Geskiedenis Podcasts

Thracian Art

Thracian Art

Die kuns wat deur die mense van Thracië vervaardig is, soos aangedui deur die baie kosbare voorwerpe wat in Thraciese grafte gevind is, dateer uit die Bronstydperk, was, net soos die kultuur self, 'n mengsel van inheemse idees en vreemde invloede. Alhoewel dit moeilik kan wees om plaaslike en ingevoerde voorwerpe van hoë waarde te onderskei, is tipiese kenmerke van Thraciese kuns die gebruik van helderkleurige muurskilderye om grafte te versier, die wydverspreide gebruik van metaalvate, veral vir die begrawe van die oorledene se oorblyfsels, en ingewikkeld juweliersware in edelmetale vervaardig. Uiteindelik was daar 'n besondere waardering vir die Griekse aardewerk met swart figure, met baie van die beste voorbeelde van die genre wat in Thraciese grafte oorleef het.

Thracië

Die Thraciese volk was een van die oudste inwoners van die uitgestrekte gebiede van Oos- en Suidoos -Europa gedurende die laat tweede en eerste millennia vC, totdat hulle geleidelik deur die Romeinse Ryk in die 1ste en 2de eeu nC verower is. Ongelukkig het hulle nie hul eie geletterdheid ontwikkel nie, en daarom het hulle geen geskrewe rekord van hul geskiedenis gelaat nie. Die meeste van ons kennis daarvan is deesdae afkomstig van Griekse en Romeinse bronne, waarvan baie twyfelagtige akkuraatheid het, en nog belangriker uit argeologiese oorblyfsels wat vandag nog in Thraciese gebiede voorkom.

Om die belangrikheid van hierdie jarelange kultuur te verstaan, is ons baie afhanklik van die nalatenskappe wat antieke Thraciërs agtergelaat het in die vorm van visuele gegewens soos grafversierings, metaalvase, erdewerk, kosbare versierings en ander. 'N Diepgaande blik op die artefakte en argeologiese vondste skep 'n uitgebreide beeld van die rol wat kuns in die Thraciese kultuur gespeel het.

Thracië en sy kulturele ontwikkeling was 'n onderwerp van konstante veranderinge en buitelandse invloede.

As 'n beskawing wat bestaan ​​uit baie onafhanklike gemeenskappe (of stamme), geleë op 'n kruispad tussen Europa en Asië, was Thracië en sy kulturele ontwikkeling 'n onderwerp van konstante veranderinge en buitelandse invloede. Daarom sou elke poging om die Thraciese kuns as 'n homogene en onaangeraakde verskynsel te beskou nie heeltemal akkuraat wees nie.

Grafskildery

Die oorlede Thraciërs is óf begrawe óf veras, en hul oorskot is in verskillende grafstrukture neergelê, wat wissel van basiese putte in die grond tot geboude grafte, sarkofae of monumentale kamergrafte, wat onder 'n heuwel begrawe is. Die Thraciese volk het 'n sterk oortuiging in die hiernamaals gehad, en natuurlik is die binnekant van sulke begraafruimtes dienooreenkomstig ingerig om te dien as 'n tussentydse sakrale ruimte tussen hierdie lewe en die volgende, met alles wat die oorledene nodig sou hê om sy of haar geestelike reis voort te sit.

Dikwels is die mure van vroeëre grafte versier met vereenvoudigde monochrome skilderye in rooi en wit kleure, gemaak van organiese materiale en deurlopend deur die oudheid gebruik. Sedert die prehistoriese tyd is die kleur rooi en sy kleure geassosieer met die dood in 'n begrafnisverband, en in grafskilderye is rooi gebruik om die kop en die bolyf van die menslike liggaam uit te beeld, wat die fisiese belangrikheid daarvan as houers van die siel en verstand.

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'N Paar latere voorbeelde van grafskilderye bied meer komplekse figuurlike tonele en fyner versiering met 'n meer lewendige palet van wit, swart, rooi en geel pigmente. Scenes van die alledaagse lewe, soos jag, feeste, huwelikstonele was algemeen, sowel as verskillende mitologiese en begrafnisonderwerpe. Al die voorgenoemde motiewe kan teruggevoer word na die Argaïese tydperk en was 'n fundamentele deel van die begrafnis -ikonografie van die hele oostelike Middellandse See. Die versiering van Thraciese grafte het aansienlik gewissel, afhangende van die geografiese ligging en die etniese, politieke, kommersiële en kulturele verhoudings daarvan met nabye of verre kulture.

Metaal vase

By argeologiese opgrawings word gereeld groot metaalvase van uitstekende gehalte aangetref op die gebiede wat vroeër Thraciese gebiede was. Hulle het waarskynlik 'n lang lewe gedien as gesogte voorwerpe van rykdom en mag, wat tydens belangrike geleenthede of heilige feeste gebruik is voordat hulle uiteindelik in die grond gesit is. Die oorvloed van sulke kosbare voorwerpe in elke ryk begrafnis dui daarop dat dit in die Thraciese kultuur ook noodsaaklike eienskappe was wat die oorledene in die toekomstige hiernamaals kon help en die kontinuïteit van sy status en voorspoed in die volgende lewe kon verseker.

Groot bronsvate word herhaaldelik gevind in die grafte van welgestelde Thraciërs, wat dien as begraafplase vir die as van die oorledene.

Klein houers, wat dikwels deel uitmaak van drinkstelle wat gebruik word by feeste of godsdienstige rites en seremonies, soos phialai, bakke, rhyta, kanne en sif, is gereeld gemaak van edelmetale soos goud of silwer. Brons, hoewel dit dikwels as 'n plaasvervanger vir goud gebruik word, word ook beskou as 'n duur materiaal, slegs beskikbaar vir die elite en word meestal gebruik vir vaartuie wat groter is, soos hidriai, situlae, wasbakke, kraters en kruike. Groot bronsvate word herhaaldelik gevind in die grafte van welgestelde Thraciërs, wat dien as begraafplase vir die as van die oorledene.

'N Gereelde vorm in Thracië was die phiale, 'n konkawe vlak bak sonder handvatsels en gewoonlik met 'n sentrale omphalos (naeltjie). In die alledaagse lewe is 'n paar diep phialai gebruik as wyndrinkoppies, maar in die algemeen het hulle 'n belangrike rituele funksie gedien by die storting van geskenke vir die gode of oorlede voorouers. Beide die Achaemenidiese tipe phiale met skitterende offsetrand en vlak diepte en die reguitrandige Griekse vorm was bekend in Thracië. Baie Thraciese werkswinkels het sommige van die buitelandse stylkenmerke aangeneem, maar ook hul plaaslike stilistiese tradisies opgeneem.

'N Ander soort drinkbak en 'n noodsaaklike komponent van die Thraciese kultuur was ongetwyfeld die riton, 'n horingvormige houer wat gewoonlik in 'n dier se voorkant of kop eindig en 'n bietjie tuit aan die onderkant om vloeistof uit te gooi. Rhyta was seremoniële voorwerpe wat tydens drankpartytjies gebruik is om te eet. Die groot aantal in Thrakië dui daarop dat hulle gewild was onder Thraciese vorste en hooggeplaastes.

Dit is egter belangrik om daarop te let dat kosbare vaartuie in Thrakië nie altyd van plaaslike produksie was nie. Die Thrakiese aristokrasie het voortdurend buitelandse invoer geniet, vervaardig in verskillende werkswinkels regoor die antieke kunswêreld, van die voor-Achaemenidiese Anatolië tot die klassieke Griekeland, en van Etruria tot die gehelleniseerde ooste. Sommige van hulle is deur die Atheense afvaardigings as diplomatieke geskenke aan die plaaslike Thraciese stamhoofde gebring om handel te dryf met gesogte goedere, soos edelmetale, hout en pelse. Ander sulke waardevolle besittings het gekom deur handel of as 'n plaasvervanger vir betaling by die handel met die stamme. Laastens, maar nie die minste nie, vind gereelde vaartuie gereeld plaas in die vorm van oorlogsbuit.

