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Algemene bestellings Head Quarters, Cambridge, 14 Julie 1775 - History

Algemene bestellings Head Quarters, Cambridge, 14 Julie 1775 - History

ALGEMENE BESTELLINGS
Head Quarters, Cambridge, 14 Julie 1775

Parool Hallifax. Covertersign Inverness.

Aangesien die gesondheid van enige leër hoofsaaklik afhang van netheid; dit word sterk aanbeveel dat die Aanvoerende Beampte van Korps, Poste en Afdelings streng moet wees, ywerig om te verseker dat die N -artikels eenmaal per Weelc ingevul word en nuwes gegrawe word; die strate van die laers en lyne wat daagliks gevee moet word, en dat alle afval en aas naby die kamp onmiddellik verbrand moet word: die beamptes wat in kroegrakke of kwartiere beveel dat hulle verantwoordelik is dat hulle elke oggend gevee word en dat alle vuil en vuil verwyder uit die huise. Naas netheid is niks meer bevorderlik vir die gesondheid van 'n soldaat as om sy voedsel ordentlik en behoorlik aan te trek nie. Die amptenare wat bevelvoerende maatskappye is, moet dus daagliks die Camp Kitchen inspekteer en sien hoe die mans hul kos op 'n heilsame manier aantrek.

Die bevelvoerders in die dele van die lyne en redoubts, waar die snoeke geplaas word, beveel die kwartmasters van die korps om die snoeke twee keer per week te sien smeer; hulle moet ook aanspreeklik wees dat die snoeke skoon gehou word en altyd gereed is vir diens.

Die generaal wat groot verset en verwaarlosing in die ~ verskeie wagte in en om die kamp waarneem, beveel die beamptes om enige wag te herstel om onmiddellik sy wag uit te skakel
die nabye benadering van die opperbevelhebber of enige van die algemene offisiere, en by verby die wag; Die opperbevelhebber moet met uitgeruste arms ontvang word; die beampte om te groet, en die tromme om 'n optog te klop: die majors -generaal met uitgeruste arms, die beampte om te salueer en die tromme om twee ruffles te klop; Die Brigadiers -generaal met uitgeruste arms, die beampte om te salueer en die tromme om een ​​ruffle te klop. Daar is iets ongemakliks, sowel as onbehoorliks, dat die Algemene Beamptes by die buiteposte gestop word; vra vir passas deur die wagte en is dikwels verplig om die offisier van die wag te stuur (wat soms gebeur, is net so onbekend met die persone van die generaals as die privaat manne) voordat hulle kan in- of uitstap: dit word aanbeveel vir sowel beamptes as mans om kennis te maak met die persone van al die beamptes in die algemene bevel, en intussen om foute te voorkom: die algemene beamptes en hul hulpmiddels-op-kamp word op die volgende wyse onderskei.

Die opperbevelhebber deur 'n ligblou ribband, gedra oor sy bors, tussen sy jas en vest.

Die majors en brigade -generaal, deur 'n Pink Ribband, het op dieselfde manier gedra.

Die Aids-de-Camp deur 'n groen lint.

Die krygsraad waarvan kolonel Ward presdt. is opgelos.

Daniel Carmiele, soldaat in kolonel Patterson se regiment, het probeer om "ongehoorsaamheid aan bevele, om twee keer meer geld op te neem en vooruit te neem, en vir dronkenskap" word skuldig bevind aan die verskeie aanklagte, en beveel om swepe op die kaal rug te wees, met 3o Wimpers en uit die weermag ontslaan. Die generaal keur die vonnis goed en beveel dat dit môreoggend tereggestel moet word, aan die hoof van die regiment waaraan hy behoort.


Die Library of Congress bied toegang tot manuskripte by die Library of Congress vir opvoedkundige en navorsingsdoeleindes en gee geen waarborg ten opsigte van die gebruik daarvan vir ander doeleindes nie. Die verantwoordelikheid vir die onafhanklike beoordeling van 'n item en die verkryging van die nodige toestemmings berus uiteindelik by persone wat die item wil gebruik. Die skriftelike toestemming van die kopiereg -eienaars en/of die houers van ander regte (soos publisiteits- en/of privaatheidsregte) is nodig vir verspreiding, reproduksie of ander gebruik van beskermde items wat verder toegelaat word as billike gebruik of ander statutêre vrystellings. Daar kan inhoud wees wat beskerm word onder die kopiereg- of naburige regte van ander nasies.

Die volgende verklaring word gemaak deur die rektor en besoekers van die Universiteit van Virginia, die outeursregteienaars van Die dagboeke van George Washington.

Donald Jackson en Dorothy Twohig, red. Die dagboeke van George Washington. 6 vols. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1976-79 'n reeks van Die papiere van George Washington. Kopiereg 1976-79 deur die rektor en besoekers van die Universiteit van Virginia. Gebruik met toestemming van die uitgewer. Die uitgewer is nie verantwoordelik vir die korrektheid en volledigheid van die beelde en tekste soos dit in hierdie aanlynversameling verskyn nie.


Inhoud

Die kontinentale leër het bestaan ​​uit soldate uit al 13 kolonies en, na 1776, uit al 13 state. Toe die Amerikaanse Revolusionêre Oorlog begin (by die gevegte van Lexington en Concord op 19 April 1775) het die koloniale revolusionêre nie 'n staande leër gehad nie. Voorheen het elke kolonie op die milisie (wat uit deeltydse burgersoldate bestaan ​​het) staatgemaak vir die plaaslike verdediging, of die opwekking van tydelike provinsiale troepe tydens krisisse soos die Franse en Indiese oorlog van 1754–63. Namate die spanning met Groot -Brittanje toegeneem het in die jare wat tot die oorlog gelei het, het koloniste hul milisies begin hervorm ter voorbereiding op die moontlike konflik. Die opleiding van burgermanne het toegeneem na die verloop van die ondraaglike wette in 1774. Koloniste soos Richard Henry Lee het voorgestel dat hulle 'n nasionale militêre mag stig, maar die eerste kontinentale kongres het die idee verwerp. [2]

Op 23 April 1775 het die Massachusetts Provinsiale Kongres toestemming gegee vir die oprig van 'n koloniale leër bestaande uit 26 kompanie -regimente. New Hampshire, Rhode Island en Connecticut het spoedig soortgelyke maar kleiner magte opgehef. Op 14 Junie 1775 het die Tweede Kontinentale Kongres besluit om voort te gaan met die oprigting van 'n Kontinentale Weermag met die oog op algemene verdediging, met die aanneming van die magte wat reeds buite Boston (22.000 troepe) en New York (5.000) bestaan ​​het. Dit het ook die eerste tien kompagnies van kontinentale troepe op 'n eenjarige werf opgerig, gewapendes uit Pennsylvania, Maryland, Delaware en Virginia wat as ligte infanterie gebruik sou word, wat in 1776 die eerste kontinentale regiment geword het. Op 15 Junie 1775 het die kongres verkies deur eenparige stem George Washington as opperbevelhebber, wat die hele oorlog aanvaar en gedien het sonder enige vergoeding behalwe vir vergoeding van uitgawes. [3] Ondersteunende Washington as opperbevelhebber was vier groot-generaals (Artemas Ward, Charles Lee, Philip Schuyler en Israel Putnam) en agt brigadier-generaals (Seth Pomeroy, Richard Montgomery, David Wooster, William Heath, Joseph Spencer, John Thomas, John Sullivan en Nathanael Greene) Namate die kontinentale kongres toenemend die verantwoordelikhede en postuur van 'n wetgewer vir 'n soewereine staat aanvaar het, het die rol van die kontinentale leër aansienlik gedebatteer. Sommige Amerikaners het 'n algemene afkeer van die handhawing van 'n staande leër, maar aan die ander kant het die vereistes van die oorlog teen die Britte die dissipline en organisasie van 'n moderne weermag vereis. As gevolg hiervan het die weermag deur verskillende fases gegaan, gekenmerk deur amptelike ontbinding en herorganisasie van eenhede. [4]

In die algemeen bestaan ​​die kontinentale magte uit verskeie opeenvolgende leërs, of ondernemings:

