Geskiedenis Podcasts

Hoe akkuraat is die weergawe van York/Jórvík in die manga Vinland Saga?

Hoe akkuraat is die weergawe van York/Jórvík in die manga Vinland Saga?

In die manga Vinland Saga kom die helde by "York" aan. Dit was duidelik dat dit Jórvík moes heet, maar laat ons dit vir eers vergewe. Hieronder is hoe die manga die stad uit die lug wys. As u hierdie kaart vergelyk met 'n huidige kaart van York, is die ooreenkoms opvallend.

Maar, hoe akkuraat is dit vir Jórvík?


Binne die omvang van die artistieke lisensie blyk dit redelik naby te wees aan die manier waarop Roman York lyk. Aangesien Vikings nie 'n reputasie gehad het dat hulle siviele ingenieurs baie in die weg was nie, is dit waarskynlik redelik om aan te neem dat Jorvik baie dieselfde uitleg gehad het as die Romeinse en daaropvolgende Angelsaksiese weergawes.

Dit gesê, die 'akkuraatheid' van stadskaarte uit die donker eeue gaan op die beste tye swak wees ...


Biografie

Vroeë lewe

Ragnar is gebore aan die Sweedse koning Sigurd Ring en sy vrou Alfhild Gandolfsdottir. Ώ ] Gedurende sy volwasse lewe is hy getroud met sy eerste vrou Lagertha en die vader van Halfdan, ΐ ] en saam met sy derde vrou Aslaug die vader van Ivarr the Boneless, Björn Ironside, Sigurd Snake-in-the-Eye en Ubba . Ώ ]

Parys beleër

In Maart 845 beleër Ragnar en 'n mag van minstens 4000 man die hoofstad van Parys, Wes -Francia. Een van sy manne, Sten Stensson, het tydens die geveg sy-aan-sy met Ragnar geveg. Α ] Die beleg het geëindig in 'n oorwinning vir die Vikings, wat Parys geplunder en beset het voordat hy vertrek het nadat koning Karel die Kaal 'n losprys van 7 000 lewers silwer en goud betaal het. Β ]

Dood

Toe hy sy seuns sien word tot legendariese helde, wou Ragnar hulle oortref deur van plan te wees om Engeland met slegs twee skepe in te val en te verower. Ώ ] In 865 het Ragnar en syne drengir in Northumbria aangekom, en die aanvalle wat gevolg is, is noukeurig bereken. Ragnar is egter uiteindelik gevange geneem deur die oormorman Ælla van Northumbria Γ ] en doodgemaak deur in 'n slanggat gegooi te word. Δ ]


Inhoud

Vroeë lewe

Layla en haar gesin, gebore in Kaïro vir die ouers Ashraf en Zeniab Hassan, emigreer in 1986 na die Verenigde State toe sy twee was, en#911 ] voordat hulle uiteindelik in Queens, New York, gevestig het. Daar het Layla saam met haar twee jonger broers, Rami en Kaden, grootgeword. Sy het Amerikaanse burgerskap gekry deur 'n proses wat bekend staan ​​as naturalisasie. ΐ ]

In haar kinderjare het Layla haar ouers gereeld mal gemaak omdat sy altyd haar speelgoed uitmekaar gehaal het eerder as om daarmee te speel. Sy hou ook nie van verrassings en voorwerpe wat skynbaar deur toorkuns werk nie, maar toe sy grootword, het Layla 'n voorliefde gehad vir die oortreding van reëls, en sy was nie gek op die regiment van formele skoolopleiding nie, omdat sy 'n onaangename ervaring gehad het om gestraf te word omdat hy volgens die reëls gespeel het. Dit het haar bestaande neiging om gesag te versterk, bevestig. Ώ ]

Op 'n stadium tydens haar jeug het Layla 'n fan van die groep Rha Victoria gevind en 'n aanhanger daarvan geword. Sy het hulle selfs agter die verhoog ontmoet ná 'n optrede van hulle in die Madison Square Garden in 2000. ΐ ]

Na die hoërskool is Layla deur haar pa onder druk geplaas om na die sekondêre inskrywing te gaan ondanks haar planne om nie so goed as haar studies te studeer nie. Sy het egter belofte in ingenieurswese getoon, en dit het daartoe gelei dat haar pa haar by die Universiteit van Kalifornië in Berkeley ingeskryf het onder die program vir elektriese ingenieurswese. Ώ ]

Werk by Abstergo

Layla was egter onbetroubaar vir haar studies en het gedy dat sy gedy in die hoogs verpolitiseerde atmosfeer van die kampus, met die skool se administrasie. Gedurende hierdie tyd ontmoet sy Sofia Rikkin, wat deel was van 'n afvaardiging van Abstergo wat op die kampus toer met die maatskappy se "jong innoveerders" -werwingsprogram. Ώ ] ΐ ]

Sofia was geïntrigeerd deur Layla se belangstelling in tegnologie, en het haar as sodanig 'n werk by Abstergo aangebied, waar sy na die Animus -laboratorium kon werk. In 2006 het Layla die universiteit verlaat en by Abstergo aangesluit en eers in die I+D -afdeling van Abstergo Fitness Α ] en later in die afdeling Navorsing en Ontwikkeling gewerk. Ώ ]

Deur die jare het Abstergo verskeie van haar idees gebruik om aanpassings aan die Animus aan te bring, hoewel sy nooit bewus gemaak is van die onderneming se Templar -affiliasies nie. Alhoewel Layla elf jaar by Abstergo gewerk het, was die enigste ding wat sy meer as enigiets anders wou hê, 'n promosie om aan die Animus -projek te werk. Sy is egter hierdie aanbod geweier weens haar talle oortredings teen Abstergo -protokolle. ΐ ]

Egiptiese revolusie -aktivisme

In Januarie 2011 het protesoptogte teen die destydse president Hosni Mubarak en sy regime in Kaïro en ander Egiptiese stede uitgebreek. Layla, wat die behoefte aan rewolusie voel, vra vir verlof en keer terug na haar vaderland. Sy was teenwoordig vir die Tahir Square -demonstrasies. Alhoewel haar vlotheid in Arabies minimaal was, het sy daarin geslaag om sterk betrokke te raak by die land se revolusionêre jeugkultuur. Sy het haar nuwe vriende gehelp om te kommunikeer via sosiale media en ook in die inbraak van digitale toestelle ondanks die wydverspreide sensuur van die regering. Ώ ]

In Julie 2013, ná die staatskaping wat Abdel Fattah el-Sisi as president geïnstalleer het, besluit Layla om teësinnig na Amerika terug te keer om weer by Abstergo te werk. Sy het haar eie draagbare Animus gekry, maar haar tevredenheid met haar werk het oud geword. Die byna gebrek aan kontak met Sofia maak Layla woedend oor die ontkenning van professionele geleentheid. Ώ ]

Vir die volgende drie jaar het Layla haar werk by Abstergo voortgesit, terwyl sy haar Animus in die geheim aangepas het om DNA te verwerk van diegene wat nie aan haar verwant is nie en ook te veel beskadigde DNA. Sy was van plan om haar nuwe ontwerp aan Sofia voor te lê en uiteindelik deel te wees van die Animus -span. As gevolg van die sluipmoordaanval op die Abstergo Foundation -rehabilitasiesentrum in Oktober 2016, het alle kontak met Sofia egter gestop. Ώ ]

Opdrag in Egipte

In 2017, as deel van 'n historiese taktiese span, is Layla en haar medewerker en beste vriendin, Deanna Geary, deur Simon Hathaway aangestel om 'n belangrike historiese artefak uit die Qattara-depressie in Egipte te vind en op te haal. Tydens hierdie ekspedisie het Layla die mummies van die ou Assassins Bayek en Aya gevind. Sonder om haar meerderes in kennis te stel, het sy haar eie draagbare Animus gebruik om hul herinneringe van ongeveer die jaar 48 vC te herleef om haar waarde aan die Animus -projek te bewys. ΐ ] Β ]

Layla se weiering om by Abstergo in te gaan, het daartoe gelei dat die onderneming 'n Sigma -span ontplooi het om haar en Deanna te vind. Terwyl Deanna in haar hotel aangerand is, het Layla gebruik gemaak van die vaardighede wat sy met die Bloeding -effek opgedoen het om haar aanvallers te stuur. ΐ ]

Sy is later deur William Miles, mentor van die sluipmoordenaars, gevind nadat hy haar situasie in die wind gesteek het. Hy het haar 'n pos by die Brotherhood aangebied en sonder 'n ander opsie, het Layla ingestem om saam met hom te werk, maar het geweier om eintlik as lid aan te sluit. ΐ ]

Werk saam met die moordenaars

Teen die einde van 2017 het sy nie net 'n lid van die Assassins geword nie, maar ook 'n vriendskap met verskeie lede, waaronder Charlotte de la Cruz, Arend Schut-Cunningham en Harlan Cunningham, en het 'n leier geword van haar eie Assassin-sel. Γ ]