Aardewerk

Aardewerkvorme van antieke Thracië was uiters veranderlik en het voortdurend verskuif in ooreenstemming met die algemene neiging van die destydse antieke Mediterreense wêreld; daarom kan baie tegnologiese en stilistiese groepe gedefinieer word.

Die vroegste voorbeelde van aardewerk wat in die Thraciese gebiede gevind is, dateer uit die Bronstydperk, was oorwegend handgemaak, redelik primitief en die klei bevat baie onsuiwerhede. Aardewerk word eerder in 'n huishoudelike omgewing vervaardig as in 'n werkswinkel. Die oorheersende vorms bestaan ​​uit verskillende soorte bakke, kanne, kanne, kantharoi, bekers en houers, en dit is almal in die daaglikse lewe van Thraciërs gebruik. Die versiering was relatief eenvoudig met verskillende motiewe wat in geometriese patroonkombinasies gerangskik is deur middel van insnyding of stamp.

Gedurende die laat-argaïese en klassieke tydperke het in sommige streke van Thracië geleidelik erdewerk in wiele verskyn. Thraciese pottebakkers het daarin geslaag om die kwaliteit van die potte te verbeter deur klei met minder onsuiwerhede te gebruik. Die algehele vorm het meer verfyn geword, en 'n paar buitelandse invloede is in die ontwerp opgeneem.

Een spesifieke groep vaartuie was meer oorheersend, en dit was monochroom aardewerk, wat dikwels 'grys aardewerk' genoem word. 'N Duidelike kenmerk van hierdie tipe was die gewoonlik gepoleerde oppervlak met 'n blink, grys tot swart kleur. Miskien was hierdie tipe die algemeenste kategorie tafelgerei in antieke Thracië, en die gebruik daarvan het tot die hellenistiese tyd geduur.

Ander argeologiese vondste uit die klassieke tydperk toon ook 'n oorvloed ingevoerde Griekse swart en rooi figuurversierde vase, veral dié uit Griekse kolonies, wat dele van die Noord -Egeïese en die Swartsee -kus beslaan. Die oorvloedige ontdekking van vaartuie in die streek bied 'n groter verskeidenheid vorms, soos kolomkraters, klokkraters, hydriai, lekythoi en pelikai. Die dekoratiewe tonele wat Thraciërs bevoordeel het, was dié wat godsdienstige of begrafnisopvattings openbaar.

Gedurende die Hellenistiese tydperk het Тhrasiese aardewerk beduidende veranderinge deurgemaak. Die gewildheid van grys monochroom aardewerk is geleidelik vervang met verskeie ander stilistiese groepe, soos gewone rooi aardewerk, swart-glasuur-erdewerk en West-helling-erdewerk.

Juweliersware

Thraciërs was veral vaardig in die maak van kosbare juweliersware. Onder die Thraciërs word elite -versierings nie net as 'n eenvoudige versiering beskou nie, maar die versiering van die liggaam en kleredrag met kosbare voorwerpe het 'n belangrike rol gespeel om die status en rykdom van die draer aan te toon en om die godsdienstige en seremoniële funksies van die individu te beklemtoon. .

Die vroegste voorbeelde van juweliersware wat in Thrakië gevind word, verteenwoordig versierings wat hoofsaaklik met rok verband hou, soos klein fibulae en hangertjies gemaak van brons, yster, silwer en meer selde goud. Af en toe vondste van armbande en oorbelle was gewoonlik ietwat ru en swaar, van brons of amber krale.

Later in die klassieke tyd, 'n tydperk van geleidelik ontluikende state en aristokrasie in Thracië, het juweliersware 'n belangrike funksie verwerf as 'n teken van politieke en sosiale status, slegs beskikbaar vir die elite. Die ontwerp van die kosbare versierings het drasties verander en nuwe vorme in Griekse styl is bekendgestel. Oorbel, armbande en ringe is nou hoofsaaklik in goud vervaardig en buitelandse dekoratiewe tegnieke, soos giet, repoussé en filigraan, is in diens van Thraciese vakmanne en goudsmede.

Na die middel van die 4de eeu vC ontwikkel die mode in Griekse styl geleidelik totdat Thraciese juweliersware die Hellenistiese tradisies byna heeltemal aangepas het, insluitend die gebruik van beslag, emalje en poligroom met nuwer en modieuse Griekse vorms en ontwerpe.


Tattoos

Mense merk hul liggaam al duisende jare lank met tatoeëermerke. Hierdie permanente ontwerpe het soms as eenvoudig, soms uitgebrei, altyd persoonlik gedien as amulette, statussimbole, liefdesverklarings, tekens van godsdienstige oortuigings, versierings en selfs vorme van straf. Joann Fletcher, navorsingsgenoot in die departement argeologie aan die Universiteit van York in Brittanje, beskryf die geskiedenis van tatoeëermerke en hul kulturele betekenis vir mense regoor die wêreld, van die beroemde "Iceman", 'n 5200-jarige bevrore mummie, tot vandag se Maori's.

Verwante inhoud

Wat is die vroegste bewys van tatoeëermerke?

Wat tatoeëermerke op werklike liggame betref, was die vroegste bekende voorbeelde lankal Egipties en was dit op verskeie vroulike mummies wat gedateer is uit c. 2000 v.C. Maar na die meer onlangse ontdekking van die Iceman uit die gebied van die Italiaans-Oostenrykse grens in 1991 en sy tatoeëerpatrone, is hierdie datum nog duisend jaar teruggeskuif toe hy ongeveer 5 200 jaar oud was.

Kan u die tatoeëermerke op die Iceman en die betekenis daarvan beskryf?

Na gesprekke met my kollega professor Don Brothwell van die Universiteit van York, een van die spesialiste wat hom ondersoek het, stem die verspreiding van die getatoeëerde kolletjies en klein kruisies op sy onderste ruggraat en regterknie en enkelgewrigte ooreen met areas van spanning-geïnduseerde degenerasie, met die suggestie dat dit moontlik toegepas is om gewrigspyn te verlig en dus in wese terapeuties was. Dit sou ook hul ietwat 'ewekansige' verspreiding in liggaamsdele verduidelik, wat nie so maklik sou gewees het as dit as 'n vorm van statusmerker toegepas is nie.

Wat is die bewys dat ou Egiptenare tatoeëermerke gehad het?

Daar is beslis bewyse dat vroue tatoeëermerke op hul liggame en ledemate gehad het uit beeldjies c. 4000-3500 v.C. af en toe vroulike figure wat in graftonele voorgestel word c. 1200 v.C. en in beeldvorm c. 1300 v.C., almal met tatoeëermerke op hul dye. Ook klein bronswerktuie wat as tatoeëergereedskap geïdentifiseer is, is op die stad Gurob in die noorde van Egipte ontdek en dateer uit ongeveer. 1450 v.C. En dan is daar natuurlik die mummies met tatoeëermerke, van die drie vroue wat reeds genoem is en dateer uit c. 2000 v.C. na verskeie latere voorbeelde van vroulike mummies met hierdie vorme van permanente merke wat in Grieks-Romeinse begrafnisse by Akhmim gevind is.

Watter funksie het hierdie tatoeëermerke gedien? Wie het hulle gekry en hoekom?

Omdat dit in die ou Egipte blykbaar 'n uitsluitlik vroulike praktyk was, is mummies wat met tatoeëermerke gevind is, gewoonlik afgemaak deur die (manlike) graafmachines wat blykbaar aanvaar het dat die vroue 'twyfelagtige status' het, en in sommige gevalle as 'dansende meisies' beskryf word. Die vroulike mummies was nietemin begrawe in Deir el-Bahari (oorkant die moderne Luxor) in 'n gebied wat verband hou met koninklike en elite-begrafnisse, en ons weet dat ten minste een van die vroue wat beskryf word as 'waarskynlik 'n koninklike byvrou' eintlik 'n hoë- status priesteres met die naam Amunet, soos onthul deur haar begrafnisopskrifte.

