Geskiedenis Podcasts

USS Quincy (CA-71) (oorspronklik St Paul)

USS Quincy (CA-71) (oorspronklik St Paul)

USS Quincy (CA-71) (oorspronklik St Paul)

USS Quincy (CA-71) was 'n swaar cruiser in die Baltimore-klas wat gehelp het om die D-Day-landings en Operation Dragoon te ondersteun voordat hy na die Stille Oseaan verhuis het vir die laaste gevegte teen Japan. Sy het ook in die Koreaanse oorlog gedien voordat sy in 1954 vir 'n tweede keer uit diens gestel is. Quincy ontvang vier gevegsterre vir diens van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog.

CA-71 is op 9 Oktober 1941 neergelê en sou oorspronklik USS genoem word St Paul. Op 9 Augustus 1942 het die New Orleans -swaarkruiser USS Quincy (CA-39) is in die slag van Savo Island gesink. Daar is besluit om CA-71 ter ere van haar te hernoem, en sy word die derde USS Quincy op 16 Oktober 1942. CA-73, wat USS genoem is Rochester is herdoop as USS St Paul, en CA-124 het USS geword Rochester .

Die nuwe Quincy is op 23 Junie 1943 van stapel gestuur en op 15 Desember 1943 in gebruik geneem. Haar skip het haar na die Karibiese Eilande geneem en sy is toe aan die Task Force 22 toegewys vir verdere opleiding aan die kus van Maine.

Die meeste cruisers van die Baltimore -klas wat tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog diens moes sien, is na die Stille Oseaan gestuur, maar die Quincy begin haar aktiewe loopbaan teen Duitsland. Sy is aangestel op TG 27.10 en het by die 12de vloot aangesluit na haar aankoms in Belfast in die middel van Mei.

Sy is toegewys aan die bombarderingsgroep vir die landings op Utah Beach, en het D-Day om 5.37uur losgebrand. Haar eerste taak was om Duitse walgewere te onderdruk. Sy het van D-Day tot 17 Junie van die strande in Normandië gebly en vuur ondersteun vir die troepe wat aan wal skiet en 'n wye reeks teikens getref, waaronder vyandelike geweerbatterye, tenks en artillerie. Sy het ook gehelp met die aanval op Quineville op 12 Junie 1944.

Op 21 Junie het die Quincy het by TF 129 by Portland aangesluit. Die taakspan het Cherbourg op 24 Junie gebombardeer en het Amerikaanse troepe op dieselfde dag gehelp om die hawe te verower.

Die Quincy is daarna toegewys aan die vloot wat Operasie Dragoon sou ondersteun. Sy het op 10 Julie in Mers-el-Kebir aangekom en daarna na Italië verhuis vir bombardemente op die wal.

Op 15 Augustus het sy losgebrand ter ondersteuning van die linkerflank van die 3de Amerikaanse leër in die suide van Frankryk. Op 19 Augustus verhuis sy na TG 86.4 en konsentreer van toe tot 24 Augustus haar poging teen die Duitse geweerbatterye by Toulon, St. Mandrier en Cape Sicie.

Op 1 September het die Quincy het die vloot in die Middellandse See verlaat om na die VSA terug te keer. Sy bestee 'n deel van die res van 1944, voordat sy gekies is om president Roosevelt na Malta te vervoer op pad na die Grootmoondheidskonferensie in Jalta op die Krim. Die president het op 23 Januarie aan boord gekom en is op 2 Februarie aan Malta afgelewer. Winston Churchill het die president besoek voordat die leiers na Jalta gevlieg het

Die Quincy verder oos na die Suez -kanaal, waar die president op 12 Februarie weer aan boord gekom het. In die komende dae huisves die kruiser koning Farouk I van Egipte, keiser Haile Selassie van Ethiopië en koning Ibn Saud van Saoedi -Arabië. Die Quincy Vervolgens vervoer president Roosevelt terug na die Verenigde State en arriveer op 27 Februarie.

Nou eers verhuis sy na die Stille Oseaan -teater. Sy het op 11 April by die 5de vloot by Ulithi aangesluit en daarna oorgegaan tot Cruiser Division 10, deel van Admiral Mitscher se Fast Carrier Task Force.

