Geskiedenis Podcasts

Klipvorm vir byle en bronsbyl uit Antieke Ierland

Klipvorm vir byle en bronsbyl uit Antieke Ierland


Die Bronstydperk het sy naam gekry van die ontwikkeling van metaalbewerkingstegnieke. Brons, 'n legering van tin en koper, het gedurende hierdie tydperk 'n gewilde materiaalkeuse vir metaalwerkers geword. Steenwerktuie soos byle en messe word steeds gebruik. Die vervanging daarvan deur metaalgereedskap was waarskynlik 'n lang en geleidelike proses.

Giet en giet

Metaalgereedskap uit die Bronstydperk is gevorm met behulp van vorms om die gesmelte metaal in die gewenste vorm te vorm. Die tegnologie vir die vorming van brons het gedurende die Bronstydperk verbeter. Aanvanklik is items gegiet deur die brons in uitgeholde klipvorms te gooi. Teen die Middel -Bronstydperk het mense twee vorms uitgevind, waar twee hol klippe aanmekaar gesit en metaal bo -op in 'n gaping gegooi is. Dit het gesofistikeerde voorwerpe soos byle en spiespunte moontlik gemaak. Teen die einde van die Bronstydperk het metaalsmede was- of vetmodelle gemaak van wat hulle wou gooi, klei om hulle geplaas en dan die klei verhit om die was te smelt. Die gesmelte metaal word dan ingegooi en sodra dit gestol is, is die klei weggeskeur. Voorbeelde van sulke vorms word in die uitstalling 'Prehistoric Ireland' in die museum vertoon.

Uitstallingsskakels by die Museum van Argeologie

Die oorspronklike bylkop, wat in Brockagh, Kildare, gevind word, word uitgestal in die 'Prehistoric Ireland' -uitstalling wat die verhaal van Ierland se eerste inwoners deur die Mesolitiese, Neolitiese en Bronstydperk naspeur.


Bronstydperk Ierland: Voor die Kelte

Almal assosieer die kultuur en erfenis van Ierland met die Kelte. Dit is 'n voor die hand liggende aanname dat ons taal, musiek, kuns en sport onder andere almal direk uit hierdie mistieke ou samelewing kom. Verder het hulle ongeveer duisend jaar lank die eiland Ierland regeer, en hul nalatenskap was 'n belangrike faktor in die Ierse onafhanklikheidsbeweging gedurende die laat 19de en vroeë 20ste eeu. Maar het u geweet dat die Kelte nie die eerste mense was wat die eiland bewoon het nie? Ierland word sedert 6000 vC deur mense bewoon, en die Kelte het eers in 500 vC aangekom. Wie was die mense wat voor hulle uit gekom het, en wat het hulle meer as 5000 jaar lank gedoen?

Die geskiedenis van Ierland kan in verskillende tydperke of ouderdomme verdeel word. Die eerste was die Mesolitiese tydperk, van ongeveer 8000 - 4000 vC, toe die eerste bewyse van menslike bewoning op die eiland verskyn. Tussen 4000 en 2500 vC was die Neolitiese tydperk, toe die jagterversamelaars van die Mesolitiese tydperke geleer het om klipgereedskap te gebruik en die landbou eers ontdek het. Daarna kom die Bronstydperk, vanaf 2500 v.C., toe die inwoners eers metaal begin gebruik het om gereedskap en voorwerpe te vervaardig. Die eerste metaal wat hulle gebruik het, was brons, vandaar die naam ‘Bronze Age ’. Toe die Kelte 2000 jaar later saamkom, het hulle die Ystertydperk aan die gang gesit, en van toe af word die geskiedenis van die land 'n bietjie meer herkenbaar!

Die Bronstydperk is 'n belangrike deel van die geskiedenis van Ierland, want dit was die eerste keer dat mense 'n materiaal in die vorm kon vorm wat hulle wou. Tot dusver het hulle met klip gewerk, wat nie die maklikste materiaal ter wêreld is om mee te werk nie. Aangesien brons baie sterker en langer as steen was, het dit beteken dat mense se lewens baie doeltreffender geword het en hul aktiwiteite baie meer effektief was. Dit het hulle meer tyd gegee om ander, meer kreatiewe strewes aan te pak, en het die begin van artistieke ontwikkeling in hierdie beskawing gesien.

Hoe het die Bronstydperk begin?

Die ou Iere het die kuns geleer om brons te maak van Franse setlaars wat die water oorsteek om hulle te ontmoet. Die tegnologie bestaan ​​al 'n geruime tyd op die vasteland, maar omdat Ierland van die vasteland afgesny is, het dit lank geneem om die klein eilandjie aan die kus van die vasteland van Europa te bereik. Die Franse setlaars het die nodige materiaal vir die giet van eenvoudige bronsvoorwerpe soos pyle gebring en die Iere die vak geleer. Gelukkig het Ierland baie koperafsettings, maar dit was nie in die dele van die eiland wat tot dusver gevestig was nie, wat gelei het tot die eerste migrante van die land wat op soek was na koper. Hulle het dit gevind in Mount Gabriel in die graafskap Cork en Ross Island in die graafskap Kerry, twee van die min bekende myne in die Bronstydperk in die hele Europa.

In daardie dae hoef mense nie baie ver in die grond te grawe om die koper te bereik nie - slegs 5 tot 10 meter was al wat nodig was! Die kopererts is uit die grond gehaal deur vure in die myn aan te steek en dan die mure met water te spat, wat die erts laat spat. Brons is egter 'n legering van koper en tin, en daar was nie naastenby soveel tin in Ierland as koper nie. Die oplossing vir die mynwerkers was om die blikkie van oorkant die water in Cornwall, Engeland, met 'n oorvloed voorraad te voer, en daarom begin die eerste basiese internasionale handel. Na raming is ongeveer 370 ton koper uit die myne gehaal gedurende die Bronstydperk, maar as al die oorblywende artefakte gekombineer word met die geraamde hoeveelheid items wat verlore of vernietig is, beloop dit steeds slegs 0,2% van die 370 ton. Om hierdie rede glo baie historici dat die meerderheid van die koper wat ontgin is na Brittanje en die vasteland van Europa uitgevoer is.

Waarvoor is brons gebruik?

Brons is meestal gebruik om gereedskap soos byle te maak. Toe mense se vaardighede in gietwerk meer gevorderd raak, het die gereedskap wat hulle gemaak het, ook gedoen. Aanvanklik is bylkoppe gemaak deur die gesmelte metaal in 'n klip te gooi wat die vorm van die bylkop uitgehou het. As dit afgekoel en verwyder word, word die kop aan 'n houthandvatsel vasgemaak. Later is meer ingewikkelde voorwerpe soos dolke, awls, chauldrons en horings met 'n paar verskillende metodes geskep. Soortgelyk aan die gekerfde klipmetode, is twee simmetriese klippe geplaas saam met die gesmelte brons wat in 'n opening in die bokant gegooi is. In ander gevalle is was gebruik om die vorm van die voorwerp te vorm. Die was was omhul in klei en die klei is verhit sodat die was gesmelt het. Brons is dan in die kleivorm gegooi en wanneer dit afgekoel is, is die klei weggeskeur om die nuwe bronsvoorwerp daaronder te onthul. Ander meer delikate voorwerpe is gemaak deur bronsblaaie in die vereiste vorm te slaan.

Met die aanvang van gietgereedskap en die ontwikkeling van die samelewing in die algemeen, het die Bronstydperk vir die eerste keer wapens gemaak. Dakke en spieskoppe was veral gewild, met die lemme weer aan houthandvatsels vasgemaak. Brons het meer skade aangerig en het nie so gereeld as ander materiale geslyp nodig nie. Aan die ander kant is baie primitiewe juweliersware - dikwels armbande - gemaak, asook sekere huishoudelike voorwerpe soos bakke en vase. Ierse vakmanne was veral vaardig in die maak van horingvormige trompette. Mense uit die Bronstydperk het die gewoonte gehad om hul waardevolle brons (en soms goue) voorwerpe in moerasgebiede weg te steek, en baie artefakte verskyn vandag nog.