En al word al lank aangeneem dat sulke tatoeëermerke die teken van prostitute was of bedoel was om die vroue te beskerm teen seksueel oordraagbare siektes, ek is persoonlik van mening dat die tatoeëring van antieke Egiptiese vroue 'n terapeutiese rol speel en as 'n permanente vorm van amulet funksioneer tydens die baie moeilike tyd van swangerskap en geboorte. Dit word ondersteun deur die verspreidingspatroon, grootliks rondom die maag, bo-op die dye en die borste, en dit sal ook die spesifieke soorte ontwerpe verduidelik, veral die net-agtige verspreiding van kolletjies wat oor die buik aangebring word. Tydens swangerskap sou hierdie spesifieke patroon beskermend uitgebrei word, op dieselfde manier wat kralenette oor toegedraaide mummies geplaas is om dit te beskerm en "alles binne te hou." Die plasing van klein figure van die huishoudelike god Bes op die bobeen van hul bobene sou weer dui op die gebruik van tatoeëermerke om die werklike geboorte te beskerm, aangesien Bes die beskermer van vroue in die bevalling was en sy posisie aan die bokant van die dye 'n geskikte plek. Dit sou uiteindelik tatoeëermerke as 'n suiwer vroulike gebruik verklaar.

Wie het die tatoeëermerke gemaak?

Alhoewel ons geen eksplisiete skriftelike bewyse in die geval van antieke Egipte het nie, kan dit wel wees dat die ouer vroue van 'n gemeenskap die tatoeëermerke vir die jonger vroue sou skep, soos dit in Egipte van die 19de eeu gebeur het en vandag in sommige dele van die wêreld gebeur. .

Watter instrumente het hulle gebruik?

Dit is moontlik dat 'n werktuig die beste beskryf kan word as 'n skerp punt in 'n houthandvatsel, gedateer op c. 3000 v.C. en ontdek deur argeoloog W.M.F. Petrie op die plek van Abydos is moontlik gebruik om tatoeëermerke te maak. Petrie het ook die bogenoemde stel klein bronsinstrumente gevind c. 1450 v.C. — lyk soos wye, plat naalde op die ou stad Gurob. As dit in 'n bondel saamgebind is, bied dit herhaalde patrone van veelvuldige kolletjies.

Hierdie instrumente is ook opmerklik soortgelyk aan baie later tatoeëring-werktuie wat in die 19de-eeuse Egipte gebruik is. Die Engelse skrywer William Lane (1801-1876) het opgemerk, "die operasie word uitgevoer met verskeie naalde (gewoonlik sewe) aan mekaar vasgebind: hiermee word die vel in 'n gewenste patroon geprik: 'n bietjie rook swart (van hout of olie), gemeng met melk uit die bors van 'n vrou, word dan ingevryf. Dit word gewoonlik uitgevoer op die ouderdom van ongeveer 5 of 6 jaar, en deur gipsy-vroue. ”

Hoe het hierdie tatoeëermerke gelyk?

Die meeste voorbeelde op mummies is grootliks gestippelde lyne en diamantpatrone, terwyl beeldjies soms meer naturalistiese beelde bevat. Die tatoeëermerke wat soms in graftonele en op klein vroulike beeldjies gevind word, wat deel uitmaak van kosmetiese voorwerpe, bevat ook klein figure van die dwergod Bes op die bobeen.

Waarvan was hulle gemaak? Hoeveel kleure is gebruik?

Gewoonlik word 'n donker of swart pigment soos roet in die geprikkelde vel ingebring. Dit lyk asof helderder kleure grotendeels in ander antieke kulture gebruik is, soos die Inuit, wat vermoedelik 'n geel kleur gebruik het saam met die meer gewone donkerder pigmente.

Hierdie gemummifiseerde kop van 'n vrou uit die pre-Inca Chiribaya-kultuur, geleë in die Azapa-museum in Arica, Chili, is versier met tatoeëermerke op haar linker linker wang. (Joann Fletcher) Die getatoeëerde regterhand van 'n Chiribaya -mummie word vertoon in die El Algarrobal -museum, naby die hawe Ilo in die suide van Peru. Die Chiribaya was boere wat van 900 tot 1350 nC geleef het (Joann Fletcher) 'N Getatoeëerde predinastiese vroulike beeldjie (ongeveer 4000-3500 v.C.) word in die Ashmolean Museum of Art and Archaeology in Oxford vertoon. (Joann Fletcher) Die Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York is die tuiste van hierdie getatoeëerde predinastiese vroulike figuur. (Joann Fletcher) Hierdie vroulike beeldjie van Naszca, Peru, word nou in die Streekmuseum van Ica vertoon. (Joann Fletcher) Klein brons tatoeëring -werktuie (ongeveer 1450 v.C.) uit Gurob, Egipte, kan gevind word by die Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology in Londen. (Joann Fletcher) Hierdie blou bak (ongeveer 1300 v.C.), gehuisves in die Rijksmuseum van Oudheden in Leiden, Amsterdam, het 'n musikant getatoeëer met 'n beeld van die huishoudelike god Bes op haar bobeen. (Joann Fletcher)

Wat het jou die meeste verbaas oor ou Egiptiese tatoeëring?

Dat dit blykbaar beperk was tot vroue gedurende die suiwer dinastiese tydperk, dit wil sê voor 332 v.C. Ook die manier waarop sommige van die ontwerpe baie goed geplaas kan word, as dit eers aanvaar is, is dit gebruik as 'n manier om vroue tydens swangerskap en geboorte te beskerm.

Kan u die tatoeëermerke beskryf wat in ander antieke kulture gebruik is en hoe dit verskil?

Onder die talle ou kulture wat tatoeëring blykbaar as 'n permanente vorm van liggaamsversiering gebruik het, is dit bekend dat die Nubiërs in die suide van Egipte tatoeëermerke gebruik het. Die gemummifiseerde oorblyfsels van vroue uit die inheemse C-groep kultuur wat op begraafplase naby Kubban gevind is c. 2000-15000 v.C. Daar is blou tatoeëermerke gevind, wat in ten minste een geval dieselfde rangskikking van kolletjies oor die buik gehad het wat op die voormelde vroulike mummies van Deir el-Bahari verskyn het. Die ou Egiptenare verteenwoordig ook die manlike leiers van die Libiese bure c. 1300-1100 v.C. met duidelike, eerder geometriese tatoeëermerke op hul arms en bene en uitgebeeld in Egiptiese graf-, tempel- en paleistonele.

Die Skithiese Pazyryk van die Altai -bergstreek was nog 'n antieke kultuur wat tatoeëermerke gebruik het. In 1948 is die 2400 -jarige lyk van 'n Skithiese mannetjie ontdek wat in Siberië in ys bewaar was, sy ledemate en bolyf bedek met sierlike tatoeëermerke van mitiese diere. Toe, in 1993, is 'n vrou met tatoeëermerke, weer van mitiese wesens op haar skouers, polse en duim en van soortgelyke datum, in 'n graf in Altai gevind. Die praktyk word ook bevestig deur die Griekse skrywer Herodotus c. 450 v.C., wat verklaar het dat onder die Skitheërs en Thraciërs 'tatoeëermerke 'n teken van adel was, en dat dit nie 'n bewys was van 'n lae geboorte nie. ”

Verslae van die ou Britte dui ook daarop dat hulle ook getatoeëer is as 'n teken van hoë status, en met 'verskillende vorme van diere' wat op hul liggame getatoeëer is, noem die Romeine die noordelike stam 'Picti', letterlik 'die geverfde mense'.

Tog, onder die Grieke en Romeine, blyk dit dat die gebruik van tatoeëermerke of "stigmata" soos hulle destyds genoem is, grotendeels gebruik is as 'n manier om iemand as 'aan' 'n godsdienstige sekte of aan 'n eienaar te merk slawe of selfs as 'n strafmaatreël om hulle as misdadigers aan te dui. Dit is dus baie interessant dat tydens die Ptolemaïese tyd toe 'n dinastie van Masedoniese Griekse monarge oor Egipte geheers het, die farao self, Ptolemaeus IV (221-205 v.C.), getatoeëer was met klimopblare om sy toewyding aan Dionysus, die Griekse god, te simboliseer. van wyn en die beskermheiligheid van die koninklike huis in daardie tyd. Die mode is ook deur Romeinse soldate aangeneem en versprei oor die Romeinse Ryk tot by die opkoms van die Christendom, toe tatoeëermerke 'die beeld wat na God se beeld gemaak is' ontwrig het en dus deur die keiser Konstantyn (306-373 nC) verbied is.