  • Die kontinentale leër van 1775, bestaande uit die aanvanklike New England Army, wat deur Washington in drie afdelings, ses brigades en 38 regimente georganiseer is. Generaal -majoor Philip Schuyler se tien regimente in New York is gestuur om Kanada binne te val.
  • Die kontinentale leër van 1776, herorganiseer nadat die aanvanklike inskrywingstydperk van die soldate in die leër van 1775 verstryk het. Washington het byna onmiddellik aanbevelings by die kontinentale kongres ingedien nadat hy die pos as opperbevelhebber aanvaar het, maar die kongres het tyd geneem om dit te oorweeg en uit te voer. Ondanks pogings om die werwingsbasis buite New England uit te brei, het die leër van 1776 skeef gebly in die rigting van die noordooste, wat die samestelling en die geografiese fokus betref. Hierdie leër het bestaan ​​uit 36 ​​regimente, die meeste gestandaardiseer tot 'n enkele bataljon van 768 man sterk en gevorm in agt kompagnies, met 'n rangstatus van 640.
  • Die kontinentale leër van 1777–1780 het ontstaan ​​uit verskeie kritieke hervormings en politieke besluite wat gekom het toe dit duidelik geword het dat die Britte aansienlike magte stuur om 'n einde te maak aan die Amerikaanse rewolusie. Die Kontinentale Kongres het die "Agt-en-tagtig Bataljon Resolve" goedgekeur en elke staat beveel om een-bataljon regimente in verhouding tot hul bevolking by te dra, en Washington het daarna gesag gekry om nog 16 bataljons op te rig. Inskrywingsvoorwaardes word tot drie jaar verleng of tot "die lengte van die oorlog" om die krisisse aan die einde van die jaar te vermy wat die magte uitgeput het (insluitend die noemenswaardige ineenstorting van die weermag aan die einde van 1776, wat die oorlog in 'n kontinent kon beëindig het) , of Amerikaans, verlies by verbeuring)
  • Die kontinentale leër van 1781–82 het die grootste krisis aan die Amerikaanse kant in die oorlog beleef. Die kongres was bankrot, wat dit baie moeilik gemaak het om die soldate aan te vul wie se termyn van drie jaar verstryk het. Gewilde steun vir die oorlog bereik 'n alledaagse laagtepunt, en Washington moes muiterye in die Pennsylvania Line en in die New Jersey Line beëindig. Die kongres het gestem om die finansiering vir die weermag te verminder, maar Washington het nietemin daarin geslaag om belangrike strategiese oorwinnings te behaal.
  • Die kontinentale leër van 1783–84 is opgevolg deur die Amerikaanse weermag, wat tot vandag toe voortduur. Namate die vrede met die Britte herstel is, is die meeste regimente op 'n ordelike manier ontbind, hoewel verskeie reeds verminder is.

Soldate in die kontinentale weermag was vrywilligers wat hulle ingestem het om in die weermag te dien, en standaardwerwingsperiodes duur van een tot drie jaar. Vroeg in die oorlog was die aanstellingsperiodes kort, aangesien die Kontinentale Kongres gevrees het vir die moontlikheid dat die Kontinentale Weermag in 'n permanente weermag sou ontwikkel. Die weermag het nooit meer as 17 000 man getel nie. Omset was 'n konstante probleem, veral in die winter van 1776-1777, en langer inskrywings is goedgekeur. [5]

Die offisiere van beide die kontinentale weermag en die staatsmilisies was tipies jong boere met 'n gevoel van eer en status en 'n ideologiese verbintenis om die beleid van die Britse kroon teë te staan. [6] Die aangewese mans was baie anders. Hulle kom uit die werkersklas of minderheidsgroepe (Iers, Duitsers, Afro -Amerikaners). Hulle is gemotiveer om vrywillig te wees deur spesifieke kontrakte wat gereeld geld beloon, goeie kos, klere en mediese sorg en die belofte van grondbesit na die oorlog. Hulle was onbedagsaam en sou muitery as daar nie aan die kontraktuele voorwaardes voldoen word nie. Teen 1780-81 het dreigemente van muitery en werklike muiteringe ernstig geword. [7] [8] Meer as 'n kwart van die Washington -leër was van Ierse afkoms, waarvan baie onlangs aangekom het en werk nodig gehad het. [5]

Die kontinentale leër was ras -geïntegreerd, 'n toestand wat die Amerikaanse weermag eers in die vyftigerjare weer sou sien. Tydens die rewolusie is Afrika-Amerikaanse slawe vryheid belowe in ruil vir militêre diens deur beide die kontinentale en Britse leërs. [9] [10] [11] Ongeveer 6 600 bruin mense (insluitend Afro-Amerikaanse, inheemse en veelrassige mans) het saam met die koloniale magte gedien en 'n vyfde van die Noordelike Kontinentale Leër uitgemaak. [12] [13]

Benewens die reguliere van die kontinentale weermag, is staatsmilisie-eenhede vir korttermyndiens aangewys en gedurende die oorlog in veldtogte geveg. Soms het die milisie -eenhede onafhanklik van die kontinentale weermag opereer, maar dikwels is plaaslike milisies opgeroep om die vaste mense van die kontinentale leër tydens veldtogte te ondersteun en te versterk. Die militiese troepe het 'n reputasie ontwikkel omdat hulle geneig was tot voortydige terugtogte, 'n feit dat generaal Daniel Morgan in sy strategie by die Slag van Cowpens geïntegreer het en die Britte in 1781 mislei het. [14]

Die finansiële verantwoordelikheid vir die verskaffing van betaling, voedsel, skuiling, klere, wapens en ander toerusting aan spesifieke eenhede is aan state toegedeel as deel van die stigting van hierdie eenhede. State het verskil oor hoe goed hulle hierdie verpligtinge nagekom het. Daar was voortdurend finansieringskwessies en morele probleme terwyl die oorlog voortduur. Dit het daartoe gelei dat die weermag lae salarisse, dikwels vrot kos, harde werk, koue, hitte, swak klere en skuiling, harde dissipline en 'n groot kans op slagoffers aangebied het. [15]

Dit was 'n moeilike taak om die kontinentale klere aan te trek, en om dit te doen, het James Mease, 'n handelaar uit Philadelphia, aangestel deur Washington. Mease het nou saamgewerk met staatsaangestelde agente om klere aan te koop en dinge soos beesvelle om klere en skoene vir soldate te maak. Mease het uiteindelik in 1777 bedank en 'n groot deel van die organisasie van die klere -afdeling in die gedrang gebring. Hierna was die soldate van die kontinentale weermag dikwels swak geklee, met klein komberse en het hulle nie eens skoene nie. Die probleem met klere en skoene vir soldate was dikwels nie die skuld van nie genoeg nie, maar die organisasie en gebrek aan vervoer. Vir die herorganisering is die Board of War aangestel om die kledingvoorsieningsketting uit te sorteer. Gedurende hierdie tyd het hulle die hulp van Frankryk gesoek en vir die res van die oorlog het klere gekom van aankope oor die see. [16]


Algemene bestellings Head Quarters, Cambridge, 14 Julie 1775 - History

"Chevron" is 'n argitektoniese term wat die dakbalke van 'n dak aandui wat 'n hoek by die boonste punt bereik. Die chevron in die heraldiek is gebruik as 'n erekenteken om die hoofondersteuners van die hoof van die clan of & quottop van die huis te merk, en dit word in verskillende vorme gebruik as 'n embleem van rang vir ridders en wapens feodale dae. Een legende is dat die chevron aan 'n ridder toegeken is om aan te toon dat hy deelgeneem het aan die vaslegging van 'n kasteel, stad of ander gebou, waarvan die chevron op die dakke lyk. Daar word geglo dat dit die gevolg was van die gebruik daarvan as 'n teken van graad deur die weermag.

Die ruit of diamant wat gebruik word om eerste sersant aan te dui, is 'n teken van onderskeiding en is in heraldiek gebruik om prestasie aan te dui.

DRAGMETODE

Chevrons is op die moue van uniforms vasgewerk met die punt af van ongeveer 1820 tot 1903. Hulle is gedra met die punte beide op en af ​​tussen 1903 en 1905 nadat die eerste omkering van & quotdown & quot na & quotup & quot op 1 Mei 1903 gemagtig is in weermagregulasie nr. 622. Hierdie verwarringstydperk, van 1903 tot 1905, was die gevolg van die kleurverandering in die chevrons wat in die regulasie voorsien is, wat ook 'n standaardkleur vir elke tak, korps of organisasie gerig het en die goudkleurige chevrons vervang het. Vanweë die aantal goue kentekens wat beskikbaar was, mag troepe die ou tipe chevron dra totdat die voorraad uitgeput is.

Om uniformiteit te verseker in beide kleur en posisie van die nuwe gekleurde chevrons, het War Department Circular 61, gedateer 30 November 1905, gesê dat die punte van die chevrons punte na bo gedra sou word. Dit het ook voorsiening gemaak vir die volgende kleure soos uiteengesit in Weermagregulasie nr. 622, gedateer 1 Mei 1903. Die kleure was: Artillerie-skarlaken Kavallerie-geel Ingenieurs-skarlakenrooi met oranje Hospital Corps-maroen met wit infanterie-ligblou Ordnance-swart pyp met skarlakenrooi Post QM Sergeant-buff Signal Corps-oranje met wit West Point Band-ligblou en West Point Detachment-buff.