Die Quincy het aan drie gevegsuitstappies in die Stille Oseaan deelgeneem. Die eerste het van 16 tot 30 April geduur en die draers het Okinawa, Amami Gunto en Minami Daito Shima aangeval.

Sy het deel uitgemaak van TF 58 tydens die tweede uitstappie, wat van 9 Mei tot 13 Junie geduur het. Hierdie keer het die draers Amami Gunto, Kyushu, Okinawa, Tokuno Shima, Kakai Jima, Amami Gunto en Asumi Gunto getref. Gedurende hierdie tydperk het die Quincy 'n Japanse vliegtuig neergeskiet terwyl haar eie spotplekke 'n aanval op Tokune Shima uitgevoer het.

Die derde uitwissing begin op 1 Julie en duur tot aan die einde van die oorlog. Hierdie keer het die Quincy was by Task Force 38 (toe die bevel oor die vloot verander het, het dit verruil tussen die derde vloot en die vyfde vloot, terwyl alle taakgroepe hul getalle dienooreenkomstig verander het. Hierdie keer fokus die vervoerder op hul pogings teen die Japannese Eilande.

Na afloop van die geveg het die Quincy is toegeken aan die ondersteuningsmag. Sy het die besetting van Sagami Wan onderneem en daarna op 1 September Tokiobaai binnegegaan. Op 20 September word sy deel van die 5th Fleet, gebaseer in Tokiobaai.

Die Quincy op 19 Oktober 1946 vir die eerste keer in gebruik geneem. Op 31 Januarie 1952 is sy weer in gebruik geneem om aan die Koreaanse Oorlog deel te neem. Sommige skepe wat weer in gebruik geneem is, is vinnig in die aksie gegooi, maar die Quincy het eers by 25 Julie 1953 by die 7de Vloot aan die Koreaanse kus aangesluit. Twee dae later het 'n wapenstilstand die oorlog beëindig. Quincy het tot 1 Desember 1953 by die vloot gebly. Sy het daarna teruggekeer na die Verenigde State, waar sy op 2 Julie 1954 uit diens gestel is. Sy het in die reservaat gebly totdat sy op 1 Oktober 1973 van die Vlootlys geskrap is. 1974.

Verplasing (standaard)

14,472t

Verplasing (gelaai)

17,031 t

Vinnigste spoed

33 kt

Bereik

10,000nm op 15kts

Pantser - gordel

4-6 duim

- pantserdek

2.5in

- Barbette

6.3in

- torings

8 in die gesig
3in dak
2-3,75 duim kante
1.5 agter

- konntoring

6in
3in dak

- tydskrifte onder water

3in kant
2.5 duim dek

Lengte

673ft 5in oa

Bewapening

Nege 8 -in -kanonne (drie drievoudige torings)
Twaalf 5in/38 gewere (ses dubbele posisies)
Agt en veertig 40 mm kanonne (11x4, 2x2)
Vier en twintig 20 mm gewere
Vier vliegtuie

Bemanning komplement

2039

Neergelê

9 Oktober 1941

Van stapel gestuur

23 Junie 1943

Voltooi

15 Desember 1943

Getref

1 Oktober 1973


DMучшие сообщения DMcLaren

'N Paar Douglas SBD Dauntless -vliegtuie in twee verskillende stelle kentekens, albei uit die somer van 1942, Enterprise Air Group. 'GC' op die vroeëre van die twee vliegtuie is 'groepsbevelvoerder', in hierdie geval óf kommandant Howard L. Young, luitenantkommandant C. Wade McClusky, óf luitenantkommandant Maxwell F. Leslie. Die eerste een, "GC", kom uit die tyd wat hulle tydens die Coral Sea-veldtog aan die Enterprise (CV-6) bestee het, en die tweede, "B10", verteenwoordig die res van die luggroep soos dit verskyn het tydens die Slag van Midway. Ek het sterk gesteun op foto's in die boek "The Big E - The Story of the USS Enterprise, Illustrated Edition" deur Edward P. Stafford vir die plasing van plakkate en tipes.