Ons het ook tatoeëermerke ondersoek op gemummifiseerde oorblyfsels van sommige van die antieke pre-Columbiaanse kulture van Peru en Chili, wat dikwels dieselfde hoogs versierde beelde van gestileerde diere en 'n wye verskeidenheid simbole in hul tekstiel- en pottebakkery herhaal. Een pragtige vroulike beeldjie van die Naszca -kultuur het 'n groot tatoeëring reg rondom haar onderlyf, strek oor haar buik en strek tot by haar geslagsdele en verwys waarskynlik na die streke wat verband hou met geboorte. Op die gemummifiseerde oorblyfsels wat oorleef het, is die tatoeëermerke op torso, ledemate, hande, vingers en duime aangetref, en soms is tatoeëring in die gesig beoefen.

Met uitgebreide tatoeëring in die gesig en liggaam wat gebruik word onder inheemse Amerikaners, soos die Cree, het die gemummifiseerde liggame van 'n groep van ses Groenlandse Inuit -vroue c. AD 1475 onthul ook bewyse vir tatoeëring in die gesig. Infrarooi ondersoek het getoon dat vyf van die vroue getatoeëer is in 'n lyn wat oor die wenkbroue strek, langs die wange en in sommige gevalle met 'n reeks lyne op die ken. Nog 'n getatoeëerde vroulike mummie, wat 1 000 jaar vroeër gedateer is, is ook op St. Lawrence -eiland in die Beringsee gevind, met haar tatoeëermerke met kolletjies, lyne en harte tot die arms en hande.

Daar is ook bewyse vir tatoeëring onder sommige van die ou mummies wat in die Taklamakan -woestyn in China gevind is. 1200 v.C., hoewel dit tydens die latere Han-dinastie (202 v.C.-220 n.C.) lyk asof slegs misdadigers getatoeëer is.

Japannese mans het in die laat 3de eeu na hul liggaam begin versier met uitgebreide tatoeëermerke.

Daar word vermoed dat die uitgebreide tatoeëermerke van die Polinesiese kulture oor duisende jare ontwikkel het, met baie uitgebreide meetkundige ontwerpe wat in baie gevalle die hele liggaam kan dek. Na die Britse ekspedisie van James Cook na Tahiti in 1769, het die eilandbewoners "tatatau" of "tattau", wat beteken slaan of slaan, die moderne term "tattoo" vir die weste gegee. Die punte het toe mode geword onder die Europeërs, veral in die geval van mans soos matrose en steenkoolmyners, met beide beroepe wat ernstige risiko's inhou en vermoedelik die byna amuletagtige gebruik van ankers of tatoeëring van mynwerkers op die voorarms van die mans verklaar.

Wat van moderne tatoeëermerke buite die westerse wêreld?

Moderne Japannese tatoeëermerke is by baie moderne praktisyns werklike kunswerke, terwyl die hoogs bekwame tatoeëerders van Samoa steeds hul kuns skep soos dit in die ou tyd uitgevoer is, voor die uitvinding van moderne tatoeëringstoerusting. Verskeie kulture in Afrika gebruik ook tatoeëermerke, insluitend die fyn kolletjies op die gesigte van Berber -vroue in Algerië, die uitgebreide gesigstatoeëermerke van Wodabe -mans in Niger en die klein kruisies aan die binneste onderarms wat die Christelike Kopte van Egipte kenmerk.

Wat verteenwoordig Maori -gesigsontwerpe?

In die Maori -kultuur van Nieu -Seeland is die kop as die belangrikste deel van die liggaam beskou, met die gesig versier deur ongelooflike uitgebreide tatoeëermerke of '#8216moko', wat as 'n hoë status beskou is. Elke tatoeëermerkontwerp was uniek aan daardie persoon, en aangesien dit spesifieke inligting oor hul status, rang, afkoms en vermoëns oorgedra het, is dit akkuraat beskryf as 'n vorm van 'n ID -kaart of paspoort, 'n soort estetiese strepieskode vir die gesig. Nadat skerp beenbeitels gebruik is om die ontwerpe in die vel te sny, word 'n roetpigment in die oop wonde getik, wat dan genees om die ontwerp te verseël. Met die tatoeëermerke van krygers wat in verskillende stadiums van hul lewens gegee is as 'n soort ritueel, word die versierings beskou as die verbetering van hul kenmerke en die aantreklikheid daarvan vir die teenoorgestelde geslag.

Alhoewel Maori -vroue ook op hul gesigte getatoeëer is, was die merke gewoonlik rondom die neus en lippe gekonsentreer. Hoewel Christelike sendelinge probeer het om die prosedure te stop, het die vroue volgehou dat tatoeëermerke om hul mond en kin voorkom dat die vel plooie kry en dat hulle jonk bly.

Waarom, dink jy, het soveel kulture die menslike liggaam gekenmerk en het hulle praktyke mekaar beïnvloed?

In baie gevalle blyk dit dat dit onafhanklik ontstaan ​​het as 'n permanente manier om beskermende of terapeutiese simbole op die liggaam te plaas, dan as 'n manier om mense in gepaste sosiale, politieke of godsdienstige groepe uit te merk, of bloot as 'n vorm van self- uitdrukking of modeverklaring.


Die Enigma van die Thraciërs en die Orpheus -mite

Die verloop van die millennia het ons spore van antieke beskawings gebring wat genoeg geskyn het om hul kulturele kykies deur die eeue te laat bly. Die mensdom self verskyn in die kuns, kultuur en begrafnisrites van hierdie beskawings, so terwyl ons uit 'n weekdier slegs 'n spoor van versteende skulp vind, vind ons by 'n mens baie meer as net oorblyfsels, maar ons vind piramides, heuwels, beeldhouwerke, munte, gereedskap, wapens, skrifte, skatte, huise, paleise, altare en meer.

Dit alles, in die lig van argeologie, stel ons in staat om meer te weet oor ons voorouers. Maar vir sommige van hulle, soos die Thraciërs, werp dit wat ontdek is skaars 'n skaduwee oor wat nog onbekend is. Daar is baie raaisels rondom hierdie antieke beskawing wat die huidige Bulgarye en sommige aangrensende dele van Roemenië, Griekeland en Turkye beset het.

In argeologiese terme dateer bewyse van beskawing in Bulgaarse lande duisende jare terug. Dit is nie toevallig gevind in Provadia (Bulgarye), die oudste prehistoriese stad in Europa, wat gedateer is tussen 4 700 vC en 4 200 vC, 'n versterkte nedersetting met 350 inwoners. Aan die ander kant weet ons dat die oudste goue skat ter wêreld jare lank nie in Sumerië, Egipte of in die voor-Columbiaanse Amerika, maar in Varna (Bulgarye) gevind is, en dateer uit 4.600 vC.

Wetenskaplikes en argeoloë twyfel nog steeds oor wie die mense was wat ongeveer 5000 jaar gelede met die Thraciërs gemeng is, waaruit die Thraciese beskawing self sou ontstaan. Maar dit is bekend dat sommige met hul vee uit die noorde na die Balkan gekom het en 'n plek met 'n helder en aantreklike kultuur gevind het. Dit was die vermenging tussen die plaaslike bevolking en die nuwelinge wat ons vandag in staat stel om van die Thraciërs te praat.

Die Thraciërs is bekend vir hul uitbundige veggees, maar die geskiedenis van 'n bevolking is nie net gebou op sy oorloë en die uitbuiting van sy soldate en leiers nie, soos dit gewoonlik in ensiklopedieë en geskiedenisboeke gelees word. Versprei oor Suidoos -Europa was groepe mans en vroue wat baie vaardig was om met verfynde metale te werk, wat volgelinge was van 'n delikate mistiek wat die moedergodin aanbid het en komplekse begrafnisrituele gehad het wat in simboliek gedompel was.