Mense uit die Bronstydperk het 'n eenvoudige, ietwat primitiewe lewe geleef, hoewel daar bewyse is wat 'n vorm van klasstruktuur aandui. Goud was duidelik 'n hoog aangeskrewe materiaal en goudvoorwerpe is gevind in die beter voorbeelde van begraafplase. Hulle was ook ten minste gedeeltelik modebewus, want daar is vroeë ontwerpe en patrone wat in verskillende brons juweliersware ingeprent of opgeneem is. In teenstelling hiermee was dit ook die tyd toe mense begin beweeg het na 'n meer egalitêre samelewing, met minder groot seremoniële of heilige plekke.

Mense uit die Bronstydperk woon in eenvoudige hout- en kleihutte, bedek met riete, ongeveer 5 of 6 meter in deursnee. Baie het 'n sirkelvormige houtheining wat 'n omheining aan die voorkant van die huis gevorm het, sowel as 'n verdedigingsmaatreël as om te voorkom dat diere wegdwaal. Hulle kook in kuile ​​in die grond, genaamd ‘fulacht fian ’, gevul met water wat tot kookpunt gebring is met warm klippe wat in 'n vuur rus. Dit klink onwaarskynlik, maar eksperimente het bewys dat die water binne slegs 30 minute die regte temperatuur sal bereik deur 'n metode van 4,5 kg in minder as 4 uur.

Landbou was die belangrikste fokus van mense se lewens, aangesien dit hulle in staat gestel het om hulself te voed en sekere dinge met ander plaaslike boere te verhandel. Gedurende die Bronstydperk is laaglandwoude skoongemaak om ruimte te maak vir diere om te wei of om gewasse te verbou. Mense het na hulself en hul onmiddellike gesinne omgesien; daar was geen klassesisteem as sodanig nie, alhoewel daar sekere mense was wat ryker was as ander as gevolg van handel of gevierde vakmanne.

Begrafnisgrafte en seremoniële terreine

Die gebruik om die dooies te begrawe, het in die Bronstydperk in Ierland begin, en is die belangrikste spoor van hul lewens wat vandag nog oorbly na hul bronsgereedskap, wapens en juweliersware. In die tydperk het ons wegbeweeg van die megalitiese grafte van die vorige eeu, waar groot klipblaaie geplaas is om 'n soort skuiling vir die liggaam te vorm, wat dan met aarde bedek was. In plaas daarvan gebruik mense uit die Bronstydperk gewoonlik een van die twee tipes graf, 'n pisgraf, 'n put wat uit die aarde gegrawe is en bedek is met klipblaaie of 'n wiggraf, 'n veel kleiner weergawe van 'n megalitiese graf wat bestaan ​​uit 'n vernouende klipkamer in 'n wigvorm bedek met aarde. Die grafte kyk gewoonlik na die suidweste en daar is baie voorbeelde regoor Ierland wat vandag besoek kan word. Die grafte is gewoonlik gevind met erdewerk binne.

Gedurende die Bronstydperk het mense ook godsdienstige oortuigings sowel as begrafnisrituele begin aanneem. Daar is nie veel bekend oor spesifieke oortuigings nie, maar daar is baie bewyse wat daarop dui dat hulle op sekere tye van die jaar groot buitelugplegtighede gehou het. Seremonies is gehou in hengels (sirkelvormige gebiede van 100 tot 200 meter breed omring deur 'n aardkam) of klipsirkels met groot regop klippe wat met tussenposes geplaas is om die sirkelvorm te vorm. Verassende oorblyfsels van diere en mense is in albei gevind, en in die geval van klipkringe verskyn daar dikwels ook 'n ry klippe wat aan die sirkel raak.

Net soos vandag het mense uit die Bronstydperk dikwels juwele gedra. Terwyl juweliersware deesdae meer 'n mode -bykomstigheid is as enigiets anders, was die belangrikste funksie van hierdie tydperk om 'n persoon se rykdom of status in die samelewing te wys. Brons was egter reeds oral, so die mees gewaardeerde mense in die samelewing het eintlik goue juwele gedra eerder as brons.

Die juweliersware wat die mense van die Bronstydperk gedra het, was egter niks soos die ringe, hangertjies en oorbelle wat vandag gewild is nie. Een van die mees algemene items word 'n lunula genoem, 'n groot halfmaanvormige kraag wat gemaak is van baie dun en plat velle goud wat gehamer en in vorm gesny is. Hulle is daarna versier met verskillende ontwerpe met behulp van 'n tegniek genaamd repousse, met ander woorde, die metaal van agter af ingeduik sodat die voorkant omhoog kom, wat 'n verligtingseffek skep. Baie het ook 'n chevron (of zig-zag) ontwerp ingesluit wat direk op die oppervlak gegraveer is. Meer as 80 voorbeelde van lunulae is in Ierland gevind.

Alhoewel die bronstydse juweliersware primitief is, is dit steeds pragtig om na te kyk. Gelukkig het die stukke wat in moerasse op die Ierse platteland ontdek is, die toets van die tyd baie goed deurstaan, en u kan dit sien in die pragtige versameling van die National Museum of Ireland in Dublin, net so blink en glinsterend soos duisende jare terug.


Uitgelese boeke

'N Amerikaanse weduwee & rsquos rekening van haar reise in Ierland in 1844 en ndash45 aan die vooraand van die Groot Hongersnood:

Sy het van New York af gekom om die toestand van die Ierse armes te bepaal en te ontdek waarom so baie na haar vaderland emigreer.

Mevrou Nicholson en rsquos herinner nog aan haar toer onder die boere onthullend en aangrypend vandag.

Die skrywer keer in 1847 terug na Ierland en ndash49 om te help hongersnoodverligting en het die ervarings in die eerder opgeteken aangrypend:

Annals of the Hongersnood in Ierland is Asenath Nicholson se opvolg van Ireland's Welcome to the Stranger. Die onverskrokke Amerikaanse weduwee keer terug na Ierland te midde van die Groot hongersnood en het gehelp om hulp te verleen vir behoeftiges en behoeftiges. Haar rekening is nie 'n geskiedenis van die hongersnood, maar persoonlike ooggetuie getuienis oor die lyding wat dit veroorsaak het. Om hierdie rede dra dit die werklikheid van die ramp op 'n baie meer veelseggende manier oor. Die boek is ook in Kindle beskikbaar.

The Ocean Plague: of, 'n Reis na Quebec in 'n Ierse emigrantvaartuig is gebaseer op die dagboek van Robert Whyte, wat in 1847 die Atlantiese Oseaan van Dublin na Quebec oorgesteek het in 'n Ierse emigrantskip. Sy verslag van die reis lewer van onskatbare getuienisgetuienis aan die trauma en tragedie wat baie emigrante moes ondervind op pad na hul nuwe lewens Kanada en Amerika. Die boek is ook in Kindle beskikbaar.

Die Skots-Iere in Amerika vertel die verhaal van hoe die geharde ras van mans en vroue, wat in Amerika bekend gestaan ​​het as die & lsquoScotch-Iers & rsquo, is gedurende die sewentiende eeu in die noorde van Ierland gesmee. Dit het betrekking op die omstandighede waaronder die groot uittog aan die Nuwe Wêreld begin het, het die beproewinge en verdrukkinge waarmee hulle te kampe gehad het, begin taai Amerikaanse pioniers en die blywende invloed wat hulle op die politiek, opvoeding en godsdiens van die land uitoefen.


Klipvorm vir byle en bronsbyl uit Antieke Ierland - Geskiedenis

OPSOMMING
LAATSE TONE OUDERDOM ASSE & amp KELTE
STYLVARIASIE
WORRELDWYD

ongeveer 35 000 jaar gelede tot die huidige dag

Hierdie artikel illustreer en beskryf verskeie voorbeelde van klipbyle, uit verskillende dele van die wêreld, wat eens op handvatsels vasgemaak is. Hulle wys hoe soortgelyk hulle is in basiese vorm en funksie, met 'n voorpunt aan die een kant en 'n hefelement aan die ander kant. Maar hulle illustreer ook hoe veranderlik die ontwerp van klipbyle was.