As deel van haar eerste Assassin -sending het sy en Kiyoshi Takakura 'n sending na Quebec onderneem. Hulle het die katedraal-basiliek van Notre-Dame de Québec deursoek na 'n relikwie wat aan die Recollects behoort het. Dinge het sywaarts gegaan toe dit deur Abstergo gekonfronteer is, maar Kiyoshi se verlede as 'n yakuza het hom gehelp om Layla van gevaar te red. Γ ] Δ ]

Herodotos ' Verlore geskiedenis

Layla met die spies van Leonidas

In Oktober 2018, tydens haar soeke na Isu -artefakte, ontdek Layla die Verlore geskiedenis van Herodotos, die vroegste bekende Griekse historikus. Uit hierdie werk het sy geleer van die Spartaanse huursoldaat Kassandra wat 'n Isu -wapen gehad het, die Spies van Leonidas. Layla het gaan soek na die gebreekte spies, en nadat sy dit gevind het, kon sy Kassandra se herinneringe herleef met die hulp van 'n ander oud-Abstergo-werknemer dr Victoria Bibeau. Γ ]

Nadat hulle Kassandra se geheue herleef het toe hulle die eerste keer Atlantis ontdek het, seil Layla en haar bemanning van Londen na die kus van Santorini aan boord van die Altaïr II, in die hoop om die geheime onderwater -ingang van die antieke stad te vind. Layla, wat die ingang en die stad gevind het, het Atlantis verder ondersoek en op soek na 'n manier om dit oop te maak. Toe sy niks vind nie, besluit sy om Kassandra se herinneringe verder te herleef om uit te vind hoe sy die stad kan oopmaak. Γ ]

Nadat Layla die nodige kennis gehad het om die stad oop te maak, het sy die spieëls wat die ligstraal weerspieël, reggemaak en die stad is oopgemaak. Dit was toe dat sy Kassandra self ontmoet het, lewend gehou deur die staf van Hermes Trismegistus. Kassandra het gewaarsku dat, aangesien die Tempeliers en die moordenaars orde en chaos verteenwoordig, die weerskante wat die ander oorheers, die ondergang van die wêreld tot gevolg sal hê. Kassandra verklaar Layla, die geprofeteerde een wat balans sal bring, en stuur die personeel na Layla en verloor onmiddellik haar onsterflikheid en verval - Layla hou haar in haar arms toe sy sterf. Layla keer toe terug na die Animus om met die res van Kassandra se herinneringe te sinchroniseer. Γ ]

Ontsluit die seël van Atlantis

By die ondersoek na Kassandra se herinneringe, het Layla 'n hologram van die Isu Aletheia teëgekom, wat Kassandra gelei het om die Personeel vas te hou totdat sy dit kon oorhandig aan Layla, na wie Aletheia verwys as die "erfgenaam van herinneringe". Toe sy die Animus verlaat, het Layla die stem van Aletheia van die personeel gehoor en haar opdrag gegee om die drie simbole te identifiseer om die Groot seël aan Atlantis te ontsluit. Layla, met die hulp van die Altaïr II, het later die simbole in die grafte van Agamemnon, Orion en Eteokles gevind. Ε ]

Bibeau het die hele tyd sy kommer uitgespreek oor Layla se welstand, terwyl Aletheia gewaarsku het dat iemand die Interloper gebel het om haar te stop. In die besef dat Kassandra se medewerker, Phidias, die betekenis van hierdie simbole ken, herleef Layla die herinneringe aan Kassandra se broer Deimos, wat verantwoordelik was vir die moord op die beeldhouer, ondanks die gevaarlike uitwerking op haar gemoed, waarop Bibeau haar op afstand moes uittrek. Ε ]

Nadat hy van Aletheia gehoor het dat die interloper 'n man is, het Layla spoedig kontak verloor met die Altaïr II soos dit deur die Sigma -span aangeval is. Onseker oor die status van haar span, het Layla die seël oopgesluit en besef dat die drie woorde wat Phidias herhaal het toe Alexios hom aangerand het, die wagwoord was. Daarna was sy verlig toe sy hoor dat haar span teen die Sigma -span afgeveg het. Verder beweer Alannah Ryan dat iemand luister na hul kommunikasie, so die Altaïr II is gedwing om donker te word totdat dit veilig was om Atlantis oop te maak. Ε ]

Proewe van Atlantis

Nadat sy Atlantis suksesvol ontsluit het, het Layla die kamer binnegegaan, waar sy deur Aletheia begroet is en saam met Victoria, wat bekommerd was oor die welstand van haar vriendin. Aletheia het Kassandra opgedra om simulasies van die koninkryke wat deur haar geskep is, in te voer om die personeel te bemeester. Dit was sodat Layla nie deur die personeel se invloed en korrupsie sou val nie. Ζ ]

Layla met 'n sterwende Victoria

Terwyl Layla voortgaan om Kassandra se herinneringe te herleef terwyl laasgenoemde die simulasies ondersoek, word Layla se gedrag toenemend aggressief, wat veroorsaak dat Victoria Layla kragtig uit die Animus trek, met verwysing na die Bloeding -effek wat haar beïnvloed. Dit het gelei tot die feit dat Layla per ongeluk Victoria saam met die personeel doodgemaak het. Geskok oor wat sy gedoen het, word Layla genader deur Aletheia, wat verklaar dat Layla miskien nie die ware 'erfgenaam van herinneringe' is nie, en dat sy tyd nodig het om na te dink. Layla weerlê Aletheia se verklaring en blameer die personeel vir haar optrede, hoewel Aletheia haar daaraan herinner dat sy bepaal het wie die 'erfgenaam' is en nie Layla nie. Layla het later ingestem om te vertrek en tyd te neem om na te dink, en Aletheia versoek om Victoria op te pas totdat sy terugkom. Η ]

Layla en Otso Berg kyk uit

Layla keer daarna terug na die kamer en wou die proewe afhandel ondanks Aletheia se vrees. Nietemin kon Layla die Isu oortuig om haar weer in te laat. Nadat sy Kassandra herinner het aan die voltooiing van haar proewe, is Layla vinnig wakker gemaak deur Aletheia, wat haar meegedeel het dat die interloper, blykbaar Otso Berg, aangekom het. Layla is deur die Tempelier ingelig oor die dinge wat gebeur het sedert haar span se ontdekking van Herodotos Verlore geskiedenis. Terwyl Layla met Berg probeer onderhandel het deur die personeel te gebruik om sy dogter Elina te help, het Otso Berg haar onderbreek en gedreig om die personeel te oorhandig. ⎖ ]

Die twee was in 'n geveg betrokke waar Layla Berg met die personeel verslaan het. Daarna het sy Berg se rug saam met die personeel gestamp en hom onbeweeglik gemaak. Toe Berg beswyk van sy beserings, het Layla Victoria se liggaam genader en die oorfone van haar oor gehaal. Daardeur het Layla weer kommunikasie met Alannah en haar span gekry en haar ingelig oor wat gebeur het en die span versoek om haar uit die kluis te haal. ⎖ ]

Die vind van die Wolf-gesoen

Na die voorval in Atlantis het Layla se verhoudings met Kiyoshi en Alannah gespanne geraak. Teen Mei 2020 is sy saam met Shaun Hastings en Rebecca Crane na 'n Assassin -sel gestuur vanweë hul ervaring met Desmond Miles toe hy dit moeilik gehad het om die bloedingseffek te beheer. Maande later, toe die aarde se magnetiese veld steeds toeneem in sterkte sedert die koronale massa -uitwerping in 2012, wat gelei het tot groot elektromagnetiese versteurings wêreldwyd wat 'n aurora borealis oor die hele wêreld veroorsaak, het die span 'n vreemde boodskap ontvang wat 'n oplossing beloof het, wat daartoe gelei het dat 'n New England Viking -graf in Noord -Amerika wat dateer uit die negende eeu. Met behulp van haar Animus kon Layla die herinneringe aan die Noorse kryger, Eivor Varinsdottir, herleef. Shaun het ook 'n gemoedstabilisator op Layla se nek geplaas om te verseker dat sy nie weer aan die personeel se krag toegee nie. ⎗ ]

Nadat sy die herinneringe aan Eivor voltooi het, en eindig met haar ontdekking van die Yggdrasil -kamer onder Hordaland, reis Layla na Noorweë. Layla het haarself verbind met die Yggdrasil -toestel en die masjien suksesvol vertraag om die planeet terug te keer na sy normale toestand. Binne die simulasie ontmoet sy die Reader en Basim Ibn Ishaq, en laat dit onbewustelik vry. Omdat sy aan die masjien gekoppel was, het sy die personeel van Hermes Trismegistus laat val. Sonder die personeel is die leser meegedeel dat sy net meer as 'n minuut sou hê as sy aan die straling van buite toegegee sou word as sy ontkoppel. Gedeeltelik om die mense wat sy seergemaak het, te versoen, het Layla besluit om by die Reader te bly en voort te gaan om 'n oplossing in die Grey te soek. ⎗ ]