Ek het die tuisgemaakte stickers op 'n wit agtergrond gebruik vir die eerste dekallaag aan die onderkant, maar die bokant van elke vliegtuig is anders omdat die GC -vliegtuie meestal 'n sticker is en dat B10 meestal met die hand geïnkt is. U kan dit sien as u die foto's vergroot sien, aangesien die vliegtuig met die hand geverf het, skoner lyne het. Die tuisgemaakte plakkers is op my 300 DPI -drukker gedruk, sodat hulle beter kan lyk as hulle op 'n 600 DPI of beter drukker gedruk is, maar dit sal baie goed wees vir 'n A & ampA -speletjie.

Die bedieningsoppervlaktes op GC is almal met 'n etiket, maar B10 is slegs op die duikflappe bo -op die plakplaat; die res van die boonste bedieningsoppervlaktes is met die hand ge ink. Die kajuit is ook met die hand geverf. Die neusgewere en motorhoes van die boonste enjin is met die hand geteken met waterdigte ink op deursigtige papier, want ek wou nie wag dat 'n plakkaat van die nie-waterdigte afdruk droog word nie, bedek dit en wag totdat dit droog word voordat ek dit kon gebruik. Hier kan u die groot handtekening op die neus van die vliegtuig sien voordat baie Micro Sol -ID aangebring word. Slegs die gedeelte is met 'n etiket- die res van die omhulsellyne en uitlaat word met die hand ge ink. U kan ook die duikflap en ander kontroles op die eerste laag verf sien. Die "trap" -area op die vleuel is geverf:

Die moeilike deel van die gebruik van tuisgemaakte plakkers is die toepassing. U het die bokant van 'n plakkaat in werklikheid gespuit en dit van die vel afgesny, in water gedompel om dit te skei en op die plastiek aangebring sodra dit van die papier af sou gly. Die probleem is dat die plakkaat self eers die water begin absorbeer, sodat dit uitbrei, terwyl die geverfde bokant dit nie doen nie. U tuisgemaakte plakkaat sal dus om die rande "afskil". Ek het op die harde manier geleer dat dit die beste is om liberale hoeveelhede Micro Sol in hierdie fase aan te wend om van die krul ontslae te raak en om die plakkaat te help om by die vliegtuig te bly. Dit maak nie saak of dit op skoon plastiek of 'n gegrond stuk toegedien is nie- baie Micro Sol is nodig. Die Micro Sol help ook om ontslae te raak van 'silwer' op die duidelike dele van die sticker. Met die wit agtergrond hoef ek natuurlik nie daaroor bekommerd te wees nie, maar die plakkers bo -op is duidelik, so ek moes ekstra versigtig wees om seker te maak dat dit nie silwer is nie. Dit het nie saak gemaak nie- sommige het in elk geval. Soos u op die prentjie kan sien, sny ek gedeeltes van die onderste dekaal in 'n keer van die vel af, eerder as van die hele ding. Dit het dit baie makliker gemaak om aansoek te doen.


Op die foto hierbo kan u 'n paar silwer onder die duidelike plakkers op die duikflappe van elke vliegtuig sien. As u nie met waterdigte ink druk nie, kan u nie 'n gaatjie in die etiket steek en Micro Sol byvoeg om van die silwer ontslae te raak nie, of u kan die ink onder die beskermende spuit laat vloei, sodat u die plakkaat kan ruïneer nadat dit aangebring is. Nog iets wat ek op die harde manier geleer het. Gelukkig maak hulle 20/0 borsels sodat die ongelukke maklik skoongemaak kan word. Ek moet sê dat dit makliker was om die boonste en onderste bedieningsvlaklyne by die hand in te pas, want al wat ek hoef te doen was om my punt bo -op met die plakkaat aan die onderkant te pas en aan die rand te pas. Dit was baie moeiliker om die plakkaat te doen, so die res doen dit net met 'n duikflap en 'n motorkapgeweer bo -op, met die volledige wit plakkaat aan die onderkant en geen strepe op die stert of rooi kolle in die middel van die die sterre. Hulle lyk miskien goed, maar dit is 'n pyn in die agterkant!