Daar is baie raaisels wat ontstaan ​​wanneer ons die antieke Thraciërs ondersoek. Hulle het byvoorbeeld 'n seldsame vermoë gehad om natuurlike afsettings te ontdek en te onttrek sonder om die natuur te benadeel. Argeoloë en antropoloë is steeds verbaas oor die soort gevorderde tegnologiese praktyke wat die Thraciërs gebruik het. As hulle, soos sommige geleerdes meen, meng met die mense wat sedert antieke tye in Bulgaarse lande bewoon het, het hulle vermoedelik kennis uitgeruil en hul wysheid het toegeneem namate hulle die vaardighede, praktyke en inligting van die ander kultuur inkorporeer.

So, watter geheimenisse bly daar oor van die eerste Thraciërs meer as 5000 jaar gelede? Alhoewel ons van sommige Thraciese name en woorde weet, het hulle blykbaar 'n eie alfabet gehad en het hulle Griekse en Latynse karakters gebruik om sekere inskripsies uit te voer. Hierdie Indo-Europese taal wat deur die Thrakiërs gepraat word, is egter steeds 'n raaisel en niemand kon dit ontsyfer nie. tog. Sommige tweetalige inskripsies in Griekse karakters in antieke Grieks en Thraciërs wat in Noord -Griekeland ontdek is, kan miskien 'n bietjie lig werp om die inhoud van die Thraciese tekste te ontsyfer, iets wat beslis belangrike inligting sou onthul oor die mense van wie ons nog skaars weet. enigiets.

Reis na die verlede

Die Thraciese begrafnisritueel is een van die mees oortuigende bewyse van geloof in die hiernamaals en onsterflikheid van die siel. The Valley of the Thracian Kings is in die streek Kazanlak, waar ons verskeie grafheuwels kan vind, wat hierdie gebied 'n ware roete van die begrafnisritueel maak (meer as 500 grafheuwels). Ons is in die koninkryk van die Odrisios (vyfde eeu tot die vierde eeu v.C.), regeer deur die koning III Seuthes. Hulle heuwels het nie die kolossale grootte van die piramides van Egipte bereik nie, maar die Thraciese begrafnisproses het baie dinge gemeen met die Egiptiese, nie die idee van opstanding en 'n hiernamaals nie. Ons het na die antieke nekropolis van die stad Seuthes III gery, destyds Seuthopolis genoem en na die graf van die koning self gegaan.

Vallei van die Thrakiese konings. Krediet: Rumen Kocev

Die oorblyfsels van Seuthes III is begrawe met sy perd en sy wapens, en 'n bronsbeeld van sy eie beeld wat in 'n spesiale kamer van die graf geplaas is, volgens die Orphic begrafnispraktyke. Ons word dus herinner aan die Iberiese begrafnisrituele waarin die vegter met sy wapens begrawe is, maar op 'n manier geplaas is wat dit geneutraliseer het en dit heeltemal onbruikbaar maak. Hoekom? Die tekste van die antieke Griekse geograaf en historikus Herodotus werp lig op hierdie raaisel. Hy het beweer dat alles wat tydens die begrafnisritte vernietig of onbruikbaar was, nuttig sou wees vir die hiernamaals. Die logika van hierdie filosofie is oorweldigend en mooi, vanuit my oogpunt. As die mens wie se lewe met die koms van die dood vernietig is, bedoel was om in die hiernamaals te herleef, moes die voorwerpe 'sterf' om weer te herleef. Die dood word beskou as die begin van 'n nuwe lewe. In hierdie gedeelte het die gees van die oorledene gereis om die hemelse woning te bereik waar hulle sou bly. Op hierdie reis moes hulle alles saamneem wat hulle nodig sou hê.

Die waardevolste vir die elite van die Thraciese krygers was hul perd en hul vrou, hoewel ons nie regtig weet in watter volgorde nie! So het hulle nie net hul perd opgeoffer nie, maar ook hul gunsteling vrou. Was dit wreed? If, as the ancients used to say, the Thracians wept at births and cheerfully sang at their deaths, far from being a cruel act, the Thracians probably considered it an honour. In fact, wives are said to have argued over who would have the honour of being the chosen one. As the Greek poet Hesiod said: “ When a husband dies, his wives, which are many for each one, argue in competition held by the determination of those who are their close friends and relatives, and claim them to be the deceased husband’s dearest one. The wife who comes out victorious and honoured with a judgment in her favour, which is full of praise and applause of men and women, will be beheaded by a kin hand over the grave of her husband and is buried beside him, while the ones who lost the case, that is for them the greatest infamy, remain mourning they misfortune”.

* This article was originally written in Spanish and has been translated.


'The Mythology of the Severed Head in Symbolist Art: Images and Ideas'

Lynda Harris has degrees in the history of art from three universities. She has taught extra-mural classes in art and symbolism for London University, and at various venues in and around London. Her book, The Secret Heresy of Hieronymous Bosch was published in 1995.

Odilon Redon: 'Orpheus'. C1903-10. Pastel. The Cleveland Museum of Art, Cleveland, Ohio.

The motif of the severed or disembodied head has a very ancient history, and can be interpreted in a number of ways. Though often associated with stories of blood, execution or warfare, it can also have further, more positive layers of meaning. For example, skulls dating from as far back as the Palaeolithic period have been found in shrines in many parts of the world. These heads, belonging to holy sacrificial victims or revered ancestors, were worshipped as oracles, miracle workers and powerful intercessors with the spirit realm.1 This ancient tradition can be deeply ingrained. Particularly strong among Celtic peoples, it continues even today in remote parts of the U.K. such as the Pennines. Faces, carved from local stone, can still be placed in special outdoor spots, or set as guardians inside or outside of houses. Stone heads and human skulls have also been found in brooks and streams, continuing an ancient association with water.2

After Christianity had replaced the pagan religions, the worship of a deified, supposedly living disembodied head was no longer acceptable, and this ancient tradition was only able to continue underground. But some images of the severed head remained popular in art and literature. These included heroic tales, culminating in scenes of victors holding up the decapitated heads of their evil enemies. Such stories could be Biblical (Judith beheading Holophernes or David with the head of Goliath) or mythological (Perseus with the head of Medusa). Histories of saintly martyrs decapitated by evil or corrupt persecutors were also common in the Christian tradition. The New Testament story of the beheading of the John the Baptist is probably the best known of these. But though the Baptist was viewed as a holy figure and the forerunner to Christ, he did not achieve the status of the pagan deities. Several relics, each of them supposedly his head, were kept in various Christian churches. They were believed to cure people, but, though sacred, they were not seen as supernaturally alive, and were not worshipped as gods as the ancient heads had been.

The original historic tradition of the supernatural, oracular head remained underground until the late nineteenth century. It then reappeared in the art and literature of the Symbolist tradition, taking on new characteristics appropriate to the time and place. Adding their own visions and interpretations to the traditional ones, the Symbolists depicted living or godlike severed heads in their art for the first time since Antiquity.3

The Symbolists were particularly drawn to two characteristics of the disembodied head. They were attracted, first of all, by the ancient concept of a living head, revered for its holiness, which continued to sing or speak. With its tragic history, this head became an embodiment of purity and martyrdom. In addition, many of these dramatic tales fitted into another recurring theme in Symbolist art and thought. This was the dangerous eroticism of the femme fatale, who brought about the emasculation or destruction of the male victim through her seduction, treachery or violence. This fear of the feminine may have had ancient origins, interrelated with the image of the Great Mother as a source of both birth and death. According to Kristeva, the vulva, associated with the dangerous decapitated head of Medusa by the Greeks, had also been a source of fear among prehistoric peoples. As evidence she sites various artefacts dating back as early as 30,000 BC.4

EXAMPLES OF SPIRITUAL AND SUPERNATURAL DISEMBODIED HEADS IN SYMBOLIST ART AND THOUGHT

Gustave Moreau: 'Thracian Girl Carrying the Head of Orpheus on His Lyre' 1865. Oil on canvas. Musée d'Orsay, Paris.