Onder die klipmonsters (in die Smithsonian-versameling) is daar 'n baie groot omvang, die grootste wat 30 pond weeg en die kleinste skaars 'n ons. & quot -------- 1912, Frederick Webb Hodge, & quot Handbook Of Amerikaanse Indiane Noord van Mexiko, vol. I, & quot Smithsonian publikasie, p. 121.
Die term "cel" word gebruik om te verwys na 'n ongegroefde, taps toelopende klipbyl met 'n gesentreerde rand aan die een kant. 'N Gemiddelde grootte is ongeveer tussen 8 en 16 cm lank ---. & Quot ------ 1999, Errett Callahan , & quot Primitiewe tegnologie 'n boek met aardvaardighede, bl. 95.
Die onbetwisbare feit dat groot dele van Europa, Noord-Amerika en Asië met die bos bedek was toe die eerste landbouers binnegedring het, het beteken dat 'n paar prosedures onmiddellik ingestel moes word om die grond vir bewerking skoon te maak. & quot ------ 1973, John Coles, "Argeologie deur eksperiment" 19.
Dit kan gesê word dat die opruiming van bos die eerste groot impak van die mens op sy omgewing verteenwoordig, aangesien dit die eerste stap was wat gelei het tot 'n landskap wat in 'n groot mate deur die mens beheer word. & quot -------- 1973, John Coles , "Argeologie deur eksperiment" 19.
Bote met twee of meer groewe is skaars, behalwe in die Pueblo-land, waar veelvuldige groewe algemeen voorkom. I, & quot Smithsonian publikasie, p. 121.
Veldtoetse het 'n groot hoeveelheid klipgereedskap uit neolitiese nedersettings opgelewer, en sekere gebiede van die Sowjetunie was buitengewoon ryk. In die standaard argeologiese publikasies word hierdie gereedskap verdeel in byle, adzes en beitels. Vervaardiging en dra, & quot. 126.
Australiese klipluikbroeke het gewoonlik 'n doleriet-, dioriet- of basaltkop met 'n grondrand, vasgemaak met 'n kleefmiddel in 'n omhulde handvatsel van omhulsel .---- hulle was 'n onontbeerlike hulpmiddel, wat wyd gebruik word om heuning of possums uit boom te onttrek holtes, gesnyde voetstukke, in boomstamme, verwyder bas vir skuilings of kano's of sny en trek spasies aan vir houtwerktuie & quot --------- 2013, Mike Smith, & quot The Archeology Of Australia's Deserts, & quot p. 288.
Interessant genoeg is dat die oorgrote meerderheid (80 tot 90 persent) van die 600 000 klipartefakte wat tydens onlangse ondersoeke (op die neolitiese terreine in Sanakallu-Kupgal in die suide van Indië) teruggevind is, bestaan ​​uit 'n doleriete debiteer uit die vervaardiging van bifasiale randgemaalde asse & quot- ------ 2007, Adam Brumm, Nicole Boivin, Ravi Korisettar, Jinu Koshy en Paula Whittaker, & quot; Stone Axe Technology in Neolithic South India: New Evidence from the Sanganakallu-Kupgal Region, Mideastern Karnataka, & quot Asian Perspectives, Vol. 46, nr. 1 lente, bl. 66.
In die suide van Skandinawië maak die herwinning van tienduisende vuursteen-byle hulle een van die mees algemene werktuigtipes uit die Neolitiese (4 000-2,000 v.C.)-2011, Lars Larsson, , & quot Steenbylstudies III, bl. 203.



LAAT STEENOUDERDOMME ASS & KELTE
STYLVARIASIE
WORRELDWYD

ongeveer 35 000 jaar gelede tot die huidige dag

Gegroefde en ongegroefde bylkoppe wat ontwerp is om op handvatsels gebruik te word, is byna oral in die wêreld aangemeld. Van Noord -Amerika tot Indië en die meeste landmassas tussenin. Hulle gebruik het toegeneem met die ontwikkeling van agrariese samelewings, hoofsaaklik om grond skoon te maak.


KLIK OP FOTO VIR GROTER BEELD
ASSE EN KELTE
AFRIKA, EUROPA, AMERIKA en NUWE GUINEA


KLIK OP FOTO VIR GROTER BEELD
AX en amp CELTS
GEMAAK DEUR PIKING EN VLAK
VERENIGDE STATE, GUATEMALA, en DENEMARK


KELTE
GEMAAK MET PERKUSSIE VLAK
GUATEMALA, DENEMARK & AFRIKA


KLIK OP FOTO VIR GROTER BEELD
BAIE GROOT KELT
AFRIKA


T-vormige asse
SUID-AMERIKA


KLIK OP FOTO VIR GROTER BEELD
KELTE
(ONGEKEURDE ASSE)
SWITSERLAND
NEOLITIES


GESTEMDE KELTE
PANAMA


FOTO KREDIET, PETE BOSTROM & amp LITIESE GIETSLAB se versameling van oorspronklike beelde
REKENAAR VERANDERDE BEELD
GEHEWE GROEI AX
AUSTRALIË


KLIK OP FOTO VIR GROTER BEELD
BESTE ASSE
WORRELDWYD

1888, Holmes, William H., & quotAntieke kuns van die provinsie Chiriqui, & quot Sesde jaarverslag van die Buro vir Etnologie aan die Sekretaris van die Smithsonian Institution.
1912
, Hodge, Frederick Webb & quot Handbook Of American Indians North Of Mexico, vol. Ek, & quot, Smithsonian publikasie.
1970
, Semenov, S. A. & quot
1973
, Coles, John, & quotArchaeology By Experiment & quot p. 19., John Coles, "Archaeology by Experiment."
1983, Morse, Dan F. & amp Morse, Phyllis A., "Archaeology Of The Central Mississippi Valley."
1985, Agrawal, D. P., "The Archaeology Of India."
1999, Callahan, Errett, & quotCelts And Axes, Celts In The Pamunkey And Cahokia House Building Projects, & quot Primitiewe tegnologie 'n boek met aardvaardighede.
2007, Brumm, Adam, Boivin, Nicole, Korisettar, Ravi, Koshy, Jinu, en Whittaker, Paula, & quotStone Axe Technology in Neolithic South India: New Evidence from the Sanganakallu-Kupgal Region, Mideastern Karnataka, & quot Asian Perspectives, Vol. 46, nr. 1 lente.
2010, Ghosh, Subir, & quot35.500 jaar oue byl, die oudste ter wêreld, ontdek in Australië, & quot Digitale joernaal.
2011, Larsson, Lars, & quotThe Ritual Use Of Axes, & quot Steenbylstudies III.
2013, Smith, Mike, "The Archaeology Of Australia's Deserts."


Klipvorm vir byle en bronsbyl uit Antieke Ierland - Geskiedenis

Daar was nog geen duidelike bewyse om die teenwoordigheid van die mensdom in Ierland tydens die Paleolitiese (Ou Steentydperk) tydperk aan te toon nie, 'n tyd waarin 'n groot deel van Ierland deur ys bedek was. 'N Vloksteen van gruisafsettings by Mell, naby Drogheda, Louth, is die vroegste bekende artefak wat in Ierland gevind is. Dit is elders gevorm, miskien tussen 300 000 en 400 000 v.C., en is daarna deur 'n ys naby die Ierse kus neergelê. Vanaf ongeveer 12000 vC het die ysplate gesmelt en bosveld ontwikkel, wat 'n habitat bied vir die natuurlewe wat na Ierland getrek het via landbrûe van Brittanje en die vasteland van Europa. Teen ongeveer 7000 vC was die vroegste Ierse setlaars besig om diere te jag, veral wilde varke, die versameling van wilde plante en skulpvis en visvang in mere, riviere en die see.

Opgrawing van die vroegste nedersettings in Ierland het klein lemmetjies en stukkies vuursteen en kers veroorsaak, mikroliete genoem, wat gebruik is in saamgestelde harpoenagtige werktuie. Skrapers en klipbyle is ook gebruik. Teen ongeveer 4500 vC het groter vlokwerktuie wat Bann-vlokkies genoem word (sogenaamd omdat baie aan die oewer van die rivier die Bann in die noorde van Ierland gevind is) vervang, en vroeër vorms verskyn, en gepoleerde spiespunte van leiklip of moddersteen verskyn.