Terwyl FOlewnik 'n paar Amerikaanse vlootdraers klaarmaak, werk ek daaraan om geskikte vliegtuie daarvoor te kry. Ons het Grumman F4F Wildcats gemaak van HBG's effens kleiner as die out-of-box Hellcats (soos voorheen gesien), die OOB Hellcats self en HBG F4U Corsairs, wat uiteindelik die Amerikaanse lugmag sal uitmaak. Ons het ook 'n paar P-40's en baie P-38's. Ons sal die P-38's gebruik vir die Amerikaanse langafstandvliegtuie. Ongeveer 6-7 jaar gelede toe ons besluit het om plakkers by vliegtuie te voeg om die langafstand-AC van gewone te skei, het ek 'n paar Hellcats (swak voor goeie kwaste en toerusting) geverf. Dit was vinnig duidelik dat die OOB -beeld sonder 'n skroefnaaf wat al die ander vliegtuie in die spel gehad het, en die omgeboude F4F's van HBG gehad het, dit net verkeerd laat lyk het. Ek kon 'n kol vir 'n skroefnaaf geverf het, maar die profiel sou steeds verkeerd wees. Ek was nie tevrede met die manier waarop hulle gelyk het nie, soos gesien op hierdie foto wat geneem is nadat ek die kajuitkappies op die taktiek weer gedoen het en die kuipe op die Hellcats laat 2015 laat ink het:

Tweekleurige taktiese #33 word hierbo gesien voordat dit verder aangepas is met tuisgemaakte plakkers, soos vroeër in die berig getoon. Ek het geweet dat ek hierdie Hellcats op 'n stadium sou verf, omdat ek wou hê dat hul neus meer lyk soos die grynsende gesig waarvoor hulle bekend is, soos hier te sien is op hierdie foto van navsource.org:

Dit was al 'n paar jaar in my gedagtes, en laas herfs nadat ek nuwe klere gekoop het, het ek die plastiekstringe wat die etikette vasgehou het, gebêre nadat ek dit afgesny het en gedink het dat dit nuttig kan wees. Ek het gevoel dat dit beter sou wees om 'n gat te boor om die skroefnaaf te aanvaar, en ek het 'n boorpunt gebruik wat net 'n bietjie groter was as die plastiekstringe, net as ek nie in die middel was nie, maar ek het moontlik 'n draairuimte n goeie idee):

Ek gebruik 'n ou gom van 'n ou kunstenaar om die stuk stil te hou terwyl ek die gat boor om die plastiekstring te aanvaar (ook om vliegtuie by die vleuel te hou terwyl rompstickers aangebring word). Die idee is dat as die gat reguit is, die tou reguit vasgeplak word en dus reguit is wanneer die tou gesny word om die stutnaaf reguit te laat uitsteek.

Op die ou geverfde Hellcats het ek die gesig geskuur sodat die gom beter sou hou, en ek het in elk geval geverf. Dit het dit ook makliker gemaak om my begingat met 'n klein boorpunt in te stel om te verseker dat ek in die regte hoë sentrum was, sodat daar ruimte was vir die onderste luginlaat, voordat ek na die groter boor verander om die gat te maak die tou.

Die tou word afgesny nadat die gom droog is, wat die propellernaaf word. Die hele gesig van die vier Hellcats hierbo is geverf (saam met 'n paar klein opknappings elders) as die eerste toetsstukke met stutnawe en glimlaggende luginlate:

Nou kan die OOB Grumman F6F Hellcats op dieselfde speelbord as die Grumman F4F Wildcats wees en nie lyk asof hulle uit die lug val en neerstort nie. Hulle het selfs die regte grootte in vergelyking met mekaar:

Voordat u magnete byvoeg, is dit 'n goeie idee om die stuk op 'n gladde, plat oppervlak te plaas en dit te draai deur 'n vinger met die vinger op die rand te slaan en noukeurig te kyk waar die middelpunt van die gewig is. U sal die gat vir u 1/16 "x 1/32" magneet aan die onderkant van die vliegtuig op hierdie presiese plek wil boor, of so naby as moontlik. Dit laat dit beter sit op enige vlugstaander en is behoorlik gebalanseerd vir klim, duik en oewer op 'n afgeronde vlugstaander:


As die res van die Hellcats afgehandel is, kry hulle hul bedieningsoppervlaktes en amp -kappe ingedruk om beter by die Wildcats te pas.

