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4 000 jaar oue verlore Mesopotamiese stad ontdek in Irak

4 000 jaar oue verlore Mesopotamiese stad ontdek in Irak

Volgens navorsers is 'n 4000-jarige verlore stad in Koerdistan in Irak ontdek.

"Ons het glad nie verwag om 'n stad hier te ontdek nie," sê Christine Kepinski, wat die webwerf verken het, volgens die tydskrif French National Centre for Scientific Research.

Die opgrawing van die terrein, bekend as Kunara en naby die stad Sulaymaniyah, was eers moontlik nadat die Irakse diktator Saddam Hussein in 2003 afgedank is. Navorsers het ook opgemerk dat die teenwoordigheid van die ISIS -terreurgroep in Irak hul pogings ook belemmer het.

'Die situasie is nou baie gunstiger,' het Aline Tenu, projekleier, in die joernaal gesê.

4 000 jaar oue 'verlore' stad wat aan die ou Mesopotamiese ryk grens. Krediet: Tenu/Mission Archeologique Francaise du Peramagron

Volgens die tydskrif, "Hierdie stad het in die hart van 'n onbekende koninkryk gestaan: dié van die bergmense, wat tot dan toe in die skaduwee van hul magtige Mesopotamiese bure gebly het," insluitend die Akkadiërs. Die Akkadiese Ryk word beskou as die eerste antieke ryk van Mesopotamië en bereik sy hoogtepunt ongeveer 4000 jaar gelede onder heerser Sargon van Akkad. Na sy val glo historici dat dit verdeel is in Assirië en Babilonië.

Mense het ongeveer 2200 vC in die stad, naby die Zagrosberge, gewoon, volgens argeoloë.

"Die stad Kunara bied nuwe elemente met betrekking tot 'n tot dusver onbekende volk wat aan die rand van Mesopotamiese studies gebly het," het Tenu bygevoeg.

  • Die verlore stad Dur-Sharrukin-die hoofstad wat nog nooit was nie
  • Voorheen onbekende lyne tot die epos van Gilgamesh wat in gesteelde spykerskrifttablet ontdek is
  • Die Babiloniese kaart van die wêreld werp lig op antieke perspektiewe

Die verlore stad is gevind naby die Zagrosberge, op die foto (sghiaseddin / Adobe Stock)

Intussen is ook tientalle kleitablette bedek met spykerskrifte wat ontdek het hoe mense moontlik meel afgelewer het. Spykerskrif is een van die oudste skryfstelsels.

Navorsers het gesê die stad het 'n tydperk van agteruitgang ondergaan nadat dit 4 000 jaar gelede deur 'n brand verwoes is, het die navorsers bespiegel.

Die spykerskenner, Philippe Clancier, het gesê dat die mense wat in die stad woon, 'n goeie begrip gehad het van Akkadiese en Sumeriese geskrifte, sowel as die van hul bure in Mesopotamië. "

'N Akkadiese tablet (publieke domein)

"Die eerste tablette wat in 'n gebou in die laer stad gevind is, registreer 'n groot aantal inskrywings en meeluitgange," vervolg Clancier.

'Dit was eintlik 'n soort meelkantoor,' het Tenu verduidelik en bygevoeg dat dit vir die goewerneur van Kunara was.

"Die stad moes selfs redelik welvarend gewees het," het Tenu gesê. "As seldsame stene soos obsidiaan [en karneool, 'n halfedelsteen edelsteen] is gebruik om heeltemal alledaagse gereedskap te vervaardig."

Inwoners in die stad het "waarskynlik gebruik gemaak van sy strategiese ligging op die grens tussen die Iraanse koninkryk in die ooste en die Mesopotamiese koninkryk in die weste en suide," het Kepinski ook gesê.

Navorsers het ook gereedskap en keramiek ontdek wat in die ruïnes van die stad gekoop en verhandel is.

'Dit was beslis die landbou -rykdom van die gebied wat die opkoms daarvan bevorder het. Argeoloë het die oorskot van bokke, skape, koeie en varke ontdek, wat dui op die bestaan ​​van 'n groot veeteeltstelsel. Die teenwoordigheid van 'n besproeiingsnetwerk in die suide van die stad herinner ook aan die bemeestering wat die inwoners van die streek behaal het in graanboerdery, veral gars en mout, 'het die tydskrif ook opgemerk.

Hulle het niks gevind oor die oorspronklike naam van die stad nie, wat nog steeds 'n raaisel is: 'Maar ons sal aanhou soek,' het Tenu bygevoeg.


    Geheimsinnige 3 400 jaar oue paleis wat ontdek is as droogte, ruïnes onthul

    Die ongelooflike ruïnes van 'n ou paleis in Irakse Koerdistan het uit die waters van die Tigrisrivier ontstaan.

    'N Span Duitse en Koerdiese argeoloë berig dat afvalwater in die Mosuldam -reservoir in die herfs van 2018 onverwags die oorblyfsels in die antieke stad, Kemune, onthul het.

    Die paleis van die Bronstydperk is onthul aan die oostelike oewer van die Tigris -rivier in die Duhok -provinsie in Irak. As deel van 'n projek waarby die Universiteit van Tübingen in Duitsland, die Koerdistanse argeologiese organisasie en die Duhok -direktoraat van oudhede betrokke was, het argeoloë 'n gebou geïdentifiseer met moddersteenmure van tot 2 meter dik.

    Sommige van die gebou se mure is meer as 2 meter hoog en sommige van die kamers het gipsmure, volgens dr. Ivana Puljiz van die Tübingen Institute for Ancient Near Eastern Studies. 'Ons het ook oorblyfsels van muurskilderye in helder skakerings van rooi en blou gevind,' het sy in 'n verklaring gesê en opgemerk dat muurskilderye 'n kenmerk is van antieke paleise in die streek.

    'N Terrasmuur aan die westekant van die paleis. (Universiteit van Tubingen en Koerdistan Argeologie Organisasie)

    Die ruïnes van die paleis, wat in antieke tye op 'n terras met uitsig op die Tigrisvallei gestaan ​​het, word tot ongeveer 23 voet hoog gehou.

    Die terrein was eens deel van die antieke Mittani-ryk, wat 'n groot deel van die hedendaagse Irak en Sirië van die 15de eeu tot die 14de eeu v.C.

    "Die vonds is een van die belangrikste argeologiese ontdekkings in die streek in die afgelope dekades," het die Koerdiese argeoloog dr. Hasan Ahmed Qasim gesê.

    'N Lugfoto van die Kemune -paleis vanuit die weste. (Universiteit van Tubingen, eScience Center en Koerdistan Argeology Organization)

    Die gebied was oorstroom ná die bou van die Mosuldam in die tagtigerjare. 'Ons het die perseel van Kemune al in 2010 ontdek toe die dam 'n lae watervlak gehad het, selfs toe ons 'n Mittani -spykerskrifttablet gevind het, en die oorblyfsels van muurskilderye in rooi en blou gesien het,' het Qasim gesê. t tot nou toe hier uitgrawe nie. ”

    Kenners is gretig om nuwe insig in die Mittani -ryk te verkry deur 10 tablette met spykerskrifte wat in die paleis ontdek is, te bestudeer. Een van die tablette dui aan dat Kemune waarskynlik die ou stad Zakhiku was, wat beteken dat dit 400 jaar lank bestaan ​​het. "Die Mittani -ryk is een van die ryke wat die minste nagevors word in die Ou Nabye Ooste," het Puljiz gesê.

    Irak onthul steeds sy ou geheime. Vroeër vanjaar het 'n span Franse argeoloë byvoorbeeld aangekondig dat hulle die oorblyfsels van 'n verlore ou stad in Irakse Koerdistan opgespoor het.

    'N Kamer by die paleis tydens die opgrawing. (Universiteit van Tubingen en Koerdistan Argeologie Organisasie)

    In 2017 het argeoloë spioenasie -satellietbeelde en hommeltuie ingespan om die plek van 'n ou verlore stad in Noord -Irak te identifiseer.

    In die loop van ses opgrawings tussen 2012 en 2018 het navorsers die ou stad Kunara, naby die Zagrosberge, ontbloot. Voorheen is kenners verhinder om die terrein, naby die moderne stad Sulaymaniyah, te verken deur die regime van Saddam Hussein en konflikte in die streek.

