themes that Early and the Lost Cause writers would echo for decades.

Lost Cause themes were also taken up by memorial associations, such as the United Confederate Veterans and the United Daughters of the Confederacy. To some degree, this concept helped the (white) Southerners to cope with the dramatic social, political, and economic changes in the postbellum era, including Reconstruction.

Early's contributions to the Confederacy's final days were considered very significant. Some historians contend that he extended the war six to nine months because of his efforts at Washington, D.C., and in the Valley. The following quote summarizes an opinion held by his admirers:

"Honest and outspoken, honorable and uncompromising, Jubal A. Early epitomized much that was the Southern Confederacy. His self-reliance, courage, sagacity, and devotion to the cause brought confidence then just as it inspires reverence now".

– James I. Robertson, Jr., Alumni Distinguished Professor of History, Virginia Tech Member of the Board, Jubal A. Early Preservation Trust


Dick Cheney, Jubal Early and the Truth About Gettysburg

What the Lost Cause of the Confederacy can tell us about the debate over Iraq today.

There’s nothing so unseemly as the Washington blame game. We saw it 60 years ago, in the early 1950s, when Joe McCarthy accused Gen. George Marshall and Secretary of State Dean Acheson of turning China over to the communists. And we’ve seen it over the past few weeks, as Dick Cheney and Bill Clinton traded accusations over who was responsible for the debacle in Iraq.

But the mother of all blame games remains relatively unknown to most Americans, though it lasted for 100 years, involved the reputations of some of our nation’s most iconic figures and touched on our country’s most sensitive political and social issues—slavery, race and equal rights. And it’s still with us.

The story begins on Jan. 19, 1872, when former Confederate Gen. Jubal Early gave an address at Washington and Lee University celebrating the life of Robert E. Lee, who was born on that date and who had died two years earlier. Early extolled Lee’s genius. In fact, Early claimed, Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia would have won the Battle of Gettysburg, the turning point in the Civil War, if his orders had been obeyed. Early recounted the three-day battle, which raged from July 1 to July 3, 1863 (151 years ago this week), noting that after soundly beating the Union Army on July 1, Lee planned to attack it again with Gen. James Longstreet’s units at sunrise the next day. But that sunrise attack, Early noted ominously, had never taken place.

Exactly one year later, Confederate Gen. William Pendleton repeated and then expanded on Early’s allegation. Lee, according to Pendleton, had not only wanted to attack the Northern army at sunrise on July 2, but he’d given Longstreet explicit orders to do so. These orders, Pendleton said, were ignored. Pendleton then went on to argue that if Longstreet had not disobeyed Lee, the Battle of Gettysburg would have been won and, with it, Southern independence. If Longstreet had only followed orders, Pendleton added, Lee would not have been forced to attack the Union Army in their entrenchments with Pickett’s division on July 3, which, we all know, turned out to be a disaster for the South—forever memorialized as “the high-water mark of the Confederacy.”

So it was that “the sunrise attack order” of July 2, 1863, entered American history as a fact, and was treated as such for the next 100 years. In 1934, Lee biographer Douglas Southall Freeman, who had grown up near Early’s home in Lynchburg, Virginia, published his celebrated four-volume biography of Lee, which was awarded the Pulitzer Prize. In it, Freeman backed Early’s claim and speculated that Longstreet had disobeyed the sunrise attack order because his own “long cherished” plan for fighting the battle had been rejected. Instead of following Lee’s orders, wrote Freeman, Longstreet was stewing in his tent, “eating his heart away in sullen resentment.”

Very dramatic. Of course there is a glaring problem with all of this, which is that no one has ever found a copy of the order and no one who was present with Lee and Longstreet when Lee allegedly gave the order remembers him doing so. So, as historians have since learned, the reason Longstreet disobeyed Lee’s “sunrise attack order” is because, manifestly, Lee almost certainly never actually gave it.