USS Wasp (CV-7), na herpassing, uit 'n out-of-box (OOB) beeldhouwerk, gemodelleer en geverf deur FOlewnik. Die OOB-beeldhouer is veronderstel om die USS Wasp (CV-7) te wees, soos ek gelanseer het, waarvan ek nagelaat het om 'n foto te neem ter vergelyking, sodat ek die prentjie van HBG se webwerf kon haal. U sal sien dat dit baie AA -gewere aan die stuurboordkant voor die eiland ontbreek. Die beeldhouer is ook van soliede plastiek, wat blykbaar in die middel sak wanneer die plastiek afkoel nadat dit gemaak is, en nie net 'n klein kloof verlaat nie, maar dit trek die eiland na 'n lys van die hawe. Ons speel A & ampA sedert 1985 en met die Wasp sculpt sedert dit in 1999 uitkom en het nooit die skuins eiland opgemerk nie. Die dek moes met stopverf gevul en geskuur word voordat magnete bygevoeg kon word, 'n hyskraan bygevoeg is en 46 lugafweerhouers, 20mm en 40mm, bygevoeg. Die romp is voor en agter weggesny en stutte is bygevoeg.







USS Indiana (BB-58) dra Measure 32, Design 11D uit die South Dakota Class Battleship sculpt deur HBG, geverf deur FOlewnik. Die katapulte van die vlotvliegtuig word in die beeldhouer gegiet, sodat FOlewnik die herwinningskraan van draad en die GHQ -verkenningsvliegtuie bygevoeg het. Die werklike skip het in haar eerste diensjaar twee verskillende verfskemas gehad voordat sy besluit het op Measure 32, Design 11D. http://www.navsource.org/archives/01/58a.htm het 'n paar baie groot foto's van sy eerste laag verf op 8 September 1942 by Hampton Roads, Virginia, wat fantasties is vir hul detail, maar die unieke camouflage dit lyk nie asof dit hoort by die voorheen gekose maatreëls op die stukke wat vroeër voltooi is nie.
Al die draers hierbo en die onlangse vliegtuigaanvullings benodig 'n vliegtuigwag-vernietiger, so hier is een van GHQ se Sumner-klasvernietigers wat gedoen is soos die USS Charles S. Sperry (DD-697):

USS Pensacola (CA 24), eerste in haar klas, uit 'n out of the box -beeldhouwerk. Dit is FOlewnik se laaste aangepaste vaartuig vir die VSA, so hy het 'n paar skote met sy selfoon geneem terwyl ek dit gedoen het, wat ek hom gevra het om vir my te stuur sodat ek dit kon wysig en saam met die foto's van die voltooide USS Pensacola kon plaas. Die werklike skip self het in die loop van haar lewe 'n bietjie verander, soos blyk uit die verskil tussen hierdie twee profiele, geneem vanaf shipcamouflage.com aan die bokant en navsource.org onderaan:

En hierdie foto van die ander kant, gevoer met matrose in hul rok blankes:

Hier is die vordering van gewone groen wildbeeld na voltooide skip:







Ek kon FOlewnik die afgelope week inhaal en foto's kry van die nuutste afgewerkte skepe van die Amerikaanse vloot- drie ligte draers en ses verwoesters. Kom ons begin met twee ligte draers van die Onafhanklikheidsklas wat as kruisskepe begin het, maar as vliegtuigdraers voltooi is en herklassifiseer is as 'n "Klein Vliegtuigdraer" en aangewys as "CVL", 15 Julie 1943, die USS Independence (CVL-22) en die USS Belleau Wood (CVL-24). Ek moet sê ek hou baie van hierdie Shapeways -afdrukke van Ebard vir hul detail, en ek dink FOlewnik doen 'n goeie taak en voeg nog meer by met pigment.