    Die Qalatga Darband -terrein kyk uit oor die Laer Zab -rivier aan die westelike rand van die Zagrosberge, en is deel van 'n historiese roete van antieke Mesopotamië na Iran.

    Kemune -paleis uit die suide. (Universiteit van Tubingen en Koerdistan Argeologie Organisasie)

    'N Muurfragment wat by die paleis ontdek is. (Universiteit van Tubingen en Koerdistan Argeologie Organisasie)

    In 'n ander projek het kundiges van die Universiteit van Pennsylvania en Harvard afgeklassifiseerde beelde uit die Koue Oorlog-tydperk van U2-spioenasievliegtuie geskandeer om antieke strukture in die Midde-Ooste te onthul.


    Misterieuse 4000 jaar oue verlore stad ontdek

    'N Span Franse argeoloë het die oorblyfsels van 'n verlore ou stad in die Irakse Koerdistan opgespoor.

    In die loop van ses opgrawings tussen 2012 en 2018 het navorsers die ou stad Kunara, naby die Zagrosberge, ontbloot. Voorheen is kenners verhinder om die terrein, naby die moderne stad Sulaymaniyah, te verken deur die regime van Saddam Hussein en konflikte in die streek.

    Volgens die kenners was die stad aan die westelike grens van die Mesopotamiese Ryk 'n belangrike sentrum van 'n ou bergagtige volk, bekend as die Lullubi.

    Groot klipfondamente is ontdek op die terrein, wat omstreeks 2200 v.C. Tientalle kleitablette bedek met spykerskrif is ook gevind wat lig werp op die stad se landbou. Byvoorbeeld, die eerste van die kleitablette wat ontdek is, bevat die lewering van verskillende soorte meel.

    Die argeoloë se navorsing dui aan dat die stad se ondergang ongeveer 4 000 jaar gelede plaasgevind het toe dit deur 'n vuur verwoes is.

    Die stad se naam is egter nog onbekend. In die herfs sal die terrein verder opgegrawe word.

    Antieke plekke in ander dele van die wêreld onthul ook hul geheime. Verlede jaar het argeoloë in Griekeland die oorblyfsels van 'n verlore stad opgespoor wat vermoedelik deur gevangenes uit die Trojaanse Oorlog gevestig is.

    Afsonderlik in 2018 het argeoloë in Wes -Mexiko gesofistikeerde lasertegnologie gebruik om 'n verlore stad te ontdek wat moontlik soveel geboue as Manhattan gehad het.

    In 2017 het argeoloë spioenasie -satellietbeelde en hommeltuie ingespan om die plek van 'n ou verlore stad in Noord -Irak te identifiseer.


    Historiese 4000-jarige verlore stad wat in Irakse Koerdistan ontdek is

    'N Geheimsinnige 4000-jarige verlore stad wat op Maart 2019 ontdek is op die terrein van Kunara, naby die stad Sulaimani, Irak.

    SULAIMANI, die streek van Koerdistan in Irak, - In die Irakse Koerdistan het opgrawings wat deur 'n Franse argeologiese sending gedoen is, 'n ou stad op die terrein van Kunara onthul. Teen die einde van die 3de millennium vC het hierdie stad in die hart van 'n onbekende koninkryk gestaan: dié van die bergmense wat tot dan toe in die skaduwee van hul magtige Mesopotamiese bure gebly het.

    “Die eerste opgrawings was verwarrend!” Dit was nie ArScAn laboratoire Archéologies et sciences de l'Antiquité (CNRS) [1] -navorser Aline Tenu se eerste argeologiese missie in die Midde -Ooste nie, maar die ontdekking wat sy saam met haar kollega in die Irakse Koerdistan gemaak het, lewer nog baie verrassings op. 'U kan dit 'n klein omwenteling noem', bevestig hul kollega Philippe Clancier, 'n epigrafis by ArScan.

    Wat presies het hulle gevind? In die loop van ses opgrawingsveldtogte wat tussen 2012 en 2018 uitgevoer is, het die argeoloë die spore van 'n onverwagte ou stad op die terrein van Kunara opgegrawe. Dit is aan die buitewyke van die Zagrosberge geleë, op twee heuwels wat uitkyk op die regteroewer van 'n tak van die Tanjaro-rivier, ongeveer 5 km suidwes van die stad Sulaimani (hedendaagse kulturele hoofstad van Irakse Koerdistan). "Hierdie gebied naby die grens tussen Iran en Irak is tot nou toe nie baie goed ondersoek nie," wys Tenu op. Die verbod op reis na Koerdistan onder Saddam Hussein se regime sowel as opeenvolgende oorloë - die mees onlangse teen ISIS - het dinge nie makliker gemaak nie. "Die situasie is nou baie gunstiger," entoesiastiseer die argeoloog en beklemtoon die warm ondersteuning wat die plaaslike owerhede bied.

    'N Onverwagte ontdekking

    Hierdie ontdekking is des te meer onverwags, aangesien Kunara 'n seldsame vonds is. Vyf opgrawingsplekke het groot klipfondamente onthul wat tientalle meters strek, in die boonste en onderste dele van die terrein. Hulle dateer blykbaar uit die laat 3de millennium, omstreeks 2200 vC. Met ander woorde, monumentale strukture is meer as 4000 jaar gelede opgerig. "Ons het glad nie verwag om 'n stad hier te ontdek nie," erken Kepinski, wat die missie begin het voordat hy dit aan Tenu oorhandig het.

    Op 'n oggend in 2015 het die grond onder hierdie strukture wat oor duisende jare teruggaan, nuwe verrassings gebied. 'Een van ons vennote het asemloos gesê:' Ons het 'n tablet gevind! ', Onthou Tenu vol emosie. Dit is gevolg deur dosyne en tientalle ander, in die vorm van klein kleiereghoeke van ongeveer 10 sentimeter aan elke kant. Hulle is almal ingeskryf met spykerskriftekens, wat in die vorm van spykers en wiggies is. Daar was geen twyfel nie, dit was dieselfde skryfspore wat in die middel van die 4de millennium vC in die Midde -Ooste verskyn het, en wat hierdie streek die universele wieg van skryf en geskiedenis maak. Meer as 4000 jaar gelede was die inwoners van Kunara deel van hierdie baie klein groepie mense wat reeds deel van die geskiedenis geword het!

    Die eerste van die spykerskrifttablette wat tydens die opgrawing in Kunara ontdek is, Sulaimani, Irakse Koerdistan. Die tablet bevat die aflewering van verskillende meelsoorte.

    Dit was nietemin nie die stof om die fondamente van die stil en ryklik toegeruste wêreld van Assyriologie te laat skud nie. Oosterse argeologie is gebore in die middel van die 19de eeu [2] en het meer as een legendariese ontdekking onder sy opgrawings, waaronder Babilon, Nineve, Nimrud en Ur, om maar net 'n paar te noem. Al hierdie legendariese stede beïndruk steeds deur hul oormatigheid en argitektoniese vermetelheid, benewens hul wervelende gebeeldhouwde kelder vol chimeras - gedeeltelik menslik, deels bul - wat wag hou oor imposante paleise omring deur labirinte van klein straatjies. Al hierdie ou stede versprei tussen die Tigris en die Eufraat, die 'land tussen die riviere', bekend as Mesopotamië. [3] Afgesien van hul duidelike rykdom, het hierdie argeologiese terreine twee uitsonderlike kenmerke: dit is die oudste bekende stede, en sover ons weet, die eerste stadstate van die mensdom. Die belangrikste is dat binne hul mure die skryfwerk en die eerste literêre vorme vervolmaak is, soos die legendariese avonture van Gilgamesh. [4] Ter vergelyking, gedurende dieselfde tydperk het die mense van Wes -Europa op sy beste dolfyne of 'n paar monoliete opgerig sonder om die minste geskrewe spoor na te laat.

    By die poorte van Mesopotamië

    Wat kan die paar honderd meter van Kunara se klipfondamente en sy beskeie geskrewe spore bydra tot hierdie gesogte lys van argeologiese en literêre skatte? "Die stad Kunara bied nuwe elemente met betrekking tot 'n tot dusver onbekende volk wat aan die rand van Mesopotamiese studies gebly het," entoesiasties Tenu. Die stad Kunara kan assyrioloë aanspoor om hierdie bergagtige gebied, waarvan die geskiedenis tot nog toe deur 'n enkele hand geskryf is, te heroorweeg, dié van die Mesopotamiese veroweraars.