Teen ongeveer 3700 vC was die eerste boerdery -nedersettings gevestig. Die boerdery was gebaseer op ingevoerde mak beeste, skape en bokke, en op graan soos koring en gars. Klipblas-sekels is gebruik om graan te oes wat op saalblare tot meel gemaal is. Die boere het in reghoekige houthuise gewoon, en huishoudelike goedere het keramiekbakke ingesluit wat gebruik word vir stoor en kook, terwyl vuurspieskoppe, pylpunte, lemme, messe en skrapers vir 'n verskeidenheid funksies gebruik is. Fabrieke vir die ontginning en vervaardiging van klipbyle is bekend. Sommige byle het moontlik seremoniële funksies gehad, terwyl die dra van bylamulette en die neerslag van byle in begrafnisse hul belangrike status sou bevestig.

Megalitiese (groot klip) grafte soos portaalgrafte, hofgrafte en ganggrafte is gebruik vir gemeenskaplike begrafnis. Hierdie uitstalling toon 'n gerekonstrueerde ganggraf met versierde klippe uit verskeie verwoeste grafkelders. Die presiese betekenis van die dekoratiewe motiewe op hierdie klippe is egter verlore. Aardewerk, mace koppe, klein gepoleerde klipbolletjies, krale, amulette en hangertjies is ritueel saam met die dooies neergelê, saam met falliese klippe en beenpenne wat moontlik met vrugbaarheidsrituele verband gehou het. Teen die einde van die Neolitiese (Nuwe Steentydperk) is sirkelvormige seremoniële omhulsels van aarde en hout gebou, terwyl plat aardewerk en 'n nuwe vorm van vuurpylkop verskyn. Die oudste ongeskonde Ierse vaartuig is 'n groot houthoutboot van Addergoole Bog, Lurgan, Galway, uitgehol uit die stam van 'n eikeboom omstreeks 2500 v.C. Dit was omstreeks hierdie tyd dat die kennis van metaalbewerking aan Ierland bekendgestel is, tesame met 'n kenmerkende tipe aardewerk, genaamd Beaker Ware, wat oor die hele Europa voorkom in verband met vroeë metaalbewerking. Keramiekbakke, soms met uitstaande voete, is ook bekend, net soos soortgelyke vate uit hout.

By Mount Gabriel, Co. Die vroegste metaalvoorwerpe wat in Ierland vervaardig is, was plat byle van suiwer koper wat maklik in eenvormige klipvorms gegiet kon word en deur gehamer kon word. Later is dit vervang met tweedelige klipvorme, wat gereedskap en wapens van toenemende kompleksiteit moontlik maak. 'N Verdere ontwikkeling was die proses om koper met tin te meng om brons te produseer. Ander produkte sluit in messe, dolke, sekels, awls, spiespunte, skeermesse en halbers ('n dolkagtige lem wat aan 'n lang houtpaal geheg is).

Die vroegste metaalsmede is begrawe in megalitiese monumente wat as wiggrafte bekend staan. Omstreeks 2200 v.C. het dit egter begin vervang deur afsonderlike begrafnisse van een of meer persone in eenvoudige kuipe of in grafte met klipbekleedings, bekend as siste, wat soms op begraafplase gegroepeer word. In ooreenstemming met vroeëre begrafnispraktyke, is die oorskot veras, maar in 'n nuwe ontwikkeling is ook onverbrande lyke begrawe, gewoonlik in 'n gehurkte posisie. Sterk versierde potte bekend as Food Vessels en & ndash baie af en toe ander persoonlike besittings die dooies vergesel. Geleidelik het verassing weer gewild geraak, en die gebrande bene is in groot versierde potte geplaas wat ure genoem word, wat in die grafte omgekeer is. Verskillende soorte ure en vaas, ingekrapte, gekraagde en afgesperde ndash is gebruik, en in sommige gevalle is voedselskepe en klein vaatjies genaamd wierookbekers by hulle geplaas, af en toe vergesel van dolk, krale, penne en seremoniële klipslag.

Vanaf ongeveer 1200 v.C. het die agteruitgang van die klimaat en ander faktore 'n tydperk van ontwikkeling en innovasie tot gevolg gehad. Die dooies is veras en soms in onversierde urings geplaas, dikwels begrawe in die middel van klein ringslote. Metalsmede het spietkoppe, verkragters, byle van 'n soort bekend as palstaves en 'n reeks kleiner gereedskap gemaak. Na 900 vC dui die vervaardiging van groot getalle wapens, veral swaarde, en die neerslag van rakke op 'n tydperk van geweld en onsekerheid. Ander wapens en gereedskap is vervaardig, waaronder skilde, ketels, spiese en byle, sowel as gereedskap soos beitels, steeke, pons, pincet, sekels en messe. Bronshorings is in vorms gegiet en dit is een van die oudste bekende musiekinstrumente uit Ierland. Ru, potgemaakte erdewerk is gebruik vir kook, berging en as houers vir die verasde bene van die dooies. Houtbane is oor moerasse gebou, en in Doogarrymore, Roscommon, is twee houtwiele uit 'n wa wat in die 400 vC gebruik is, gevind in samewerking met so 'n baan.


Klipvorm vir byle en bronsbyl uit Antieke Ierland - Geskiedenis

[3] Die ontdekking van metaal was 'n belangrike gebeurtenis in die menslike geskiedenis. Dit was die eerste materiaal wat in die gewenste vorm gevorm kon word. Boonop was metaal baie sterker as klip en kan dit baie meer effektief gebruik word. Die eerste metaal wat die mensdom wyd gebruik het, was brons - 'n legering van koper en tin. Alhoewel hierdie nuwe tegnologie omstreeks 4000 vC in Europa aangekom het, het dit Ierland nog 2000 jaar lank nie bereik nie. Setlaars uit Frankryk het omstreeks 2000 vC in Ierland aangekom, met die kennis van brons saam met hulle en die bestaande inwoners het die vak by hulle geleer. Stadig het die kultuur van hierdie bronswerkende setlaars saamgesmelt met die van die Neolitiese Iere en geboorte geskenk aan die Ierse Bronstydperk.

Metaalbewerking: Ierland is geseën met relatief ryk koperafsettings, waardeur groot hoeveelhede brons op die eiland geproduseer kon word. Die koperryke gebiede het egter nie noodwendig saamgeval met gebiede wat in die Neolitiese era belangrike materiaalbronne was nie. Die fokuspunte in Ierland het dus verhuis na streke wat in sommige gevalle relatief sonder vorige aktiwiteite was, byvoorbeeld westelike Munster.

Die koper self is ontgin. Op die berg Gabriel, Cork, lê een van die min myne uit die Bronstydperk wat oral in Europa bekend is, behalwe Oostenryk. Dit dateer uit tussen 1500 en 1200 v.C. en bestaan ​​uit 25 vlak mynskagte wat ongeveer 5 tot 10 meter in die helling strek. Bewyse uit die myne dui aan dat die kopererts waarskynlik onttrek is deur vure in die myn aan te steek, en toe die mynwande warm geword het, het daar water op gespat, wat die erts wat dit kon verwyder, verpletter het. Counties Cork en Kerry, aan die suidwestelike punt van die eiland, het die grootste deel van Ierland se koper vervaardig en daar word beraam [3 p114] dat die provinsies saam gedurende hierdie era 370 ton koper vervaardig het. Aangesien alle artefakte uit die Bronstydperk tot dusver ongeveer 0,2% van hierdie totaal beloop, en ondanks dié wat deur die jare vernietig of verlore geraak het, blyk dit dat Ierland gedurende die Bronstydperk baie koper uitgevoer het. Daarteenoor is daar nie veel blik in Ierland nie, en die meeste blik wat nodig was om die brons te maak, is blykbaar ingevoer uit die huidige Engeland.