Reeds in 1820 is chevrons gedra met die punt omlaag, hoewel daar eers in 1821 'n amptelike voorskrif hiervan in die regulasies verskyn, toe chevrons goedgekeur is vir sowel offisiere as mans. Omsendbrief nr. 65, 1821, verklaar dat & quotChevrons sal die rang (beide van offisiere deur die rang van kaptein en aangewese manne) aanwys soos volg: Kapteins, een op elke arm, bo die elmboog, en subalterns, op elke arm onder die elmboog. Hulle sal van goud of silwer kant wees, 'n half duim breed, wat in kleur pas by die knoppie van hul regiment of korps. Die hoeke van die chevron om op te wys. & Quot

Adjudante word aangedui deur 'n boog van goue of silwer rand (volgens die kleur van hul snoei) wat die uiterste punte verbind wat gevorm word deur die punte van die chevron. Sersant -majors en kwartiermeester -sersante dra 'n kuit van vlegselvlegsel op elke arm bo die elmboog. Sersante en senior musikante, een op elke arm, onder die elmboog, en korporaals, een aan die regterarm, bo die elmboog. Hulle sal in kleur ooreenstem met die knoppie van hul regiment of korps. & Quot Voor hierdie tyd is 'n offisier se rang aangedui deur epaulette wat op die skouer gedra is. Hierdie regulasie dui ook die eerste gebruik van die boog as deel van die chevron.

Chevrons word gedurende die 1800's steeds afwaarts gedra. AGO-bevel nr. 10, gedateer 9 Februarie 1833, lui: "Chevrons sal gedra word met die punt na die moue se mou." wys op beide moue van die eenvormige jas en oorjas, bo die elmboog, van sywol wat op 'n halwe duim breed is, om dieselfde kleur as die rande van die jas te hê.

1775 'N Algemene bevel is van die hoofkwartier in Cambridge uitgereik dat & quot; Sersante kan onderskei word deur 'n Epaulette of streep rooi doek, vasgemaak aan die regterskouer van die korporaals. musikante en privaat persone.

1776 Vroeg in 1776 het 'n bykans standaard Kontinentale Infanterieregiment ontstaan, bestaande uit 'n hoofkwartier en agt kompagnies, elk met vier sersante, vier korporaals, twee tromspelers of vyftigtal en 76 soldate. Volgens die tydskrifte van die kontinentale kongres het later in daardie jaar aan elke bataljon 'n onderoffisielement gekry wat bestaan ​​uit 'n sersant-majoor, 'n kwartmeester-sersant, 'n trommel-majoor en 'n vyfmajor, wat almal deur die regimentbevelvoerder aangestel moet word. . Dit is die eerste vermelding van die rang van sersant-majoor.

1792 Gedurende hierdie jaar is die militêre diens uitgebrei met sersante-majoor, kwartiermeestersersente, senior musikante, sersante, korporaals, hoefsmiders, kunsmatiges, saalsoldate, musikante, trompettiste, draakone en private.

1796 Senior musikante het verdwyn, maar die hoofmusikante het blykbaar hul plaasvervangers geneem en die saaltitels was verenigde sappers en myners verskyn en trompettiste verdwyn.

1799 Die hoofmusikante is opgevolg deur die hoofmusikante, sappers en mynwerkers het verdwyn en die titels kunsmakers, saalers en smede is gekombineer.

1800 Hoofmusikante verskyn weer terwyl die hoofmusikant verdwyn en die benamings van hoefsmiders en saalers, sappers en mynwerkers, en 'n aparte titel van kunsmakers, goedgekeur is.

1802 Aangewese manne is aangewys as sersant-majoor, musiekonderwysers, sersante, korporaals, musikante, kunsmatige en privaat persone.

1808 Sersant-hoofvakke, kwartiermeestersersante, hoofmusikante, sersante, korporaals, musikante, kunsmatiges, saalsoldate, hoefsmiders en private was die titels van aangewese personeel.

1812 Smede en bestuurders van artillerie is by die aangewese graadtitels gevoeg.

1815 Aanduidings van aangewese personeel is weer vereenvoudig tot sersant-majoor, kwartiermeestersersante, hoofmusikante, sersante, korporaals, musikante, kunsmatige en privaat persone.

1832 Gedurende hierdie jaar verskyn die aanwysing en manne wat op die genoteerde rangskikking verskyn het.

1833 Die benamings van hoofvogelaar, smoker, hoefsmid en smid was gedurende die jaar bykomende titels.

1838 Die titel en mans op die kwotasie op die ordonnansie & quot is verander na & quot;

1847 Die titel van hoof of hoofmusikant, hoofspanster en spanster is by die lys gevoeg.

1855 Die titel van ordonnansersers het ontstaan.

1861 Tydens die Burgeroorlog het baie nuwe benamings ontstaan. Die volgende is 'n volledige lys van aanwysings: sersant majors kwartiermeester sersante kommissaris sersante leiers van orkeste hoof of hoofmusikante hoofbuglers mediese kadette ordonnansie sersante hospitaal rentmeesters regimentale hospitaal rentmeesters bataljon sersant majors bataljon kwartier sersant bataljon hospitaal rentmeesters bataljon saal sersant bataljon kommissaris sersante eerste sersante geselskap kwartiermeester sersant sersant korporaals buglers musikante farers en smede kunsmaters saalers meester waens waens waens private het manne van munisipaliteit ingeroep.

1866 Die volgende titels het verdwyn: leiers van bendes bataljon hospitaal rentmeesters hoof buglers mediese kadette bataljon kommissaris sersante bataljon saal sersante, bataljon veeartsenykundige sersante buglers en aangewese manne van munisipaliteit. Die volgende nuwe titels is gestig: saalsersersante trompette, hoof trompetgangers privaat (eerste klas) en private (tweede klas).

1869 Die titelhoofmusikant verskyn weer en 'n eerste sersant in die ingenieurskorps word gestig.

1889 Poskwartiermeestersersente, privaat hospitaalkorps, algemene diensbediendes en algemene diensboodskappers is gestig.

1899 Elektrisiën sersante, eersteklas sersante, trom hoofvakke, stal sersante, werktuigkundiges en kokke is gestig.

1901 Die titel pos kommissaris sersant, regiment kommissaris sersant en kleur sersant is gestig.

1905-1919 Die ontwerpe en titels wissel volgens tak en daar was 45 verskillende kentekensbeskrywings in spesifikasie 760, gedateer 31 Mei 1905, met verskillende kleure vir verskillende takke. Algemene bevel nr. 169 van 14 Augustus 1907 het 'n groot verskeidenheid kentekens geskep. Spesifieke betaalgrade was nog nie deur die weermag in gebruik nie en hul salaris was gebaseer op titel. Die betaalskaal wat in 1908 goedgekeur is, wissel van $ 13 vir 'n privaat in die ingenieurs tot $ 75 vir 'n Master Signal Electrician. Die stelsel het die taak van die individu geïdentifiseer, byvoorbeeld kokke, werktuigkundiges, ens. Teen die einde van die Eerste Wêreldoorlog was daar 128 verskillende insignia -ontwerpe in die toevoerstelsel.

1919 Voor 1919 het die kentekens van privaat eersteklas bestaan ​​uit die kentekens van die tak sonder enige boë of chevrons. Die oorlogsekretaris het op 22 Julie 1919 'n boog van een kroeg "vir privaat eersteklas goedgekeur.

1920 Die aantal kentekens is tot sewe verminder en ses betaalgrade is vasgestel. Oorlogsbrief nr. 303, gedateer 5 Augustus 1920, verklaar dat die chevrons op die linkermou gedraai sal wees, omhoog en van olywe materiaal op 'n donkerblou agtergrond. Die ontwerpe en titels was soos volg:

Meestersersant (eerste graad): Drie chevrons en 'n boog van drie bars, die boonste boogstaaf vorm 'n band met die onderste chevron.

Tegniese sersant (tweede graad): Drie chevrons en 'n boog van twee bars, die boonste boogstaaf vorm 'n band met die onderste chevron.

Eerste Sersant (Tweede Graad): Drie chevrons en 'n boog van twee bars, die boonste boog van die boog vorm 'n band met die onderste chevron. In die hoek tussen die onderste chevron en die boonste staaf 'n ruit.

Personeelsersant (derde graad): Drie chevrons en 'n boog van een staaf wat 'n band vorm met die onderste chevron.

Sersant (vierde graad): Drie chevrons.

Korporaal (vyfde graad): Twee chevrons.

Privates First Class (Sesde Graad): Een chevron.

1942 Die grade Tegnikus in die derde, vierde en vyfde graad is bygevoeg deur die Omsendbrief omsendbrief nr. 5, gedateer 8 Januarie 1942. Verandering 1 na AR 600-35, gedateer 4 September 1942, het 'n letter & quotT & quot by die voorheen voorgeskrewe chevrons gevoeg vir graad drie, vier en vyf.