    Hierdie struktuur met klein bekervormige inkepings kon vir seremonies op die plek van Kunara, Sulaimani, Irakse Koerdistan, Maart 2019, gebruik gewees het.

    Hierdie stad was geleë aan die westelike grens van Mesopotamië, by die poorte van Mesopotamië se eerste ryk, bekend as die Akkadiese Ryk, wat al die stadstate in die streek verenig het. Dit is regeer deur 'n paar van Mesopotamië se grootste konings, wat die lofwaardige titel 'Koning van die vier streke van die wêreld' gedra het. 'N Militêre oorwinning wat een van hierdie konings behaal het-Naram-Sin, kleinseun van die stigter van die Ryk-is verewig op 'n pienk kalksteen wat in die Louvre-museum uitgestal word. 'Naram-Sin word afgebeeld oor hierdie mense van die berge, die Lullubi,' verduidelik Tenu. In die uitsluitlik Mesopotamiese bronne wat vandag beskikbaar is, word die Lullubi uitgebeeld as 'barbare' wat afgesonder in die berge woon. Niks meer as dit was bekend nie.

    Die ontdekking by Kunara skyn 'n nuwe lig op hierdie mense. 'Dit is moontlik dat hierdie stad een van die hoofstede van die Lullubi was', stel die argeoloog voor. As hierdie teorie bevestig word, sou die geskiedenis van die Lullubi 'n heeltemal nuwe omvang aanneem, want die inwoners van Kunara handhaaf kommersiële betrekkinge met baie verre gebiede in die ooste (in die rigting van Iran) en in die noorde, omdat hulle nie van die wêreld afgesonder was nie (na Anatolië en die Kaukasus). Hierdie skakels word bewys deur die teenwoordigheid van verskillende soorte litiese gereedskap (obsidiaan, basalt, karneool) waarvoor daar geen neerslae in die omgewing is nie. 'Die stad moes selfs redelik welvarend gewees het', stel Tenu voor, 'aangesien skaars klippe soos obsidiaan gebruik is om heeltemal gewone gereedskap te vervaardig.' Hierdie openheid teenoor die wêreld en rykdom word ook geïllustreer deur die teenwoordigheid van 'n aantal vorms vir metaal lemme. Kunara en sy inwoners was dus volwaardige deelnemers aan die Bronstydperk, wat 'n paar eeue vroeër in Mesopotamië begin het.

    Krag gebaseer op handel en landbou

    Koppel aan hierdie gereedskap en 'n oorvloed keramiek - met 'n paar fragmente mooi versier met zoomorfe patrone - is 'n hele reeks onverwagte fauna wat eens in Kunara op die aarde geloop het. Die bene van bere en leeus, wat destyds gesogte wilde diere was, getuig van koninklike jagte of eerbiedige geskenke. Die oorblyfsels van twee perde, 'n besonderse berg vir die 3de millennium, bevestig ook dat Kunara ver van 'n perifere gebied was. "Die stad het waarskynlik voordeel getrek uit sy strategiese ligging op die grens tussen die Iraanse koninkryk in die ooste en die Mesopotamiese koninkryk in die weste en suide," stel Kepinski voor.

    Dit was egter beslis die landbou -rykdom van die gebied wat die opkoms daarvan bevorder het. Argeoloë het die oorskot van bokke, skape, koeie en varke ontdek, wat dui op die bestaan ​​van 'n groot veeteeltstelsel. Die teenwoordigheid van 'n besproeiingsnetwerk in die suide van die stad herinner ook aan die bemeestering wat die inwoners van die streek behaal het in graanboerdery, veral gars en mout. [5] Wat die saak betref, is dit die innerlike werking van hierdie landbou -ekonomie wat die skrifgeleerdes van Kunara gegraveer het op die dosyne tablette wat op die terrein gevind is. "Hulle het 'n stewige begrip gehad van Akkadiese en Sumeriese [6] skryfwerk, sowel as die van hul bure in Mesopotamië," beklemtoon Clancier, 'n spesialis in spykerskrif. 'Die eerste tablette wat in 'n gebou in die laer stad gevind word, registreer 'n groot aantal inskrywings en meeluitgange,' gaan hy voort. "Dit was eintlik 'n soort meelkantoor," voeg Tenu by, "na alle waarskynlikheid ten bate van die 'Ensi' van Kunara." Die titel van Ensi beteken beide 'koning' en 'goewerneur'. Benewens die titel Sukkal - 'n hooggeplaaste staat - word dit op tablette genoem, 'n politieke administrasie op grond van die Mesopotamiese model. 'N Eenvoudige leen van sy magtige buurman, of 'n teken van onderwerping aan die Akkadiese Ryk? 'Dit is nog te vroeg om te weet,' sê Tenu versigtig. 'Dit kan ook 'n hibriede organisasie wees wat opgebou is tydens opeenvolgende anneksasies en onafhanklikheid.'

    'N Taal en eie geskrif

    Dit word terloops voorgestel deur die tweede groep tablette wat in 2018 ontdek is, weereens in die laer stad, maar in 'n ander gebied. Dit is nie meer 'n kwessie van meel nie, maar beslis van graan, 'n baie meer waardevolle gewas: "Die tablette verskaf inligting oor aansienlike pakhuise, waarvan sommige meer as 2000 liter bereik," waag Clancier. Hierdie belangrike volumes bevestig volgehoue ​​landbou-aktiwiteite en grootskaalse byeenkomste wat deur 'n groot stad gehou word. Tog is dit die eenheid waarin hulle verwys, wat verbasend is. "Dit is nie die Akkadiese keiser Gur [7] nie, maar eerder die Gur van Subartu, of letterlik die Gur van die Noorde," wys die epigrafis op. Dit is 'n nuwe en unieke eenheid wat slegs by Kunara getuig word: "Die gebruik van 'n oorspronklike eenheid kan soos 'n daad van onafhanklikheid resoneer," stel Tenu voor.

    'N Ander interessante element is dat die tablette propvol oorsprongspunte het, soos "Khabaya" of "Ninarshuna", wat 'n lys name bevat wat heeltemal nuut is vir Assirioloë. 'Alhoewel dit in spykerskrif geskryf is, klink hierdie name nie Mesopotamies nie,' bevestig Clancier. Kunara en sy omliggende streek het sy eie appellasies en taal gehad. Die enigste spyt is dat tot nog toe geen tablet of baksteen met die naam die stad se oorspronklike naam onthul het nie. "Maar ons sal aanhou kyk," sê Tenu met blydskap, haar oë reeds op die volgende opgrawingsveldtog wat vir die herfs van 2019 geskeduleer is. Nuwe ontdekkings kan help om onbeantwoorde vrae op te los. Wie presies was die inwoners van Kunara? Was hulle selfs Lullubi? Indien nie, wie was hulle? En veral, waarom het hierdie stad nie weer lewe gekry ná die gewelddadige brand wat dit blykbaar meer as 4000 jaar gelede geteister het nie? Laat ons hoop dat dit uiteindelik die naam sal onthul wat hierdie immer geheimsinnige bergmense gegee het.

    Voetnote
    1. Laboratoire Archéologies et sciences de l’Antiquité (CNRS/Inrap/Ministère de la Culture/Université Panthéon-Sorbonne/Université Paris Nanterre/Université-Vincennes-Saint-Denis).
    2. Assyriologie begin in 1842, toe die Franse goewerneur Paul-Emile Botta monumentale beelde gehad het, benewens een van die poorte van die paleis van Khorsabad (1ste millennium vC), opgegrawe uit die halfdroë vlaktes van Noord-Koerdistan.
    3. Soos dit letterlik later deur die Grieke van die Oudheid verwys is, beteken meso “tussen” en potamos wat “die riviere” beteken.
    4. Die heldedade van hierdie held, koning van Uruk (begin van die derde millennium) is beskryf in 'n verhaal wat in die 18de en 17de eeu vC in Akkadies geskryf is.
    5. Mout is veral gebruik vir die vervaardiging van bier.
    6. Akkadies, die eerste Semitiese geskrif, is 'n sillabêre weergawe wat afgelei is van Sumeriese spykerskrifpiktogramme wat die twee tale lank in Mesopotamië gemeng het.
    7. Een Gur was gelyk aan 300 liter.