So why say he did? The claims against Longstreet were made not because of what he did at Gettysburg, but because of what he did after it—or more properly, because of the political choices Longstreet made after Lee surrendered his bedraggled, defeated army at Appomattox in 1865. After Lee’s surrender, Longstreet moved to New Orleans, where he went into the cotton business. So far so good, but in 1868 Longstreet joined the Republican Party—then the party of the North—endorsed former Union Army Gen. Ulysses S. Grant for the presidency, attended his inauguration and received an appointment in Grant’s administration as the surveyor of customs at the port of New Orleans, a plum posting in those days. If that weren’t bad enough (for Grant was reviled in the South), in 1873 Longstreet commanded a New Orleans police force that faced off against a white mob protesting a local election. Part of his militia was composed of black troops.

It was in this context that Early and Pendleton were making their claims, Longstreet was being condemned as a “scalawag,” a collaborator with Yankee oppressors—or worse yet (at least in Southern eyes), an N-word lover.

Perhaps what stung the likes of Early and Pendleton even more was that Longstreet was not alone. Yes, while Longstreet’s acceptance of a position in a Republican administration might have been extreme (he’d known Grant well, before the war, his critics noted), he wasn’t the only former Confederate whose evolving political views were anathema to stalwart Southerners.

In parts of the Deep South, many former Confederates were beginning to make their peace with the North, vowing to build a more prosperous and socially equitable region. They weren’t exactly progressives, but they were willing to accommodate northern policies. They worked to implement the federal government’s land reform and educational programs to help former slaves. In their view, the war had decided the issue—and it was time to move forward. To them, Early and his cohorts were a kind of Confederate mafia, dead-enders who would, by dragging their heels, lead the South to ruin.

And so it was that former commanders of Longstreet’s First Corps came to his defense after Early and Pendleton made their claim—not simply because they knew Lee’s sunrise attack order was a complete fiction, but also because they understood and resented the politics behind the accusation.

James Kemper, a respected and progressive figure in Virginia politics (he supported civil rights protections and promoted educational reform aimed at educating former slaves) was one of those who refused to break with his former commander, as was George Pickett, whose division had led the catastrophic assault on the Union positions at Gettysburg on July 3, and who had great respect for Longstreet as a general. Longstreet, Pickett knew, had tried to dissuade Lee from ordering the charge—which he believed was fated to fail.

Longstreet had said precisely that, just hours before the assault, to Lee himself: “General,” he said, “I have been a soldier all my life. I have been with soldiers engaged in fights by couples, by squads, companies, regiments, divisions and armies, and should know, as well as any one, what soldiers can do. It is my opinion that no 15,000 men ever arranged for battle can take that position.”

Lee listened carefully to Longstreet, as he always had, but ordered the charge anyway. When it was finished, approximately 1,100 Confederate soldiers lay dead, another 4,000 were wounded and just over 3,700 were captured. It was a catastrophe—and Lee’s army never recovered. “That man murdered my division,” Pickett said of Lee after the war.

For Jubal Early partisans, this kind of talk hit a nerve. Longstreet and his defenders were not only traitors to the South, willing to accept loss and move on, they had been right about Gettysburg. And Lee, the great symbol of southern nobility, had been wrong.

What followed after the Early and Pendleton addresses was a flurry of charges and counter-charges over Gettysburg that played out in the nation’s dailies—and in the pages of the Virginia-based Southern Historical Society Papers. The influence of the Papers was significant: It was one of the most respected publications in the South, a powerful tool in the hands of prominent ex-soldiers and an influential political voice in the region. It was also controlled by Early, an unabashed white supremacist. He kept doubts about Lee’s leadership out of the Papers as long as he ran it.

The essence of Early’s argument was this: Although the South had been wrong to secede from the Union, the North had been wrong in its attempt to impose racial equality on the region during Reconstruction. And the North had only won the war, he argued, because of its overwhelming numbers. In a fair fight, the South—ever noble and chivalrous—would have been victorious. The patron saints of this “Lost Cause” theory were Lee and the martyred Confederate General Stonewall Jackson, who had died—after being shot by friendly fire—during the war.