Die eerste sersant is verskuif van die tweede graad na die eerste graad per Change 3, AR 600-35, gedateer 22 September 1942. Hierdie verandering beskryf die eerste sersant se chevron as - - Drie chevrons en boog van drie bars, die boonste balk van boog wat 'n das aan die onderste chevron vorm. In die hoek tussen onderste chevrons en boonste staaf, 'n hol suig. Hierdie verandering het ook die materiaal ingesluit as kakie-chevrons, boë, T en ruit op donkerblou katoenagtergrond of olywe wol, chewrons, boë, T en pastille op donkerblou wolagtergronde.


Belegging van Boston

Op 11 Maart 1776, van sy hoofkwartier in Cambridge, Massachusetts, het Washington 'n algemene bevel uitgevaardig waarin kolonels en kommandante van regimente van die kontinentale leër beveel word om vier mans uit elke regiment te kies wat sy persoonlike wag sou vorm.

Belegging van Boston

Gebruik hierdie 1776 -kaart uit die Library of Congress om die beleg van Boston vanuit 'n kontemporêre oogpunt te sien.

In Junie 1775 vind George Washington sy gedagtes na Mount Vernon. Hy het sy vrou Martha belowe dat hy binnekort van die kontinentale kongres in Philadelphia sou terugkeer. Maar sy mede-afgevaardigdes het hom pas verkies tot die opperbevelhebber van die kontinentale leër, en hy was op pad na Boston. Militêre maatskappye het die Britte op 19 April 1775 vasgekeer na die gevegte by Lexington en Concord.

Washington word daarvan beskuldig dat hy hierdie maatskappye in 'n leër gevorm het en die beleg van Boston gelei het. Met die wete dat hy baie maande weg sou wees, het Washington aan sy vrou geskryf. 'Ek sal geen pyn van die moeite of die gevaar van die veldtog voel nie,' het hy erken. 'My ongelukkigheid sal voortspruit uit die ongemak wat ek weet dat u sal voel dat u alleen gelaat word.' Washington is bekommerd dat die goewerneur van Virginia, Lord Dunmore, sy plantasie sou aanval en selfs sy vrou in die tronk sou sit. Maar tog het hy geen ander keuse gehad as om die 'soort lot' te gehoorsaam wat hom hierdie opdrag gegee het en na Boston gegaan het nie. 1

Toe hy vroeg in Julie in Cambridge aankom, het Washington 'n aanval op Boston voorgestel. Sy beamptes was egter daarteen gekant. Hulle het aangevoer dat die Britte steeds voorraad per see ontvang. Hulle het Washington aangemoedig om te wag totdat die waters rondom Boston gevries is. Washington het eerder 'n leër na Quebec gestuur. Hy het Henry Knox ook beveel om na Fort Ticonderoga te marsjeer en die artillerie van die pos terug te bring. Terwyl die aanval op Quebec misluk het, het Knox in Januarie 1776 met nege en vyftig kanonne na Cambridge teruggekeer.

Selfs al was die waters rondom Boston bevrore, het die amptenare van Washington geweier om die stad aan te val. 'N Gefrustreerde Washington het 'n ander manier gesoek om die Britte te verdryf. Op die aand van 4 Maart 1776 het hy sy manne beveel om die kanon van Fort Ticonderoga op Dorchester Heights suid van die stad te neem. Washington het ook sy troepe in Cambridge beveel om op die rooi jasse te skiet. Die Britte het die Amerikaanse gewere die hele nag in Cambridge geblaas, net om die vele kanonne te ontdek wat die volgende oggend vanuit Dorchester Heights gewys is. Die Britse bevelvoerder -generaal William Howe het opgemerk: "My God, hierdie genote het in een nag meer werk gedoen as wat ek my leër in drie maande kon laat doen." 2

Howe het troepe na Dorchester Heights gestuur om die gewere los te maak, maar 'n sneeustorm het die aanval verhoed. Uit vrees vir 'n wrede bombardement besluit hy om Boston te verlaat. Op 17 Maart 1776, daarna bekend as 'Ontruimingsdag', het 11 000 rooi jasse en honderde lojaliste die stad per boot verlaat. Washington het op 18 Maart na Boston opgeruk, maar daar was min tyd vir blydskap. Hy het tereg vermoed dat die Britte na New York sou reis. Terwyl hy hom voorberei vir die volgende gevegstoets, was een van sy min troos die feit dat sy vrou Martha hom in November by hom aangesluit het. Hulle sou saam na New York gaan in die hoop dat hul geliefde Mount Vernon geen skade sou berokken nie.

Notas:
1. "George Washington tot Martha Washington, 18 Junie 1775," The Writings of George Washington, Vol. 3, uitg. John C. Fitzpatrick (Charlottesville, VA: University Press of Virginia, 1931).

2. Aangehaal in David McCullough, 1776 (New York: Simon & amp; Schuster, 2005), 93.

Bibliografie:
Chernow, Ron. Washington: 'n Lewe. New York: Penguin Press, 2010.

McCullough, David. 1776. New York: Simon & amp; Schuster, 2005.

George Washington: Geskrifte. red. John Rhodehamel. New York: Library of America, 1997.


Algemene bestellings Head Quarters, Cambridge, 14 Julie 1775 - History

Konflik en rewolusie
1775 tot 1776

14 April 1775 - Goewerneur van Massachusetts, Gage, word in die geheim deur die Britte beveel om die dwangwette af te dwing en rebellie onder koloniste te onderdruk deur al die nodige geweld te gebruik.

18 April 1775 - Generaal Gage beveel 700 Britse soldate na Concord om die koloniste se wapendepot te vernietig.

Daardie aand word Paul Revere en William Dawes uit Boston gestuur om koloniste te waarsku. Revere bereik Lexington om middernag en waarsku Sam Adams en John Hancock wat daar skuil.

Teen dagbreek op 19 April staan ​​ongeveer 70 gewapende militante uit Massachusetts van aangesig tot aangesig op die Lexington Green met die Britse voorwag. 'N Ongeordende' skoot wat regoor die wêreld gehoor word 'begin die Amerikaanse rewolusie. 'N Volle Britse muskette gevolg deur 'n klag met bajonette laat agt Amerikaners dood en tien gewondes. Die Britte hergroepeer en gaan na die depot in Concord en vernietig die koloniste se wapens en voorrade. By die North Bridge in Concord word 'n Britse peloton aangeval deur militante, met 14 slagoffers.

Britse magte begin dan met 'n lang terugtog van Lexington terug na Boston en word langs die pad deur boere en rebelle geteister en geskiet en ly meer as 250 slagoffers. Nuus van die gebeure by Lexington en Concord versprei soos 'n veldbrand deur die kolonies.

23 April 1775 - Die Provinsiale Kongres in Massachusetts beveel dat 13 600 Amerikaanse soldate gemobiliseer moet word. Koloniale vrywilligers van regoor New England vergader en vertrek na Boston, vestig dan kampe rondom die stad en begin 'n jaar lange beleg van Boston wat deur die Britse besit gehou word.

10 Mei 1775 - Amerikaanse magte onder leiding van Ethan Allen en Benedict Arnold verower Fort Ticonderoga in New York. Die fort bevat 'n broodnodige voorraad militêre toerusting, insluitend kanonne wat dan deur osspanne na Boston vervoer word.

10 Mei 1775 - Die Tweede Kontinentale Kongres vergader in Philadelphia, met John Hancock as sy president verkies. Op 15 Mei plaas die kongres die kolonies in 'n verdedigingstoestand. Op 15 Junie stem die Kongres eenparig om die generaal van George Washington en die opperbevelhebber van die nuwe kontinentale leër aan te stel.

17 Junie 1775 - Die eerste groot geveg tussen Britse en Amerikaanse troepe vind plaas in Boston in die Slag van Bunker Hill. Amerikaanse troepe word ingegrawe langs die hoë grond van Breed's Hill (die werklike ligging) en word aangeval deur 'n frontale aanval van meer as 2000 Britse soldate wat teen die heuwel storm. Die Amerikaners word beveel om nie te vuur voordat hulle die wit van hul oë kan sien nie. "Terwyl die Britte binne 15 treë kom, laat die Amerikaners 'n dodelike vlieg muskietvuur los en stop die Britse opmars. Die Britte hergroepeer dan en val 30 minute later aan met dieselfde resultaat. 'N Derde aanval slaag egter, aangesien die Amerikaners nie meer ammunisie het nie en slegs bajonette en klippe oorbly om hulself te verdedig. Die Britte slaag daarin om die heuwel in te neem, maar met 'n verlies van die helfte van hul mag, meer as duisend slagoffers, met die Amerikaners wat ongeveer 400 verloor het, waaronder die belangrike koloniale leier, generaal Joseph Warren.

