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Die stappiramide van Djoser in Saqqara

Die stappiramide van Djoser in Saqqara

Die piramides is die bekendste monumente van antieke Egipte en fassineer steeds mense in die huidige tyd. Hierdie enorme huldeblyke tot die nagedagtenis aan die Egiptiese konings het sinoniem geword met die land, alhoewel ander kulture (soos die Chinese en Maya's) ook piramides gebou het. Die evolusie van die piramidevorm is al eeue lank geskryf en bespreek, maar daar is geen twyfel dat dit, wat Egipte betref, begin het met 'n monument vir een koning wat deur een briljante argitek ontwerp is nie: die Step Pyramid of Djoser in Saqqara.

Djoser (omstreeks 2670 vC) was die eerste koning van die Derde Dinastie van Egipte en die eerste wat in klip gebou het. Voor Djoser se heerskappy was mastaba -grafte die gebruiklike vorm vir grafte: reghoekige monumente gemaak van gedroogde kleistene wat ondergrondse gange bedek het waar die oorledene begrawe is. Om redes wat nog onduidelik is, het Djoser se vizier, Imhotep (omstreeks 2667 v.C.), bedoel om 'n meer indrukwekkende graf vir sy koning te bou deur mastabas op mekaar te stapel en dit geleidelik kleiner te maak om die vorm te vorm wat nou bekend staan ​​as die stap Piramide.

Volgens Djoser se idee het Imhotep 'n graf vir sy koning gebou deur mastabas bo -op mekaar te stapel om die vorm te vorm wat nou bekend staan ​​as die stap -piramide.

Min is bekend oor die regering van Djoser. Hy word vermoedelik die seun van die laaste koning van die Tweede Dinastie van Egipte, Khasekhemwy (ongeveer 2680 v.G.J.). Sy ma was die koningin Nimaathap en sy vrou, die koningin Hetephernepti, wat waarskynlik sy halfsuster was. Djoser was 'n ambisieuse bouer van monumente en tempels. Daar word vermoed dat hy twintig jaar lank regeer het, maar historici en geleerdes skryf gewoonlik 'n baie langer tyd toe as gevolg van die aantal en grootte van die monumente wat hy gebou het.

Djoser is tydens sy bewind hoog gerespekteer en nog eeue daarna is dit hoog aangeslaan, soos blyk uit die hongersnood Stele uit die Ptolemaïese dinastie (332-30 vC), wat die verhaal vertel van Djoser wat die land van hongersnood gered het deur die heropbou van die tempel van Khnum, die god van die bron van die Nylrivier, wat vermoedelik sy genade terughou omdat sy heiligdom in verval was; sodra Djoser dit herstel het, is die hongersnood opgehef. Nie een van Djoser se prestasies of bouprojekte is egter so indrukwekkend soos sy ewige tuiste in Saqqara nie.

Konstruksie

Die stap -piramide is die afgelope eeu deeglik ondersoek en ondersoek en dit is nou bekend dat die bouproses deur baie verskillende fases gegaan het en dat daar 'n paar valse begin was. Dit lyk asof Imhotep eers 'n eenvoudige mastaba -graf begin bou het. Die hoogste mastaba was 6 meter, maar Imhotep besluit om hoër te gaan. Ondersoeke het getoon dat die piramide begin het as 'n vierkantige mastaba, in plaas van die gewone reghoekige vorm, en dan na reghoekig verander is. Waarom Imhotep besluit het om die tradisionele reghoekige mastaba-vorm te verander, is onbekend, maar dit is waarskynlik dat Imhotep van die begin af 'n vierkantige piramide in gedagte gehad het.

Die vroeë mastaba is in twee fases gebou en volgens Egiptoloog Miroslav Verner,

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... is 'n eenvoudige maar effektiewe kostebestuur metode gebruik. Die messelwerk is nie vertikaal gelê nie, maar in kursusse wat na die middel van die piramide neig, en sodoende die strukturele stabiliteit aansienlik verhoog. Die basiese materiaal wat gebruik is, was kalkblokke, waarvan die vorm soos die van groot stene klei lyk (115-116).

Die vroeë mastabas was versier met inskripsies en gravures van riete en Imhotep wou hierdie tradisie voortsit. Sy groot, hoë mastaba -piramide sou dieselfde delikate aanrakinge en resonante simboliek hê as die meer beskeie grafte wat dit voorafgegaan het, en nog beter, dit sou almal in klip verwerk word in plaas van gedroogde modder. Historikus Mark Van de Mieroop lewer hierop kommentaar en skryf:

Imhotep het dit wat voorheen uit ander materiale gebou is, in klip weergegee. Die gevel van die omhulselmuur het dieselfde nisse as die grafte van modderstene, die kolomme lyk soos bondels riet en papirus, en klipsilinders by die boomstamme van deuropeninge verteenwoordig opgerolde rietskerms. Baie eksperimentering was betrokke, wat veral duidelik is in die konstruksie van die piramide in die middel van die kompleks. Dit het verskeie planne met mastaba-vorms gehad voordat dit die eerste stap-piramide in die geskiedenis geword het, en ses mastaba-agtige vlakke bo-op mekaar gestapel ... Die gewig van die enorme massa was 'n uitdaging vir die bouers, wat die klippe op 'n inwaartse helling om te voorkom dat die monument opbreek (56).

Toe die stappiramide voltooi is, het die stappiramide 62 meter hoog gestyg en was dit die hoogste struktuur van sy tyd. Die omliggende kompleks bevat 'n tempel, binnehowe, heiligdomme en woonkamers vir die priesters wat 'n oppervlakte van 16 hektaar beslaan en omring deur 'n muur van 10,5 meter hoog. Die muur het 13 valse deure daarin gesny, met slegs een ware ingang in die suidoostelike hoek; die hele muur is toe omring deur 'n sloot wat 750 meter lank en 40 meter breed was. Die valse deure en die sloot is in die kompleks opgeneem om ongewenste gaste te ontmoedig. As 'n mens die binnehof en tempels wil besoek, sou 'n mens moes weet hoe om in te gaan.

Die Piramide -kompleks

Die piramide en die omliggende kompleks is ontwerp om asemrowend te wees en ontsag te wek. Djoser was so trots op sy prestasie dat hy die presedent verbreek het om slegs sy eie naam op 'n monument te hê en ook die naam van Imhotep te laat sny. Die kompleks bestaan ​​uit die Step -piramide, die huis van die noorde, die huis van die suide, die Serdab, die Heb Sed -hof, die suidelike graf, tempel T en die noordelike lykshuis. Al hierdie, met die omliggende muur, vorm 'n kompleks van die grootte van 'n stad in antieke Egipte. Die kompleks van Djoser was eintlik destyds groter as die stad Hierkanpolis.

Die doel van die Huis van die Noorde en die Huis van die Suide is onbekend, maar daar word bespiegel dat hulle Bo- en Neder -Egipte verteenwoordig. Die Serdab ('kelder') is 'n kalksteen boks naby die noordelike ingang van die piramide waar 'n lewensgrootte standbeeld van Djoser gevind is. Hierdie standbeeld sou van groot belang gewees het vir die siel van die koning in die hiernamaals.

Daar word vermoed dat die siel uit nege aspekte bestaan, en een daarvan, die BA (die voëlvormige beeld wat dikwels op grafgrawings voorkom), kon na willekeur van die aarde na die hemel vlieg. Dit het egter 'n herkenbare landmerk op aarde vereis, en dit sou die piramide gewees het met die voorkoms van die koning voor dit. Sodra die BA, hoog bo, die huis van sy eienaar gesien, kan dit neerslaan, binnegaan en weer die aardse vliegtuig besoek. Die belangrikheid van name en beelde van farao's kom hier ter sprake omdat die siel sy vorige huis (fisiese liggaam) op aarde moes herken om in die hiernamaals te kon rus. Die standbeeld van Djoser wat by die kompleks opgerig is, is die oudste bekende lewensgrootte Egiptiese beeldhouwerk wat bestaan ​​het en om besoekers aan die erfenis van die groot koning te herinner.