Waarvan is die koper gemaak? Baie daarvan is in bronsbyle gemaak. Alhoewel koper taamlik sag is, maak die blik wat dit bevat om brons te maak, dit sterker en kan dit langer gebruik word voordat dit geslyp moet word. 'N Paar brons is gebruik om aalwyne te maak en 'n paar om dolke te maak. 'N Paar van hierdie items is gevind, versier met geometriese patrone. In die Bronstydperk was daar 'n merkbare toename in die vervaardiging van wapens wat spesifiek bedoel was om mense dood te maak. Teen die einde van die Bronstydperk is baie komplekse items vervaardig, soms gegiet en soms gemaak van geslaan velbrons. Voorbeelde sluit in chauldrons en horings.

Prent verwyder op versoek van die outeursreghouer.

Die tegnologie vir die vorming van die brons het gedurende die Bronstydperk verbeter. Aanvanklik is items gegiet deur die brons in 'n uitgeholde klip te gooi, soos die een aan die linkerkant. As die bylkop verwyder is, sou dit aan 'n houthandvatsel aan sy smal punt vasgemaak gewees het, terwyl die breë, geboë punt die lem sou word. Teen die middel van die Bronstydperk het mense tweedelige vorms uitgevind, waar twee hol klippe aanmekaar gesit en metaal bo-op in 'n gaping gegooi is. Hierdeur kon meer komplekse items, soos dolke, vervaardig word. Teen die einde van die Bronstydperk het mense was- of vetmodelle gemaak van wat hulle wou gooi, klei om hulle geplaas en dan die klei verhit om die was te smelt. Hulle gooi toe die metaal in en kap die klei weg sodra dit gestol het.

Die grond wat in die Neolitiese tydperk gebruik is, was die hooglandgebiede wat van bosbedekking verwyder is. Die laaglandgebiede was nog grootliks beboste. Dit lyk egter asof die einde van die Bronstydperk saamgeval het met 'n algemene afswaai in klimaatstoestande, wat natter en kouer toestande na Ierland gebring het. Baie van die hooglandgebiede, wat reeds versuur het as gevolg van oormatige gebruik, het verander in turfmoerasse wat baie swak in die landbou is. Plekke soos die Ceide Fields in Mayo, wat in die Neolitiese tyd bewerkbare grond was, was bedek deur die opkomende kombersmoerasse. Hierdie kombersmoerasse is op die hoë grond geskep deur ontbossing en oorbeweiding, maar die natter weer het veroorsaak dat hulle verder afdraande gestrek het. (Prof. Mike Baillie, van Queen's University, Belfast is van mening dat natuurrampe die klimaatsverloop veroorsaak het. Sien: http://www.knowledge.co.uk/sis/abstract/baillie.htm.)

Terselfdertyd het die bevolkingsdigtheid van Ierland gestyg, en dit het toenemende druk op die land geplaas. Die enigste oplossing was om laaglandwoud te laat val, maar dit verg beter gereedskap, en die uitvinding van bronsbyle het net betyds gekom om hierdie probleem op te los. Die Bronstydperk in Ierland is dus die begin van die einde vir die laaglandwoude van Ierland wat stelselmatig in die komende eeue skoongemaak is. Baie van die magdom laagland mere wat deur die ystydperk agtergelaat is, het ook begin versmoor deur turf, wat die hoogmoerasse vorm wat baie dele van Ierland vandag kenmerk. Namate die mere in moeras verander het, het die Ierse Bronstydperk begin om houtpaadjies oor die moerasse te bou, waarvan sommige in die moderne tyd gevind is. Daar is 'n groot aantal 'hoards' gevind wat uit hierdie tydperk dateer - versamelings waardevolle besittings wat in moerasse neergelê is. Die rede waarom soveel mense hul waardevolle besittings weggesteek het, is onseker, maar dit is moontlik dat 'n verslegtende klimaat tot hongersnood en impuls gelei het om waardevolle besittings op te gaar. Of miskien was dit bloot 'n gewoonte om 'offergawes' in die moerasse te plaas.


Bronstydperk Megaliete en grafte [1,2,3]

Enkele begrafnisse: In Oos -Ierland het die mense wegbeweeg van die tradisionele megalitiese graftipes, wat die Neolitiese tipeer, en eerder gekies vir eenvoudige kuile, of kiste wat as of selfs geraamtes bevat. Honderde sulke siste is in alle dele van Ierland gevind, wat tussen 2000 en 1500 vC dateer, maar hulle is groter in Ulster en Leinster. Baie van hierdie grafte is met erdewerk gevind. Sommige het gepostuleer dat die samelewing in hierdie tydperk meer egalitêr geword het, wat gelei het tot minder massiewe begrafnisse soos Newgrange.

Wiggrafte: In die weste van Ierland het 'n nuwe soort graf verskyn, moontlik gebou deur setlaars uit Frankryk wat moontlik die eerste van die groepe was wat bekend sou staan ​​as die Kelte. Sogenaamde wiggrafte bestaan ​​uit 'n vernouende klipkamer wat bedek is met 'n hoop aarde. Die enkele ingang kyk byna altyd na die suidweste. Die mees algemene megalitiese kenmerk in Ierland, dit word in die westelike Ulster, Connaught en Munster aangetref, hoewel daar 'n groot konsentrasie van 120 voorbeelde in 'n klein gebied in die noordelike graafskap Clare is. Die wiggrafte in Kerry en Cork is die eerste megaliete wat in die gebiede gevind word, en dit is moontlik te wyte aan die teenwoordigheid van kopererts in die gebied en 'n toename in die bevolking. Alternatively, as the Wedge Tombs are found primarily in upland areas they may have been the product of a group of pastoralists who grazed flocks on the uplands of western Ireland, before they turned into bog. The picture above shows Baur South wedge tomb [1].

Henges: A henge is an earthen circle, probably used for ceremonial purposes. Sometimes constructed around or beside previous Neolithic megaliths, henges were constructed in Ireland in a broad period beginning around 2000BC. By far the highest concentration is in the Boyne Valley of county Meath, already home to the great passage tombs of Knowth and Newgrange. However there are other examples in counties Roscommon, Sligo, Clare, Limerick, Kildare and Waterford. There is a famous and well-preserved henge called the Giant's Ring at Ballynahatty, on the edge of Belfast in county Down (see picture on right. By Barry Hartwell). Henges were constructed by scraping soil from the centre of the circle to form a ridge all around. These henges can measure 100 to 200 metres (330 to 660 feet) across. Within the henges archaeologists have found the systematically cremated remains of animals as well as evidence of wooden and stone posts. This indicates that henges were centres for a religious cult which had its heyday in the first half of the Bronze Age. Henges are also found in Britain.

Stone Circles: Towards the end of the Bronze Age, there appeared another type of ceremonial structure, the Stone Circle. There were constructed in Ireland as well as Britain, and were constructed in large numbers, but mainly concentrated in two small areas. The first is in the Sperrin Mountains of counties Londonderry and Tyrone, while the second is is in the mountains of counties Cork and Kerry. Although both are circles of stone, they are distinctive from one another. The Ulster group are larger, but more irregular and composed of smaller stones. Frequently, a row of stones is set at a tangent to the circle. The most significant example is Beaghmore, near Cookstown in county Tyrone. In the Munster group, the circles are made from larger stones and are associated with stone rows and standing stones. The purpose of stone circles is almost certainly ceremonial. The picture on the right shows a stone circle at Bohonagh, county Cork (image by Dept of Arts, Culture and the Gaeltacht).


Everyday Life in Bronze Age Ireland [2,3]

Houses: It seems that the Bronze Age Irish lived in houses that were similar to those of the Neolithic that is, rectangular or circular houses constructed from timber beams with wattle-and-daub walls and thatched roofs made from reeds (there is evidence from Carrigillihy, county Cork that some stone houses may have been built [3], but this seems dubious). The circular houses would have been from 4 to 7 metres (13 to 23 feet) in diameter and supported by a central post. Some other houses may have been constructed from sods of earth placed within a wooden frame. Many houses would have had a circular wooden fence making an enclosure in front of the house. There was sometimes a circular ditch around the whole property which was both defensive and kept animals in.