For the Symbolists, the Greek myth of Orpheus exemplified both martyrdom and misogyny. In the Christian tradition, the myth had been known chiefly as a tale of the Thracian poet/musician&rsquos failed attempt to rescue his love Eurydice from Hades, but the events which followed this are also an important part of the myth.

There are numerous versions of the Orpheus story. The one in Ovid&rsquos Metamorphoses is probably the most widely read. It includes the history of what happened after Orpheus had returned to the earth&rsquos surface. At this stage, desolate after his loss of Eurydice, the godlike poet and singer went to live in the mountains. Here he renounced women, and took up with youths. This angered the wild Maenads or Bacchante, female followers of Bacchus/Dionysus. These women then acted out the ancient mythological story of the dying and rising god. As they had done with Dionysus himself, they turned on Orpheus and tore him apart. The ancient and widespread myth of the sacrificial god has taken many forms, but in all of them the women, in one shape or another, kill and dismember the young demi-god, and afterwards, as benign and motherly females, they begin to worship and mourn him.
These events were rarely depicted or publicised until the Symbolists began taking an interest in them. Influenced by Edouard Schuré&rsquos book The Great Initiates, the Symbolists viewed the tragic Orpheus as an initiate and magician, as well as a great genius of music and poetry with whom they liked to identify. They associated the mysticism, suffering and divinity of Orpheus with those of Christ, another of Schuré&rsquos great initiates. Scenes from the myth which involved the severed head of the dismembered poet/musician had a particular appeal to Symbolist painters. They frequently depicted the head floating down the river Hebrus, resting on its lyre and singing mournfully. According to Ovid, it eventually reached the Mediterranean, and finally, still singing, came to rest on the island of Lesbos. Here, rescued together with the lyre by nymphs or other young maidens, the head of Orpheus became an oracle, visited and worshipped by the Greeks.
Gustave Moreau was the first Symbolist painter to depict the dead Orpheus. His best known painting of the poet&rsquos severed head dates from 1865. Entitled Thracian Girl Carrying the Head of Orpheus on his Lyre, it shows a benign maiden tenderly carrying the head after it has been rescued. Its eyes are closed as though seeing inward visions appropriate to its future role as a speaking oracle.
The Belgian Symbolist Jean Delville was also drawn to the subject. His oil painting The Dead Orpheus of 1893 depicts the head floating on its lyre over a shallow, rippling sea. The picture is overwhelmingly blue-green in colour, though a closer look reveals other subtle tints. The artist, very aware of esoteric ideas and symbolism, thought of blue as particularly spiritual.5 The water near to the shore is scattered with blue-green seashells, and the lyre is beautifully decorated with small pink and blue pearls. The artist&rsquos wife was the model for the effeminate head of Orpheus, which, like the one in Moreau&rsquos painting, has its eyes closed as though in a trance. According to the myth, the lyre would eventually be carried into the sky by the muses, and would take its place among the stars. Its final destination is hinted at by the reflections of stars which dot the ripples in Delville&rsquos scene.

JOHN THE BAPTIST AND SALOMÉ

Gustave Moreau: 'The Apparition'. 1876-77. Fogg Art Museum, Cambridge Massachusetts.

This Biblical story, like the Greek myth of Orpheus, had a special appeal to the Symbolists. The relevant part for them begins when the corrupt tetrarch Herod Antipas kidnaps his deceased brother&rsquos wife, Herodias. Next, after Antipas has renounced his own wife, Herodias marries him. The holy man John the Baptist, disapproving of their actions, criticises Antipas and Herodias. They react by putting him into prison, and soon afterwards, Herodias, planning revenge on the Baptist, asks her young daughter Salomé to dance at the tetrarch&rsquos birthday celebration. Pleased with Salomé&rsquos erotic dance Antipas offers her a reward, and, as is well known, she asks for the head of the Baptist on a platter. Why does she make this particular request? According to the Gospel of St Mark, Herodias tells her to do it. But the Symbolists tended to see the story differently, changing Salomé&rsquos role from innocent (or comparatively innocent) daughter to predatory femme fatale.
Gustave Moreau was the first Symbolist painter to illustrate the story. His sumptuous paintings, with their stress on the corrupt and oriental beauty of the court and Salomé&rsquos role as an exotic femme fatale, had a great influence on Symbolist literature and art. Moreau&rsquos Salome paintings appealed especially to the &lsquodecadent&rsquo author Joris-Karl Huysmans, who described them in dramatic prose in his book A rebours.
6 They also inspired Oscar Wilde, whose play Salome will be looked at further below.
Moreau represented the story of Salomé and the Baptist in numerous sketches, watercolours and oils. The artist&rsquos best known and most influential depictions show her dancing before Herod Antipas in the vast and richly decorated throne room of an oriental palace. In the elaborate and sumptuous oil painting Salomé Dancing Before Herod (1876), the temptress, who is still partially veiled, points a hand at the executioner. Herod watches her, sitting on an elaborate throne surmounted by three statues of Diana of Ephesus. In another version of 1874, the watercolour Salomé with Tattoos, the dancer wears an elaborate headdress and displays her nude body, covered with exquisite tattoos.

Gustave Moreau: 'Salomé with Tatoos'.1874. Musée Gustave Moreau, Paris.

And in a particularly influential work, The Apparition (1876), the gorgeous but inexorable Salomé points to a vision of the Baptist&rsquos future severed head which is suspended above her, dripping with blood and surrounded by a halo and rays of light. Moreau also depicts later episodes. In Salomé in Prison (1873-76), richly but now modestly robed, she stands out of sight, waiting pensively while the decapitation takes place. Later on, in Salomé at the Column (c.1885-90), she is draped in ornately decorated folds of cloth. Standing statue-like on a pedestal, she displays the Baptist&rsquos decapitated head in a pose reminiscent of Moreau&rsquos Thracian Girl Carrying the Head of Orpheus on His Lyre.

Moreau&rsquos images no doubt influenced Oscar Wilde, who produced his own version of the story in a play of 1891. In his portrayal, Salomé is infatuated with the uninterested Baptist, but is finally able to kiss his lips after she has had him decapitated. Wilde&rsquos play was published in 1894, with some amazing black and white illustrations by Aubrey Beardsley. The best known of these is J&rsquoai baisé ta bouche Jokanaan, whose English title is The Climax. It depicts an oriental and predatory Salomé, with snakelike hair, kneeling in the air. Holding the Baptist&rsquos severed and unenthusiastic head, she is about to kiss his lips.

Aubrey Beardsley: 'The Climax'. 1894.

DISEMBODIED HEADS IN THE ART OF ODILON REDON

Odilon Redon: 'Head of Orpheus on the Water'. Charcoal and Pencil. Rijksmuseum Kroller-Muller, Otterlo, Netherlands.

Redon merits a section of his own, as disembodied, living heads appear to have been one of his chief obsessions. He produced a great number of these images. Though some of them depict decapitated heads, the majority represent beings which have always existed independently without bodies. These creatures, which are frequently airborne, tend to look sepulchral and ghostly. Though not gruesome, they are in no way cheerful. Most depictions of them, known as his &lsquonoirs&rsquo, are charcoals and lithographs, executed in black and white. Though disembodied heads populate his works throughout his career, most date from his earlier period, beginning in the 1870s.

Redon did not explain his images, leaving them to the interpretation of the viewer. Nevertheless, it is known that he had esoteric interests, and was influenced by Theosophy and Schuré&rsquos book The Great Initiates.7

According to the thesis of R.J. Mesley, Redon was affected not only by the above esoteric theories, but also by Orphic ideas of the soul&rsquos fall and entrapment in matter. The artist&rsquos sources would have included various Parisian contacts, as well as the works of Symbolist authors such as Baudelaire. In Mesley&rsquos Orphic interpretation of Redon&rsquos works, many of the artist&rsquos numerous disembodied airborne heads (most notably those in his 1879 album of lithographs, Dans le Reve), are images of souls which have fallen from the heavenly world into the world of matter. These souls float in the sublunary realm between the moon and the earth, moving between physical incarnations and sojourns on the moon. Eventually, with the help of a feminine angel figure, the souls will free themselves from the temptation to reincarnate in the physical world, and move on to a more heavenly area.