Die Heb Sed -hof het verband gehou met die Heb Sed -fees waarin die koning sy reg om te regeer bekragtig het. Die fees is gehou in die 30ste jaar van die koning se heerskappy en daarna elke drie jaar om sy heerskappy te laat herleef deur sy kroning weer in te stel. Hierdie binnehof, wat die Huis van die Noorde en die Huis van die Suide bevat, het ook dertien klein kapelle. Die Suidgraf het drie gesnyde panele wat Djoser uitbeeld wat die Heb Sed -ritueel uitvoer. Hierdie graf het 'n mastaba -vorm en word vermoedelik gebou om 'n ander standbeeld van die koning te huisves. Tempel T is een van die mees fassinerende en geheimsinnige strukture in die kompleks. Die buitegevel van die gebou is glad en toon geen pogings tot versiering nie, maar die binnekant is pragtig gebou met Djed -pilare (wat stabiliteit verteenwoordig). Daar is ook ingewikkelde kerfwerk binne, insluitend een van 'n half oopgemaakte deur wat 'n werklike deuropening lyk. Die betekenis van hierdie deursnywerk is nie duidelik nie, maar het moontlik 'n simboliese gang na die hiernamaals verteenwoordig. Die Northern Mortuary Temple, aan die noordekant van die piramide in die omgewing, is gebruik om toegang te verkry tot die ondergrondse gange van die piramide wat na die grafkamer gelei het.

Die stap -piramide

Die werklike kamers van die graf, waar die lyk van die koning gelê is, is onder die basis van die piramide gegrawe as 'n doolhof van tonnels met kamers uit die gange om rowers te ontmoedig en die liggaam en grafgoed van die koning te beskerm. Djoser se grafkamer is uit graniet gesny, en om dit te bereik, moes 'n mens deur die gange vaar, wat gevul was met duisende klipvate waarop die name van vroeëre konings ingeskryf was. Die ander kamers in die ondergrondse kompleks was vir seremoniële doeleindes. Die historikus Margaret Bunson skryf:

Die ondergrondse gange en kamers is versier met fyn reliëfe en met blou faïense teëls wat lyk soos die matte gordyne van die koninklike woning in Memphis. Die groot skag van die struktuur, wat na die grafkamer lei, was 92 voet lank. Die kamer aan die onderkant was 13 voet hoog, omhul in graniet. 'N Granietprop verseël die gang na die werklike graf. Mazes is ook in die ontwerp opgeneem om moontlike rowers te stuit (253).

Die ondergrondse gange is groot en een van die mees geheimsinnige ontdekkings binne is die klipvate. Meer as 40 000 van hierdie vate, van verskillende vorm en vorm, is gevind in twee van die dalende skagte van die piramide (die 6de en 7de as). Hierdie vaartuie is ingeskryf met die name van heersers uit die Eerste en Tweede Dinastie van Egipte en is gemaak van allerhande klippe soos dioriet, kalksteen, albaster, sliksteen en leisteen. Die name van die konings Narmer, Djer, Den, Adjib, Semerkhet, Ka, Heterpsekhemwy, Ninetjer, Sekhemib en Khasekhemwy verskyn almal op hierdie vaartuie, sowel as nie-koninklike name van mindere personasies.

Daar is geen ooreenkoms tussen geleerdes en argeoloë oor waarom die vaartuie in die graf van Djoser geplaas is of wat hulle veronderstel was om voor te stel nie. Die argeoloog Lauer, wat die grootste deel van die piramide en kompleks opgegrawe het, meen dat dit oorspronklik deur Khasekhemwy gestoor is aan die einde van die Tweede Dinastie en dat Djoser in sy piramide 'behoorlike begrawe' is om sy voorgangers te eer. Daar is egter ander historici wat beweer dat die vaartuie in die skagte gestort is, nog 'n poging om te verhoed dat grafrowers by die koning se grafkamer kom.

Ongelukkig het al die voorsorgmaatreëls en ingewikkelde ontwerp van die ondergrondse kompleks nie verhinder dat ou rowers 'n weg kon vind nie. Djoser se grafgoed, en selfs sy mummie, is op 'n stadium in die verlede gesteel en alle argeoloë wat van die koning gevind is, was dele van sy gemummifiseerde voet en 'n paar waardevolle items wat deur die diewe oor die hoof gesien word. Daar was egter genoeg om deur die piramide en die kompleks daarvan te kyk om die argeoloë wat dit opgegrawe het, te verstom.

Ontdekking

Soos met baie van die monumente van Egipte, het besoekers en diewe die piramide-kompleks eeue lank verken nadat dit verlaat is, maar geen sistematiese verkenning is uitgevoer tot in Napoleon se Egiptiese veldtog 1798-1801 nC nie. Napoleon het 'n span geleerdes en wetenskaplikes saam met sy leër saamgebring wat die monumente van die antieke Egiptiese kultuur ondersoek, ondersoek, opgeteken en bestudeer het en wat onder andere die Rosetta -steen in 1799 CE ontdek het, die tweetalige inskripsie -stele wat die Franse geleerde in staat gestel het. Jean-Francois Champollion (1790-1832 CE) om die Egiptiese hiërogliewe te ontsyfer en die geskiedenis van antieke Egipte vir die wêreld oop te maak. Napoleon se ekspedisie was die eerste sistematiese studie van die beskawing en het later gelei tot die eerste westelike museum wat 'n permanente Egiptiese vleuel by die Louvre in Parys geïnstalleer het.

Na aanleiding van die kunstenaars en wetenskaplikes van Napoleon, het die Duitse, Engelse en Pruisiese argeoloë en navorsers die Step Pyramid gedurende die 19de eeu besoek, maar geen kritiese, wetenskaplike ondersoek is begin tot in die 1920's toe die Engelse argeoloog Cecil Mallaby Firth (1878-1931 CE) opgedaag het nie by die webwerf. Dit was Firth wat in 1924 nC die standbeeld van Serdab en Djoser se ontdek het. In 1926 het die Franse argitek en egiptoloog Jean-Philippe Lauer (1902-2001 n.C.) Firth op die perseel by Firth gekom, wat die belangrikste ontdekkings by die kompleks sou maak en die grootste bydrae sou lewer tot die hedendaagse begrip van piramide-konstruksie en die stap. Piramide spesifiek.

Lauer het die Step Pyramid en sy kompleks vir die volgende vyftig jaar herstel, opgegrawe en ondersoek. Hy het die skagte en begraafkamers ontbloot, die blou faience -kamers gevind en herstel, en hom daaraan toegewy om die ou terrein weer lewend te maak. Baie van wat 'n mens vandag by die besoek aan die webwerf sien, is te danke aan Lauer se persoonlike pogings of diegene wat hy begelei en geïnspireer het, soos die Egiptoloog Zakaria Goneim. Lauer het die groot ontwerp van Imhotep bewaar en die ingewikkeldhede van die kompleks wat deur Firth en diegene wat saam met hom gewerk het, aan die lig gebring het. Ongelukkig loop die piramide en sy groot kompleks vandag in duie weens 'n aardbewing wat die streek in 1992 n.C. geteister het en onvoldoende en onbevoegde pogings aangewend om dit te bewaar en te herstel.