3 Julie 1775 - In Cambridge, Massachusetts, neem George Washington die bevel oor die kontinentale leër, wat nou ongeveer 17 000 man het.

Sien ook: George Washington Picture Gallery

5 Julie 1775 - Die kontinentale kongres neem die petisie oor die Olive Branch aan, wat hoop uitspreek op 'n versoening met Brittanje en 'n beroep op die koning doen om hulp om dit te bereik. In Augustus weier koning George III selfs om na die petisie te kyk en reik in plaas daarvan 'n proklamasie uit waarin die Amerikaners in 'n staat van openlike opstand is.

6 Julie 1775 - Die Kontinentale Kongres reik 'n verklaring uit oor die oorsake en noodsaaklikheid van die opneem van wapens waarin die redes van die koloniste vir die stryd teen die Britte en state uiteengesit word dat die Amerikaners opgelos is om vrye mans te sterf eerder as om as slawe te lewe.

26 Julie 1775 - 'n Amerikaanse poskantoor word gevestig met Ben Franklin as posmeester -generaal.

28 November 1775 - Die Amerikaanse vloot word deur die kongres gestig. Die volgende dag stel die kongres 'n geheime komitee aan om hulp van Europese lande te soek.

December 23, 1775 - King George III issues a royal proclamation closing the American colonies to all commerce and trade, to take effect in March of 1776. Also in December, Congress is informed that France may offer support in the war against Britain.

January 5, 1776 - The assembly of New Hampshire adopts the first American state constitution.

January 9, 1776 - Thomas Paine's "Common Sense" is published in Philadelphia. The 50 page pamphlet is highly critical of King George III and attacks allegiance to Monarchy in principle while providing strong arguments for American independence. It becomes an instant best-seller in America. "We have it in our power to begin the world anew. American shall make a stand, not for herself alone, but for the world," Paine states.

March 4-17, 1776 - American forces capture Dorchester Heights which overlooks Boston harbor. Captured British artillery from Fort Ticonderoga is placed on the heights to enforce the siege against the British in Boston. The British evacuate Boston and set sail for Halifax. George Washington then rushes to New York to set up defenses, anticipating the British plan to invade New York City.

April 6, 1776 - The Continental Congress declares colonial shipping ports open to all traffic except the British. The Congress had already authorized privateer raids on British ships and also advised disarming all Americans loyal to England.

April 12, 1776 - The North Carolina assembly is the first to empower its delegates in the Continental Congress to vote for independence from Britain.

May 2, 1776 - The American revolutionaries get the much needed foreign support they had been hoping for. King Louis XVI of France commits one million dollars in arms and munitions. Spain then also promises support.

May 10, 1776 - The Continental Congress authorizes each of the 13 colonies to form local (provincial) governments.

June 28, 1776 - In South Carolina, American forces at Fort Moultrie successfully defend Charleston against a British naval attack and inflict heavy damage on the fleet.

June-July, 1776 - A massive British war fleet arrives in New York Harbor consisting of 30 battleships with 1200 cannon, 30,000 soldiers, 10,000 sailors, and 300 supply ships, under the command of General William Howe and his brother Admiral Lord Richard Howe.

June-July, 1776 - On June 7, Richard Henry Lee, a Virginia delegate to the Continental Congress, presents a formal resolution calling for America to declare its independence from Britain. Congress decides to postpone its decision on this until July. On June 11, Congress appoints a committee to draft a declaration of independence. Committee members are Thomas Jefferson , Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, Roger Livingston and Roger Sherman. Jefferson is chosen by the committee to prepare the first draft of the declaration, which he completes in one day. Just seventeen days later, June 28, Jefferson's Declaration of Independence is ready and is presented to the Congress, with changes made by Adams and Franklin. On July 2, twelve of thirteen colonial delegations (New York abstains) vote in support of Lee's resolution for independence. On July 4, the Congress formally endorses Jefferson's Declaration, with copies to be sent to all of the colonies. The actual signing of the document occurs on August 2, as most of the 55 members of Congress place their names on the parchment copy.

July 4, 1776 - United States Declaration of Independence

July 12, 1776 - As a show of force, two British frigates sail up the Hudson River blasting their guns. Peace feelers are then extended to the Americans. At the request of the British, Gen. Washington meets with Howe's representatives in New York and listens to vague offers of clemency for the American rebels. Washington politely declines, then leaves.

August 27-29, 1776 - Gen. Howe leads 15,000 soldiers against Washington's army in the Battle of Long Island . Washington, outnumbered two to one, suffers a severe defeat as his army is outflanked and scatters. The Americans retreat to Brooklyn Heights, facing possible capture by the British or even total surrender.

But at night, the Americans cross the East River in small boats and escape to Manhattan, then evacuate New York City and retreat up through Manhattan Island to Harlem Heights. Washington now changes tactics, avoiding large scale battles with the British by a series of retreats.

September 11, 1776 - A peace conference is held on Staten Island with British Admiral, Lord Richard Howe, meeting American representatives including John Adams and Benjamin Franklin. The conference fails as Howe demands the colonists revoke the Declaration of Independence.

September 16, 1776 - After evacuating New York City, Washington's army repulses a British attack during the Battle of Harlem Heights in upper Manhattan. Several days later, fire engulfs New York City and destroys over 300 buildings.

September 22, 1776 - After he is caught spying on British troops on Long Island, Nathan Hale is executed without a trial, his last words, "I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country."

September 26, 1776 - Congress appoints Jefferson, Franklin and Silas Deane to negotiate treaties with European governments. Franklin and Deane then travel to France seeking financial and military aid.

October 9, 1776 - San Francisco is established by Spanish missionaries on the California coast.

October 11, 1776 - A big defeat for the inexperienced American Navy on Lake Champlain at the hands of a British fleet of 87 gunships. In the 7 hour Battle of Valcour Bay most of the American flotilla of 83 gunships is crippled with the remaining ships destroyed in a second engagement two days later.

October 28, 1776 - After evacuating his main forces from Manhattan, Washington's army suffers heavy casualties in the Battle of White Plains from Gen. Howe's forces. Washington then retreats westward.

November, 1776 - More victories for the British as Fort Washington on Manhattan and its precious stores of over 100 cannon, thousands of muskets and cartridges is captured by Gen. Howe. The Americans also lose Fort Lee in New Jersey to Gen. Cornwallis. Washington's army suffers 3000 casualties in the two defeats. Gen. Washington abandons the New York area and moves his forces further westward toward the Delaware River. Cornwallis now pursues him.

December 6, 1776 - The naval base at Newport, Rhode Island, is captured by the British.

December 11, 1776 - Washington takes his troops across the Delaware River into Pennsylvania. The next day, over concerns of a possible British attack, the Continental Congress abandons Philadelphia for Baltimore.

Among Washington's troops is Thomas Paine , author of Common Sense, who now writes ". These are the times that try men's souls: The summer soldier and the sunshine patriot will, in this crisis, shrink from the service of his country: but he that stands it NOW deserves the love and thanks of man and woman. Tyranny, like Hell, is not easily conquered. Yet we have this consolation with us, that the harder the conflict, the more glorious the triumph."

December 25-26, 1776 - On Christmas, George Washington takes 2400 of his men and recrosses the Delaware River.

Washington then conducts a surprise raid on 1500 British-Hessians (German mercenaries) at Trenton, New Jersey.

The Hessians surrender after an hour with nearly 1000 taken prisoner by Washington who suffers only six wounded (including future president Lt. James Monroe). Washington reoccupies Trenton. The victory provides a much needed boost to the morale of all American Patriots.

Copyright © 1998 The History Place™ All Rights Reserved

Gebruiksvoorwaardes: Alleen teks, grafika, foto's, klankgrepe, ander elektroniese lêers of materiaal van The History Place word toegelaat vir privaat huis/skool, nie-kommersieel, nie-hergebruik.


Seeking General Orders of 45th Infantry Division,WWII

I wish to obtain a copy of the General Orders for the 45th Infantry Division for World War II. Dankie.

Re: Seeking General Orders of 45th Infantry Division,WWII
Malisa Simco 30.10.2019 14:31 (в ответ на Leonard Cizewski)

Dankie dat u u versoek op History Hub geplaas het!