Odilon Redon: 'Germination' from 'Dans le Reve'.1879. Litografie.

Redon also depicted the decapitated head of Orpheus himself. In two noirs of the early 1880s, the initiate&rsquos head floats on water, without his lyre. Though these scenes are dark, areas of light illuminate the face and parts of the sea. The floating heads have a look of mysticism and concentration, whether their eyes are closed or open.

During the 1880&rsquos Redon began producing works (usually pastels) which were as luminously coloured as his noirshad been dark. Among these is a much later and better known example of the head of Orpheus, dated 1898. In this pastel the lyre and head of Orpheus are washed up on a rocky shore, illuminated by a bright blue and purple sky behind the flowery hills. The initiate&rsquos eyes are closed, and he seems to be engrossed in his inner visions.

Among Redon&rsquos numerous depictions of severed heads there are also, not surprisingly, a number which represent John the Baptist. John&rsquos head can be shown independently on a dish, or in a scene together with Salomé. In a charcoal of 1877 entitled Salomé, for example, the head held on a platter by the lovely yet heartless dancer has features very similar to Redon&rsquos own.9

Salomé is shown again, but very differently, in Redon&rsquos very individual version of Moreau&rsquos &lsquoThe Apparition&rsquodated 1883. Here, she becomes a dark, quiet and apparently menacing figure, standing on the left side of the scene. The stress in this charcoal drawing is on the head of the Baptist, which floats in front of her against the backdrop of a dark doorway. The ghostly and spectral head is surrounded by rays, and partially covered by a dark disk reminiscent of a black sun. Redon&rsquos paintings often have themes of darkness versus light, and it is possible that the artist is hinting here at the attack of corrupt and evil forces against the spirituality of the Baptist or (on a more universal level), the soul of humanity.

In a later coloured pastel by Redon dated 1893, two women in vibrant blue hooded cloaks stand looking down at a holy severed head which radiates light. This work is normally given the title Salomé, but, as Mesley says, the scene might also represent the head of Orpheus, attended by two muses

Odilon Redon: 'Salomé'. C1893. Pastel. Kunsthalle Bremen, Bremen, Germany.

As this article will have shown, the significance of the severed head is particularly complicated, and can be understood in various ways, depending on individual interests. It can be an image of vengeance and horror. It can also represent holiness, purity or (in the esoteric interpretation), the soul. On other occasions, it plays a central part in the story of a dangerous femme fatale. Between them, the Symbolists managed to revive some of the more ancient meanings, and to include all of them into their art.

1. See Julia Kristeva, The Severed Head: Capital Visions, New York, Columbia University Press, c.2012.
2. David Clarke with Andy Roberts, Twilight of the Celtic Gods, An Exploration of Britain's Hidden Pagan Traditions, Cassell PLC, London, 1996, pp.124ff and 138ff.
3. Dorothy M. Kosinski, Orpheus in Nineteenth-Century Symbolism, Ann Arbor, Mich.: UMI Research Press, c.1989, p xiv.
4. Julia Kristeva, The Severed Head, pp.29ff.
5. Francine-Claire Legrand, Symbolism in Belgium, Brussels, Laconti, 1972, p.27.
6. A rebours is translated into English as Against Nature or Against the Grain.
7. See Fred Leeman, 'Redon's Spiritualism and the Rise of Mysticism', pp.215-221, in Odilon Redon 1840-1916, exhibition catalogue, Chicago, Amsterdam and London. Thames and Hudson, 1994.
8. For more of this interpretation see Roger James Mesley, The Theme of Mystic Quest in the Art of Odilon Redon, PhD Thesis, Department of Art History, University of Toronto, 1983.
9. Douglas W. Druick and Peter Kort Zegen, 'Taking Wing, 1870-1878', p.86, in Odilon Redon 1840-1916, exhibition catalogue, Chicago, Amsterdam and London. Thames en Hudson. 1994.
10. Mesley, The Mystic Quest, Chapter One, pp.42-43.

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Thracian Art - History

Wednesday, October 09, 2013

In most of the ancient Greco-Roman world, tattoos were seen as a mark of punishment and shame. The Greeks, who, according to the historian Herodotus, learned the idea of penal tattoos from the Persians in the sixth century B.C., tattooed criminals, slaves who tried to escape, and enemies they vanquished in battle. A famous example has the Athenians tattooing the defeated Samians with an owl, Athens&rsquo hallowed emblem, only to have the favor returned when the Samians defeated the Athenians and tattooed their prisoners with a Samian warship. In the Roman Empire, slaves were marked to show their taxes had been paid. The emperor Caligula tattooed gladiators&mdashas public property&mdashand early Christians condemned to the mines. But among many of the ancient cultures the Greeks and Romans encountered&mdashThracians, Scythians, Dacians, Gauls, Picts, Celts, and Britons, to name a few&mdashtattoos were seen as marks of pride. Herodotus tells us that for the Thracians, tattoos were greatly admired and &ldquotattooing among them marks noble birth, and the want of it low birth.&rdquo A fifth-century B.C. Greek vase (left) depicts a tattooed Thracian maenad, a female follower of the god Dionysus, killing the musician Orpheus as punishment for abandoning Dionysus to worship the sun god, Apollo.

Moche Mask and Mummy

Wednesday, October 09, 2013

The Moche culture of ancient Peru is noted for elaborately decorated ceramics, goldwork, textiles, and murals—and people. While actual physical evidence of tattooing is rare, there are a great number of artifacts indicating that tattooing was likely a common and esteemed practice in the Moche world, according to Edward Swenson of the University of Toronto. Swenson believes that while it’s possible that the markings on the gold mask (left), for example, may represent actual tattoos, they more likely may be stylized “faux” tattoos that were not inscribed on the face of the deceased buried with the mask but, rather, were symbolic of his identity and life force. One interesting motif that is often found is a string of pupating flies ringing the neck, which Swenson believes symbolizes death and rebirth. “If the fly necklace can be interpreted as a kind of tattoo, then I would suspect some individuals were tattooed in important life-crisis rituals, such as after initiates successfully achieved a new social or ritual status,” explains Swenson. “Similarly, shamans are often depicted with anthropomorphized animals, perhaps suggesting their ability to shape-shift in states of trance.” Animals, both realistic and supernatural, also adorn the body of the “Lady of Cao” (top), a well-preserved mummy found at the site of El Brujo in 2005. Her tattoos include stylized catfish, spiders, crabs, felines, snakes, and a supernatural being commonly called the Moon Animal. “We can only speculate about the meaning of these motifs,” says John Verano of Tulane University, who excavated the mummy with El Brujo Project and Museum director Régulo Franco. “But spiders are associated with rain, as well as with human sacrifice and death, and the serpent is an important element associated in many ancient Andean cultures with deities, fertility, and human sacrifice as well,” adds Verano. “Tattoos may very well have been embraced for aesthetic reasons in Moche society, but they probably also played a fundamental role in facilitating transformations into new states of being,” says Swenson.

Head Effigy Pot

Wednesday, October 09, 2013

From about A.D. 1200 to 1600, Native Americans speaking very different languages and living across a vast swath of what is now the United States followed similar religious practices known today as the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex. According to David H. Dye of the University of Memphis, who has studied both ritual depictions on artifacts and the Native American oral traditions, tattooing was a vital part of these shared religious ideas. “They played a role in celebrating the perpetuation of life,” says Dye. “For warriors, facial tattoos were snares for capturing the soul of someone they killed in battle. Capturing those enemy souls through permanent tattoos helped extend not only their own lives, but helped ease the passage of their dead relatives.” Much of the evidence for tattooing comes from ceramic pots that depict heavily tattooed human heads. These vessels were often decorated with bird motifs, which seem to relate to the Birdman, a deity who ensured the daily rebirth of the sun and symbolized the triumph of life over death. Often these tattoos took the form of feathers or raptor claws around the eyes. “By tattooing themselves with bird motifs, they became that supernatural creature,” says Aaron Deter-Wolf of the Tennessee Division of Archaeology. “The tattoos enabled them to embody his force.”