Spel

Gestig in 873 CE, Valhalla het spelers die rol van Eivor, 'n Viking Raider en Clan Leader van die Norsemen, wat as manlik of vroulik gespeel kan word. Die spel behou die dialoogkeuse en NPC -verhoudingselemente uit Assassin's Creed: Odyssey, met nuwe elemente soos die sluit van politieke alliansies met NPC -clans. Elke keuse en besluit van die spelers beïnvloed die wêreld van die spel intyds. Spelers kan van die koue kus van Noorweë na Engeland reis. Β ]

Eivor kan 'n verskeidenheid wapens toerus, en baie van hulle kan Eivor ook 'n Hidden Blade gebruik in die geveg, wat sedert Origins nie gebruik is nie. ⎜ ]

Eivor kan hul eie nedersetting ontwikkel en strukture soos tatoeëringwinkels en barakke bou en opgradeer, hulle kan ook nuwe lede van hul stam werf en hul eie leër vir aanvalle of ander missies oplei. Β ]

Die speler kan 'n raiding party bou deur karakters wat nie 'n speler is nie, te werf om hiermee te help. ⎝ ] Alhoewel die gebruik van vlootvervoer teruggekeer het, is vlootgeveg teruggebel. Eivor se langskip sal meer dien as 'n reismiddel tydens aanvalle en ontsnap na landgevegte, eerder as om saam met ander vlootvaartuie te veg. Ε ] ⎞ ] Spelers kan deelneem aan aktiwiteite soos drink speletjies, jag of tradisionele Noorse speletjies soos vlieg. ⎟ ] 'n Speler kan 'n Viking-huursoldaat skep wat deur ander spelers gewerf kan word, wat as 'n nie-speelbare karakter in die speletjies optree, en die speler kry ekstra belonings in die spel vir suksesvolle missies. ⎝ ]


Krygers van die verlede

'N Geromantiseerde beeld van Vikings as Germaanse edele woeste het in die 18de eeu na vore gekom en uitgebrei tydens die herlewing van die Viking in die Victoriaanse era. In Brittanje het dit die vorm van septentrionalisme aanneem, in Duitsland dié van 'Wagneriese' patos of selfs Germaanse mistiek, en in die Skandinawiese lande die van die romantiese nasionalisme of Skandinawisme. In die hedendaagse populêre kultuur word hierdie clichéagtige uitbeeldings dikwels oordrewe met die gevolg dat Vikings as karikature voorgestel word.
Die Gokstad Vikingskip te sien in Oslo, Noorweë. Die tydperk vanaf die vroegste aangetekende aanvalle in die 790's tot die Normandiese verowering van Engeland in 1066 staan ​​algemeen bekend as die Vikingtydperk van die Skandinawiese geskiedenis. Die Normandiërs was egter afstammelinge van Deense Vikings wat in die 10de eeu 'n feodale heerskappy van gebiede in die noorde van Frankryk en die hertogdom Normandië gekry het. In die opsig het afstammelinge van die Vikings steeds 'n invloed in Noord -Europa gehad. Net so het koning Harold Godwinson, die laaste Angelsaksiese koning van Engeland wat tydens die Normandiese inval in 1066 vermoor is, Deense voorouers gehad. Baie van die Middeleeuse konings van Noorweë en Denemarke trou met Engelse en Skotse koninklikes en raak af en toe betrokke by dinastiese geskille. [Aanhaling nodig]
Die motiewe vir die uitbreiding van die Viking vorm 'n onderwerp van debat in die Nordiese geskiedenis. Een algemene teorie beweer dat die Noorse bevolking die landboupotensiaal van hul Skandinawiese vaderland ontgroei het. Hierdie teorie verklaar egter weinig waarom die uitbreiding oorsee gegaan het eerder as na die uitgestrekte, onbewerkte bosgebiede aan die binnekant van die Skandinawiese Skiereiland. Daar moet op gelet word dat strooptogte makliker was as om groot gebiede bos te verwyder vir plaas en weiding in 'n gebied met 'n beperkte groeiseisoen. Geen so 'n styging in bevolking of afname in landbouproduksie is finaal bewys nie.
In Engeland het die Viking -tydperk op 8 Junie 793 dramaties begin toe Noormanne die abdy op die eiland Lindisfarne vernietig het. Die verwoesting van Northumbria's Holy Island het die koninklike howe van Europa geskok en gewaarsku oor die Viking -teenwoordigheid. 'Nog nooit is so 'n gruweldaad gesien nie', het die Northumbriese geleerde, Alcuin van York, gesê. Geleerdes buite Skandinawië het eers in die 1890's die prestasies van die Vikings ernstig begin heroorweeg, met die erkenning van hul kuns, tegnologiese vaardighede en seemanskap.


'N Reuse Viking verwelkom besoekers aan die stad Dannevirke in Nieu -Seeland, gestig deur die 19de eeuse Skandinawiese setlaars. Onder leiding van die operas van die Duitse komponis Richard Wagner, soos Der Ring des Nibelungen, Vikings en die Romanticist Viking Revival het baie kreatiewe werke geïnspireer.


VIDEO BEWYS

NINJA

'N Ninja of shinobi was 'n geheime agent of huursoldaat van feodale Japan wat spesialiseer in onortodokse oorlogskuns. Die funksies van die ninja was spioenasie, sabotasie, infiltrasie en sluipmoord, sowel as oop gevegte in sekere situasies. Die ninja, met hul onderduimse taktiek, was in kontras met die samoerai, wat versigtig was om nie hul betroubare beeld te beskadig nie.

In sy Buke Myōmokushō skryf die militêre historikus Hanawa Hokinoichi van die ninja:

“ Hulle het vermom na ander gebiede gereis om die situasie van die vyand te beoordeel, hulle sou in die midde van die vyand ingaan om leemtes te ontdek en vyandelike kastele binne te gaan om hulle aan die brand te steek, en moord te voer, aankom in geheim. ”

Die oorsprong van die ninja is duister en moeilik om te bepaal, maar kan vermoedelik ongeveer die 14de eeu wees. Daar is min geskrewe rekords om die aktiwiteite van die ninja te beskryf. Die woord shinobi bestaan ​​eers in die 15de eeu om 'n ninja-agtige agent te beskryf, en dit is onwaarskynlik dat spioene en huursoldate voor hierdie tyd as 'n gespesialiseerde groep beskou is. In die onrus van die Sengoku -tydperk (15de - 17de eeu) het huursoldate en spioene te huur ontstaan ​​uit die Iga- en Kōga -streke van Japan, en uit hierdie stamme word baie latere kennis oor die ninja afgelei. Na die eenwording van Japan onder die Tokugawa -shogunaat, het die ninja weer in die duisternis geval. In die 17de en 18de eeu verskyn handleidings soos die Bansenshukai (1676) — dikwels rondom die Chinese militêre filosofie — in aansienlike getalle. Hierdie geskrifte onthul 'n verskeidenheid filosofieë, godsdienstige oortuigings, die toepassing daarvan in oorlogvoering, sowel as die spioenasietegnieke wat die basis vorm van die ninja se kuns. Die woord ninjutsu sou later 'n wye verskeidenheid praktyke met betrekking tot die ninja beskryf.

Die geheimsinnige aard van die ninja het al lank die gewilde verbeelding in Japan en later die res van die wêreld aangegryp. Ninjas is prominent in folklore en legendes, en as gevolg hiervan is dit dikwels moeilik om historiese feite van mite te skei. Sommige legendariese vermoëns sluit in onsigbaarheid, loop op water en beheer oor natuurlike elemente. Die ninja kom ook algemeen voor in die populêre kultuur, en verskyn in baie vorme van vermaaklikheidsmedia.

'N Ninja of shinobi was 'n geheime agent of huursoldaat van feodale Japan wat spesialiseer in onortodokse oorlogskuns. Die funksies van die ninja was spioenasie, sabotasie, infiltrasie en sluipmoord, sowel as oop gevegte in sekere situasies. Die ninja, met hul onderduimse taktiek, was in kontras met die samoerai, wat versigtig was om nie hul betroubare beeld te beskadig nie.

In sy Buke Myōmokushō skryf die militêre historikus Hanawa Hokinoichi van die ninja:

“ Hulle het vermom na ander gebiede gereis om die situasie van die vyand te beoordeel, hulle sou in die midde van die vyand ingaan om leemtes te ontdek en vyandelike kastele binne te gaan om hulle aan die brand te steek, en moord te voer, aankom in geheim. ”

Die oorsprong van die ninja is duister en moeilik om te bepaal, maar kan vermoedelik ongeveer die 14de eeu wees. Daar is min geskrewe rekords om die aktiwiteite van die ninja te beskryf. Die woord shinobi bestaan ​​eers in die 15de eeu om 'n ninja-agtige agent te beskryf, en dit is onwaarskynlik dat spioene en huursoldate voor hierdie tyd as 'n gespesialiseerde groep beskou is. In die onrus van die Sengoku -periode (15de - 17de eeu) het huursoldate en spioene te huur ontstaan ​​uit die Iga- en Kōga -streke van Japan, en uit hierdie stamme word baie latere kennis oor die ninja afgelei. Na die eenwording van Japan onder die Tokugawa -shogunaat, het die ninja weer in die duisternis geval. In die 17de en 18de eeu verskyn handleidings soos die Bansenshukai (1676) — dikwels rondom die Chinese militêre filosofie — in aansienlike getalle. Hierdie geskrifte onthul 'n verskeidenheid filosofieë, godsdienstige oortuigings, die toepassing daarvan in oorlogvoering, sowel as die spioenasietegnieke wat die basis vorm van die ninja se kuns. Die woord ninjutsu sou later 'n wye verskeidenheid praktyke met betrekking tot die ninja beskryf.