Gevaar vir ineenstorting en bewaring

In 'n artikel van Beverley Mitchell in September 2014 vir die aanlyn tydskrif Inhabitat word opgemerk hoe die Egiptiese Raad vir Oudhede 'n onderneming aangestel het wat nog nooit op antieke werwe gewerk het nie en die piramide in 'n kritieke toestand was. Reuse lugsakke is onder die piramide opgeblaas terwyl bouwerk gedoen is, maar tot dusver loop die kamers onder die monument steeds in duie en die kompleks rondom die monument is onstabiel. Mitchell skryf: "Dit is 'n tragedie dat so 'n belangrike argeologiese nalatenskap vernietig kan word deur onbevoegdheid en gebrek aan voldoende finansiering", wat heeltemal waar is en vir almal vanselfsprekend moet wees; maar niks is beduidend gedoen om die piramide of die kompleks in die afgelope twee jaar te bewaar nie.

Miroslav Verner skryf: 'Min monumente beklee 'n plek in die mensegeskiedenis wat net so belangrik is as die van die Stap -piramide in Saqqara ... Daar kan sonder oordrywing gesê word dat sy piramide -kompleks 'n mylpaal vorm in die ontwikkeling van monumentale klipargitektuur in Egipte en in die hele wêreld (108-109). " Die Stap -piramide was 'n revolusionêre vooruitgang in argitektuur, maar net so belangrik, dit het die argetipe geword wat al die ander groot piramide -bouers van Egipte sou volg. Die ontwerp van die Stap -Piramide het die bouers van die beroemde piramides en hul komplekse in die Vierde Dinastie beïnvloed, insluitend die Groot Piramide van Giza, die laaste van die Sewe Wonders van die Antieke Wêreld. Hopelik sal die bewaringspogings by Djoser se stappiramide betyds verbeter om hierdie unieke webwerf te red sodat besoekers dit in die toekoms kan waardeer en bewonder, soos dit die afgelope 4000 jaar gedoen het.


Stap Piramide van Djoser: feite, ligging, geskiedenis, foto

Saqqara Step Pyramid oorheers die horison van die gebied, dit word beskou as die wêreld se oudste monumentale metselwerk. Die unieke piramide van Djoser in Saqqara is deel van 'n lykshuis vir die koning van die derde dinastie, Djoser. Hy was die eerste onder die farao's om 'n kalksteenpiramide te bou met 'n begraafplaas van kalksteen omring deur 'n omheining van fyn kalksteen. Dit is geskep deur die argitek Imhotep en is 'n unieke piramide met 6 vlakke. Die piramide styg in ses ongelyke fases tot 'n hoogte van 60 meter (ongeveer) en is die eerste en oudste antieke Egiptiese piramide, hoewel nie 'n 'ware' een met gladde sye nie.

Voordat die piramide sy finale vorm van die Step -piramide gekry het, is baie veranderings daarop aangebring. Eers was dit in die vorm van 'n vierkantige mastaba wat na die "vier kardinale punte" kyk. Dit is gebou uit 'n plaaslike Saqqara -kalksteen, die lengte was 63 vierkante meter en die hoogte was slegs 8 meter. Later is nog 3 meter kalksteen by al vier die kante van die konstruksie gevoeg, wat dit 'n vierkante mastaba van 71,5 vierkante meter maak. Toe is aan die oostekant van die konstruksie 8,40 meter gevoeg, wat die piramide reghoekig maak en 79,90 vierkante meter van oos na wes en 71,50 vierkante meter van suid na noord. Die oostelike byvoeging is gemaak om 'n vertikale as van 33 m diep te grawe om die koninklike lede van die gesin in sy eie graf te begrawe.

'N Koninklike graf het verander in 'n trap -piramide toe nog 3 trappe bo die oorspronklike mastaba bygevoeg is. Die piramide word dus 85,9 meter van oos na wes en 77,50 meter van suid na noord en 43 meter hoog. 'N Omhulsel van 3 meter dik is ook aan vier kante aangebring. Toe 'n omhulsellaag later in die suide en noord van die piramide gevoeg word, het dit 'n reghoekige 6 -trappiramide geword met 121 m van oos na wes, 109 m van suid na noord en 59,64 m hoog. En vir die laaste keer was die piramide omring met fyn kalksteen van Tura.

Daar is 'n begraafkamer aan die onderkant van 'n groot skag van ongeveer 28 meter diep en sewe meter vierkant, dit lê amper presies onder die middel van die piramide. Dit word omring deur 'n reeks kamers en 'n gang om die meubels en die artefakte van die oorledene te huisves.

Die blou faience-teëls van KING Djoser se simboliese paleis is diep onder die piramide gevind. Diep onder die piramide van koning Djoser is 'n reeks kamers en gange wat die koninklike paleis verteenwoordig. Die kalkmure hier is versier met delikate teëls van blou en blougroen faience, ingelê in klippanele om matte van gebonde riete na te boots. Net so versierde kamers is onder die suidelike graf gevind. Verskeie van die oorspronklike faience -teëls, wat aan moderne blokke geheg is, word hier weer geïnstalleer. In die middel is 'n diep nis, met 'n reliëf aan die agterkant wat fyn gesny is met 'n beeld van die koning wat 'n heiligdom by Edfu besoek. Nou word 'n deel van hierdie kamer uitgestal in die Imhotep Museum in Saqqara.


Binne-in die Piramide van Djoser-die wêreld se oudste, nog staande klipgebou-wat heropen is na 14 jaar van herstel

Die eerste klippiramide wat ooit gebou is, is gerestoureer en is nou oop vir die publiek.

Die Pyramid of Djoser, ook bekend as die Step Pyramid, 'n werelderfenisgebied van UNESCO, is op 5 Maart heropen nadat 'n herstel 14 jaar en byna $ 6,6 miljoen geduur het.

'N Argitek met die naam Imhotep het die piramide meer as 4600 jaar gelede ontwerp om die kis van Pharoah Djoser te huisves. Hy het vir die eerste keer besluit om op te bou. Hy het 'n nuwe struktuur bedink wat bestaan ​​uit ses lae klip wat kleiner word namate hulle opklim. Die eindproduk was bedoel om 'n trap na die hemel te wees.

Dit was die eerste gebou wat ooit uit klip gemaak is en het na Egipte gelei om meer bekende piramides te bou, soos die Groot Piramide van Giza.

Deur die eeue het sy toestand versleg weens die gevolge van tyd, verwaarlosing, hewige winde en ernstige skade wat tydens 'n aardbewing in 1992 opgedoen is.

En hoewel dit moeilik is om 'n verkrummelde piramide vas te stel, is dit byna twee jaar lank vertraag deur Egiptiese onrus. Die herstel is ook onder die loep geneem deur Egiptiese NGO's wat beweer dat die werk die piramide eintlik vererger.


Die getrapte struktuur, bekend as die Step Pyramid in Saqqara, is die direkte afstammeling van die groot piramides van Giza in Giza

Ons gids Ahmed, wat vir ons gekies is deur die Kempinski Nile Hotel in Kaïro, het ons met 'n mondelinge handjie bygedra om ons aandag af te lei na ons stormwind -toer deur die Giza -nekropolis, en het ons begin vertel van die geskiedenis van Saqqara. Hy het net 'n rukkie gestop om ons aan te moedig om onderweg by 'n aandenkingswinkel te stop, hierdie papyrus of parfuum, waar hy beslis kommissie sou kry as ons iets koop. Ahmed was blykbaar 'n kundige gids, maar sy gebrek aan entoesiasme was duidelik duidelik.

Na ons oggend deurbring deur die Piramides en Sfinx, Het ek genoem dat ons vir middagete by die Marriott Mena House moes stop, nadat ek meegedeel is dat daar 'n skouspelagtige uitsig oor die piramides is terwyl u in die buitelug geëet het. Ahmed het geantwoord dat hy onlangs daar geëet het en het dit as oorskat en belaglik duur beskou, en gelieg oor die prys van die etes. Dit het duidelik geword dat hy ons nie daarheen sou toelaat nie, al was dit deel van ons beplande reisplan.