We searched the series titled World War II Operations Reports, 1940-1948 in the Records of the Adjutant General's Office, 1905-1981 (Record Group 407) and located approximately 6,000 pages of general orders for the 45th Infantry Division during WWII. The staff of the National Archives at College Park - Textual Reference (RDT2) will be pleased to make these records available to you or your representative in the Textual Research Room located 8601 Adelphi Road, College Park, MD, near the University of Maryland--College Park campus. The Textual Research Room (Room 2000) hours are 8:45 a.m. to 5:45 p.m., Monday through Friday, except legal holidays. The RDT2 consultation room hours are 8:45 a.m. to 4:00 p.m., Monday through Friday, except legal holidays. No appointment is necessary. Prior to your visit, please consult College Park websites at https://www.archives.gov/dc-metro/college-park/ ,  https://www.archives.gov/dc-metro/self-service-copying.html , and https://www.archives.gov/research/start/getting-started.pdf .

We hope this is helpful! Best of luck with your research!

Re: Seeking General Orders of 45th Infantry Division,WWII

At this time I only need a digital copy of:

Headquarters, 45th Infantry Division General Orders 69, dated 3 March 1945.

Refining my research request seems to be the way to proceed rather than getting the entire 6,000 page collection.

Re: Seeking General Orders of 45th Infantry Division,WWII
Malisa Simco 05.11.2019 13:05 (в ответ на Leonard Cizewski)

Thank you for posting your follow-up request on History Hub!

We searched the series titled World War II Operations Reports, 1940-1948 in the Records of the Adjutant General's Office, 1905-1981 (Record Group 407) and located General Order #69 dated 3 March 1945 for the 45th Infantry Division (Box 9279). For copies of this general order, please contact the National Archives at College Park - Textual Reference (RDT2) via email at [email protected] .

We hope this is helpful! Best of luck with your research!

Re: Seeking General Orders of 45th Infantry Division,WWII

Requesting individual 45th Infantry Division General Orders as we need them seems to be the way to do our research.

Re: Seeking General Orders of 45th Infantry Division,WWII

If your looking for a particular order located on a discharge papers it usually will read something like this "HQ 45 Div, GO # 1944,1945" it maybe easier if you knew the General Order number.


Army General Orders

Die Army General Orders are the basic outline of orders to be followed when in the absence of more specific orders. The three Army general orders cover what your duties are on a day to day basis. You must maintain your assigned duties, quitting only when properly relieved, and performing everything in a military manner that would make your leadership proud.

We recommend you memorize this before going to basic training! They will drill it into you when you get there, so you might as well get there prepared. Standing out in basic training is a GOOD thing as long as it’s something that makes you look good.


Records of the office of the Judge Advocate General (Army)

Gestig: In the War Department by an act of July 17, 1862 (12 Stat. 597), renaming the office of the Judge Advocate of the Army. Judge Advocate General's Department established in the War Department by an act of July 5, 1884 (23 Stat. 113), consolidating the Bureau of Military Justice and the Corps of Judge Advocates of the Army.

Voorgangersagentskappe:

In the War Department:

Of the Office of the Judge Advocate General:

Of the Judge Advocate General's Department:

Transfers: To Services of Supply (SOS), effective March 9, 1942, by Circular 59, War Department, March 2, 1942, as part of a War Department reorganization authorized by EO 9082, February 28, 1942 to Army Service Forces (ASF, formerly SOS) by General Order 14, War Department, March 12, 1943 to War Department General Staff (WDGS) as an administrative staff and service, with JAG reporting directly to the Secretary of War with respect to courts-martial and legal matters, effective June 11, 1946, upon abolishment of ASF by Circular 138, War Department, May 14, 1946, as part of a War Department reorganization authorized by EO 9722, May 13, 1946 with WDGS (redesignated Army Staff) to Department of the Army by Circular 1, Department of the Army, September 18, 1947, implementing Circular 225, War Department, August 16, 1947, issued pursuant to a reorganization of the armed services under the National Security Act of 1947 (61 Stat. 495), July 26, 1947.

Funksies: Supervises the system of military justice throughout the army, performs appellate review of records of trials by court-martial as provided by the Uniform Code of Military Justice, and furnishes the army's legal services. Serves as legal adviser to the Secretary of the Army and all army offices and agencies.

Soek hulpmiddels: George J. Stansfield, comp., "Preliminary Checklist of the Records of the Office of the Judge Advocate General (War), 1808-1942," PC 29 (December 1945) Patricia Andrews, "Supplement to Preliminary Checklist 29, Records of the Office of the Judge Advocate General (War)," NM 33 (1964) and supplement in National Archives microfiche edition of preliminary inventories.

Verwante rekords: Record copies of publications of the Office of the Judge Advocate General (Army) in RG 287, Publications of the U.S. Government.

153.2 RECORDS OF THE IMMEDIATE OFFICE OF THE JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL
1808-1981

Geskiedenis: A single judge advocate for the army authorized by an act of March 3, 1797 (1 Stat. 507), but the number and status of judge advocates subsequently varied until the office of Judge Advocate of the Army was created by act of March 2, 1849 (9 Stat. 351). Name changed to Judge Advocate General, 1862. SEE 153.1.

Bureau of Military Justice, headed by Judge Advocate General, established by an act of June 20, 1864 (13 Stat. 144). Consolidated with the Corps of Judge Advocates of the Army to form the Judge Advocate General's Department, 1884. SEE 153.1.

153.2.1 Correspondence and related records

Tekstuele rekords: Letters and reports sent, 1842-89, with indexes. Press copies of letters sent by the Judge Advocate General, 1882- 95, with indexes. Selected letters sent by the Judge Advocate General as head of the system of military justice and legal adviser to the Secretary of War, 1889-95, with indexes. Letters received by the Judge Advocate of the Army and the Judge Advocate General, 1854-94, with registers, 1854-89, and indexes, 1871-76, 1885-88. General correspondence, 1894-1912. Correspondence relating to the Judge Advocate General's opinions and decisions and to administrative and operational matters, 1912-42. Opinions and decisions of the Attorney General concerning administration of military justice and legal actions of the War Department, 1821-70. Papers and other records of Brig. Gen. Norman Lieber, 1867-98 Brig. Gen. George B. Davis as Judge Advocate General, 1901-10 Col. Blanton Winship of the Judge Advocate General's Department, 1903-19 and Col. Mark Guerin, Judge Advocate of the 6th Corps Area, 1918-24. Office files relating to maritime affairs, 1918-23 and to the Commission for Adjustment of British Claims, 1932-33.

153.2.2 Orders and related records

Tekstuele rekords: General orders, circulars, and general courts- martial orders of the Judge Advocate General's Office, 1860-1944 (160 ft.).

153.2.3 Court-martial case files and related records

Tekstuele rekords: Case files of general courts-martial, courts of inquiry, and military commissions (5,133 lin. ft.), 1809-1939 with index, 1891-1917. Court-martial case files of German saboteurs, 1942-44 Eddie Slovik, 1944-45 and David Watson and Jack and Kathleen Durant, 1946-47. Copies of records of general courts-martial and courts of inquiry, 1808-15 (8 vols.). Registers of court-martial cases, 1809-90. Case files lost during the Civil War but later recovered by the Judge Advocate General, 1861-65. General courts-martial case number ledgers, 1918-50. General courts-martial offense ledgers, 1917-50. Ledger of general courts-martial convictions in the American Expeditionary Forces, 1917-19. Applications for and correspondence regarding clemency for prisoners sentenced by general courts-martial to the U.S. Military Prison at Fort Leavenworth, KS, 1887-89. Clemency orders issued by the Assistant Secretary of War, 1894-97.

Mikrofilm -publikasies: M592, M1002, M1105, T1027, T1103.

Maps (14 items): Published maps relating to the G.K. Warren court of inquiry, 1879-80. SEE ALSO 153.19.

Soek hulpmiddels: National Archives card index to case files predating 1862.

153.2.4 Records of the general court-martial of Lt. William
Calley at Fort Benning, GA (Nov. 1970-Dec. 1971) for offenses
alleged against the inhabitants of My Lai 4, Republic of Vietnam
("My Lai Massacre," March 16, 1968)

Tekstuele rekords: Article 32 proceedings, December 1969. Court- martial proceedings, November 1970-December 1971. Appellate proceedings before the Army Court of Military Review and the U.S. Court of Military Appeals, 1971-74. Records relating to Presidential review of the case, 1974. Records relating to clemency requests, 1972-81.

Motion Pictures (1 reel): Communist atrocities in Vietnam, entered as a defense exhibit, n.d. SEE ALSO 153.20.

Video Recordings (7 items): Defense exhibits, 1969-71.

Sound Recordings (76 items): Proceedings of the general court- martial, November 1970-March 1971 (63 items). Appellate hearings before the Army Court of Military Review, December 1972 (9 items). Vietnamese-language radio broadcasts concerning Communist atrocities, entered as defense exhibits, n.d. (4 items).