Die geheimsinnige aard van die ninja het al lank die gewilde verbeelding in Japan en later die res van die wêreld aangegryp. Ninjas is prominent in folklore en legendes, en as gevolg hiervan is dit dikwels moeilik om historiese feite van mite te skei. Sommige legendariese vermoëns sluit in onsigbaarheid, loop op water en beheer oor natuurlike elemente. Die ninja kom ook algemeen voor in die populêre kultuur, en verskyn in baie vorme van vermaaklikheidsmedia.

Die woord 'ninja' in kanji -skrif Ninja is die on'yomi -lees van die twee kanji. In die inheemse kun'yomi-lees word dit shinobi gelees, 'n verkorte vorm van die langer transkripsie shinobi-no-mono. Die term shinobi word tot in die laat 8ste eeu teruggevoer na gedigte in die Man'yōshū. Die onderliggende konnotasie van shinobi beteken 'om weg te steel' en — by uitbreiding — 'om te verdra', vandaar die verband met stealth en onsigbaarheid. Mono beteken "'n persoon".

Histories was die woord ninja nie algemeen nie, en 'n verskeidenheid plaaslike omgangstaaltjies het ontwikkel om te beskryf wat later ninjas genoem sou word. Saam met shinobi sluit enkele voorbeelde in: monomi ("een wat sien"), nokizaru ("makaak op die dak"), rappa ("ruffian"), kusa ("gras") en Iga-mono ("een van Iga") . In historiese dokumente word shinobi byna altyd gebruik.

Kunoichi, wat 'n vroulike ninja beteken, kom vermoedelik van die karakters (uitgespreek ku, no en ichi), wat die drie houe uitmaak wat die kanji vir 'vrou' vorm.

In die Weste het die woord ninja meer algemeen geword as shinobi in die kultuur na die Tweede Wêreldoorlog, moontlik omdat dit gemakliker was vir Westerse sprekers. In Engels kan die meervoud van ninja óf onveranderd as ninja wees, wat die gebrek aan grammatikale getal van die Japannese taal weerspieël, óf die gewone Engelse meervoudige ninjas.

Geskiedenis
Ten spyte van baie gewilde volksverhale, is historiese verslae van die ninja skaars. Die historikus Stephen Turnbull beweer dat die ninja meestal uit die laer klas gewerf is, en daarom is daar min literêre belangstelling in hulle. Oorlogsposies soos die Tale of Hōgen (Hogen Monogatari) en die Tale of the Heike (Heike Monogatari) fokus hoofsaaklik op die aristokratiese samoerai, waarvan die dade klaarblyklik aantrekliker was vir die gehoor. Historikus Kiyoshi Watatani verklaar dat die ninja opgelei is om veral geheimsinnig te wees oor hul optrede en bestaan:

"Sogenaamde ninjutsu-tegnieke, in kort, is die vaardighede van shinobi-no-jutsu en shinobijutsu, wat daarop gemik is om te verseker dat die teenstander nie weet van sy bestaan ​​nie en waarvoor spesiale opleiding was."
Oorsprong

Yamato Takeru geklee as 'n slavin en berei hom voor om die Kumaso -leiers dood te maak. Houtblokafdruk op papier. Yoshitoshi, 1886. Die oorsprong van die ninja is gebaseer op die spioene en sluipmoordenaars wat deur die Japannese geskiedenis bestaan ​​het. Die titel ninja word soms toegeskryf aan die semi-legendariese prins van die 4de eeu, Yamato Takeru. In die Kojiki het die jong Yamato Takeru homself as 'n bekoorlike meisie vermom en twee hoofmanne van die Kumaso -mense vermoor. Hierdie rekords vind egter in 'n baie vroeë stadium van die Japannese geskiedenis plaas, en dit is onwaarskynlik dat dit met die latere rekeninge verband hou.

Die eerste gebruik van spioenasie was onder die diens van prins Shōtoku in die 6de eeu. Sulke taktieke word selfs in die vroeë tye as onaangenaam beskou, toe die seunspioen Koharumaru volgens die 10de eeu doodgemaak is omdat hy teen die opstandige Taira no gespioeneer het Masakado. Later bevat die 14de -eeuse oorlogskroniek Taiheiki baie verwysings na shinobi, en die vernietiging van 'n kasteel deur vuur word toegeskryf aan 'n naamlose, maar 'hoogs bekwame shinobi'. [

Dit was egter eers in die 15de eeu dat spioene spesiaal daarvoor opgelei is. Dit was omstreeks hierdie tyd dat die woord shinobi ninjas as 'n geheimsinnige groep agente beskryf en duidelik identifiseer. Bewyse hiervoor kan gesien word in historiese dokumente, wat tydens die Sengoku -tydperk na stealth soldate as shinobi begin verwys het. Latere handleidings oor spioenasie is dikwels gegrond op die Chinese militêre strategie, met verwysing na werke soos The Art of War (Sunzi Bingfa), deur Sun Tzu.
Ontwikkeling
Die ninja het in die 15de eeu as huursoldate verskyn, waar hulle as spioene, stropers, brandstigters en selfs terroriste gewerf is. Onder die samoerai is 'n gevoel van ritueel en dekor waargeneem, waar van 'n mens verwag word om openlik te veg of te veg. Gekombineer met die onrus in die Sengoku -era, het hierdie faktore 'n vraag geskep na mans wat bereid was om dade te pleeg wat as nie respekvol beskou word vir konvensionele krygers nie. Teen die Sengoku -periode het die shinobi verskeie rolle gehad, waaronder spioen (kanchō), verkenner (teisatsu), verrassingsaanvaller (kisho) en roerder (koran). Die ninja -gesinne was in groter gildes georganiseer, elk met hul eie gebiede. 'N Rangstelsel bestaan. A jōnin ('boonste man') was die hoogste rang, wat die groep verteenwoordig en huursoldate verhuur. Dit word gevolg deur die chūnin ("middelman"), assistente van die jōnin. Onderaan was die genin ('laer man'), veldagente wat uit die laer klas gehaal is en aangewys is om werklike missies uit te voer.

Die vlaktes van Iga, geleë in afgesonderde berge, het aanleiding gegee tot dorpe wat gespesialiseer is in die opleiding van ninjas. geskryf as Kōga), vernoem na 'n dorpie in die huidige Shiga -prefektuur. Uit hierdie streke verskyn die eerste dorpe wat toegewy is aan die opleiding van ninjas. Die afstand en ontoeganklikheid van die omliggende berge het moontlik 'n rol gespeel in die geheime ontwikkeling van die ninja. Historiese dokumente rakende die oorsprong van die ninja in hierdie bergagtige streke word algemeen beskou. Die kroniek Go Kagami Furoku skryf oor die oorsprong van die twee stamme:

"Daar was 'n bewaarder van die familie van Kawai Aki-no-kami van Iga, van uitnemende vaardigheid in shinobi, en gevolglik het die naam van mense uit Iga vir geslagte lank gevestig geword. 'N Ander tradisie het gegroei in Kōga".
'N Aanvulling tot die Nochi Kagami, 'n verslag van die Ashikaga -shogunaat, bevestig dieselfde Iga -oorsprong:

"Binne die kamp by Magari van die Shogun [Ashikaga] Yoshihisa was daar shinobi wie se name regoor die land bekend was. Toe Yoshihisa Rokkaku Takayori aanval, verdien die familie van Kawai Aki-no-kami van Iga, wat hom by Magari bedien het, aansienlik verdienste as shinobi voor die groot leër van die Shogun. Sedertdien word opeenvolgende geslagte Iga -manne bewonder. Dit is die oorsprong van die roem van die manne van Iga. "
Daar moet onderskei word tussen die ninja's uit hierdie gebiede en gewone mense of samoerai wat as spioene of huursoldate gehuur word. Anders as hul eweknieë, het die Iga- en Kōga -stamme professionele ninja's vervaardig, spesifiek opgelei vir hul rolle. Hierdie professionele ninja's is tussen 1485 en 1581 aktief deur daimyos aangestel totdat Oda Nobunaga die provinsie Iga binnegeval en die georganiseerde stamme uitgewis het. Oorlewendes is gedwing om te vlug, sommige na die berge van Kii, maar ander het voor Tokugawa Ieyasu aangekom, waar hulle goed behandel is. Sommige voormalige lede van die Iga -stam, waaronder Hattori Hanzō, sou later as lyfwagte van Tokugawa dien.