Dit was omtrent hierdie tyd dat ek my tot Wally wend en mompel: 'Ons moes verby die Solar Boat Museum gegaan het toe ons Giza verlaat het.' Ons was albei ontsteld daaroor, en het nooit gedink dat ons 'n gids sou hê wat nie eers sou vra of ons die verskillende plekke by 'n besienswaardigheid wil sien nie. Die kans is goed dat dit ons enigste tyd in Egipte is en ons wou soveel as moontlik sien - veral omdat ons tot 16:00 vir ons gids en motordiens betaal het.

Maar was in 'n vreemdeling se motor in 'n vreemde land en teen hierdie tyd te ver om terug te gaan.

Farao Djoser het die Step Pyramid vir sy graf in 2630 vC in gebruik geneem

Stap daarop

Die Saqqara-nekropolis, wat gereeld gepaard gaan met die meer bekende Giza-plato, is waar die wêreld se oudste grootskaalse klipmonument, die Step Pyramid of Djoser, gebou is. Toegang kos 150 Egiptiese pond per persoon ('n bietjie meer as $ 9 ten tyde van hierdie skrywe).

Voor die bou daarvan is die ou Egiptiese konings begrawe onder groot langwerpige moddersteenstrukture met 'n plat dak en skuins sye wat as mastabas bekend staan. Volgens die Abydos King ListDjoser was die eerste koning van die Derde Dinastie, wat aan 'n tempelmuur gekerf is, en dit was sy 19-jarige bewind wat die grandiose plan vir sy piramide-kompleks gedurende sy leeftyd moontlik gemaak het.

Die stap -piramide is in fases gebou tussen 2630 en 2611 vC. Die graf het begin as 'n tradisionele mastaba, maar in plaas van moddersteen is dit gebou uit klip wat geneem is uit die nabygeleë begraafplaas Gisr el-Mudir. Dit is geleidelik vergroot, met kleiner mastabas wat in konsentriese vlakke op mekaar gestapel is om die finale hoogte van 200 voet hoog te vorm - trappe wat die dooie koning kon gebruik om na die hemel te klim.

Wat werklik verbasend is, is dat dit net die begin is. Wat nie gesien kan word nie, is die drie myl gange en kamers wat onder die piramide uitgekerf is!

Steierwerk het dele van die Step Pyramid bedek toe ons dit besoek het

Toe ons die atmosferiese Step Pyramid van Djoser besoek, was dit gedeeltelik bedek met steierwerk. Ahmed het ons vertel dat dit gesluit is weens voortgesette bewaringswerk en strukturele probleme ná 'n aardbewing in 1992.

Imhotep was baie dinge, waaronder die argitek van die Step Pyramid in Saqqara - maar 'n herleefde bose mummie was hy nie

Imhotep: Die man, die mite, die legende

'N Man met die naam Imhotep was verantwoordelik vir die ontwerp van die Stap -piramide van Saqqara. Hy word beskou as die eerste opgetekende argitek in die geskiedenis, en word later uitgebeeld as 'n bose hoëpriester wat lewend begrawe is Die Mammie film franchise. Maar hy was eintlik net 'n sterflike man wie se naam vertaal is as "Die een wat in vrede kom."

Imhotep, 'n bekwame persoon wat tot die top van die Egiptiese samelewing gestyg het, dien as skriba, argitek en vizier in die hof van Farao Djoser. Hy was ook 'n hoëpriester van die skeppergod Ptah, dokter en wetenskaplike. Hierdie talent sou uiteindelik lei tot sy postume vergoddeliking as die beskermgod van medisyne deur die Egiptenare en later deur die Grieke as Asclepius.

Duke het daarop aangedring dat ons ook 'n histories akkurate beeld van Imhotep insluit

Koning Djoser was so tevrede met die werk van Imhotep dat hy toegelaat het dat die naam van die argitek saam met sy eie op die piramide aangebring is.

Die graf van Imhotep is waarskynlik in Saqqara geleë, maar dit moet nog gevind word.

Prettige feit: In 1964 ontdek argeoloog Walter Bryan Emery 'n netwerk van katakombes wat die oorblyfsels bevat van duisende gemummifiseerde ibise, langbeen, langnekvoëls met afwaarts geboë snawels, wat deur pelgrims na die nekropolis gebring is as offers aan die vergoddelike Imhotep . (Dit was nie die enigste gemummifiseerde dierereste wat by Saqqara gevind is nie. Lees hier meer oor dieremummies.)

Sommige van die geboue van die antieke Egipte het ons as verrassend modern beskou, insluitend die ingangsportaal van Djoser se begrafniskompleks

Ingangsgang Kolonnade

Soos Hatshepsut se lykshuis, die skoon meetkundige buitekant van Djoser se ingangsportaal het my nogal modern gevind. Daar is net een pad na die kompleks, in die middel van die grootste bastion van die muur. Die smal saal bestaan ​​uit 20 pare kolomme, wat elk met messelwerk aan die symuur gekoppel is, in teenstelling met vrystaande, en is gekerf om bondels riete te lyk. Die kolonnade was waarskynlik eens met 'n dak van hout, maar nou swaai betonblaaie hoog bo hierdie unieke, maar vervalle pilare.

Die kolomme by Djoser se kompleks is nie in die beste vorm nie

Heb Sed Hof

Nadat ek deur die ingangsportaal se kolonnade gegaan het, dwaal ek en Wally oor 'n lae muur en in 'n versonke binnehof met 'n verhoogde klipplatform. Ek het later verneem dat dit bekend staan ​​as die Heb Sed -hof.

Buiten 'n paar verhoogde heiligdomme of kapelle is replika's in klip van strukture wat gebruik sou word vir Heb Sed, die koning se jubileumfees wat die 30ste jaar van die farao se bewind aandui. (Soos ons weet, het Djoser dit nooit reggekry nie.) Die een kapel blyk 'n tentvormige struktuur met 'n dak te wees, terwyl die ander 'n geboë dak en 'n valse deur het, 'n simboliese gang vir die koning se ka, of gees, om in te gebruik die hiernamaals.

Terwyl ons ons besoek geniet het, wat ook 'n ekspedisie na die Piramide van Unas en die Mastaba van Mereruka insluit, het Ahmed nooit sy eie agenda oortref nie en het hy ons beslis nie aangemoedig om te verken nie. Baie van die inligting in ons plasings rakende Giza en Saqqara is aangevul met ons eie navorsing en nuuskierigheid oor die webwerwe. -Hertog


Verwante verhale

Nadat hy koning geword het, het hy begin met die bou van sy bouprojekte. Volgens historikus Margaret Bunson het Djoser tydens 'n eeu gelei tot die vooruitgang in die beskawing op die Nyl, soos die bou van argitektoniese monumente, landbou -ontwikkelings, handel en die opkoms van die stede. ”

Alhoewel stede voor Djoser gegroei het, het sy bewind nog meer stede en argitektoniese meesterstukke tot stand gebring wat nog nooit in Egipte gesien is nie. Sy stap -piramide in Saqqara, gebou deur geskoolde Egiptiese arbeiders en vakmanne, is een van hierdie projekte.

Stap piramide. Foto: Wikimedia Commons

Volgens die rekords is Egiptiese konings begrawe in mastabas, wat reghoekige grafte was wat bo die ondergrondse kamers gestyg het, wat hoogstens 6 meter hoog was, voordat Djoser die troon aangeneem het. Djoser's Step Pyramid is egter ''n reeks mastabas wat op mekaar gestapel is, elke vlak 'n bietjie kleiner as die onderkant, om die vorm van 'n piramide te vorm', volgens Antieke geskiedenis ensiklopedie.