    Inhoud

    Gedurende 1957–1961 is Shanidar Cave opgegrawe deur Ralph Solecki en sy span van die Columbia Universiteit, en nege geraamtes van die Neanderthaler van verskillende ouderdomme en toestande van behoud en volledigheid (met die naam Shanidar I - IX) is ontdek wat dateer uit 60 000 - 80 000 jaar BP. 'N Tiende individu is onlangs deur M. Zeder ontdek tydens die ondersoek van 'n faunale samestelling van die terrein by die Smithsonian Institution. Dit lyk vir Zeder dat die Neanderthalers begrafnisplegtighede gehou het, waar hulle hul dooies met blomme begrawe het (hoewel die blomme nou as 'n moderne besoedeling beskou word), en dat hulle na beseerde en bejaarde persone omsien.

    Mesopotamië is die plek waar die vroegste ontwikkelinge van die neolitiese rewolusie vanaf ongeveer 10 000 v.C. Dit is geïdentifiseer as '' geïnspireer 'n paar van die belangrikste ontwikkelings in die geskiedenis van die mensdom, insluitend die uitvinding van die wiel, die aanplant van die eerste graangewasse en die ontwikkeling van kursiewe skrif, wiskunde, sterrekunde en landbou. ' [4]

    Bronstydperk Redigeer

    Sumer het na vore gekom as die beskawing van Laer Mesopotamië uit die prehistoriese Ubaid-tydperk (middel van die 6de millennium v.C.) in die vroeë Bronstydperk (Uruk-tydperk). Klassieke Sumer eindig met die opkoms van die Akkadiese Ryk in die 24ste eeu vC. Na die Gutiaanse tydperk is daar 'n kort Sumeriese herlewing in die 21ste eeu, wat in die 20ste eeu vC deur Amoritiese inval kortgeknip is. Die Amoritiese dinastie van Isin het volgehou tot c. 1600 vC, toe die suide van Mesopotamië verenig was onder die Kassitiese Babiloniese bewind.

    Die noorde van Mesopotamië het teen die laat 25ste eeu vC die Akkadiesprekende staat Assirië geword. Saam met die res van Mesopotamië is dit regeer deur Akkadiese konings vanaf die laat 24ste tot middel 22ste eeu vC, waarna dit weer onafhanklik geword het. [5]

    Babylon was 'n staat in Laer Mesopotamië met Babilon as hoofstad. Dit is in 1894 vC as 'n onafhanklike staat gestig deur 'n Amoritiese koning met die naam Sumuabum. [6] Gedurende die 3de millennium VHJ ontwikkel daar 'n baie intieme kulturele simbiose tussen die Sumeriërs en die Akkadiërs, wat wydverspreide tweetaligheid insluit. [7]

    Akkadies vervang geleidelik Sumeries as spreektaal van Mesopotamië iewers rondom die begin van die 3de en die 2de millennium vC, [8], maar Sumeries word steeds in die tydperk van die klassieke oudheid as 'n geskrewe of seremoniële taal in Mesopotamië gebruik.

    Babilonië het uit die Amoritiese dinastieë (ongeveer 1900 v.C.) ontstaan ​​toe Hammurabi (ongeveer 1792–1750 v.C.) die gebiede van die voormalige koninkryke Sumer en Akkad verenig het. Gedurende die vroeë eeue van die sogenaamde "Amoritiese tydperk" was Isin en Larsa die magtigste stadstate, hoewel Shamshi-Adad I naby die meer noordelike streke rondom Assur en Mari was. Een van hierdie Amoritiese dinastieë is gestig in die stadstaat Babilon, wat uiteindelik die ander sou oorneem en die eerste Babiloniese ryk sou vorm, wat ook die Ou Babiloniese tydperk genoem word.

    Assirië was 'n Akkadiese (Oos -Semitiese) koninkryk in Bo -Mesopotamië, wat 'n aantal kere deur die geskiedenis regeer het. Dit is vernoem na die oorspronklike hoofstad, die ou stad Assur (Akkadian Aššūrāyu).

    Van die vroeë geskiedenis van die koninkryk Assirië is min positief bekend. In die Assiriese koningslys was Tudiya die vroegste koning wat aangeteken is. Hy was 'n tydgenoot van Ibrium van Ebla, wat volgens die koningslys blykbaar aan die einde van die 25ste of vroeë 24ste eeu vC geleef het. Die grondslag van die eerste ware verstedelikte Assiriese monargie is tradisioneel toegeskryf aan Ushpia, 'n tydgenoot van Ishbi-Erra van Isin en Naplanum van Larsa. [9] c. 2030 vC.

    Assirië het 'n rykstydperk gehad van die 19de tot die 18de eeu vC. Van die 14de tot die 11de eeu vC het Assirië weer 'n grootmoondheid geword met die opkoms van die Middel -Assiriese Ryk.

    Ystertydperk Redigeer

    Die Neo-Assiriese Ryk (911–609 vC) was gedurende die Ystertydperk die dominante politieke mag in die Ou Nabye Ooste, wat Babilonië, Egipte, Urartu [10] en Elam verduister het. Gedurende hierdie tydperk is Aramees ook saam met die Akkadiese taal 'n amptelike taal van die ryk gemaak.

    Die Neo-Babiloniese Ryk (626–539 vC) is die laaste periode van die geskiedenis van die Ou Nabye Ooste wat die Persiese verowering voorafgegaan het. 'N Jaar na die dood van die laaste sterk Assiriese heerser, Assurbanipal, in 627 vC, het die Assiriese ryk tot 'n reeks wrede burgeroorloë gelei. Babilonië het in opstand gekom onder Nabopolassar, 'n lid van die Chaldese stam wat vroeg in die 9de eeu vC van die Levant na die suid -ooste van Babilon getrek het. In bondgenootskap met die Mede, die Perse, die Skithiërs en die Kimmeriërs het hulle die stad Nineve in 612 vC ontslaan, en die setel van die ryk is vir die eerste keer na die dood van Hammurabi in die middel van die 18de eeu vC oorgeplaas. Hierdie tydperk was 'n algemene verbetering in die ekonomiese lewe en landbouproduksie, en 'n groot opbloei van argitektoniese projekte, kuns en wetenskap. Die Neo-Babiloniese tydperk eindig met die bewind van Nabonidus in 539 vC. In die ooste het die Perse sterk geword, en uiteindelik het Kores die Grote sy heerskappy oor Babilon gevestig.

    Achaemenidiese en Seleucidiese bewind Redigeer

    Mesopotamië is verower deur die Achaemenidiese Perse onder Kores die Grote in 539 vC, en het twee eeue lank onder Persiese bewind gebly.

    Die Persiese Ryk het in 331 vC aan Alexander van Masedonië geval en het onder die Griekse bewind gekom as deel van die Seleucidiese Ryk. Babilon het agteruitgegaan na die stigting van Seleucia aan die Tigris, die nuwe hoofstad van die Seleucidiese Ryk. Die Seleukiede Ryk het op die hoogtepunt van sy mag gestrek van die Egeïese See in die weste tot Indië in die ooste. Dit was 'n belangrike sentrum van die Hellenistiese kultuur wat die voorrang van die Griekse gebruike behou het waar 'n Griekse politieke elite oorheers het, meestal in die stedelike gebiede. [11] Die Griekse bevolking van die stede wat die dominante elite gevorm het, is versterk deur immigrasie uit Griekeland. [11] [12] 'n Groot deel van die oostelike deel van die ryk is in die middel van die 2de eeu vC deur die Partiërs onder Mithridates I van Parthia verower.

    Partiese en Romeinse bewind Redigeer

    Aan die begin van die 2de eeu nC het die Romeine, onder leiding van keiser Trajanus, Parthia binnegeval en Mesopotamië verower, wat dit 'n keiserlike provinsie gemaak het. Dit is kort daarna deur die opvolger van Trajanus, Hadrian, aan die Partiërs terugbesorg.