Cooking: If you look carefully and in just the right places, you may see a horse-shoe shaped mound faintly discernible in an otherwise flat field. If so, there is a good chance that you are looking at a Bronze Age cooking place (fulacht fian in die Ierse taal). A wood-lined trough was dug in the ground and filled with water. Beside the trough, a fire was lit and stones heated in the fire. These stones were then thrown into the water. Once it was hot enough, meat could be boiled in the water. The broken, used stones were hurled off to one side and formed, over the course of some years, the distinctive horseshow mound. These fulacht fian are very common in Ireland, particularly in the south-west. Experiments have shown that the water can be brought to the boil in 30 minutes by this method, and a 4.5kg leg of mutton was successfully cooked in just under 4 hours. Geoffrey Keating, an historian writing in the 17th century, has first-hand accounts of this method of cooking being used in Ireland as recently as the 1600s AD. His account also seems to suggest that the method was also used to heat water for washing.

Language: We cannot know what language that the Bronze Age people of Ireland spoke. When the Celts arrived in Ireland at the end of the Bronze Age, they brought a central European language with them that must have been heavily influenced by the native language or languages of Ireland. It was these Celtic languages that would be the origins of the modern Irish language. While Bronze Age language would be totally incomprehensible to an Irish speaker of today, it may well be one of its distant roots.

Agriculture: Agriculture continued much as it did in the Neolithic, albeit on a larger scale. More lowland forests were cleared to make farmland which was used for grazing or for growing cerial crops. With the climatic downturn in the Bronze Age, getting a living from the land may have been harder than in the Neolithic. However, the use of metal tools probably offset any disadvantage.

War: As the population grew, the average Bronze Age farmer is likely to have traded with nearby farming communities. However, population pressures may also have sparked off wars between communities. Bronze weapons are the first that seem to have been designed with humans in mind.

Verwysings:
[1] A Weir, "Early Ireland: A Field Guide", Blackstaff Press, 1980
[2] G. Stout and M. Stout, writing in the "Atlas of the Irish Rural Landscape", Cork University Press, 1997, pp31-63
[3] P Harbinson: "Pre-Christian Ireland, from the First Settlers to the Early Celts", Thames and Hudson, 1994


Archaeology for Kids Stone, Bronze, Iron Age

The Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age are three period of history identified by the way people made tools and weapons. Different ancient civilizations developed at different speeds. So you might have one group of early people using bronze tools, while another group was still using stone tools. Those with better tools had a much easier time conquering other groups of people. The material used to make tool and weapons most definitely had an influence on daily life in ancient times.

Stone Age man did not have sharp claws or strong sharp teeth. He was not larger or stronger than other animals. He could not run like a deer or an antelope. To survive, early man invented and created stone and bone weapons and tools. With these tools, early man could kill and trap those animals he needed for food. With stone axes and spears, he could defend against those animals that thought he might be food. Since many of the tools he created were made out of stone, this is called the Stone Age. The Stone Age is considered to have begun about two million years ago, and ended sometime after the end of the last ice age about ten thousand years ago.

The Bronze Age in ancient China started around 1700 BCE. This is when men learned how to mine copper and tin to make bronze weapons. Bronze is a combination of 10% tin and 90% copper. Bronze weapons are much stronger than stone weapons. The discovery of bronze changed a great many things. For one thing, miners and craftsmen were needed to mine tin and copper, to make bronze weapons. That meant farmers had to learn how to produce more food than they needed because not everyone was farming. That meant weavers and potters were needed to clothe the miners and craftsmen, and to provide pottery containers to the farmers to use to store food. There were many new inventions once the Bronze Age began in ancient China. Most people were still farmers, but labor was getting organized.

The Iron Age followed the Bronze Age. This was the period of time when people made tools of iron. Iron tools were stronger than bronze tools. Weapons were more powerful. Iron weapons began in the Middle East and in southeastern Europe around 1200 BCE. They did not show up in China until around 600 BCE.

The Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age are called the three-age system. The years assigned to each of these ages are a guess - they are not accurate because different civilizations developed at different speeds. But looking back through time, each ancient civilization went though a Stone Age (stone tools and weapons), then a Bronze Age (bronze tools and weapons), then an Iron Age (iron tools and weapons). Weapons appeared in different civilizations at different times through invention, trade and conquest. Once better weapons arrived, they made a big difference.

Each improvement in tools and weapons led to other improvements in each civilization, improvements such as new inventions, better production of food, and new or improved goods. These inventions depended upon the type of material discovered and then used. Thus, the material used to make tool and weapons had a great influence on daily life in ancient times.


Bronze was one of the first metals humans used to make tools and weapons. The appearance of bronze implements in the archaeological record indicates the end of the Stone Age in that area.

Producing bronze, a combination of copper and tin, requires a lot of specialized, coordinated effort. First, you must mine or otherwise obtain the raw metals. Then you have to melt, refine and mix the metals. Finally, you must master the technology of making molds to cast the metals into something useful.


Archaeologists excavating the Roman fort at Arbeia in England

Scientists have noted that, when some cultures started to use bronze, they also tended to start living in cities. Cities, supported by agricultural surplus, have different people doing different jobs, and a centralized government to coordinate the work—the exact conditions needed to produce bronze. Thus, bronze may have been factor in the rise of some urban centers.

Bronze also encouraged trade networks. Copper and tin are mined in only a few places. These raw materials were often traded and transported over long distances. The finished products could also be used for trade, or as a form of money.

Merchants and metalsmiths would bury tools of all different shapes and styles in founder’s hoards. They planned to trade or recycle the items later. Sometimes these hoards were lost or forgotten, only to be discovered by archaeologists thousands of years later.


Ancient Irish Weapons, Ornaments, etc.

Torques and Golden Ornaments&mdashSwords, Spear-heads, and Celts of Bronze&mdashWeapons of Stone&mdashSepulchral Urns&mdashQuadrangular Bells&mdashCrooks and Crosiers&mdashCross of Cong&mdashOrnamented Cases for Sacred Writings&mdashWeapons of Iron and Steel

Van A Hand-book of Irish Antiquities by William F. Wakeman

EGARDING the vast number of antiques discovered from year to year (we might almost write daily) in the bogs, beds of rivers, and newly-ploughed lands of Ireland, we cannot help regretting that the feeling which now very generally leads to the preservation of these evidences of ancient Irish civilization, should have slept so long. Let any one inquire of a country watchmaker, of a few years' standing, whether he has ever been offered for sale any antique ornaments of gold or silver, and, in ninety-nine cases out of a hundred, his answer will be, "Yes, many: but, as there was no one to purchase them, I melted them down." If questioned as to their form and character, he will describe rings, fibulae, bracelets, perhaps torques, &c., generally adding that he regretted their destruction, as they were curiously engraved.

Bronze weapons, and articles of domestic use, suffered a similar fate in the foundries. Weapons of stone or iron, being of no intrinsic value, were completely disregarded, indeed it was but very lately that any antiques of the latter material were supposed to remain. At length a few private individuals, of known learning and taste, began to form collections. Fifteen or twenty years ago, antiques in Ireland were much more easily obtained than at present, and their success was very considerable. To form a museum then required neither the expenditure of much time nor money, and the example was soon followed by gentlemen in many parts of the country. Still, however, the destruction was only abated, and few of the collectors were possessed of sufficient knowledge to enable them to discriminate between objects of real national interest, and such as would now be considered unimportant. The Dublin Penny Journal, a weekly publication, in which numerous woodcuts, accompanied with letter-press descriptions of objects of Irish antiquarian interest, were, for the first time, presented to the public, did much to dispel this ignorance. Other publications followed, new collectors appeared, a general interest was excited, and it is to be hoped that, for some years back, there have been few instances of the wanton destruction of any remarkable relic of ancient Ireland. Any attempt to describe in a volume such as this a number of the objects of interest deposited in our public museums, or in the cabinets of private collectors, would prove utterly abortive but a glance at some of the most remarkable of those now preserved in the collection of the Royal Irish Academy, and in that of the College of Saint Columba, at Stackallen, will probably interest some of our readers. The former may be inspected by any visitor, upon the introduction of a member.