Die Step Pyramid, wat sedertdien groot opknappings ondergaan het en vanjaar weer vir die publiek oopgemaak is, was 62 meter hoog toe dit voltooi is. Geleë buite die koninklike hoofstad Memphis, 'n UNESCO -wêrelderfenisgebied suid van die moderne Kaïro, bevat die omliggende kompleks van die piramide heiligdomme vir koninklike rituele, 'n tempel, binnehowe en woonplekke vir priesters.

Die piramide het groot opknappings ondergaan. Foto krediet: Khaled Elfiqui/EPA-EFE/Shutterstock

Die historikus Mar Van de Mieroop skryf: 'Imhotep het dit wat voorheen uit ander materiale gebou is, in klip weergegee. Die gevel van die omhulselmuur het dieselfde nisse as die grafte van modderstene, die kolomme lyk soos bondels riet en papirus, en klipsilinders by die boomstamme van deure wat opgerolde rietskerms verteenwoordig. Baie eksperimentering was betrokke, wat veral duidelik is in die konstruksie van die piramide in die middel van die kompleks. Dit het verskeie planne met mastaba-vorms gehad voordat dit die eerste stap-piramide in die geskiedenis geword het, en ses mastaba-agtige vlakke bo-op mekaar gestapel. om te voorkom dat die monument breek. ”

Maar voor die stap -piramide, was Djoser reeds geprys omdat hy lewens gered het toe 'n hongersnood in Egipte ontstaan ​​het. Daar was sewe jaar lank geen oplossing vir die probleem totdat Djoser 'n droom gehad het waarin die god Khnum van die bron van die Nyl by hom gekla het dat sy tempel op die eiland Elephantine in 'n swak toestand was nie.

Onder leiding van sy hoofminister en vizier Imhotep het Djoser 'n nuwe tempel gebou en sodra dit klaar was, het die hongersnood geëindig. Djoser, as deel van maatreëls om die stabiliteit van sy land te verseker, sou die mag van Egipte tot by die suide na Aswan uitbrei, en noordwaarts na Sinai grotendeels deur militêre ekspedisies.

Sy militêre oorwinnings was een van sy grootste prestasies deur die Libiërs in die geveg te verslaan en 'n deel van hul lande te annekseer. Baie hiervan is grootliks vergete, maar nie sy laaste rusplek nie - die Step Pyramid –, wat nie net 'n monument vir sy lewe en heerskappy is nie, maar ook onder 'n vlaag ongelooflike argitektoniese wonders van Egipte wat steeds toeriste lok.


Stap piramide by Saqqara

rekonstruksie van vier mastaba -grafte.

Die vroegste grafte was putte wat in die grond gesteek en met klippe bedek was - maar gou ontwikkel dit in meer uitgebreide strukture van moddersteen en klip, met kamers wat ontwerp is sodat mense die dooies kan binnegaan en hulde kan bring. Hierdie strukture het bekend gestaan ​​as mastabas, van die Arabiese woord vir 'bank'. Al die vroeë farao's van die eerste twee dinastieë is in mastabas begrawe.

Dit het alles verander tydens die derde dinastie toe koning Djoser (2667-2648bc) aan sy mastaba-graf by Saqqara begin werk het. Die man wat verantwoordelik was vir die uitvoering van die projek was die premier van Djoser, Imhotep.

Imhotep word gekrediteer as die uitvinder van die bou van klip en was 'n man met vele talente - boog hitekt, dokter, meester beeldhouer, skriba en sterrekundige. Hy is moontlik die eerste ware genie in die opgetekende geskiedenis, en sy impak op die Egiptiese lewe en gewoonte was diep. Hy is later vergoddelik as die god van wysheid en medisyne.

Stap piramide by Saqqara

Djoser en Imhotep besluit om 'n enorme mastaba van klip te bou, maar op 'n stadium tydens die konstruksie bou hulle nog 'n mastaba bo -op die eerste - en dan nog een bo -op die tweede. Hulle het hierdie proses voortgesit totdat hulle die struktuur tot die eerste piramide ter wêreld vergroot het. Dit was wat ons nou 'n 'trap -piramide' noem, bestaande uit ses terrasse van ongeveer 60 meter hoog.

Saqqara is ook die plek van baie grafte van minderjarige koninklikes en hofamptenare. Dit staan ​​bekend as “die grafte van die edeles”. Die kalksteenmure van hierdie strukture is fyn ingesny met beelde wat allerhande diere, visse, voëls, insekte, plantegroei en mense wat jag, vee en boer, sien. Sommige van die prente behou steeds hul oorspronklike verf na 4500 jaar. The quality of these compositions is proof that the ancient Egyptians quickly attained an artistic culture of a very high order. The sophistication and excellence of their artistry and architectural craftsmanship reached their apotheosis in the development of the pyramids.

Saving Egypts Oldest Pyramid

by National Geographic Channel

The Tombs of the Nobles

Cattle Crossing

Cattle Crossing (etching) Some of the loveliest works of art I have ever seen are to be found at Saqqara, in the tombs of the nobles. The limestone walls are delicately incised with myriads of animals, fish, birds, insects, vegetation and people – hunting, herding and farming. Some of the forms still retain their original paint, after 4,500 years! The quality of these compositions demonstrates that the Egyptians had attained, at an early stage, an artistic culture of a very high order.

Egyptian Temples for the iPad

The mystery of Egyptian cult temples explained, illustrated with videos, photos, drawings and 30 highly detailed computer generated reconstructions.


The Step Pyramid of Djoser at Saqqara - History

The Step Pyramid of Djoser is the core of the ancient Saqqara complex. The Pyramid of Djoser is considered to be the first Pyramid in the history of mankind. According to the official version, it was built by the scientist and architector Imhotep. He built it for his master, the king of Upper and Lower Egypt - Djoser Nechericheta.

The Pyramid has a stepped structure. Studying the structure of the Pyramid shows a large number of rebuildings and repairs, which had strongly changed the scale of the whole building. According to the researches of the modern scientists, the whole complex of Djoser, including the Pyramid itself, has undergone a detailed renovation and restoration during the 26-28 Dynasties (Saiss Period). The external features of the Pyramid are described in the December report of the previous expedition. The aim of the March expedition - was exploring the interior of the Pyramid of Djoser.

The internal structure of the Pyramid of Djoser represents a vertical 30 meters Shaft, punched deep into the bedrock. The Shaft has a rectangular section - 10 x 12 meters. Dozens of tunnels, coming from different directions and at the different levels can be seen on the walls of this Shaft. At the bottom of the Shaft, there is a structure of black granite blocks, which occupies almost the entire area of the Shaft basement. This structure is considered to be the external sarcophagus of the King Djoser. It is located not at the very bottom of the Shaft, but on the layer of broken limestone blocks with stars carvings. The contents of this huge box - is still unknown.

From every angle on the walls at the bottom of the Shaft, one can see the tunnels of irregular complex shapes. These tunnels are going on the hundreds meters into the bedrock. We managed to visit the southeast tunnel system. The walls and ceiling there are covered with bas-reliefs with floral ornaments and scenes from the life of the King Djoser. Here we also saw blue glazed tiles, decorating the walls.

A special attention was paid to the design features of the main internal structure of the Pyramid. A huge Shaft has a well processed walls and four 90 degrees angles. Eleven vertical shafts with a square section of 1.5x1.5 meters are cut in the bedrock on the eastern side of the main Shaft of the Pyramid. All these narrow vertical shafts are reaching to the horizontal level of the bottom of the main Shaft. They are connected with the main Shaft of the Pyramid by the horizontal tunnels of the same section 1.5x1.5 meters.