153.2.5 Records of the Lincoln assassination investigation

Tekstuele rekords: Reports, correspondence, and testimony of persons connected with the assassination trial, April 1865. "Military Commission Record Book," containing abstracts of letters, testimony, and reports regarding suspects in the assassination, 1865. Records of Judge Advocate Col. H.L. Burnett, who investigated the assassination, including letters sent, April-July 1865 a register of letters received, April-August 1865 and an endorsement book, April-June 1865.

Mikrofilm -publikasies: M599.

153.2.6 Records of other investigations

Tekstuele rekords: Records of an investigation by the Provost Marshal, Department of the Missouri, into the activities of the Order of American Knights, 1864. Records of the Paxton Hibben and William Mitchell cases and the Martin-Mitchell controversy, 1923- 27.

153.2.7 Records relating to the military justice system

Tekstuele rekords: Card file used in revising the manual on courts- martial that shows changes made in army regulations, 1904-13. Correspondence, reports, and working papers relating to revisions of the manual for courts-martial, 1919-27. Records relating to military justice and the revision of military law ("Decker Collection"), 1948-56. Report made to the Judge Advocate General, relating to criticisms of the system of military justice, February 13, 1919. Records from a study of the European administration of military justice, 1918-20.

Mikrofilm -publikasies: M1739.

153.2.8 Personnel records

Tekstuele rekords: Lists of personnel and letters sent by the Acting Judge Advocate General, concerning civilian personnel, 1877-98. Office orders completed biographical questionnaires and records relating to war risk insurance, the French and Creary retirement cases, and department personnel, 1918-28.

153.2.9 International claims records

Tekstuele rekords: Case files relating to claims of Mexican citizens as a result of the U.S. landing at Veracruz (1914) and General John J. Pershing's Punitive Expedition (1916), 1914-36. Records relating to cases before the Netherlands Claims Commission, created in 1932 to hear Dutch claims arising from army ordnance purchases during World War I, 1932-40.

153.3 RECORDS OF THE OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL
1864-67

Geskiedenis: Appointed in 1864, with headquarters in Louisville, KY, to review records of courts-martial and military commissions in the Departments of Arkansas, Kansas, the Ohio, the Tennessee, the Cumberland, and the Missouri before they were forwarded to the Judge Advocate General.

Tekstuele rekords: Registers and indexes of court-martial case files received, 1864-67. Endorsement book, 1864-66.

153.4 RECORDS OF THE OFFICE OF THE ACTING JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL IN EUROPE
1918-19

Geskiedenis: Functioned as a field office of the Judge Advocate General from March 7, 1918, to October 6, 1919. Reviewed general court-martial cases in which death, dismissal, or dishonorable discharge sentences were imposed, and military commission cases originating in the American Expeditionary Forces.

Tekstuele rekords: Orders, reports, and correspondence regarding cases examined and reviewed, 1918-19.

Verwante rekords: Case files received by this office were forwarded to the Judge Advocate General and are in the court- martial case files, 153.2.2.

153.5 RECORDS OF THE LANDS DIVISION
1692-1950 (bulk 1800-1942)

Geskiedenis: Judge Advocate General assigned responsibility of maintaining and administering original deeds and other title papers to War Department real property, 1894. Function vested in Military Reservation Division, 1942. Redesignated Lands Division after World War II.

Tekstuele rekords: "Reservation Files," relating to real estate no longer owned by the Department of the Army, 1692-1950 (bulk 1800- 1950), including, for Fort Wadsworth, NY, Fort Monmouth, NJ, and West Point, NY, a few colonial period legal documents, 1692-1763.

Maps (347 items): Former military reservations and other army- held lands in the United States that were relinquished to other government agencies, 1840-1930. SEE ALSO 153.19.

153.6 RECORDS OF THE LITIGATION DIVISION AND PREDECESSOR UNITS
1923-47

Geskiedenis: Established March 1942, superseding Litigation Section, established December 1941, and predecessor Claims and Litigation Section. Exercised supervision over litigation in which the War Department was involved and maintained liaison with the Department of Justice. Inherited records of predecessor units, including Civil Affairs Section, established 1925.

153.6.1 Records of the Civil Affairs Section

Tekstuele rekords: Correspondence regarding cases tried in the U.S. Court of Claims, 1925-31. Correspondence, chiefly with Members of Congress, and other records relating to the payment of claims to individuals authorized by private Congressional acts, 1926-37.

153.6.2 Other records

Tekstuele rekords: Records of hearings, correspondence, and other material relating to cases tried in the U.S. Court of Claims, 1925-42. Files of cases involving the War Department tried in the Supreme Court of the District of Columbia, 1923-40. Records concerning suits brought by persons ordered excluded from west coast defense areas during World War II, 1942-47.

153.7 RECORDS OF THE WAR TRANSACTIONS BOARD
1923-26

Geskiedenis: Established in the War Department to cooperate with the Board of Survey of the Department of Justice as the Joint Board of Survey of war transactions, with subcommittees investigating frauds arising out of war contracts, February 1923. Most work of the joint board was completed in 1925.

Tekstuele rekords: Minutes of the joint board, 1923-25. Records relating to review of contractual transactions by both boards, 1923-26.

153.8 RECORDS OF THE INSULAR AFFAIRS SECTION
1915-39

Geskiedenis: Established after the Judge Advocate General assumed the legal work formerly handled by the War Department Bureau of Insular Affairs, 1914. Discontinued following the transfer of responsibility for management of insular affairs from the War Department to the Department of the Interior, by Reorganization Plan No. II of 1939, effective July 1, 1939.

Tekstuele rekords: Memorandums of the section chief concerning legal matters related to the administration of insular possessions, 1931-39. Cards listing legal cases handled by the section, 1925-36. Section chief's office files, 1920-34. Files concerning cases involving residents of Puerto Rico brought before the U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals and the Supreme Court, 1915-34. Files concerning similar cases involving residents of the Philippine Islands, 1915-33.

153.9 RECORDS OF THE CENTRAL PATENT SECTION AND RELATED AGENCIES
1917-42

Geskiedenis: Established in the Office of the Judge Advocate General, July 11, 1921, to succeed the Central Patent Section of the Supply Division, WDGS.

153.9.1 Records of the Central Patent Section

Tekstuele rekords: Patent case files, 1921-40. U.S. Court of Claims case files, 1921-42. Selected case papers, 1917-40. Correspondence concerning Muscle Shoals, AL, 1918-34. Records relating to the settlement of German and Austrian patent claims, 1928-33.

153.9.2 Records of the Patent Section and the Central Patent
Section, Supply Division

Geskiedenis: Patent Section organized in Supply Branch of Purchase, Storage, and Traffic Division, WDGS, January 1919, to handle matters concerning departmental use of patented articles and War Department employees' rights to patents on inventions. Succeeded by the Central Patent Section, Supply Division, WDGS, 1920.

Tekstuele rekords: Correspondence and records of action on specific patent cases, 1919-21. Air Service contract files, 1919. Administrative information files on contracts involving the use of patented materials, 1919. Notes on conferences and personnel, 1921.

153.9.3 Records of the Munitions Patent Board

Geskiedenis: Established to coordinate War and Navy Department patent policies, September 1918. Ceased to function, 1921.

Tekstuele rekords: Patent case files, 1918-21.

153.9.4 Records of the Patents Branch, Office of the Chief of
Ordnance

Geskiedenis: Established in the Procurement Division, Office of the Chief of Ordnance, March 1918, to perform functions related to ordnance patents and inventions, contracts for patent rights, and royalty and other payments. Functions related to contract matters and the payment of compensation for inventions transferred to Patent Section, Purchase, Storage, and Traffic Division, WDGS, January 1919.

Tekstuele rekords: Office files of the section chief, 1917-19. Photostatic copies of drawings of ordnance equipment, 1919. Index to contracts in the contract file of the Office of the Chief of Ordnance, 1917-19. Correspondence relating to investigations of infringements on ordnance patents, 1918-19.

153.9.5 Records of the Interdepartmental Patents Board

Geskiedenis: Established by EO 3721, August 9, 1922, to study policies concerning government employees' patent rights to inventions. Abolished, 1933.

Tekstuele rekords: Minutes of meetings, 1922-23. Correspondence, 1922-23.

153.9.6 Records of the Commission for Adjustment of Foreign Claims

Geskiedenis: Established by General Order 9, War Department, February 28, 1922, pursuant to an act of March 2, 1919 (40 Stat. 1273), to hear and determine questions arising out of the "Bolling Agreement" of June 1917 and other assigned matters relating to foreign claims. Dissolved, June 26, 1924.

Tekstuele rekords: Administrative correspondence, 1922-24. Claims case files and exhibits, 1922-24. Files of aeronautical patents information, 1919-24.

153.9.7 Records of the Commission for Adjustment of British Claims

Geskiedenis: Established by letter of the Adjutant General, June 7, 1932. Submitted final report, February 11, 1933.