    Die Christendom bereik Mesopotamië in die 1ste eeu nC, en veral Romeinse Sirië het die middelpunt van die Oos -Rite -Christendom en die Siriese literêre tradisie geword. Daar word ook geglo dat mandeïsme daar rondom hierdie tyd ontstaan ​​het of binnegekom het toe Mandaeërs hul toevlug by Palestina gesoek het. Die Sumeries-Akkadiese godsdienstige tradisie het gedurende hierdie tydperk verdwyn, net soos die laaste oorblyfsels van spykerskrifgeletterdheid, hoewel tempels nog in die 4de eeu in die tuisstad aan die Assiriese nasionale god Ashur toegewy is. [5]

    Sassanidiese ryk wysig

    In die 3de eeu nC is die Partiërs op hul beurt opgevolg deur die Sassanid-dinastie, wat Mesopotamië regeer het tot die 7de-eeuse Islamitiese inval. Die Sassanids verower die onafhanklike state Adiabene, Osroene, Hatra en uiteindelik Assur gedurende die 3de eeu. In die middel van die 6de eeu is die Persiese Ryk onder die Sassanid-dinastie deur Khosrow I in vier kwarte verdeel, waarvan die westelike, genoem Khvārvarān, ingesluit die meeste van die moderne Irak, en onderverdeel in provinsies van Mishān, Asuristān (Assirië), Adiabene en Lower Media. Die term Irak word wyd gebruik in die Middeleeuse Arabiese bronne vir die gebied in die middel en suid van die moderne republiek as 'n geografiese eerder as 'n politieke term, wat geen groter presisie van grense impliseer as die term 'Mesopotamië' of, inderdaad, baie van die name van moderne state voor die 20ste eeu.

    Daar was 'n aansienlike toestroming van Arabiere in die Sassanid -tydperk. Bo -Mesopotamië het bekend gestaan ​​as Al-Jazirah in Arabies (wat "die eiland" beteken met verwysing na die "eiland" tussen die riviere Tigris en Eufraat), en Laer Mesopotamië het bekend gestaan ​​as RIrāq-i ʿArab, wat beteken "die platorand van die Arabiere" (nl. suid en oos van "die eiland". [13]

    Tot 602 is die woestyngrens van die Persiese Ryk bewaak deur die Arabiese Lakhmid-konings van Al-Hirah. In daardie jaar het Shahanshah Khosrow II Aparviz (Persies خسرو پرويز) die Lakhmid -koninkryk afgeskaf en die grens oopgemaak vir nomade -invalle. Verder noord is die westelike kwartier begrens deur die Bisantynse Ryk. Die grens het min of meer die moderne grens tussen Sirië en Irak gevolg en noordwaarts voortgegaan en tussen Nisibis (moderne Nusaybin) verby as die Sassaniese grensvesting en Dara en Amida (moderne Diyarbakır) wat deur die Bisantyne gehou is.

    Arabiese verowering Redigeer

    Die eerste georganiseerde konflik tussen plaaslike Arabiese stamme en Persiese magte was blykbaar in 634, toe die Arabiere tydens die Slag van die Brug verslaan is. Daar was 'n mag van ongeveer 5.000 Moslems onder Abū `Ubayd ath-Thaqafī, wat deur die Perse gelei is. Dit is gevolg deur die suksesvolle veldtog van Khalid ibn al-Walid, waarin heel Irak binne 'n jaar onder Arabiese bewind gekom het, met die uitsondering van die hoofstad van die Persiese Ryk, Ctesiphon. Rondom 636 verslaan 'n groter Arabiese Moslemmag onder Sa'd ibn Abī Waqqās die belangrikste Persiese leër tydens die Slag van al-Qādisiyyah en gaan die persiese hoofstad Ctesiphon verower. Teen die einde van 638 het die Moslems al die Westelike Sassanid -provinsies (insluitend die moderne Irak) verower, en die laaste Sassanid -keiser, Yazdegerd III, het na die sentrale en daarna noordelike Persië gevlug, waar hy in 651 vermoor is.

    Die Islamitiese uitbreidings was die grootste van die Semitiese uitbreidings in die geskiedenis. These new arrivals did not disperse and settle throughout the country instead they established two new garrison cities, at al-Kūfah, near ancient Babylon, and at Basrah in the south, while the north remained largely Assyrian and Arab Christian in character.

    Abbasid Caliphate Edit

    The city of Baghdad was built in the 8th century and became the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate. Baghdad soon became the primary cultural center of the Muslim world during the centuries of the incipient "Islamic Golden Age" of the 8th to 9th centuries.

    In the 9th century, the Abbasid Caliphate entered a period of decline. During the late 9th to early 11th centuries, a period known as the "Iranian Intermezzo", parts of (the modern territory of) Iraq were governed by a number of minor Iranian emirates, including the Tahirids, Saffarids, Samanids, Buyids and Sallarids. Tughril, the founder of the Seljuk Empire, captured Baghdad in 1055. In spite of having lost all governance, the Abbasid caliphs nevertheless maintained a highly ritualized court in Baghdad and remained influential in religious matters, maintaining the orthodoxy of their Sunni sect in opposition to the Ismaili and Shia sects of Islam.

    Mongol invasion Edit

    In the later 11th century, Iraq fell under the rule of the Khwarazmian dynasty. Both Turkic secular rule and Abassid caliphate came to an end with the Mongol invasions of the 13th century. [14] The Mongols under Genghis Khan had conquered Khwarezmia by 1221, but Iraq proper gained a respite due to the death of Genghis Khan in 1227 and the subsequent power struggles. Möngke Khan from 1251 began a renewed expansion of the Mongol Empire, and when caliph al-Mustasim refused to submit to the Mongols, Baghdad was besieged and captured by Hulagu Khan in 1258. With the destruction of the Abbasid Caliphate, Hulagu had an open route to Syria and moved against the other Muslim powers in the region. [15]

    Turco-Mongol rule Edit

    Iraq now became a province on the southwestern fringes of the Ilkhanate and Baghdad would never regain its former importance.

    The Jalayirids were a Mongol Jalayir dynasty [16] which ruled over Iraq and western Persia [17] after the breakup of the Ilkhanate in the 1330s. The Jalayirid sultanate lasted about fifty years, until disrupted by Tamerlane's conquests and the revolts of the "Black Sheep Turks" or Qara Qoyunlu Turkmen. After Tamerlane's death in 1405, there was a brief attempt to re-establish the sultanate in southern Iraq and Khuzistan. The Jalayirids were finally eliminated by Kara Koyunlu in 1432.

    During the late 14th and early 15th centuries, the Black Sheep Turkmen ruled the area now known as Iraq. In 1466, the White Sheep Turkmen defeated the Black Sheep and took control. Later, the White Sheep were defeated by the Safavids, who took control over Mesopotamia for some time. In the 16th century, most of the territory of present-day Iraq came under the control of Ottoman Empire as the pashalik of Baghdad. Throughout most of the period of Ottoman rule (1533–1918) the territory of present-day Iraq was a battle zone between the rival regional empires and tribal alliances. Iraq was divided into three vilayets:

    The Safavid dynasty of Iran briefly asserted their hegemony over Iraq in the periods of 1508–1533 and 1622–1638. During the years 1747–1831 Iraq was ruled by the Mamluk officers of Georgian origin who succeeded in obtaining autonomy from the Ottoman Empire, suppressed tribal revolts, curbed the power of the Janissaries, restored order and introduced a program of modernization of economy and military. In 1831, the Ottomans managed to overthrow the Mamluk regime and again imposed their direct control over Iraq. [18]

    British mandate Edit

    Ottoman rule over Iraq lasted until World War I, when the Ottomans sided with Germany and the Central Powers. In the Mesopotamian campaign against the Central Powers, British forces invaded the country and suffered a defeat at the hands of the Turkish army during the Siege of Kut (1915–16). However the British finally won in the Mesopotamian Campaign with the capture of Baghdad in March 1917. During the war the British employed the help of a number of Assyrian, Armenian and Arab tribes against the Ottomans, who in turn employed the Kurds as allies. After the war the Ottoman Empire was divided up, and the British Mandate of Mesopotamia was established by League of Nations mandate. Britain imposed a Hāshimite monarchy on Iraq and defined the territorial limits of Iraq without taking into account the politics of the different ethnic and religious groups in the country, in particular those of the Kurds and the Christian Assyrians to the north. During the British occupation, the Kurds fought for independence, and the British employed Assyrian Levies to help quell these insurrections. Iraq also became an oligarchy government at this time.