Na die Slag van Okehazama in 1560 het Tokugawa 'n groep van tagtig Kōga -ninja in diens geneem, onder leiding van Tomo Sukesada. Hulle moes die buitepos van die Imagawa -stam aanval. The account of this assault is given in the Mikawa Go Fudoki, where it was written that Kōga ninja infiltrated the castle, set fire to its towers, and killed the castellan along with two hundred of the garrison. The Kōga ninjas are said to have played a role in the later Battle of Sekigahara (1600), where several hundred Kōga assisted soldiers under Torii Mototada in the defence of Fushimi Castle. After Tokugawa's victory at Sekigahara, the Iga acted as guards for the inner compounds of Edo Castle, while the Kōga acted as a police force and assisted in guarding the outer gate. In 1614, the initial "winter campaign" at the Siege of Osaka saw the ninja in use once again. Miura Yoemon, a ninja in Tokugawa's service, recruited shinobi from the Iga region, and sent ten ninjas into Osaka Castle in an effort to foster antagonism between enemy commanders. During the later "summer campaign", these hired ninjas fought alongside regular troops at the Battle of Tennōji.
Shimabara rebellion
A final but detailed record of ninjas employed in open warfare occurred during the Shimabara Rebellion (1637�). The Kōga ninja were recruited by shogun Tokugawa Iemitsu against Christian rebels led by Amakusa Shirō, who made a final stand at Hara Castle, in Hizen Province. A diary kept by a member of the Matsudaira clan, the Amakusa Gunki, relates: "Men from Kōga in Omi Province who concealed their appearance would steal up to the castle every night and go inside as they pleased."

The Ukai diary, written by a descendant of Ukai Kanemon, has several entries describing the reconnaissance actions taken by the Kōga.

"They [the Kōga] were ordered to reconnoitre the plan of construction of Hara Castle, and surveyed the distance from the defensive moat to the ni-no-maru (second bailey), the depth of the moat, the conditions of roads, the height of the wall, and the shape of the loopholes." — Entry: 6th day of the 1st month

The ruins of Hara castle.Suspecting that the castle's supplies may be running low, the siege commander Matsudaira Nobutsuna ordered a raid on the castle's provisions. Here, the Kōga captured bags of enemy provisions, and infiltrated the castle by night, obtaining secret passwords. Days later, Nobutsuna ordered an intelligence gathering mission to determine the castle's supplies. Several Kōga ninja — some apparently descended from those involved in the 1562 assault on an Imagawa clan castle — volunteered despite being warned that chances of survival were slim. A volley of shots were fired into the sky, causing the defenders to extinguish the castle lights in preparation. Under the cloak of darkness, ninja disguised as defenders infiltrated the castle, capturing a banner of the Christian cross. The Ukai diary writes,

"We dispersed spies who were prepared to die inside Hara castle. . those who went on the reconnaissance in force captured an enemy flag both Arakawa Shichirobei and Mochizuki Yo'emon met extreme resistance and suffered from their serious wounds for forty days." — Entry: 27th day of the 1st month
As the siege went on, the extreme shortage of food later reduced the defenders to eating moss and grass. This desperation would mount to futile charges by the rebels, where they were eventually defeated by the shogunate army. The Kōga would later take part in conquering the castle:

"More and more general raids were begun, the Kōga ninja band under the direct control of Matsudaira Nobutsuna captured the ni-no-maru and the san-no-maru (outer bailey). " — Entry: 24th day of the 2nd month
With the fall of Hara Castle, the Shimbara Rebellion came to an end, and Christianity in Japan was forced underground. These written accounts are the last mention of ninjas in war.

Oniwaban
In the early 18th century, shogun Tokugawa Yoshimune founded the oniwaban, an intelligence agency and secret service. Members of this office, the oniwabanshū ("garden keeper"), were agents involved in collecting information on daimyos and government officials. The secretive nature of the oniwaban — along with the earlier tradition of using Iga and Kōga clan members as palace guards — have lead some sources to define the oniwabanshū as "ninjas". This portrayal is also common in later novels and jidaigeki. However, there is no written link between the earlier shinobi and the later oniwabanshū.

A page from the Shōninki (1681), detailing a list of possible disguises.The ninja were stealth soldiers and mercenaries hired mostly by daimyos. Their primary roles were those of espionage and sabotage, although assassinations were also attributed to ninjas. In battle, the ninja could also be used to cause confusion amongst the enemy. A degree of psychological warfare in the capturing of enemy banners can be seen illustrated in the Ōu Eikei Gunki, composed between the 16th and 17th centuries:

"Within Hataya castle there was a glorious shinobi whose skill was renowned, and one night he entered the enemy camp secretly. He took the flag from Naoe Kanetsugu's guard . and returned and stood it on a high place on the front gate of the castle."
Espionage
Espionage was the chief role of the ninja. With the aid of disguises, the ninja gathered information on enemy terrain, building specifications, as well as obtaining passwords and communiques. The aforementioned supplement to the Nochi Kagami briefly describes the ninja's role in espionage:

"Concerning ninja, they were said to be from Iga and Kōga, and went freely into enemy castles in secret. They observed hidden things, and were taken as being friends"
Later in history, the Kōga ninja would become regarded as agents of the Tokugawa bakufu, at a time when the bakufu used the ninjas in an intelligence network to monitor regional daimyos as well as the Imperial court.

Sabotage
Arson was the primary form of sabotage practiced by the ninja, who targeted castles and camps.

The 16th century diary of abbot Eishun (Tamon-in Nikki) at Tamon-in monastery in Kōfuku-ji describes an arson attack on a castle by men of the Iga clans.

"This morning, the sixth day of the 11th month of Tembun 10, the Iga-shu entered Kasagi castle in secret and set fire to a few of the priests' quarters. They also set fire to outbuildings in various places inside the San-no-maru. They captured the Ichi-no-maru (inner bailey) and the Ni-no-maru."
—Entry: 26th day of the 11th month of the 10th Year of Tenbun (1541)
In 1558, Rokkaku Yoshitaka employed a team of ninja to set fire to Sawayama Castle. A chunin captain led a force of forty-eight ninja into the castle by means of deception. In a technique dubbed bakemono-jutsu ("ghost technique"), his men stole a lantern bearing the enemy's family crest (mon), and proceeded to make replicas with the same mon. By wielding these lanterns, they were allowed to enter the castle without a fight. Once inside, the ninjas set fire to the castle, and Yoshitaka's army would later emerge victorious. The mercenary nature of the shinobi is demonstrated in another arson attack soon after the burning of Sawayama Castle. In 1561, commanders acting under Kizawa Nagamasa hired three Iga ninja of genin rank to assist the conquest of a fortress in Maibara. Rokakku Yoshitaka, the same man who had hired Iga ninja just years earlier, was the fortress holder — and target of attack. The Asai Sandaiki writes of their plans: "We employed shinobi-no-mono of Iga. . They were contracted to set fire to the castle". However, the mercenary shinobi were unwilling to take commands. When the fire attack did not begin as scheduled, the Iga men told the commanders, who were not from the region, that they could not possibly understand the tactics of the shinobi. They then threatened to abandon the operation if they were not allowed to act on their own strategy. The fire was eventually set, allowing Nagamasa's army to capture the fortress in a chaotic rush.

Assassination
The most well-known cases of assassination attempts involve famous historical figures. Deaths of famous persons have sometimes been attributed to assassination by ninjas, but the secretive nature of these scenarios have been difficult to prove. Assassins were often identified as ninjas later on, but there is no evidence to prove whether some were specially trained for the task or simply a hired mercenary.


Portrait of Oda Nobunaga, by Jesuit painter Giovanni Niccolo, 1583-1590.The warlord Oda Nobunaga's notorious reputation led to several attempts on his life. In 1571, a Kōga ninja and sharpshooter by the name of Sugitani Zenjubō was hired to assassinate Nobunaga. Using two arquebuses, he fired two consecutive shots at Nobunaga, but was unable to inflict mortal injury through Nobunaga's armor. Sugitani managed to escape, but was caught four years later and put to death by torture. In 1573, Manabe Rokurō, a vassal of daimyo Hatano Hideharu, attempted to infiltrate Azuchi Castle and assassinate a sleeping Nobunaga. However, this also ended in failure, and Manabe was forced to commit suicide, after which his body was openly displayed in public. According to a document, the Iranki, when Nobunaga was inspecting Iga province — which his army had devastated — a group of three ninjas shot at him with large-caliber firearms. The shots flew wide of Nobunaga, however, and instead killed seven of his surrounding companions.

The ninja Hachisuka Tenzō was sent by Nobunaga to assassinate the powerful daimyo Takeda Shingen, but ultimately failed in his attempts. Hiding in the shadow of a tree, he avoided being seen under the moonlight, and later concealed himself in a hole he had prepared beforehand, thus escaping capture.

An assassination attempt on Toyotomi Hideyoshi was also thwarted. A ninja named Kirigakure Saizō (possibly Kirigakure Shikaemon) thrust a spear through the floorboards to kill Hideyoshi, but was unsuccessful. He was "smoked out" of his hiding place by another ninja working for Hideyoshi, who apparently used a sort of primitive "flamethrower". Unfortunately, the veracity of this account has been clouded by later fictional publications depicting Saizō as one of the legendary Sanada Ten Braves.