Tekstuele rekords: Correspondence of the chairman, 1932-34, with supporting reference materials, 1917-34. General administrative records, 1932-34. Case files, 1932-33. Correspondence relating to claims made after the establishment of the commission, 1932-33.

153.10 RECORDS OF THE PATENT DIVISION
1926-61

153.10.1 General records

Tekstuele rekords: Records relating to patent legislation, 1926-61. Records relating to Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD) and National Defense Research Committee patent cases, 1941-52. OSRD patent application lists, 1941-50. Records relating to the Joint Army-Navy Committee to Study Radar Patent Pooling, 1944-46. Records relating to the Patent Interchange Agreement and the British-American Patent Interchange Committee, 1932-50.

153.10.2 Records of the Classified Inventions Branch

Tekstuele rekords: Records relating to patent applications tendered to the Federal Government under secrecy orders, 1941-49.

153.10.3 Records of the Procurement and Claims Branch

Tekstuele rekords: Correspondence and other records relating to contracts and patents, 1943-49. Records concerning patents and the Office of Alien Property Custodian, 1942-51. Records dealing with patent rights and lend-lease, 1945-54. Records relating to the Surplus Property Act of 1944, 1944-46. Records relating to royalty adjustments, waivers of indemnity, and contract liabilities, 1936-47. Records pertaining to the release of technical and industrial information, 1944-45. Records regarding patent procurement regulations, 1944-52. Records pertaining to patent deviations, 1945-51. Patent deviation case files, 1943-57.

153.11 RECORDS OF THE PROCUREMENT LAW DIVISION
1952-55

Tekstuele rekords: Records relating to offshore procurement agreements, 1952-55.

153.12 RECORDS OF THE INDUSTRIAL LAW BRANCH
1942-46

Tekstuele rekords: General records relating to the seizure and operation by the War Department of industrial facilities during World War II, 1942-46. Records relating to individual facilities seized, 1942-46.

Toegang tot onderwerp: Gaffney Manufacturing Company Hughes Tool Company International Nickel Company Montgomery Ward and Company S. A. Woods Machine Company Western Electric Company.

153.13 RECORDS OF THE WAR CRIMES BRANCH
1942-57

Geskiedenis: Established in the Judge Advocate General's Department to coordinate U.S. activities with respect to investigation and prosecution of war crimes and criminals, October 6, 1944. Attached to the Civil Affairs Division, Army Staff, 1946-49. Residual functions absorbed by the International Affairs Division, Judge Advocate General's Department, 1955.

Motion Pictures (2 reels): Investigation of atrocities against POWs in Korea, 1952-54. SEE ALSO 153.20

153.13.1 Records relating to World War II war crimes

Tekstuele rekords: Letters sent, 1948-51, and received, 1944-51. Treaty Analysis Project File of the State Department, compiled in conjunction with the War Crimes Division, 1944-48. Safehaven reports, 1944-45. Law library file, 1944-49. Prisoner-of-war investigation reports, 1943-47. Case files and dossiers for war crimes trials held by military commissions in China, the Far East Command, and the European and Mediterranean Theaters of Operations, 1944-49, with name indexes. General and administrative records pertaining to war crimes trials ("Set-Up Files"), 1944-49. Records of the United States Commissioner, United Nations War Crimes Commission, 1943-50. Records relating to European war crimes cases, 1944-50. Records relating to the International Military Tribunal for the Far East, 1946-48. Records relating to lesser Japanese war crimes trials, 1946-49. Case files of the Japanese Clemency and Parole Board for War Criminals, 1952-57, with index. Records relating to Philippine war crimes, 1942-47. Records relating to war crimes committed in the China Theater, 1945-48.

Motion Pictures (1 reel): Rome March, from case 16-194, U.S. v. Kurt Maelzer, n.d. SEE ALSO 153.20.

Photographic Prints (798 images): Two personal albums of Ilse Koch, used as an exhibit in her July 1947 war crimes trial, 1912- 41 (IK, 450 images). Six photograph albums containing photographs depicting German and Japanese atrocities and war crimes trials and documenting the recovery of property looted by the Nazis, 1944-46 (WC, 348 images).

Verwante rekords: National Archives Collection of World War II War Crimes Records, RG 238.

Toegang tot onderwerp: Berlin (photographs) Buchenwald (photographs) Darmstadt (photographs) Dresden (photographs).

153.13.2 Records relating to the Korean War

Tekstuele rekords: Records of the War Crimes Division, Judge Advocate Section, Korean Communications Zone, consisting of war crimes case files, 1952-54 historical reports, 1952-54 and reports of interrogations of American prisoners of war repatriated in Operation Big Switch, 1953-54. Records of the Post Capture Offenses Division, Judge Advocate Section, Korean Communications Zone, consisting of case files, 1951-53, with index and historical report, 1953.

Motion Pictures (2 reels): Investigation of atrocities against POWs in Korea, 1952-54. SEE ALSO 153.20.

153.14 RECORDS OF THE MILITARY JUSTICE DIVISION
1945-55

Tekstuele rekords: Reports and related records of the courts- martial ("Lichfield Trials") of U.S. servicemen stationed at Camp Lichfield, England, 1945-47. Records of the Judge Advocate General's Task Force to Study Procurement Irregularities in the Western Area Command, 1950-55.

153.15 RECORDS OF THE MILITARY AFFAIRS DIVISION
1949-58

Tekstuele rekords: Records of the Department of the Army Emergency Legislative Program, 1949-58.

153.16 RECORDS OF THE INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS DIVISION
1918-76

Tekstuele rekords: Army JAG central files of legal opinions and actions concerned with organization matters, originated by the Administration Law Division, the Procurement Law Division, the Criminal Law Division, and the International Affairs Division ("Mixed Files"), 1918-78 (361 ft.). Records relating to international agreements, national jurisdictions, and other legal matters ("Country Files"), 1954-61.

153.17 RECORDS OF THE STATUS OF FORCES BRANCH
1954-63

Tekstuele rekords: Records relating to the exercise of jurisdiction by foreign tribunals over U.S. military personnel ("Morale and Impact Reports"), 1955-60. Statistical reports, 1954-63. Records relating to foreign criminal tribunal legal costs, 1956-60. Reports of visits to foreign penal institutions, 1955-63. Reports of U.S. military personnel confined in foreign penal institutions, 1954-63.

153.18 FIELD RECORDS
1917-67

Tekstuele rekords: Records of the Judge Advocate General School, Charlottesville, VA, 1951-67. Records of the Judge Advocate General's School Library, consisting of a collection of publications and issuances relating to the World War I draft and Veterans' Bureau, 1917-40.

153.19 CARTOGRAPHIC RECORDS (GENERAL)

SEE Maps UNDER 153.2.3 and 153.5.

153.20 MOTION PICTURES (GENERAL)

SEE UNDER 153.2.4, 153.13.1, and 153.3.3.

153.21 VIDEO RECORDINGS (GENERAL)

153.22 SOUND RECORDINGS (GENERAL)

153.23 STILL PICTURES (GENERAL)

SEE Photographic Prints UNDER 153.13.1.

Bibliografiese nota: Webweergawe gebaseer op Guide to Federal Records in die National Archives of the United States. Saamgestel deur Robert B. Matchette et al. Washington, DC: National Archives and Records Administration, 1995.
3 volumes, 2428 bladsye.

Hierdie webweergawe word van tyd tot tyd bygewerk om rekords wat sedert 1995 verwerk is, in te sluit.

This page was last reviewed on August 15, 2016.
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General George Washington begins march to New York

After the successful siege of Boston, General George Washington begins marching his unpaid soldiers from their headquarters in Cambridge, Massachusetts, toward New York in anticipation of a British invasion, on April 4, 1776.

In a letter to the president of Congress, General Washington wrote of his intentions in marching to New York and expressed frustration with Congress for failing to send adequate funds to allow him to pay his troops. Washington wrote, "I heartily wish the money had arrived sooner, that the Militia might have been paid as soon as their time of Service expired."

The Continental Congress’ inability to promptly pay or adequately supply its soldiers persisted throughout the war and continued as a subject of debate following the peace at Yorktown. Two major ramifications of the financial crisis marked the birth of the new nation. First, Congress began to pay soldiers with promises of western lands instead of currency—the same land Congress simultaneously promised to its Indian allies. Secondly, Congress’ inability to pay expenses even after winning the war eventually convinced conservative Patriots that it was necessary to overthrow the Articles of Confederation and draft the Constitution of the United States. The new and more centralized Constitution, with its three branches of government, had greater authority to raise funds and an increased ability to manage the new nation’s finances. 

Alexander Hamilton, in his role as the first secretary of the treasury under President George Washington, focused his efforts on mimicking British financial institutions, most significantly in his championship of the First Bank of the United States, as a means of stabilizing the new nation’s economy.