    Although the monarch Faisal I of Iraq was legitimized and proclaimed King by a plebiscite in 1921, independence was achieved in 1932, when the British Mandate officially ended.

    Independent Kingdom of Iraq Edit

    Establishment of Arab Sunni domination in Iraq was followed by Assyrian, Yazidi and Shi'a unrests, which were all brutally suppressed. In 1936, the first military coup took place in the Kingdom of Iraq, as Bakr Sidqi succeeded in replacing the acting Prime Minister with his associate. Multiple coups followed in a period of political instability, peaking in 1941.

    During World War II, Iraqi regime of Regent 'Abd al-Ilah was overthrown in 1941 by the Golden Square officers, headed by Rashid Ali. The short lived pro-Nazi government of Iraq was defeated in May 1941 by the allied forces (with local Assyrian and Kurdish help) in Anglo-Iraqi War. Irak is later gebruik as basis vir geallieerde aanvalle op Vichy-French-mandaat van Sirië en ondersteuning vir die Anglo-Sowjet-inval in Iran. [19]

    In 1945, Iraq joined the United Nations and became a founding member of the Arab League. At the same time, the Kurdish leader Mustafa Barzani led a rebellion against the central government in Baghdad. After the failure of the uprising, Barzani and his followers fled to the Soviet Union.

    In 1948, massive violent protests known as the Al-Wathbah uprising broke out across Baghdad with partial communist support, having demands against the government's treaty with Britain. Protests continued into spring and were interrupted in May when martial law was enforced as Iraq entered the failed 1948 Arab–Israeli War along with other Arab League members.

    In February 1958, King Hussein of Jordan and `Abd al-Ilāh proposed a union of Hāshimite monarchies to counter the recently formed Egyptian-Syrian union. The prime minister Nuri as-Said wanted Kuwait to be part of the proposed Arab-Hāshimite Union. Shaykh `Abd-Allāh as-Salīm, the ruler of Kuwait, was invited to Baghdad to discuss Kuwait's future. This policy brought the government of Iraq into direct conflict with Britain, which did not want to grant independence to Kuwait. At that point, the monarchy found itself completely isolated. Nuri as-Said was able to contain the rising discontent only by resorting to even greater political oppression.

    Republic of Iraq Edit

    Inspired by Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt, officers from the Nineteenth Brigade, 3rd Division known as "The Four Colonials", under the leadership of Brigadier Abd al-Karīm Qāsim (known as "az-Za`īm", 'the leader') and Colonel Abdul Salam Arif overthrew the Hashemite monarchy on July 14, 1958. The new government proclaimed Iraq to be a republic and rejected the idea of a union with Jordan. Iraq's activity in the Baghdad Pact ceased.

    In 1961, Kuwait gained independence from Britain and Iraq claimed sovereignty over Kuwait. A period of considerable instability followed. The same year, Mustafa Barzani, who had been invited to return to Iraq by Qasim three years earlier, began engaging Iraqi government forces and establishing Kurdish control in the north in what was the beginning of the First Kurdish Iraqi War.

    Ba'athist Iraq Edit

    Qāsim was assassinated in February 1963, when the Ba'ath Party took power under the leadership of General Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr (prime minister) and Colonel Abdul Salam Arif (president). In June 1963, Syria, which by then had also fallen under Ba'athist rule, took part in the Iraqi military campaign against the Kurds by providing aircraft, armoured vehicles and a force of 6,000 soldiers. Several months later, `Abd as-Salam Muhammad `Arif led a successful coup against the Ba'ath government. Arif declared a ceasefire in February 1964 which provoked a split among Kurdish urban radicals on one hand and Peshmerga (Freedom fighters) forces led by Barzani on the other.

    On April 13, 1966, President Abdul Salam Arif died in a helicopter crash and was succeeded by his brother, General Abdul Rahman Arif. Following this unexpected death, the Iraqi government launched a last-ditch effort to defeat the Kurds. This campaign failed in May 1966, when Barzani forces thoroughly defeated the Iraqi Army at the Battle of Mount Handrin, near Rawanduz. Following the Six-Day War of 1967, the Ba'ath Party felt strong enough to retake power in 1968. Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr became president and chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council (RCC). The Ba'ath government started a campaign to end the Kurdish insurrection, which stalled in 1969. This can be partly attributed to the internal power struggle in Baghdad and also tensions with Iran. Moreover, the Soviet Union pressured the Iraqis to come to terms with Barzani. The war ended with more than 100,000 mortal casualties, with little achievements to both Kurdish rebels and the Iraqi government.

    In the aftermath of the First Kurdish Iraqi War, a peace plan was announced in March 1970 and provided for broader Kurdish autonomy. The plan also gave Kurds representation in government bodies, to be implemented in four years. [20] Despite this, the Iraqi government embarked on an Arabization program in the oil rich regions of Kirkuk and Khanaqin in the same period. [21] In the following years, Baghdad government overcame its internal divisions and concluded a treaty of friendship with the Soviet Union in April 1972 and ended its isolation within the Arab world. On the other hand, Kurds remained dependent on the Iranian military support and could do little to strengthen their forces. By 1974 the situation in the north escalated again into the Second Kurdish Iraqi War, to last until 1975.

    Under Saddam Hussein Edit

    In July 1979, President Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr was forced to resign by Saddam Hussein, who assumed the offices of both President and Chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council.

    Iraq's Territorial Claims to Neighboring Countries

    Iraq's territorial claims to neighboring countries were largely due to the plans and promises of the Entente countries in 1919–1920, when the Ottoman Empire was divided, to create a more extensive Arab state in Iraq and Jazeera, which would also include significant territories of eastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, all of Kuwait and Iran’s border areas, which are shown on this English map of 1920.

    Territorial disputes with Iran led to an inconclusive and costly eight-year war, the Oorlog tussen Iran en Irak (1980–1988, termed Qādisiyyat-Saddām – 'Saddam's Qādisiyyah'), which devastated the economy. Iraq falsely declared victory in 1988 but actually only achieved a weary return to the status quo ante bellum, meaning both sides retained their original borders.

    The war began when Iraq invaded Iran, launching a simultaneous invasion by air and land into Iranian territory on 22 September 1980, following a long history of border disputes, and fears of Shia insurgency among Iraq's long-suppressed Shia majority influenced by the Iranian Revolution. Iraq was also aiming to replace Iran as the dominant Persian Gulf state. The United States supported Saddam Hussein in the war against Iran. [22] Although Iraq hoped to take advantage of the revolutionary chaos in Iran and attacked without formal warning, they made only limited progress into Iran and within several months were repelled by the Iranians who regained virtually all lost territory by June 1982. For the next six years, Iran was on the offensive. [23] Despite calls for a ceasefire by the United Nations Security Council, hostilities continued until 20 August 1988. The war finally ended with a United Nations-brokered ceasefire in the form of United Nations Security Council Resolution 598, which was accepted by both sides. It took several weeks for the Iranian armed forces to evacuate Iraqi territory to honor pre-war international borders between the two nations (see 1975 Algiers Agreement). The last prisoners of war were exchanged in 2003. [23] [24]

    The war came at a great cost in lives and economic damage—half a million Iraqi and Iranian soldiers, as well as civilians, are believed to have died in the war with many more injured—but it brought neither reparations nor change in borders. The conflict is often compared to World War I, [25] in that the tactics used closely mirrored those of that conflict, including large scale trench warfare, manned machine-gun posts, bayonet charges, use of barbed wire across trenches, human wave attacks across no-man's land, and extensive use of chemical weapons such as mustard gas by the Iraqi government against Iranian troops and civilians as well as Iraqi Kurds. At the time, the UN Security Council issued statements that "chemical weapons had been used in the war." However, in these UN statements, it was never made clear that it was only Iraq that was using chemical weapons, so it has been said that "the international community remained silent as Iraq used weapons of mass destruction against Iranian as well as Iraqi Kurds" and it is believed.