This central structure, described above, is probably the Main Interior of the Pyramid, around which the entire complex was built by Djoser.

A number of tunnels of irregular forms, located around the central Shaft of the Pyramid, were built much later, by another more primitive technologies. Tunnels do not have straight walls and ceilings, and their height varies, forthing one crawl in some places.

The fact of existing of a great number of shafts in Saqqara - is of a special attention. The shafts with a rectangular section 8x10 meters are accompanied by the vertical shafts with the square section of 1.5x1.5m, connected with the main one at their bottom level, as well as we see it in Djoser's case. These shafts, located all over the Saqqara area were used as the tombs, during the XXIV-XXVIII Dynasty (Saiss Period). A good example is the Tomb of General Pedenisis and Amen Tefnakht, located to the east from the Pyramid of Unas.

There is a clear analogy between the buildings of III and XXIV-XXVIII dynasties, what is the real nonsense. It would be logical to assume that these shafts are much older than they are dated by egyptologists, who are basing on the their last application, as the tombs.

Therefore, we assume, that Imhotep just managed to clear one of the largest shafts, found in Saqqara, and has built something like a dome, made of rubble with wooden props and rough limestone blocks, which consequently became a Step Pyramid, which we are watching till our days.

Regarding the presence of the 11 well-processed massive blocks on the bottom of the central Shaft of the Pyramid of Djoser, we can logically assume, that they, probably, remained from the original structure and blocked the entrances to the 11 shafts, mentioned above.

During the present time, the restoration and research works are going inside and outside the Pyramid of Djoser.

For better orientation in the interior of the Pyramid, use the interactive scheme, shown below.

Click on the image of the camera to get a picture of the relevant place.

Southern Entrance to the Pyramid and descending into the Shaft :

Entrance to the one of the tunnels on the northern wall of the shaft.

The descent down the Shaft to the Sarcophagus of King Djoser .

The first photo of the next row shows the south passage to the central Shaft of the Pyramid. The second, third and fourth pictures are showing the lid of the sarcophagus of King Djoser. The last photo shows a passage between the sarcophagus and the wall of the Shaft.

The first photo below shows a cork in the lid of the sarcophagus of Djoser. The following pictures are showing the side tunnels, cut in the bedrock, perpendicular to the central Shaft.

The first three pictures of the row below are showing the wall of the sarcophagus of Djoser.

The first photo below is showing the bas-relief of the King Djoser. It is covered with gauze, because of the restoration work. Other four photos are showing the limestone blocks with the stars carvings. Lets note that unlike the stars, which are decorating the ceiling of the Pyramid of Teti Burial Chamber, the rays of the stars, found in the Pyramid of Djoser are asymmetrically arranged.


Pyramid of Djoser

The pyramid of Djoser itself was first conceived as a large square mastaba, subsequently enlarged in several stages over the course of Djoser’s reign.

The entire structure was originally covered with a casing of fine white limestone. Below the center of the pyramid of Djoser is a large vertical shaft, at the bottom of which lies a granite burial vault.

The vault was sealed with a granite plug weighing some 3.5 tons nevertheless, robbers were able to enter the tomb in antiquity, making off with the king’s treasures.

The Step Pyramid of Djoser

A few mummy fragments were found in the vault in modern times, but carbon-dating has indicated that they are from a much later date than the reign of Djoser.

In addition to the main shaft, eleven smaller vertical shafts lie below the eastern side of the pyramid of Djoser , leading to galleries that extend to the west.

We know from the presence of two intact alabaster sarcophagi, as well as fragments of others, that four of these galleries were used for the burials of royal family members.

The other galleries were filled with stone vessels, some dating to the Early Dynastic era and most likely buried here to associate Djoser with his predecessors.

King’s apartment

The walls of the ‘king’s apartment’ are covered with blue faience tiles laid on a limestone background, imitating a reed-mat façade with niches containing carved scenes depicting the king performing rituals for his Sed-Festival (Jubilee).

Subsidiary structures surround the Step pyramid of Djoser . The South Tomb, the specific function of which is unclear, has a long descending underground corridor that leads to a series of chambers.

Like the ‘king’s apartment’, its walls are lined with blue faience tiles and carved reliefs of the king.

Pyramid of Djoser Facts

A series of “dummy” buildings to the east of the pyramid has been identified as a sed-festival complex was the ritual location for the eternal celebration of the king’s rejuvenation.

The stone architecture of these buildings was carved to represent perishable materials, such as wooden beams and reed matting.

This large pyramid-funerary complex was built for the transformation of the deceased king into a god, and to ensure his well-being in the afterlife through the maintenance of his mortuary cult.


Inhoud

Early Dynastic Edit

The earliest burials of nobles can be traced back to the First Dynasty, at the northern side of the Saqqara plateau. During this time, the royal burial ground was at Abydos. The first royal burials at Saqqara, comprising underground galleries, date to the Second Dynasty. The last Second Dynasty king, Khasekhemwy, was buried in his tomb at Abydos, but also built a funerary monument at Saqqara consisting of a large rectangular enclosure, known as Gisr el-Mudir. It probably inspired the monumental enclosure wall around the Step Pyramid complex. Djoser's funerary complex, built by the royal architect Imhotep, further comprises a large number of dummy buildings and a secondary mastaba (the so-called 'Southern Tomb'). French architect and Egyptologist Jean-Philippe Lauer spent the greater part of his life excavating and restoring Djoser's funerary complex.

Early Dynastic monuments Edit

  • tomb of king Hotepsekhemwy or Raneb
  • tomb of king Nynetjer , funerary complex of king Sekhemkhet , funerary complex of king Khasekhemwy , funerary complex of king Djoser

Old Kingdom Edit

Nearly all Fourth Dynasty kings chose a different location for their pyramids. During the second half of the Old Kingdom, under the Fifth and Sixth Dynasties, Saqqara was again the royal burial ground. The Fifth and Sixth Dynasty pyramids are not built wholly of massive stone blocks, but instead with a core consisting of rubble. Consequently, they are less well preserved than the world-famous pyramids built by the Fourth Dynasty kings at Giza. Unas, the last ruler of the Fifth Dynasty, was the first king to adorn the chambers in his pyramid with Pyramid Texts. During the Old Kingdom, it was customary for courtiers to be buried in mastaba tombs close to the pyramid of their king. Thus, clusters of private tombs were formed in Saqqara around the pyramid complexes of Unas and Teti.

Old Kingdom monuments Edit

    , tomb of king Shepseskaf (Dynasty Four) of the Fifth Dynasty
  • Pyramid of king Menkauhor
  • Mastaba of Ti
  • Mastaba of the Two Brothers (Khnumhotep and Niankhkhnum)
  • Mastaba of Ptahhotep (Dynasty Six)
  • Mastaba of Mereruka
  • Mastaba of Kagemni
  • Pyramid complex of king Pepi II Neferkare (now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art of New York)

First Intermediate Period monuments Edit

Middle Kingdom Edit

From the Middle Kingdom onward, Memphis was no longer the capital of the country, and kings built their funerary complexes elsewhere. Few private monuments from this period have been found at Saqqara.

Second Intermediate Period monuments Edit

New Kingdom Edit

During the New Kingdom Memphis was an important administrative and military centre, being the capital after the Amaran Period. From the Eighteenth Dynasty onward many high officials built tombs at Saqqara. While still a general, Horemheb built a large tomb here, although he later was buried as pharaoh in the Valley of the Kings at Thebes. Other important tombs belong to the vizier Aperel, the vizier Neferrenpet, the artist Thutmose, and the wet-nurse of Tutankhamun, Maia.