Uesugi Kenshin, the famous daimyo of Echigo province was rumored to have been killed by a ninja. The legend credits his death to an assassin, who is said to have hid in Kenshin's lavatory, and gravely injured Kenshin by thrusting a blade or spear into his anus. While historical records showed that Kenshin suffered abdominal problems, modern historians have usually attributed his death to stomach cancer, esophageal cancer or cerebrovascular disease.

Countermeasures
A variety of countermeasures were taken to prevent the activities of the ninja. Precautions were often taken against assassinations, such as weapons concealed in the lavatory, or under a removable floorboard. Buildings were constructed with traps and trip wires attached to alarm bells.

Japanese castles were designed to be difficult to navigate, with winding routes leading to the inner compound. Blind spots and holes in walls provided constant surveillance of these labyrinthine paths, as exemplified in Himeji Castle. Nijō Castle in Kyoto is constructed with long "nightingale" floors, which rested on metal hinges (uguisu-bari) specifically designed to squeak loudly when walked over.Grounds covered with gravel also provided early notice of unwanted intruders, and segregated buildings allowed fires to be better contained.

Training
See also: Ninjutsu
The skills required of the ninja has come to be known in modern times as ninjutsu, but it is unlikely they were previously named under a single discipline. Modern misconceptions have identified ninjutsu as a form of combat art, but historically, ninjutsu largely covered espionage and survival skills. Some lineage styles (ryūha) of ninjutsu such as Togakure-ryū were known in the past.


This diagram from the Bansenshukai uses divination and esoteric cosmology (onmyōdō) to instruct on the ideal time for taking certain actions.The first specialized training began in the mid-15th century, when certain samurai families started to focus on covert warfare, including espionage and assassination. Like the samurai, ninja were born into the profession, where traditions were kept in, and passed down through the family. According to Turnbull, the ninja was trained from childhood, as was also common in samurai families. Outside the expected martial art disciplines, a youth studied survival and scouting techniques, as well as information regarding poisons and explosives. Physical training was also important, which involved long distance runs, climbing, stealth methods of walking and swimming. A certain degree of knowledge regarding common professions was also required if one was expected to take their form in disguise. Some evidence of medical training can be derived from one account, where an Iga ninja provided first-aid to Ii Naomasa, who was injured by gunfire in the Battle of Sekigahara. Here the ninja reportedly gave Naomasa a "black medicine" meant to stop bleeding.

With the fall of the Iga and Kōga clans, daimyos could no longer recruit professional ninjas, and were forced to train their own shinobi. The shinobi was considered a real profession, as demonstrated in the bakufu's 1649 law on military service, which declared that only daimyos with an income of over 10,000 koku were allowed to retain shinobi. In the two centuries that followed, a number of ninjutsu manuals were written by descendants of Hattori Hanzō as well as members of the Fujibayashi clan, an offshoot of the Hattori. Major examples include the Ninpiden (1655), the Bansenshukai (1675), and the Shōninki (1681).

Some practitioners of modern ninjutsu include Stephen K. Hayes and Masaaki Hatsumi, who is the head (sōke) of Bujinkan, a martial arts organization based in Japan. However, the link between modern interpretations of ninjutsu and historical practices is a matter of debate.

Tactics
The ninja did not always work alone. Teamwork techniques exist: for example, in order to scale a wall, a group of ninja may carry each other on their backs, or provide a human platform to assist an individual in reaching greater heights. The Mikawa Go Fudoki gives an account where a coordinated team of attackers used passwords to communicate. The account also gives a case of deception, where the attackers dressed in the same clothes as the defenders, causing much confusion. When a retreat was needed during the Siege of Osaka, ninja were commanded to fire upon friendly troops from behind, causing the troops to charge backwards in order to attack a perceived enemy. This tactic was used again later on as a method of crowd dispersal.

Most ninjutsu techniques recorded in scrolls and manuals revolve around ways to avoid detection, and methods of escape.These techniques were loosely grouped under corresponding natural elements. Some examples are:

Hitsuke - The practice of distracting guards by starting a fire away from the ninja's planned point of entry. Falls under "fire techniques" (katon-no-jutsu).
Tanuki-gakure - The practice of climbing a tree and camouflaging oneself within the foliage. Falls under "wood techniques" (mokuton-no-jutsu).
Ukigusa-gakure - The practice of throwing duckweed over water in order to conceal underwater movement. Falls under "water techniques" (suiton-no-jutsu).Uzura-gakure - The practice of curling into a ball and remaining motionless in order to appear like a stone. Falls under "earth techniques" (doton-no-jutsu).
A komusō monk is one of many possible disguises.Disguises
The use of disguises is common and well documented. Disguises came in the form of priests, entertainers, fortune tellers, merchants, rōnin, and monks. The Buke Myōmokushō states,

Shinobi-monomi were people used in secret ways, and their duties were to go into the mountains and disguise themselves as firewood gatherers to discover and acquire the news about an enemy's territory . they were particularly expert at travelling in disguise.
mountain ascetic (yamabushi) attire facilitated travel, as they were common and could travel freely between political boundaries. The loose robes of Buddhist priests also allowed concealed weapons, such as the tantō. Minstrel or sarugaku outfits could have allowed the ninja to spy in enemy buildings without rousing suspicion. Disguises as a komusō, a mendicant monk known for playing the shakuhachi, were also effective, as the large "basket" hats traditionally worn by them concealed the head completely.


Equipment
Ninjas utilized a large variety of tools and weaponry, some of which were commonly known, but others were more specialized. Most were tools used in the infiltration of castles. A wide range of specialized equipment is described and illustrated in the 17th century Bansenshukai, including climbing equipment, extending spears, rocket-propelled arrows, and small collapsible boats.

A suit of armor purportedly worn by ninjasWhile the image of a ninja clad in black garbs (shinobi shōzoku) is prevalent in popular media, there is no written evidence for such a costume. Instead, it was much more common for the ninja to be disguised as civilians. The popular notion of black clothing is likely rooted in artistic convention. Early drawings of ninjas were shown to be dressed in black in order to portray a sense of invisibility. This convention was an idea borrowed from the puppet handlers of bunraku theater, who dressed in total black in an effort to simulate props moving independently of their controls. Despite the lack of hard evidence, it has been put forward by some authorities that black robes, perhaps slightly tainted with red to hide bloodstains, was indeed the sensible garment of choice for infiltration.

Clothing used was similar to that of the samurai, but loose garments (such as leggings) were tucked into trousers or secured with belts. The tenugui, a piece of cloth also used in martial arts, had many functions. It could be used to cover the face, form a belt, or assist in climbing.

The historicity of armor specifically made for ninjas cannot be ascertained. While pieces of light armor purportedly worn by ninjas exist and date to the right time, there is no hard evidence of their use in ninja operations. Depictions of famous persons later deemed ninjas often show them in samurai armor. Existing examples of purported ninja armor feature lamellar or ring mail, and were designed to be worn under the regular garb. Shin and arm guards, along with metal-reinforced hoods are also speculated to make up the ninja's armor.

A page from the Ninpiden, showing a tool for breaking locks.Tools used for infiltration and espionage are some of the most abundant artifacts related to the ninja. Ropes and grappling hooks were common, and were tied to the belt. A collapsible ladder is illustrated in the Bansenshukai, featuring spikes at both ends to anchor the ladder. Spiked or hooked climbing gear worn on the hands and feet also doubled as weapons. Other implements include chisels, hammers, drills, picks and so forth.

The kunai was a heavy pointed tool, possibly derived from the Japanese masonry trowel, to which it closely resembles. Although it is often portrayed in popular culture as a weapon, the kunai was primarily used for gouging holes in walls. Knives and small saws (hamagari) were also used to create holes in buildings, where they served as a foothold or a passage of entry. A portable listening device (saoto hikigane) was used to eavesdrop on conversations and detect sounds.
The mizugumo was a set of wooden shoes supposedly allowing the ninja to walk on water. They were meant to work by distributing the wearer's weight over the shoes' wide bottom surface. The word mizugumo is derived from the native name for the Japanese water spider (Argyroneta aquatica japonica). The mizugumo was featured on the show Mythbusters, where it was demonstrated unfit for walking on water. The ukidari, a similar footwear for walking on water, also existed in the form of a round bucket, but was probably quite unstable. Inflatable skins and breathing tubes allowed the ninja stay underwater for longer periods of time.

Despite the large array of tools available to the ninja, the Bansenshukai warns one not to be overburdened with equipment, stating ". a successful ninja is one who uses but one tool for multiple tasks".

Weaponry
Although shorter swords and daggers were used, the katana was probably the ninja's weapon of choice, and was sometimes carried on the back. The katana had several uses beyond normal combat. In dark places, the scabbard could be extended out of the sword, and used as a long probing device. The sword could also be laid against the wall, where the ninja could use the sword guard (tsuba) to gain an higher foothold. While straightswords were used before the invention of the katana, the straight ninjatō has no historical precedent and is likely a modern invention.