The Royal Irish Academy, for the Study of Polite Literature, Science, and Antiquities, was instituted in 1786. Its Museum has been only a few years in progress, yet it comprises the finest collection of Celtic antiquities known to exist. Many of the objects are presentations, others have been merely deposited for exhibition in the Museum, but the great mass of the collection has been purchased by the Academy with funds raised by subscription among its members, and other patriotic individuals, the annual grant from Government being very trifling, and wholly disproportionate to the importance of the Society. A visitor, upon entering the room in which the antiques are shewn, is immediately struck with the rich display of golden ornaments, consisting of torques, collars, crescents, fibulae, &c. One of the torques measures five feet seven inches in length, and weighs twenty-seven ounces and nine penny-weights. A second weighs twelve ounces and six penny-weights. These were discovered in 1810 by a man engaged in the removal of an old bank upon the celebrated Hill of Tara, and they subsequently became the property of the late Duke of Sussex, after whose death they were purchased, and secured to this country, by subscriptions raised chiefly among members of the Academy.

Torques appear to have been common among the Gauls, Britons, and other Celtic people, from a very remote period. Plates of gold, in the form of a crescent, the ends of which are turned off, and formed of small circular pieces of about an inch in diameter, have very frequently been discovered in Ireland. They are generally ornamented with engraved borders, similar in design to the decorations most common upon sepulchral urns but several examples are quite plain, and others are engraved upon one side only. The Academy contains several of these singular antiques. In the same case with the torques is a fine and richly carved bulla, found about a century ago in the bog of Allen.

A second is preserved in the museum of the College of Saint Columba, but it is without ornament.

The Academy Museum contains an example of almost every kind of Celtic ornament of gold hitherto discovered, and several that are unique. The bronze antiques consist of swords, skeans, spear-heads, celts or axes, bridle-bits, spurs, chains, &c. &c., and there are numerous pots, vessels, and other articles of the same period and material. The general form of swords of the bronze age will be best understood by reference to the wood-cut, which represents two of several now deposited in the museum of the College of Saint Columba.

The spear-heads are extremely various in form, but they are generally well designed, and not unfrequently ornamented. As examples we have engraved three from the collection at Stackallen, but there are many specimens, and several of great beauty, in the Royal Irish Academy. The most common weapon in use among the ancient inhabitants of Ireland appears to have been a kind of axe, now generally called a celt. Its material is bronze, and it appeals to have been used contemporaneously with swords and spearheads, of which we have just given examples. The celt is rarely more than seven inches in length, and several have been preserved which measure scarcely an inch and a half. There are two kinds: the most common is flat and wedge-shaped, and appears to have been fixed by its smaller end in a wooden handle the other is hollow, and furnished with a small loop upon one side (see cut 3), through which, it is supposed, a string, securing it to the handle, anciently passed Ancient moulds of sandstone, used in the casting of swords, spear-heads, and celts, such as we have described, have often been found in Ireland.

The museum also contains a fine collection of stone hatchets, arrow and spear heads, and knives of flint, besides a variety of other articles of stone belonging to a very remote and unknown period.

Stone weapons have frequently been found in every county in Ireland but in Ulster especially they are very common. The engravings represent a variety of the stone hammers, and of arrow and spear heads.

There are also in the collection a considerable number of sepulchral urns, several of which may challenge comparison with any hitherto discovered in Great Britain. Our first illustration represents an urn of stone said to have been brought from the mound of Nowth (see page 31), in the county of Meath. Its sides are sculptured with representations of the sun and moon, but otherwise it is not remarkable in its decorations. The dimensions of this urn are,&mdashdepth, nine inches, breadth across the mouth, nine inches and a half, and it is about one foot in height.

Our second example, from a grave at Kilmurry, was presented to the Academy by Thomas Black, Esq. It measures five inches across the mouth, and four in depth, and is formed, as usual, of clay.

The urn represented in the annexed cut was found in the rath of Donagare, in the county of Antrim. It is ornamented in a manner somewhat unusual. The Museum contains several other urns quite perfect, and many fragments variously ornamented, and of great interest but as the space which we can devote to remains of this class is necessarily limited, we are reluctantly obliged to leave them unnoticed.

Among the bronze antiquities, several horns or trumpets, of great size, are remarkable. That they were manufactured by the same ancient people by whom the celts and other brazen weapons were used, there cannot now be a doubt, though Ledwich, Beaufort, and other writers, have assigned them to the Danes. Many specimens have, from time to time, been discovered in this country. There is a record often or twelve having been found together in a bog in the county of Cork. We are told by ancient writers that the Gauls and other Celtic nations were in the habit of using horns and trumpets to increase the din of battle, and it is more than probable that the horns so often found in Ireland, a country rich in Celtic antiquities generally, are of the kind alluded to. A bare enumeration of the various weapons, ornaments, vessels, &c., of the Pagan era, which are preserved in the Academy, and which, it may be remarked, exhibit in their workmanship a degree of excellence generally in proportion to their antiquity, would occupy a greater space than the limits assigned to this notice will allow. Therefore, in order to afford the reader an insight to the character of the collection generally, we shall pass at once to objects of the early Christian period, a class of antiquities in which the Academy is also rich. Among these the ancient quadrangular bells of iron or bronze are, perhaps, not the least interesting. Bells appear to have been used in Ireland as early as the time of St. Patrick. They are mentioned in the lives of most of the early saints, in the Annals of the Four Masters, and in other ancient compositions. Cambrensis, in his Welsh Itinerary, says, that both the laity and clergy in Ireland, Scotland, and Wales, held in such veneration certain portable bells, that they were much more afraid of swearing falsely by them than by the Gospels, "because of some hidden and miraculous power with which they were gifted, and by the vengeance of the saint to whom they were particularly pleasing, their despisers and transgressors were severely punished."*

The bells so highly reverenced by the Irish during the middle ages had severally belonged to some one of the early founders of Christianity in this island, and had been preserved, from the time of the saint, in a monastery which he had originally founded, or elsewhere in the custody of an hereditary keeper.

In like manner the pastoral crooks and crosiers, which had belonged to the early fathers of the Irish Church, appear to have been regarded as holy. Notwithstanding the frequent pillage of Church property by the Danes, and the unsparing destruction of "superstitious" relics during a comparatively late period, numerous examples, remarkable for the beauty of their decorations and the excellence of their workmanship, have been preserved to our own times. There is scarcely any variety in the form of the early crooks they are simply curved, like those used by shepherds, but they usually exhibit a profusion of ornament, consisting of elaborately interwoven bands, terminating generally in serpents' heads, or in some equally singular device. In several specimens, settings formed of stones, or an artificial substance variously coloured, occur, but this is supposed to indicate a comparatively recent date. A visitor to the Academy may inspect several examples remarkable as well for their extreme beauty, as for the excellent state of preservation in which they remain.

The Cross of Cong, the gem of the Academy collection, affords most striking evidence of the advancement which the Irish artificers had made in several of the arts, and in general manufacturing skill, previous to the arrival of the English.

It was made at Roscommon, by native Irishmen, about the year 1123, in the reign of Turlogh O'Conor, father of Roderick, the last monarch of Ireland, and contains what was supposed to be a piece of the true cross, as inscriptions in Irish, and Latin in the Irish character, upon two of its sides, distinctly record: see Irish Grammar, by J. O'Donovan, page 234. The preceding illustration, which is from the pencil of Mr. Du Noyer, an artist whose power and accuracy, as an antiquarian draughtsman, have gained him well-merited distinction, will afford but a very general idea of the original, as the extremely minute and elaborate ornaments, with which it is completely covered, and a portion of which is worked in pure gold, could not possibly be expressed on so reduced a scale. The ornaments generally consist of tracery and grotesque animals, fancifully combined, and similar in character to the decorations found upon crosses of stone of about the same period. A large crystal, through which a portion of the wood which the cross was formed to enshrine is visible, is set in the centre, at the intersection.

The Academy owes the possession of this unequalled monument of ancient Irish art to the liberality of the late Professor MacCullagh, by whom it was purchased for the sum of one hundred guineas, and presented.