    A long-standing territorial dispute was the ostensible reason for Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in 1990. In November 1990, the UN Security Council adopted Resolution 678, permitting member states to use all necessary means, authorizing military action against the Iraqi forces occupying Kuwait and demanded a complete withdrawal by January 15, 1991. When Saddam Hussein failed to comply with this demand, the Persian Gulf War (Operation "Desert Storm") ensued on January 17, 1991. Estimates range from 1,500 to as many as 30,000 Iraqi soldiers killed, as well as less than a thousand civilians. [26] [27]

    In March 1991 revolts in the Shia-dominated southern Iraq started involving demoralized Iraqi Army troops and the anti-government Shia parties. Another wave of insurgency broke out shortly afterwards in the Kurdish populated northern Iraq (see 1991 uprisings in Iraq). Although they presented a serious threat to the Iraqi Ba'ath Party regime, Saddam Hussein managed to suppress the rebellions with massive and indiscriminate force and maintained power. They were ruthlessly crushed by the loyalist forces spearheaded by the Iraqi Republican Guard and the population was successfully terrorized. During the few weeks of unrest tens of thousands of people were killed. Many more died during the following months, while nearly two million Iraqis fled for their lives. In the aftermath, the government intensified the forced relocating of Marsh Arabs and the draining of the Iraqi marshlands, while the Coalition established the Iraqi no-fly zones.

    On 6 August 1990, after the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait, the U.N. Security Council adopted Resolution 661 which imposed economic sanctions on Iraq, providing for a full trade embargo, excluding medical supplies, food and other items of humanitarian necessity, these to be determined by the Security Council sanctions committee. After the end of the Gulf War and after the Iraqi withdrawal from Kuwait, the sanctions were linked to removal of weapons of mass destruction by Resolution 687. [28] From 1991 until 2003 Iraq underwent hyperinflation, increased poverty and malnutrition. To varying degrees, the effects of government policy, the aftermath of Gulf War and the sanctions regime have been blamed for these conditions.

    The effects of the sanctions on the civilian population of Iraq have been disputed. [29] [30] Whereas it was widely believed that the sanctions caused a major rise in child mortality, recent research has shown that commonly cited data were fabricated by the Iraqi government and that "there was no major rise in child mortality in Iraq after 1990 and during the period of the sanctions." [31] [32] [33] An oil for food program was established in 1996 to ease the effects of sanctions.

    Iraqi cooperation with UN weapons inspection teams was questioned on several occasions during the 1990s. UNSCOM chief weapons inspector Richard Butler withdrew his team from Iraq in November 1998 because of Iraq's lack of cooperation. The team returned in December. [34] Butler prepared a report for the UN Security Council afterwards in which he expressed dissatisfaction with the level of compliance [2]. The same month, US President Bill Clinton authorized air strikes on government targets and military facilities. Air strikes against military facilities and alleged WMD sites continued into 2002.

    2003 invasion Edit

    After the terrorist attacks on New York and Washington in the United States in 2001 were linked to the group formed by the multi-millionaire Saudi Osama bin Laden, American foreign policy began to call for the removal of the Ba'ath government in Iraq. Neoconservative think-tanks in Washington had for years been urging regime change in Baghdad. On August 14, 1998, President Clinton signed Public Law 105–235, which declared that ‘‘the Government of Iraq is in material and unacceptable breach of its international obligations.’’ It urged the President ‘‘to take appropriate action, in accordance with the Constitution and relevant laws of the United States, to bring Iraq into compliance with its international obligations.’’ Several months later, Congress enacted the Iraq Liberation Act of 1998 on October 31, 1998. This law stated that it "should be the policy of the United States to support efforts to remove the regime headed by Saddam Hussein from power in Iraq and to promote the emergence of a democratic government to replace that regime." It was passed 360 - 38 by the United States House of Representatives and 99–0 by the United States Senate in 1998.

    The US urged the United Nations to take military action against Iraq. American president George W. Bush stated that Saddām had repeatedly violated 16 UN Security Council resolutions. The Iraqi government rejected Bush's assertions. A team of U.N. inspectors, led by Swedish diplomat Hans Blix was admitted, into the country their final report stated that Iraqis capability in producing "weapons of mass destruction" was not significantly different from 1992 when the country dismantled the bulk of their remaining arsenals under terms of the ceasefire agreement with U.N. forces, but did not completely rule out the possibility that Saddam still had weapons of mass destruction. The United States and the United Kingdom charged that Iraq was hiding WMD and opposed the team's requests for more time to further investigate the matter. Resolution 1441 was passed unanimously by the UN Security Council on November 8, 2002, offering Iraq "a final opportunity to comply with its disarmament obligations" that had been set out in several previous UN resolutions, threatening "serious consequences" if the obligations were not fulfilled. The UN Security Council did not issue a resolution authorizing the use of force against Iraq.

    In March 2003, the United States and the United Kingdom, with military aid from other nations, invaded Iraq.


    Archaeologists Finally Identify a 4000-Year-Old Lost City in Iraq

    In 2016, archaeologists excavating in the Autonomous Region of Kurdistan in Iraq discovered the remnants of a Bronze Age city near the modern village of Bassetki. It was large, and it appeared to have been occupied for more than 1000 years, from around 2200 to 1200 BCE. Ancient Mesopotamia, home to the earliest civilizations on Earth, had many cities. So which one was it?

    The mystery remained until recently, when a language expert at the University of Heidelberg translated clay cuneiform tablets unearthed at the site in 2017. The archaeologists had discovered Mardaman, a once-important city mentioned in ancient texts, which had been thought lost to time.

    The inscriptions were likely written around 1250 BCE when Mardaman (also called Mardama) was a part of the Assyrian Empire. According to the University of Tübingen archaeologists who unearthed the tablets, they describe the "administrative and commercial affairs" between the citizens of Mardaman and their Assyrian governor Assur-nasir. The account led the researchers to believe that the area where the tablets were recovered was once the governor's palace.

    Peter Pfälzner, University of Tübingen

    Situated on trade routes connecting Mesopotamia, Anatolia (modern Turkey), and Syria, Mardaman was a bustling commercial hub in its day. It was conquered and rebuilt several times, but after it was toppled by the Turukkaeans from the neighboring Zagros Mountains sometime in the 18th century BCE, it was never mentioned again in ancient texts. Experts had assumed that marked the end of Marmadan. This latest discovery shows that the city recovered from that dark period, and still existed 500 years later.

    "The cuneiform texts and our findings from the excavations in Bassetki now make it clear that that was not the end," lead archeologist Peter Pfälzner said in a press statement. "The city existed continuously and achieved a final significance as a Middle Assyrian governor's seat between 1250 and 1200 BCE."

    This lost chapter of history may never have been uncovered if the clay tablets were stored any other way. Archeologists found the 92 slabs in a pottery vessel that had been sealed with a thick layer of clay, perhaps to preserve the contents for future generations. The state in which they were found suggests they were stashed away shortly after the surrounding building was destroyed.


    Lost Mesopotamian city discovered in Iraq


    The ancient city has yielded thousands of artefacts. Image Credit: CC BY 2.5 Marie-Lan Nguyen

    Situated on the banks of the Great Zab river, the discovery was made during an archaeological investigation of the Fertile Crescent - a 3,000-square-kilometer region that many believe to have been the birthplace of agriculture sometime around 10,000 years ago.

    The area had been off-limits for a long time due to political instability and the presence of ISIS.

    "What is surprising is the size of this settlement," said Rafal Kolinski of Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan. "All the earlier settlements evidenced in the area are very small in size, rarely exceeding 1 hectare. The same can be said of settlements contemporary to Xarab-i Kilashin, our urban site, which were mere villages."

    Covering a semi-circular area of the northern river bank with a diameter of around 300 meters, the site of Xarab-i Kilashin has already yielded an astonishing array of over 12,000 artefacts including pieces of pottery and terracotta stamps.

    The city was thought to have been home to a dignitary who ruled over the surrounding lands.


    Archeologists stumble upon 4,000-year-old “lost” city of ancient Mesopotamia

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    In the foothills of Zagros mountains, in what is nowadays Iraqi Kurdistan, an autonomous region of Iraq both close to Iran and Turkey–is where the site of Kunara can be found. An archeological gem first spotted in 2011.