A pair of kusarigama, on display in Iwakuni Castle.An array of darts, spikes, knives, and sharp, star-shaped discs were known collectively as shuriken. While not exclusive to the ninja, they were an important part of the arsenal, where they could be thrown in any direction. Bow were used for sharpshooting, and some ninjas bows were intentionally made smaller than the traditional yumi (longbow). The chain and sickle (kusarigama) was also used by the ninja. This weapon consisted of a weight on one end of a chain, and a sickle (kama) on the other. The weight was swung to injure or disable an opponent, and the sickle used to kill at close range.

Explosives introduced from China were known in Japan by the time of the Mongol Invasions (13th century). Later, explosives such as hand-held bombs and grenades were adopted by the ninja. Soft-cased bombs were designed to release smoke or poison gas, along with fragmentation explosives packed with iron or pottery shrapnel.

Along with common weapons, a large assortment of miscellaneous arms were associated with the ninja. Some examples include poison, caltrops,cane swords (shikomizue), land mines, blowguns, poisoned darts, acid-spurting tubes, and firearms. The happō, a small eggshell filled with blinding powder (metsubushi), was also used to facilitate escape.

Legendary abilities
Superhuman or supernatural powers were often associated with the ninja. Some legends include flight, invisibility, shapeshifting, the ability to "split" into multiple bodies, the summoning of animals, and control over the five classical elements. These fabulous notions have stemmed from popular imagination regarding the ninja's mysterious status, as well as romantic ideas found in later Japanese arts of the Edo period. Magical powers were sometimes rooted in the ninja's own efforts to disseminate fanciful information. For example, Nakagawa Shoshujin, the 17th century founder of Nakagawa-ryū, claimed in his own writings (Okufuji Monogatari) that he had the ability to transform into birds and animals.

Perceived control over the elements may be grounded in real tactics, which were categorized by association with forces of nature. For example, the practice of starting fires in order to cover a ninja's trail falls under katon-no-jutsu ("fire techniques").


Actor portraying Nikki Danjō, a villain from the kabuki play Sendai Hagi. Shown with hands in a kuji-in seal, which allows him to transform into a giant rat. Woodblock print on paper. Kunisada, 1857.The ninja's adaption of kites in espionage and warfare is another subject of legends. Accounts exist of ninjas being lifted into the air by kites, where they flew over hostile terrain and descended into, or dropped bombs on enemy territory. Kites were indeed used in Japanese warfare, but mostly for the purpose of sending messages and relaying signals. Turnbull suggests that kites lifting a man into midair might have been technically feasible, but states that the use of kites to form a human "hang glider" falls squarely in the realm of fantasy.

Kuji-kiri
Kuji-kiri is an esoteric practice which, when performed with an array of hand "seals" (kuji-in), was meant to allow the ninja to enact superhuman feats.

The kuji ("nine characters") is a concept originating from Taoism, where it was a string of nine words used in charms and incantations.In China, this tradition mixed with Buddhist beliefs, assigning each of the nine words to a Buddhist deity. The kuji may have arrived in Japan via Buddhism, where it flourished within Shugendō. Here too, each word in the kuji was associated with Buddhist deities, animals from Taoist mythology, and later, Shinto kami. The mudrā, a series of hand symbols representing different Buddhas, was applied to the kuji by Buddhists, possibly through the esoteric Mikkyō teachings. The yamabushi ascetics of Shugendō adopted this practice, using the hand gestures in spiritual, healing, and exorcism rituals. Later, the use of kuji passed onto certain bujutsu (martial arts) and ninjutsu schools, where it was said to have many purposes. The application of kuji to produce a desired effect was called "cutting" (kiri) the kuji. Intended effects range from physical and mental concentration, to more incredible claims about rendering an opponent immobile, or even the casting of magical spells. These legends were captured in popular culture, which interpreted the kuji-kiri as a precursor to magical acts.

Famous people
Many famous people in Japanese history have been associated or identified as ninjas, but their status as ninja are difficult to prove and may be the product of later imagination. Rumors surrounding famous warriors, such as Kusunoki Masashige or Minamoto no Yoshitsune sometimes describe them as ninjas, but there is little evidence for these claims. Some well known examples include:


Kumawakamaru escapes his pursuers by swinging across the moat on a bamboo. Woodblock print on paper. Kuniyoshi, 1842-1843.Mochizuki Chiyome (16th cent.) - The wife of Mochizuke Moritoki. Chiyome created a school for girls, which taught skills required of geisha, as well as espionage skills.
Fujibayashi Nagato (16th cent.) - Considered to be one of three "greatest" Iga jōnin, the other two being Hattori Hanzō and Momochi Sandayū. Fujibayashi's descendents wrote and edited the Bansenshukai.
Fūma Kotarō (d. 1603) - A ninja rumored to have killed Hattori Hanzō, with whom he was supposedly rivals. The fictional weapon Fūma shuriken is named after him.
Hattori Hanzō (1542-1596) - A samurai serving under Tokugawa Ieyasu. His ancestry in Iga province, along with ninjutsu manuals published by his descendants have led some sources to define him as a ninja. This depiction is also common in popular culture.
Ishikawa Goemon (1558-1594) - Goemon reputedly tried to drip poison from a thread into Oda Nobunaga's mouth through a hiding spot in the ceiling, but many fanciful tales exist about Goemon, and this story cannot be confirmed.
Kumawakamaru (13th-14th cent.) - A youth whose exiled father was ordered to death by the monk Homma Saburō. Kumakawa took his revenge by sneaking into Homma's room while he was asleep, and assassinating Homma with his own sword.
Momochi Sandayū (16th cent.) - A leader of the Iga ninja clans, who supposedly perished during Oda Nobunaga's attack on Iga province. There is some belief that he escaped death and lived as a farmer in Kii Province. Momochi is also a branch of the Hattori clan.
Yagyū Muneyoshi (1529-1606) - A renown swordsman of the Shinkage-ryū school. Muneyoshi's grandson, Jubei Muneyoshi, told tales of his grandfather's status as a ninja.
In popular culture

Jiraiya battles a giant snake with the help of his summoned toad. Woodblock print on paper. Kuniyoshi, c. 1843.Main article: Ninja in popular culture
The image of the ninja entered popular culture in the Edo period, when folktales and plays about ninjas were conceived. Stories about the ninja are usually based around historical figures. For instance, many similar tales exist about a daimyo challenging a ninja to prove his worth, usually by stealing his pillow or weapon while he slept. Novels were written about the ninja, such as Jiraiya Gōketsu Monogatari, which was also made into a kabuki play. Fictional figures such as Sarutobi Sasuke would eventually make way into comics and television, where they have come to enjoy a culture hero status outside of their original mediums.

Ninja appear in many forms of Japanese and Western popular media, including books (Kōga Ninpōchō), television (Ninja Warrior), movies (Ninja Assassin), Satire (REAL Ultimate Power: The Official Ninja Book) video games (Tenchu), anime (Naruto), manga (Basilisk) and Western comic books (Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles). Depictions range from realistic to the fantastically exaggerated, both fundamentally and aesthetically, and often portray ninja in non-factual ways for humor or entertainment.


Ships

Leif Ericson Viking Ship The Leif Ericson Viking Ship site is run by a group whose main purpose is to educate the world that Leif Ericson was the first European to set foot upon and explore the North American Continent. The site also has a useful Viking FAQ, and much information about Viking ships. They even build and sail their own longships. Nice.

Stigombord A Danish site (also in English) on the reconstruction of Viking ships, with videos, animations, and 3D models.

Viking Ship Museum Part of a larger site on a Viking ship museum in Denmark. This section is about a reconstructed ship, the Sea Stallion, and its voyages in 2008 and 2007, including logbook details and diaries. The site also contains a clear, accurate history and top-notch geographical details about the Vikings and their expansion.

The Viking Sunstone A small ugly Viking page that gives two sides to the discussion on whether or not Vikings used what is called a Sun-Stone. Supposedly the Vikings used polarization of skylight to direct themselves, since magnetic compasses didn’t yet exist. Offers fair arguments for both sides.

The Oseberg Ship Museum site for the famed Oseberg ship.

Viking Ships and Norse Wooden Boats Learn about Viking ships that have been discovered through archaeology. Site provides links to different ships and what they looked like when they were discovered and what they may have looked like in ancient times. Most of the site is not in English but it is still an interesting site to look at pictures and read the information that is translated. However, site is poorly organized and some of the links are not interconnected to the page being viewed.


Historical Viking Sites:

Of course we need BBC! Part historical articles, part building longships, part games. Talks about the role of women, various raids throughout Britian, etc.

Ancient Warriors: The Vikings

Ancient Warriors: The Vikings is another documentary that can be viewed in full on Youtube. This is much shorter than the Lost Worlds and is primarily a military history of the Vikings.

This page is probably the best of the of a re-enactment group pages! The site has some really useful articles about the daily life of the Norse, the Society of the Viking age, warfare, shipbuilding, language, and literature.