While most Americans might now shake their heads at such reverence, the views of Early and his followers are still widely circulated in certain quarters. When I offhandedly, but foolishly, noted in a 1999 meeting of Virginia historians in Richmond that Jackson had fallen asleep during the Battle of Gaines’ Mill (he was a notorious sleeper, nodding off at odd times—and sometimes in the middle of chewing his food), I was nearly hissed from the room. Later, a colleague approached me shaking his head, and making sure no one could overhear him: “Don’t you know that Stonewall Jackson died for our sins?” vra hy.

It’s impossible to exaggerate the influence of Jubal Early’s Virginia mafia. Its Lost Cause vision of the South—a region of swaying oaks and mint juleps that fought valiantly against overwhelming odds to salvage its culture, only to have it overrun during Reconstruction by thieving Northern carpetbaggers and their uppity and gullible black political allies—permeated academia (in the writings of Columbia University Professor William Archibald Dunning and “Dunning School” adherents), Hollywood films ( Birth of a Nation) and novels ( Weg met die wind) for decades. Historians now call it the “myth of the Lost Cause” for good reason. It’s bunk. But it’s bunk that has taken a long time to debunk.

The real shift in thinking about Lee, Gettysburg and Longstreet didn’t come until 100 years later—during the avalanche of monographs, papers and books that accompanied the celebration of the Civil War Centennial, in the early 1960s. Many of these historical researchers focused more clearly on Early, who, it turns out, fought poorly at Gettysburg, was later given the job of defending the Shenandoah Valley with his army and was dismissed by Lee when he returned without it. And historians also noted that William Pendleton (“granny Pendleton” as he was derisively called due to his forgetfulness and shuffling gait) had actually removed a part of Lee’s artillery at a crucial moment prior to Pickett’s charge. Both men had plenty of reasons for blaming the Gettysburg loss on Longstreet, not least because doing so would divert attention from their own considerable mistakes.

But it is one thing to undo a military theory and quite another to unravel a cultural myth—to reveal the dark side hidden behind the veneer of hoop skirts and lilting drawls. The process began in 1955, when historian C. Vann Woodward published The Strange Career of Jim Crow, which repudiated Dunning’s views and attacked the Lost Cause myth. Martin Luther King Jr. later called Woodward’s book “the Bible of the Civil Rights Movement.”

The most important recent work on the era has been done by Professor Douglas Egerton, whose The Wars of Reconstruction, goes further than any previous work on the topic. Reconstruction was not an attempt by the North to subjugate the South, Egerton writes, but an attempt to carry through the social and political revolution begun by the Emancipation Proclamation and sealed by Lee’s defeat. Reconstruction was a progressive revolution that was opposed and undone by powerful Southern forces, including white supremacists, the inheritors of and true believers in Jubal Early’s mythic Lost Cause. “Reconstruction did not fail,” Edgerton writes, “it was violently overthrown.”

Today, 151 years after Lee’s defeat at Gettysburg, 148 years after the end of a Civil War that took more than 630,000 American lives, 143 years after Jubal Early made his first “sunrise attack order” allegation—and 49 years after Lyndon Johnson signed the Voting Rights Act, the sunrise attack order retains its power among a small sect of last-ditch Southerners who celebrate the Lost Cause as a noble enterprise undone by “traitors” like Longstreet. Yet, while they remain past persuading, most everyone else has come around—and even an allegation that was accepted as fact for 100 years is finally being seen for the falsehood it is.

It is for this reason that Dick Cheney and Bill Clinton should be advised to take great care in what they say. For while finger-pointing can yield important short-term political benefits, history always gets it right.


Kyk die video: FireFly - Bounty Hunter Early (November 2021).