Many monuments from earlier periods were still standing, but dilapidated by this period. Prince Khaemweset, son of Pharaoh Ramesses II, made repairs to buildings at Saqqara. Among other things, he restored the Pyramid of Unas and added an inscription to its south face to commemorate the restoration. He enlarged the Serapeum, the burial site of the mummified Apis bulls, and was later buried in the catacombs. The Serapeum, containing one undisturbed interment of an Apis bull and the tomb of Khaemweset, were rediscovered by the French Egyptologist Auguste Mariette in 1851.

New Kingdom monuments Edit

  • Several clusters of tombs of high officials, among which the tombs of Horemheb and of Maya and Merit. Reliefs and statues from these two tombs are on display in the National Museum of Antiquities at Leiden, the Netherlands, and in the British Museum, London.

After the New Kingdom Edit

During the periods after the New Kingdom, when several cities in the Delta served as capital of Egypt, Saqqara remained in use as a burial ground for nobles. Moreover, the area became an important destination for pilgrims to a number of cult centres. Activities sprang up around the Serapeum, and extensive underground galleries were cut into the rock as burial sites for large numbers of mummified ibises, baboons, cats, dogs, and falcons.

Monuments of the Late Period, the Graeco-Roman and later periods Edit

  • Several shaft tombs of officials of the Late Period (the larger part dating to the Ptolemaeic Period)
  • The so-called 'Philosophers circle', a monument to important Greek thinkers and poets, consisting of statues of Hesiod, Homer, Pindar, Plato, and others (Ptolemaeic)
  • Several Coptic monasteries, among which the Monastery of Apa Jeremias (Byzantine and Early Islamic Periods)

Saqqara and the surrounding areas of Abusir and Dahshur suffered damage by looters during the 2011 Egyptian protests. Store rooms were broken into, but the monuments were mostly unharmed. [4] [5]

During routine excavations in 2011 at the dog catacomb in Saqqara necropolis, an excavation team led by Salima Ikram and an international team of researchers led by Paul Nicholson of Cardiff University uncovered almost eight million animal mummies at the burial site next to the sacred temple of Anubis. It is thought that the mummified animals, mostly dogs, were intended to pass on the prayers of their owners to their deities. [6]

"You don't get 8 million mummies without having puppy farms," she says. "And some of these dogs were killed deliberately so that they could be offered. So for us, that seems really heartless. But for the Egyptians, they felt that the dogs were going straight up to join the eternal pack with Anubis. And so they were going off to a better thing" said Salima Ikram. [7] [8]

In July 2018, German-Egyptian researchers’ team head by Ramadan Badry Hussein of the University of Tübingen reported the discovery of an extremely rare gilded burial mask that probably dates from the Saite-Persian period in a partly damaged wooden coffin. The last time a similar mask was found was in 1939. [9] The eyes were covered with obsidian, calcite, and black hued gemstone possibly onyx. "The finding of this mask could be called a sensation. Very few masks of precious metal have been preserved to the present day, because the tombs of most Ancient Egyptian dignitaries were looted in ancient times." said Hussein. [10] [11]

In September 2018, several dozen cache of mummies dating 2,000 years back were found by a team of Polish archaeologists led by Kamil Kuraszkiewicz from the Faculty of Oriental Studies of the University of Warsaw. [12] The Polish-Egyptian expedition works under the auspices of the Polish Centre of Mediterranean Archaeology University of Warsaw. [13] Investigations were carried out for over two decades in the area to the west of the Djoser Pyramid. The most important discoveries include the tomb of vizier Merefnebef with a funerary chapel decorated with multi-colored reliefs, which was uncovered in 1997. [14] as well as the tomb of courtier Nyankhnefertem uncovered in 2003. [15] The expedition also explored two necropoles. Archaeologists revealed several dozen graves of noblemen from the period of the 6th Dynasty, dating to the 24th–21st century BC, and 500 graves of indigent people dating approximately to the 6th century BC – 1st century AD. Most of the bodies were poorly preserved and all organic materials, including the wooden caskets, had decayed. [12] [16] [17] The tombs discovered most recently (in 2018) form part of the younger, so-called Upper Necropolis. [18]

Most of the mummies we discovered last season were very modest, they were only subjected to basic embalming treatments, wrapped in bandages and placed directly in pits dug in the sand

The research of the Polish-Egyptian expedition also focuses on the interpretation of the so-called Dry Moat, a vast trench hewn around the Djoser Pyramid. The most recent discoveries confirm the hypothesis that the Dry Moat was a model of the pharaoh's journey to the netherworld, a road the deceased ruler had to follow to attain eternal life. [13] [19] [20]

In November 2018, an Egyptian archaeological mission located seven ancient Egyptian tombs at the ancient necropolis of Saqqara containing a collection of scarab and cat mummies dating back to the Fifth and Sixth Dynasties. [21] Three of the tombs were used for cats, some dating back more than 6,000 years, while one of four other sarcophagi was unsealed. With the remains of cat mummies were unearthed gilded and 100 wooden statues of cats and one in bronze dedicated to the cat goddess Bastet. In addition, funerary items dating back to the 12th Dynasty were found besides the skeletal remains of cats. [22] [23] [24] [25]

In mid-December 2018, the Egyptian government announced the discovery at Saqqara of a previously unknown 4,400-year-old tomb, containing paintings and more than fifty sculptures. It belongs to Wahtye, a high-ranking priest who served under King Neferirkare Kakai during the Fifth Dynasty. [26] The tomb also contains four shafts that lead to a sarcophagus below. [27]

On 13 April 2019, an expedition led by a member of the Czech Institute of Egyptology, Mohamed Megahed, discovered a 4,000-year-old tomb near Egypt's Saqqara Necropolis. Archaeologists confirmed that the tomb belonged to an influential person named Khuwy, who lived in Egypt during the 5th Dynasty. [28] [29] [30] [31] "The L-shaped Khuwy tomb starts with a small corridor heading downwards into an antechamber and from there a larger chamber with painted reliefs depicting the tomb owner seated at an offerings table", reported Megahed. [29] Some paintings maintained their brightness over a long time in the tomb. Mainly made of white limestone bricks, the tomb had a tunnel entrance generally typical for pyramids. [29] Archaeologists say that there might be a connection between Khuwy and pharaoh because the mausoleum was found near the pyramid of Egyptian Pharaoh Djedkare Isesi, who ruled during that time. [28] [30] [29] [31]

On 3 October 2020, Khalid el-Anany, Egypt's tourism and antiquities minister announced the discovery of at least 59 sealed sarcophagi with mummies more than 2,600 years old. Archaeologists also revealed the 20 statues of Ptah-Soker and a carved 35-centimeter tall bronze statue of god Nefertem. [32] [33] [34]

On 19 October 2020, the Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities announced the discovery of more than 2,500 years of colorful, sealed sarcophagi. The archaeological team unearthed gilded, wooden statues and more than 80 coffins. [35] [36]

In November 2020, archaeologists unearthed more than 100 delicately painted wooden coffins and 40 funeral statues. The sealed, wooden coffins, some containing mummies, date as far back as 2,500 years. Other artifacts discovered include funeral masks, canopic jars and amulets. [37] According to Khaled el-Anany, tourism and antiquities minister, the items date back to the Ptolemaic dynasty. One of the coffins was opened and a mummy was scanned with an X-ray, determining it was most likely a man about the age of 40. Another burial site 2100 BC was found a whole family was buried considered to be a rich person's found by his weak bone structure, death determined to be malaria. [38]

“This discovery is very important because it proves that Saqqara was the main burial of the 26th Dynasty,” said Zahi Hawass, an Egyptologist and Egypt's former Minister of State for Antiquities Affairs. [39] [40]

In January 2021, The tourism and antiquities ministry announced the discovery of more than 50 wooden sarcophagi in 52 burial shafts which date back to the New Kingdom period, each around 30 to 40 feet deep and a 13 ft-long papyrus that contains texts from the Chapter 17 of Book of the Dead. Papyrus scroll written in hieroglyphics belonged to a man named Bu-Khaa-Af whose name is written on it. His name can also be seen on his sarcophagus and on four wood-and-ceramic figurines called ushabtis. [41] [42]

A team of archaeologists led by Zahi Hawass also found the funerary temple of Naert or Narat and warehouses made of bricks. [43] [44] [45] Researchers also revealed that Narat’s name engraved on a fallen obelisk near the main entrance. Previously unknown to researchers, Naert was a wife of Teti, the first king of the sixth dynasty. [46]


3 Confounding Discoveries Made Near Egypt’s Oldest Pyramid

An aerial image of the Saqqara necropolis and the Step Pyramid of Djoser. Shutterstock.