Lost World of the Vikings is a documentary that can be viewed in full on Youtube. The History Channel shows us the Lost World of the Vikings and the advances and technology of the Nordic culture.

This site is okay, but as nice as others. This site contains a very short history of the Vikings, the Netherlands, Rorik, Leif Eriksson, Erik the Red, Vinland, L’Anse aux Meadows, and Dorestad. The most basic mythology is shown. There is a tiny, tiny blurb about female s, but it is the same as anywhere else.

Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland.

This is a search engine for archaeological finds in Scotland. One has to look through the lot of Viking search results, but it gives a good insight into the burial practices of the Vikings in Scotland. Also many of the documents list everyday items that were buried with the Viking settlers and raiders.

The Vikings was an action/adventure film directed by Richard Fleischer in 1958, produced by and starring Kirk Douglas, and based on the novel The Viking by Edison Marshall. The following link is a short excerpt from the movie on Youtube.

The Vikings is a web site that gives a lot of good information on the Vikings as they actually were. It is a good place to start to get some generalized information on them if you are unfamiliar with their culture.

The following web site is a collection of artwork throughout history that has been inspired by the Vikings. It also contains some illustrations from Snorri’s Sagas.

This website has a wealth of information on the “Norse Vikings and all things Scandinavian.” This is another excellent site to introduce one to the Vikings.

This web site, although a tad gimmicky and cheesy, does give the basic definitions of the Viking Runes. It is on the PBS web page, so I figure that it must be somewhat historically accurate.

Vikings: The North Atlantic Saga

The website talks about the Viking exhibit in the Smithsonian museum. It also gives a guided tour of the exhibit, showing pictures and telling about artifacts used by the Vikings, accompanied by pictures and paintings of Norway, Sweden, Iceland and Denmark. There is a “Viking voyage” feature where one can go through the voyages of the Vikings. Seeing how far and where they traveled.

A kind of plain and dull site, but provides some decent information on Viking life. There are descriptions and pictures of their ships, descriptions of how they were built and how they were used. Also talks about Vikings abroad, trading, and even Viking law.

A plain site, but full of good information. The site goes through the different Norse Gods and their roles in mythology. Also discusses the etymology of the word Viking, which I haven’t yet seen in a Viking site. Provides historical records and maps of Viking journeys.

Not a great site, but provides a description of Vikings and some links to some more Viking sites. It does offer some Viking activities like cook a Viking meal, make Viking clothes, or make a Viking ship model.

Vikings During the Medieval Warm Period

This website offers some interesting insight into the effect of the climate on Viking traveling. Like a lot of other sites it shows routes Vikings took when traveling, but presents the idea that such routes and traveling only took place due to the warm climate.

A small ugly Viking page that gives two sides to the discussion on whether or not Vikings used what is called a Sun-Stone. Supposedly the Vikings would use polarization of skylight to direct themselves, since magnetic compasses didn’t yet exist. Offers fair arguments for both sides.

The Fate of Greenland’s Vikings

A rather wordy article from Archaeology Magazine about the fate of Vikings in Greenland. There are interesting pictures to go along with the interesting text. One of the better articles on Vikings that I found.

51 Headless Vikings Found In English Execution Pit

Super cool article from National Geographic about 51 headless Viking bodies found in an execution pit. A picture is included. I wish the article were longer and provided more pictures, but the story is cool nonetheless.

A short page with some information on Thor The God of Thunder. It is short, but concise, and gives a decent understanding of who Thor was and why he was important without wasting anytime.

This site looks similar to what our site is trying to achieve. A collection of links to the Sagas. Links to articles about Vikings. Links to videos about Vikings. This site really provides one with access to a lot of cool things. Worth one’s while.

A BBC site about Vikings for elementary-age children. It addresses the very basics of historical Viking life, covering basic facts about who they were, what everyday life was like, their beliefs, and what happened to them. A good overview that includes a timeline and glossary.

While it has fairly good categories and information, the layout is headache inducing has too many sub-categories on the main page for them to really be useful

Mostly focues on runes from different countries, but also has good information about the social structure of the Vikings, addressing family hierarchy and social order as well as political structures and raiding.

Viking Reenactment Society

As a site intended to be a resource for re-enactors, it provides information about ancient Viking life in specific ways—how big were their tents, how did they dye their clothes—useful for specifics like that.

A site promoting an historical Viking town which has been recreated, it also provides information about everyday Viking life based on their research and excavations. The notes about Viking clothing and even the origins of the word “Viking” are clear and specific.

Focuses on what the Vikings ate as well as providing a context for their food. How they obtained their food, what they ate when, and how it was prepared. Provides links to more information and a glossary—a nice overview.

Basically a list of what food items from the Viking period that archeologists have found and where and was created to aid in organizing historically accurate feasts. Very basic information, but still useful with more links provided for more information.

Not very useful at all. While easy to navigate, it barely provides any information and the information it does provide is very basic. It would be useful to elementary teachers, however, because it provides a couple of quiz templates and activities that would teach research skills as well as information about the Vikings.

The Vikings on Thinkquest

Detailed and easy to navigate. The site discusses the culture, lifestyle, religion, weaponry, and ships of Medieval Vikings in an easy to follow manner that also discusses how these things changed throughout the Viking period.

Vikings in the Netherlands

Useful and easy to navigate. Addresses general Viking history, settlements, mythology, the role of women, and some recent discoveries of Viking jewelry. It provides a good overview of history and the historical context of the Vikings.

This web page is a cooperative of Alaska, The Pacific Northwest and Western Canada. The goal is to help students and teachers to communicate about Vikings and share their knowledge.

Old Norse Name Formations

Just as the title says this is an attempt to give a comprehensive list of prefixes and suffixes for names. It also attempts to explain the reasoning behind the names as well as the way names were constructed.

Learning Old Norse: Some suggestions

This sight is a simple listing of resources with brief annotations. Only listing a few print materials as well as a small number of web based resources available for self-directed research.

This is the story of how Odin got his horse. A story told by a drunk man. A hilarious retelling of the story told almost as if told by a real Viking over a fire to his children. It has a number of amusing, if poorly drawn, pictures interspaced within the narrative. Warning: Foul Language.

Encyclopedia Mythica is an astounding resource for mythic information. It has entire sections built specifically for various different cultures. This includes the Norse cosmology as well as basic mythos. There is a full alphabetic listing of almost every Norse mythological figure included.

This is a interesting Wiki article from the New World Encyclopedia. Like most other wiki style articles it contains an abundance of information. This specific article is wholly about Midgard and its link to the other realms.

This is an interesting sight with a massive list of Viking mythology, all alphabetically listed in an easy to use sidebar. This sight also has a small number of different Sagas and legends available as resources. Beyond the basic this sight has a listing of the Viking Runes as well as what they supposedly mean.

A short and simple webpage attempting to cover what most others haven’t covered. How well it accomplishes this is up to you to decide. It does cover basics of Viking literature as well as some basics on Runes and where they fit in.

Vikings invade pop culture with style!

While at first you may think that this article is about how Vikings have infiltrated the modern world it is more about where in the modern world you can find things about Vikings.

Swedish Viking History and Mythology

This site by a university in Sweden gives a fairly basic summary of Viking history and mythology, particularly related to Sweden. The section on mythology is essentially a summary of Snorri Sturluson’s Prose Edda. The site is simple, easy to read and navigate, but also contains frequent spelling errors.

A paper written about the construction of Viking shoes. Several good pictures of authentic shoes are shown, as well as patterns and instructions so that you can make your very own pair!

A site with depictions of a carved door in Norway that depicts the story of Sigurd slaying the dragon Fafnir. The site is basic, but gives a good short outline of the story with the accompanying carvings from the door.

This is a site of links to other websites that provide information on countries that speak Germanic languages. While the list is not annotated, many of the links are good places to start when looking for information on a certain country’s Viking history.

This is a nice website that gives an introduction to the historical Vikings. It contains information on their history and culture, the gods, the sagas and portrayals of Vikings in later ages. While fairly basic, the site gives a solid jumping-off point for studying Norse culture.

The official website for the country of Denmark contains this section about the history of Denmark during the Viking age. It gives a good depiction about what life in Denmark during the Viking age would have looked like.

A massive index of links to Norse texts, scholarly articles and websites on Norse history. While much of the information is useful and quite detailed, it takes a lot of time and determined effort to find the information you are looking for.

The website of the American-Scandinavian Foundation. This site focuses on the historical accuracy of the stories of Viking travels to America. It provides some good background for what are the current misconceptions about Vikings in America.

Two hours of NOVA programming on Vikings that aired in 2000. The site includes video clips on Viking ships, villages, runes, the Viking diaspora, and an analysis of who the Vikings were.

Essay on Historical Vikings

This essay is a researched look at the historical Vikings. The author quotes several primary sources to back up her points and also includes some maps of the Viking territory. It’s easy to follow and quite


Kyk die video: Vinland Saga: FarmSlave Arc Timeline. Season 2 (Desember 2021).