Among the more singular relics in the collection, a chalice of stone, the subject of the annexed wood-cut, is well worthy of observation. Though formed of so rude a material, there is nothing in its general form, or in the character of its decorations, to warrant a supposition that it belongs to a very early period. Few chalices of an age prior to the twelfth century remain in Ireland, and any of a later period which have come under the observation of the writer are not very remarkable. A chalice of silver found in the ruins of Kilmallock Abbey, was melted some years ago by a silversmith of Limerick, into whose hands it had fallen. Cups of stone appear not to have been uncommon among the Irish. An ancient vessel of that material, of a triangular form, remains, or very lately remained by the side of a holy well in Columbkill's Glen, in the county of Clare, and another was found last year in the county of Meath, near the ruins of Ardmulchan Church.

The copies of the Gospels, and other sacred writings, which had been used by the early saints of Ireland, were generally preserved by their successors, enclosed in cases formed of yew, or some wood equally durable. Many of those cases were subsequently enshrined, or enclosed in boxes of silver, or of bronze richly plated with silver, and occasionally gilt and in several instances a third case appears to have been added. Sir William Betham, in his Irish Antiquarian Researches, describes several of those evidences of early Irish piety, still extant, and remaining in a high state of preservation. They are the Caah, or Cathach, the Meeshac, and the Leabhar Dhimma.

The Caah, which has been lately deposited in the Museum of the Academy, is a box about nine inches and a half in length, eight in breadth, and two in thickness, formed of brass plates, rivetted one to the other, and ornamented with gems and chasings in gold and silver. It contains, as usual, a rude wooden box, "enclosing a MS. on vellum, a copy of the ancient Vulgate translation of the Psalms, in Latin, consisting of fifty-eight membranes." This MS. there is every reason to believe was written by the hand of St. Columba, or Columbkille, the Apostle of the Northern Picts, and founder of an almost incredible number of monasteries in Ireland, his native country.

A glance at the decoration displayed upon the top of the box will convince the critical antiquary of the comparatively late date of this portion of the relic. The top is ornamented with a silver plate, richly gilt, and divided into three compartments by clustered columns supporting arches. The central space is somewhat larger than the others, and contains the figure of an ecclesiastic, probably St. Columba, who is represented in a sitting posture, giving the benediction, and holding a book in his left hand. The arch of this compartment is pointed, while the others are segmental. The space to the right of the centre is occupied by the figure of a bishop or mitred abbot, giving the benediction with his right hand, while in his left he holds the staff.

The compartment to the left of the central division contains a representation of the Passion. There are figures of angels with censers over each of the side arches. A border, within which the whole is enclosed, is formed at the top and bottom of a variety of fabulous animals the sides represent foliage, and in each angle there is a large rock crystal. A fifth setting of crystal, surrounded with smaller gems, occurs immediately over the figure, which was probably intended to represent St. Columba. The sides and ends of the box are also richly chased. An inscription in the Irish character, upon the bottom, desires "a prayer for Cathbar O'Donell, by whom the cover was made," and for Sitric, the grandson of Hugh, who made * * *

The Caah appears to have been handed down from a very early period in the O'Donell family, of which Saint Columba, the supposed writer of the manuscript which it was made to enshrine, was a member. The Domnach Airgid, also preserved in the Academy, is perhaps the most precious relic of the kind under notice now remaining in the country, as it contains, beyond a doubt, a considerable portion of the copy of the Holy Gospels which were used by Saint Patrick during his mission in Ireland, and which were presented by him to Saint Macarthen. Unfortunately, the membranes of which this singularly interesting manuscript is composed, have, through the effects of time and neglect, become firmly attached to each other but as several have been successfully removed from the mass, it is to be hoped that the whole may yet be examined.

Dr. Petrie, in a valuable paper upon the Domnach Airgid, published in the Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy, has described the manuscript as having three distinct covers: the first, and most ancient, of wood&mdashyew the second of copper, plated with silver and the third of silver, plated with gold. The outer and least ancient cover possesses many features in common with that of the Caah, though it is probably of an age somewhat later. The plated box enclosing the original wooden case is of very high antiquity. See Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy, vol. xx.

While our public and private museums abound in antiques formed of stone, earthenware, glass, bronze, and even of the precious metals, few relics of an early age composed of iron or steel have been found in a state of preservation sufficient to render them of value to the antiquary as evidences relative to the taste, habits, or manufacturing skill of the people or period to which, from their peculiarities, they might be referred. This may in a great measure be attributed to an opinion generally received, that iron is incapable of resisting decomposition for any length of time when buried in the earth, or exposed to atmospheric influences. To a certain extent the fallacy of this supposition has of late been proved by the discovery, at Loch Gabhair, near Dunshaughlin, and elsewhere, of a considerable number of weapons, &c. &c., of iron, which there is every reason to refer to a period not later than the eleventh century, and which are here found in connexion with articles of bronze and bone, chased and carved in a style peculiar to a period at least antecedent to the Anglo-Norman invasion of Ireland. The Academy museum contains many specimens of swords, axes, and spear-heads, besides many antiques of a less obvious character, found at Dunshaughlin. Their preservation may be attributed to the fact of their having been buried among an immense quantity of bones, the decomposition of which, by forming a phosphate of lime, admitted but of a partial corrosion of the metal. There are also a number of swords and other weapons found near Island-bridge by labourers engaged in clearing the ground upon which the terminus of the Dublin and Cashel railway now stands. Their preservation is not easily to be accounted for, unless it be shewn that the earth in which they were found contains a peculiar anticorrosive property, as, although some bones were also found, their number was insufficient to warrant a supposition that their presence had in any remarkable degree affected the nature of the soil. The swords are long and straight, formed for cutting as well as thrusting, and terminate in points formed by rounding off the edge towards the back of the blade. The hilts are very remarkable in form, and in one or two instances are highly ornamented, as in the example given upon the next page. The mountings were generally of a kind of brass, but several richly plated with silver were found, and it is said that one of the swords had a hilt of solid gold. The spears are long and slender, and similar in form to the lance-heads used in some of the cavalry corps. The axe-heads are large and plain, and were fitted with wooden handles, which, as might be expected, have long since decayed. A number of iron knobs of a conical form, measuring in diameter about four inches, were also found. They are supposed to have been attached as bosses to wooden shields, of which they are the only remains.

All these weapons, with one exception, are composed of a soft kind of iron. Many of the swords were found doubled up, a circumstance for which it is difficult to assign a reason, as they had evidently been purposely bent. The sword represented in the engraving is remarkable for the unusual degree of ornament which appears upon its hilt, and also for its material, steel.

From several circumstances relative to the neighbourhood in which these remains were found, as well as from certain peculiarities in their form and character, our most judicious antiquaries have been almost unanimous in pronouncing them Danish and their opinion was fully borne out by that expressed by the celebrated Danish antiquary, Warsaae, during his visit to Dublin in the beginning of this year.

Several axe-heads, discovered with many other antiques of various periods in the bed of the Shannon, and presented to the Academy by the Commissioners, are generally supposed to be Norman but they are quite as likely to have been used by the Irish, with whom the axe was a favourite weapon.

Giraldus Cambrensis, in the reign of King John, thus speaks of the power with which the Irish of his time were wont to wield the battle-axe: "They hold the axe with one hand, not with both, the thumb being stretched along the handle, and directing the blow, from which neither the helmet erected into a cone can defend the head, nor the iron mail the rest of the body whence it happens that in our times the whole thigh (coxa) of a soldier, though ever so well cased in iron mail, is cut off by one blow of the axe, the thigh, and the leg falling on one side of the horse, and the dying body on the other."&mdashGiven by John O'Donovan, in his account of the battle of Clontarf, Dublin Penny Journal, vol. ek.

In conclusion we may remark, that a few hours' examination of the truly national collection of antiquities preserved in the Museum of the Royal Irish Academy alone, will afford an inquirer a more correct knowledge of the taste, habits, and manufacturing skill of the ancient Irish, than may be obtained by mere reading, even should he devote years, instead of days, to the attainment of his object.


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