Egypt’s oldest pyramid is a treasure trove of history. Although we have no ancient texts that mention its exact construction date, Egyptologists infer, based on historical data, that the Step Pyramid at Saqqara is Egypt’s oldest pyramid.

Experts argue that during the Third Dynasty of Egypt, a revolution took place in architecture.

King Djoser had among his many servants a young man called Imhotep. He was Djoser’s Royal vizier and architect. Early in his reign, Djoser had commissioned Imhotep to build a monument at a royal necropolis called Saqqara.

It wasn’t the first monument Djoser had commissioned, but it would become his most impressive and most important. Northwest of Memphis, the Step Pyramid of Djoser, was a revolutionary construction.

Generally acknowledged as the oldest monumental structure constructed of dressed masonry, the Step Pyramid underwent a series of revolutionizing construction phases.

That’s because experts argue Imhotep most likely envisioned the monument not as a Step Pyramid in the beginning but more as a morphed mastaba.

After choosing the exact location where the monument would stand, Imhotep order the builders to dig into the bedrock at Saqqara and create a shaft inside the rock, 28 meters deep and seven meters square.

This excavation resulted in the first step towards creating the monument above the surface. At the bottom of the shaft, the builders were tasked with creating chambers and rooms.

Mainstream Egyptologists agree that the pyramid and its above-ground elements were built in several phases.

Egyptologist Jean-Philippe Lauer, the main excavator at Saqqara, has revealed that in total, there were six stages through which the pyramid was built: M1-M2-M3-P1-P1′-P2.

Assuming this theory is the correct one, it would suggest a major expansion took place at the construction site every three years. If we divide the six stages into 19 years that King Djoser is thought to have ruled over Egypt.

The Pyramid of Djoser is believed to have initially had the shape of a square mastaba, which was gradually enlarged. The first step involved expanding the structure on all four sides, and later additions saw the builders add just on the eastern side of the structure.

The mastaba of Djoser was constructed in two distinct phases. The first saw the structure adopt a four-stepped shape, and then a six-stepped structure which a rectangular base positioned on an east-west axis.

Since Djoser’s mastaba at Saqqara was initially square, any experts have theories that the monument was therefore never meant to be–in its final shape– a mastaba since there are no square mastabas in Egypt.

However, since there are no ancient texts, blueprints, or anything recorded when the monument was built, we can’t possibly know what the architect had in mind when he started building the structure.

For all we know, he may have desired to build the first square mastaba in Egypt but eventually opted for a much taller, superimposed structure.

He may also have initially planned to build the pyramid as he did.

However, experts who have excavated Saqqara and its famous pyramid argue that the structure evolved progressively. When the builders began transforming the square mastaba into the step pyramid, the structure underwent a major construction shift.

They built a crude core of rough stones and decided to case them in fine limestone with packing in between.

However, this phase had a major construction difference: in mastaba construction, the courses were laid horizontally, but for the pyramid layers, the builders opted for accretion layers that leaned inwards with stone blocks that were much bigger and of better quality.

The final construction phase saw the Step pyramid measure 140 meters from east to west and around 120 meters from north t south. The pyramid rose to the sky, standing 60 meters high. The entire pyramid of Djoser had a total volume of 330,400 cubic meters (11,667,966 cu ft).

The Step Pyramid of Djoser revolutionized architecture in ancient Egypt. The entire pyramid complex, its temples, and statues were surrounded by a massive limestone wall, 10.5 meters high and 1,645 meters long, encompassing a total area of around 15ha, comparable in size to a large town from the third millennium BC.

Djoser made sure to leave his imprint in history by erecting the pyramid complex. But although it might be expected that his successor would surpass the technical and artistic achievements, this was not the case. The monuments of Djoser, which stand proud at the edge of the western plateau overlooking the capital, inspired future kings of Egypt.

It might perhaps be expected that t long line of similar, Step Pyramid complexes would follow Djoser’s. Although many specific elements were taken by future generations, the rectangular step pyramid complex and the Step Pyramid did not endure in Egyptian history.

Shutterstock.

The pyramid of Pharaoh Sekhemkhet at Saqqara was an attempt to build another complex, but soon after the project began, it was abandoned.

The Layer Pyramid of Zawiyet el-Aryan is another third dynasty attempt to build a step pyramid complex and another that failed. Had this pyramid be completed, it would have risen in five steps to a height of no more than 45 meters.

In fact, it wasn’t until the Fourth Dynasty reign of King Sneferu that Egypt would see the birth of another pyramid, and in many ways, Meidum is the most mysterious of all great pyramids.

Embedded within the puzzles of the ancient pyramid and its nearby necropolis are events that transformed Archaic Egypt into the classic Old Kingdom Pyramid Age.

When Sneferu became king around 2575 BC (according to Manetho), Djoser’s was the only Pyramid that stood complete. Sneferu would eventually become the greatest pyramid-builder in Egyptian history. He constructed three impressive pyramids resulting in a total mass of stone that exceeds even that of his son and successor Khufu in Giza’s Great Pyramid.

Although Meidum and Dahshur saw the rise of Egypt’s transformed pyramids that eventually laid down the foundation for the construction of Egypt’s most impressive pyramid, Saqqara is where the magic lies.

Hidden beneath the royal Necropolis’s golden sands are many secrets that had remained hidden since before history was written.

One of the most confounding discoveries at Saqqara and not far from Djoser’s Step Pyramid are the remnants of two ancient pyramids.

The buried pyramid and the layer pyramid of Zawiyet el-Aryan are two ancient structures believed to have been commissioned by the pharaohs that succeeded Djoser. It is believed that both Sekhemkhet and Khaba wanted to build a complex just like that of Djoser. However, for reasons that remain unclear, neither the pyramid of Sekhemkhet nor that of Khaba was completed.

Sekhemkhet’s sarcophagus is believed to have been found beneath his uncompleted monument and is unique of all ancient sarcophagi in Egypt: it was made of a single piece of stone with a sliding door at one end. The sarcophagus was sealed with mortar. However, once opened by experts, it was found to be empty.

The Layer Pyramid is a greater mystery. Experts are unsure as to who had commissioned it. However, one of the vases of a nearby mastaba to the pyramid had the Horus name of Khaba inscribed on it, leading experts to believe the Layer Pyramid was his. Experts discovered no burial.

The third confounding discovery is directly beneath the Step Pyramid. And rather than what experts found, it’s what they didn’t find. Although the Step pyramid of Djoser was completed in his lifetime, and Egyptologists say the pyramids were tombs, once the underground chambers beneath the pyramid were accessed, archaeologists never found the mummified remains of Djoser.

It remains a profound mystery as to why the mummies of Djoser, Sekhemkhet, and Khaba were not discovered beneath their respective monuments. Another mystery is why Djoser chose to construct a massive 5.7-kilometer-long underground world beneath his pyramid.


Kyk die video: The Pyramid of Pharaoh Djoser at Saqqara (Desember 2021).