Hollow Ceramic Figurines

Wednesday, October 09, 2013

For more than 1,000 years, a culture flourished in what are now the western Mexican states of Jalisco, Nayarit, and parts of Colima. Most of what we know about the culture comes from artifacts taken from shaft tombs—usually by tomb raiders—including examples of heavily tattooed hollow ceramic figurines. Some scholars believe the figurines depict gods, while Christopher Beekman of the University of Colorado Denver suspects that they may in fact represent the people with whom they were buried. Certainly the designs were intended to communicate identity and status, particularly considering that the figurines appear to have been used in ceremonial contexts, and also set up in residential areas to be seen and visited. According to Beekman, it is notable that the tattooing occurs prominently around the mouth, which may refer, as it does in Classic Maya society, to the breath of life or the capacity of polished speech of these individuals.

Ibaloi Mummy

Wednesday, October 09, 2013

An indigenous people known as the Ibaloi once mummified their honored dead and laid them to rest in hollowed logs in the caves around what is now the Filipino municipality of Kabayan. In life, these ancient people had won the right to be covered in spectacular tattoos depicting geometric shapes as well as animals such as lizards, snakes, scorpions, and centipedes. “According to nineteenth-century ethnographic accounts, Ibaloi head-hunting warriors revered these creatures as ‘omen animals,’” says Smithsonian anthropologist and tattoo scholar Lars Krutak. “The sight of one before a raid could make or break the entire enterprise.” After successfully taking the head of an enemy in battle, a warrior would have these propitious animals permanently etched onto his body. Some Kabayan mummies also feature less fearsome tattoos, such as circles on their wrists thought to be solar discs, or zigzagging lines variously interpreted as lightning or stepped rice fields. “All these tattoos seem to depict the surrounding environment,” says Krutak, who notes that the increased attention paid to the mummies in the last decade has helped fuel a resurgence in traditional tattooing, which had largely died out. Today, thousands of people tracing their descent to the ancient Ibaloi wear designs on their skin modeled after those of their ancestors.


Cleopatra VII - Queen of Ancient Egypt

The last pharaoh of Egypt, ruling before the Romans took control, Cleopatra is known for her relationships with Roman commanders Julius Caesar and Mark Antony, by whom she had three children, and her suicide by snake bite after her husband or partner Antony took his own life. Many have assumed she was a beauty, but, unlike Nefertiti, Cleopatra was probably not. Instead, she was smart and politically valuable.

Cleopatra came to power in Egypt at the age of 17. She reigned from 51 to 30 B.C. As a Ptolemy, she was Macedonian, but even though her ancestry was Macedonian, she was still an Egyptian queen and worshiped as a god.

Since Cleopatra was legally obliged to have either a brother or son for her consort, she married brother Ptolemy XIII when he was 12. Following the death of Ptolemy XIII, Cleopatra married an even younger brother, Ptolemy XIV. In time she ruled along with her son Caesarion.

After the death of Cleopatra, Octavian took control of Egypt, putting it into Roman hands.


Today In History: Leo I The Thracian Is Made Emperor Of The Byzantine Empire (457 AD)

On this day in 457 BC, Leo I the Thracian was made emperor of the Byzantine empire.

His rule spanned for twenty years, during which time he made several courageously ambitious moves that expanded the Eastern Roman Empire while at the same strengthened it.

Many of Leo&rsquos moves were in reaction to problems festering in the Western Roman Empire. Since the onset of the siege by the Ostrogoths, the Western Roman Empire continued losing territory and power. Without a promising leader at the helm, there was little hope for the empire&rsquos recovery.

Wikiwand

Leo offered a promising candidate, Anthemius, to take the seat as emperor of the fledgling empire. In doing so, Leo ended a succession of puppet Caesars whose rise to the throne was purely for show to perpetuate Gaiseric&rsquos power. The Western Roman Empire had not found a way to avoid facing the Vandals. To stand a chance against them, a competent general who could train an army was desperately needed.

Leo was a gifted diplomat, able to make alliances with a number of kingdoms. It was not unusual for deals to come at a cost. His daughter was offered into marriage with the leader of the Isaurians, Zeno, to secure a Byzantine alliance. The deal nearly fell apart after an assassination attempt on Zeno by Aspar, an enemy who would haunt Leo for years.


თრაკიელები

თრაკიელები (ძვ. ბერძნ. Θρᾷκες , ლათ. Thraci ) — პროტო-ინდოევროპული ტომების ჯგუფი, რომლებიც სახლობდნენ ცენტრალურ და სამხრეთ-აღმოსავლეთ ევროპაში. [1] მათ ესაზღვრებოდნენ სკვითები ჩრდილოეთიდან, კელტები და ილირიელები დასავლეთიდან, ძველი საბერძნეთი სამხრეთიდან და შავი ზღვა აღმოსავლეთიდან. ისინი საუბრობდნენ თრაკიულად, რომელიც ინდოევროპული ენების ოჯახს განეკუთვნებოდა. თრაკიელების და მათი კულტურის შესწავლას თრაკოლოგია ეწოდება.


Correction to the lies of the White Mans History

Contrary to the racist revisionism of modern Whites: Rome, like Greece, was a multi-ethnic, multi-racial society. With many Black or mixed-race kings, Black Popes, Black Commanders, soldiers, sailors, and of course citizens. (Being mindful of the White mans propensity for manufacturing fake artifacts to show Whites, there is no guarantee that the following Busts are accurate). And of course, much of our current crop of Greek and Roman sculpture are 18th - 19th century creations. We oftentimes compare Coins with Busts to ascertain the truth. But unfortunately, Whites are also expert at creating perfect fake coins, which look like ancient coins, so there is no guarantee there either. The one saving grace, is that with Black kings, the fabricators will sometimes leave a hint of Blackness in the image, rather than making it appear pure White. Thus from that hint, we can extrapolate.


Gladiator games

Most often, gladiators engaged in one on one combat and would be paired against different types that were considered complementary. Murmillos often fought against Thracians, as well as Hoplomachus, and Retiarius. Retiarius (net and trident wielders) usually faced gladiators armed with more conventional weapons.

Fights were highly organized and monitored by referees. Not all ended in death. Often a fight would end without either combatant dying — the reason for this was quite simple: training and maintaining a stable of gladiators was expensive, so their owners wanted them to survive as long as possible. In the early years of the Colosseum more fights were to the death, but as time went on the contests became less lethal because replacing dead gladiators was costly.

There were other types of violent entertainment that were popular in ancient Rome that have often been connected with gladiators, but which were in fact separate from them.

What animals did Roman Gladiators fight?

That gladiators fought against beasts is a common misconception. Gladiator combat was highly regimented and organized, and gladiators only fought against other human combatants. Wild beasts did appear in the arena, but they usually did so as part of the damnatio ad bestias, which means literally condemnation to beasts, in which criminals and prisoners of war would be publicly executed at the claws and fangs of wild beasts, or as part of mock hunts by professional hunters. There was one type of combatant that fought against wild animals, the bestiarus, but he was not regarded as a gladiator in the same sense as others.

Staged naval battles, the Naumachia

Naumachia, staged naval battles with real ships and combatants, were probably the most spectacular of all Roman blood sports. Unlike gladiator battles which took place somewhat regularly in the arenas of many large cities, naumachia were reserved for special occasions, such as the commemoration of Julius Caesar’s triumph in 46 BC. Participants were often prisoners of war or criminals condemned to death, and the battles were much bloodier than gladiatorial combat and fatality rates much higher.

Naumachia were usually held in specially constructed arenas, large channels or artificial lakes dug specifically for this purpose, but in some occasions they were held in conventional Roman amphitheaters. The Roman Colosseum is known to have held two near the date of its inauguration.

La Naumachia, by Ulpiano Checa

The Colosseum
Piazza del Colosseo, 1 00184 Rome, Italy Metro: Line B - "Colosseo"
Bus: Line 75/81/673/175/204
Tram: Line 3


Kyk die video: 全球唯一可以买老婆的新娘集市一个新娘2万相中就可带走 (November 2021).