    At the end of the 3rd millennium B.C., archeologists say, this was a vibrant town, perhaps the capital of a mysterious kingdom that existed at the edges of Mesopotamia’s first great empire, the Akkadians.

    Ongoing excavations have been carried by a team of French archeologists. On March 19, 2019, the French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS) published about the discovery.

    One theory is that the lost city could belong to the Lullubi people, Photo credit: Jolle, CC BY-SA 4.0

    One theory proposed is that this ancient, lost city belonged to the Lullubi people, little-known mountainous people, who, as artifacts tell, kept strong trade relationships with far-flung regions such as Iran on the east, and Anatolia and the Caucasus on the north.

    Some written accounts of the era, describe the Lullubi as barbarians. An artifact found at the Louvre Museum, depicting one of the great Akkadian kings, Naram-Sin, portrays how he celebrates his triumph over the Lullubi. But rare has been the accounts or artifacts attesting to the Lullubi from their own perspective. Perhaps until now.

    Map showing the extent of Mesopotamia. Shown are Washukanni, Nineveh, Hatra, Assur, Nuzi, Palmyra, Mari, Sippar, Babylon, Kish, Nippur, Isin, Lagash, Uruk, Charax Spasinu and Ur, fromnorth to south . Credit: Goran tek -en, CC BY-SA 4.0

    While digging on the Kunara site, archeologists came across large stone foundations, both in the upper and lower layers. The stones have been dated to circa 2,200 B.C. Among the most interesting items which resurfaced were dozens of small clay tablets, which revealed cuneiform writing, typical for the region where writing began for the first time in the world, during the latter half of the 4th millennium B.C.

    CNRS cuneiform specialist Philippe Clancier said in a statements that the cuniform tablets revealed “a firm grasp of Akkadian and Sumerian writing, as well as that of their Mesopotamian neighbors.”

    The Victory Stele of Naram-Sin(circa 2250 BC), commemorating the victory of Akkadian Empire king Naram-Sin (standing left) over Lullubi mountain tribe and their king Satuni. Musée du Louvre. Credit: Rama, CC BY-SA 3.0 fr

    Upon deciphering, the tablets revealed accounting and administrative information related with the city’s large-scale agricultural and farming. A so far unknown unit of measurement was identified on these tablets, one different than the Mesopotamian gur, which according to experts, is a great hint the Lullubi run their city and/or kingdom independently. Nevertheless, the Lullubi fell under Akkadian dominion.

    Aline Tenu, who led the archeological expeditions to the Middle East site, stated that “the city of Kunara provides new elements regarding a hitherto unknown people that has remained at the periphery of Mesopotamian studies.”

    Anubanini relief showing Lullubi prisoners and their king, Credit: Koorosh Nozad Tehrani, CC BY-SA 2.0

    “It is possible that this city was one of the capitals of the Lullubi,” he said, which, if the theory confirmed, will make all the difference for the history of these mysterious people. Traditional interpretations have suggested they lived in isolation from the world, for example, but now it turns out they were much more advanced. They used rare gemstones such as obsidians for producing commonplace tools for work. To obtain such resources, the Lullubi must have kept close commercial relations with very remote regions indeed.

    “This openness toward the world and affluence is also illustrated by the presence of a number of moulds for metal blades. Kunara and its inhabitants were therefore full participants in the Bronze Age, which had begun a few centuries earlier in Mesopotamia,” writes Jean-Baptiste Veyrieras on the CNRS news website.

    Sar-e Pol-e Zahab, relief IV, Beardless warrior with byl , trampling a foe. Sundisk above. A name “Zaba( zuna ), son of …” can be read. [ This is possibly the son of Iddin-Sin, a ruler of the Kingdom of Simurrum. [

    More remnants attesting to a great civilization include bone remains of both livestock and bears and lions. The latter type of animals may stand as a proof that the Lullubi practiced royal huntings and offerings. Animal husbandry and crops growth relied on a developed irrigation system as well.

    Further excavations on the site may unveil the answers to many questions that remain obscured in mystery. Like…were the Lullubi peoples the real inhabitants of this great lost city? Is it true that the city never became part of the great Akkadian Empire? If the Lullubi weren’t the occupants of the city, then…who was?


    Significant Bronze Age city discovered in Northern Iraq

    Archeologists from the Institute for Ancient Near Eastern Studies (IANES) at the University of Tübingen have uncovered a large Bronze Age city not far from the town of Dohuk in northern Iraq. The excavation work has demonstrated that the settlement, which is now home to the small Kurdish village of Bassetki in the Autonomous Region of Kurdistan, was established in about 3000 BC and was able to flourish for more than 1200 years. The archeologists also discovered settlement layers dating from the Akkadian Empire period (2340-2200 BC), which is regarded as the first world empire in human history.

    Scientists headed by Professor Peter Pfälzner from the University of Tübingen and Dr. Hasan Qasim from the Directorate of Antiquities in Dohuk conducted the excavation work in Bassetki between August and October 2016. As a result, they were able to preempt the construction work on a highway on this land. The former significance of the settlement can be seen from the finds discovered during the excavation work. The city already had a wall running around the upper part of the town from approx. 2700 BC onwards in order to protect its residents from invaders. Large stone structures were erected there in about 1800 BC. The researchers also found fragments of Assyrian cuneiform tablets dating from about 1300 BC, which suggested the existence of a temple dedicated to the Mesopotamian weather god Adad on this site. There was a lower town about one kilometer long outside the city center. Using geomagnetic resistance measurements, the archeologists discovered indications of an extensive road network, various residential districts, grand houses and a kind of palatial building dating from the Bronze Age. The residents buried their dead at a cemetery outside the city. The settlement was connected to the neighboring regions of Mesopotamia and Anatolia via an overland roadway dating from about 1800 BC.

    Bassetki was only known to the general public in the past because of the "Bassetki statue," which was discovered there by chance in 1975. This is a fragment of a bronze figure of the Akkadian god-king Naram-Sin (about 2250 BC). The discovery was stolen from the National Museum in Baghdad during the Iraq War in 2003, but was later rediscovered by US soldiers. Up until now, researchers were unable to explain the location of the find. The archeologists have now been able to substantiate their assumption that an important outpost of Akkadian culture may have been located there.

    Although the excavation site is only 45 kilometers from territory controlled by the Islamic State (IS), it was possible to conduct the archeological work without any disturbances. "The protection of our employees is always our top priority. Despite the geographical proximity to IS, there's a great deal of security and stability in the Kurdish autonomous areas in Iraq," said Professor Peter Pfälzner, Director of the Department of Near Eastern Archaeology at the IANES of the University of Tübingen. The research team consisting of 30 people lived in the city of Dohuk, which is only 60 kilometers north of Mosul, during the excavation work.

    In another project being handled by the "ResourceCultures" collaborative research center (SFB 1070), Pfälzner's team has been completing an archeological inspection of territory in the complete area surrounding Bassetki as far as the Turkish and Syrian borders since 2013 -- and 300 previously unknown sites have been discovered. The excavations and the research work in the region are due to be continued during the summer of 2017. "The area around Bassetki is proving to be an unexpectedly rich cultural region, which was located at the crossroads of communication ways between the Mesopotamian, Syrian and Anatolian cultures during the Bronze Age. We're therefore planning to establish a long-term archeological research project in the region in conjunction with our Kurdish colleagues," says Pfälzner. The excavation work is being funded by the Fritz Thyssen Foundation.


    The last phase, 6th–4th century bce

    The last king to build at Ur was the Achaemenian Cyrus the Great, whose inscription on bricks is similar to the “edict” quoted by the scribe Ezra regarding the restoration of the Temple at Jerusalem. The conqueror was clearly anxious to placate his new subjects by honouring their gods, whatever those gods might be. But Ur was now thoroughly decadent it survived into the reign of Artaxerxes II, but only a single tablet (of Philip Arrhidaeus, 317 bce ) carries on the story. It was perhaps at this time that the Euphrates changed its course and with the breakdown of the whole irrigation system, Ur, its fields reduced to desert, was finally abandoned.

    Discoveries made on other sites have supplemented the unusually full record obtained from the Ur excavations. Knowledge of the city’s history and of the manner of life of its inhabitants, of their business, and of their art is now fairly complete and remarkably detailed.