Die volgende is die USS Bismarck See (CVE-95), van 'n Casablanca-klasdraer van Historical Board Gaming:


Nou na die vernietigers van GHQ. Ek het al voorheen genoem dat dit tin is, sodat dit duurder is as plastiekstukke, maar die detail daarin is net wonderlik. Hier is twee Somers-klas skepe, FOlewnik skilder dit soos die USS Warrington (DD-383) met maat 2, en die USS Somers (DD-381) self in maat 12:


Links onder is die Sumner-klas USS Cooper (DD-695) met kamoefleringmaat 32, ontwerp 3d, en regs is die Fletcher-klas USS Foote (DD-511) met maat 32/18D:


Die laaste twee vernietigers vir hierdie pos is die Benham-klas USS Sterett (DD-407) met kamoefleringmaat 12, en die Bagley-klas USS Bagley (DD-386) geverf in maat 32, ontwerp 1d:

Oorhoofse skoot van die groep:

Ek en my jarelange vriend en speelmaat het 'n rukkie gelede besluit om ons stukke te skilder, en hoewel dit 'n stadige proses is, geniet ons dit terwyl ons klaar is. Dit het begin met 'n huisreël dat u u langafstandvliegtuie moes bou as u die tegnologie het, in plaas daarvan dat al u vliegtuie dit onmiddellik sou kry, omdat die tegnologie 'n spelbrekende effek op 'n paar van ons speletjies het. Ek het dus plakkers van HBG gekoop om sommige vliegtuie van ander te onderskei, en dit het van daar af gevat totdat ons besluit het om alles te verf. Ons het albei ons fantasie -miniature geverf toe ons op hoërskool was, maar my vriend, ek sal hom FJO noem, het 'n professionele skilder geword. Nie die tipiese binne/buite huisskilder nie, maar 'n meester in faux afwerkings, werk aan motorvertonings, museums en sulke goed. Toe hy besluit om vloot te verf terwyl ek vliegtuie doen, het hy die Britse vloot binne ongeveer 'n maand uitgeslaan. Toe hy na die Japannese vloot verhuis, omdat hy 'n speler is wat graag Japan speel, begin dinge stadiger raak. Hy het begin met die vernietigers, en daarna 'n paar interessante camo -patrone gevind terwyl hy navorsing gedoen het en 'n camo -vloot gedoen. Sy eerste karweier was die Shokaku, en hy het dit met die hand geverf om te lyk soos die prentjie wat ek vir hom gedruk het van 'n skema van die skip. Maar hy was bekommerd dat dit 'n Shinano -beeld was, so ek het hom oortuig om die toring/brug af te kap en dit na die ander kant te skuif om te sien hoe dit sou lyk. Alhoewel ek die toring aan die ander kant vasgeplak het, sit die beeld nog steeds geverf, maar dit het FJO aan die dink gesit. Dink ek weet nou, ek het hom gehelp om een ​​van die 5 OOB Akagi's wat ek te koop by HBG gekoop het, af te sny om 'n Zuiho te maak. Hy het 'n stopverf wat hy gebruik om die boog of agterkant op te bou, of indien nodig gewere by te voeg, en hy het dit baie effektief gebruik. Hy het selfs gelees dat die Takao -kruisers aangepas moes word omdat hulle baie swaar was, en dat slegs 2 modders was, so hy het ook 2 cruisers aangepas. Hy het die Akagi -beeldhouer geneem en 'n Zuiho gemaak, 'n Shoho is in aanbou, 'n Kaga, Hiryu en Soryu. Hy gebruik 'n Shinano -beeldhouer om 'n Zuikaku te maak (aangesien die Shokaku uit een gemaak is en dit is susterskepe) en 2 af te sny om 'n Ryujo en die Amagi te maak. Hier is dus 'n paar foto's van sy draers. Eerstens, die Shinano as Shokaku en met 'n Akagi -toring vir akkuraatheid, die Zuikaku:

USS Yorktown (CV-5) omstreeks 1938 het begin as die ongeverfde Shapeways-afdruk in die bogenoemde pos langs die onvoltooide USS Hornet. Hornet word hier afgehandel.




Port- en stuurboorddetails, USS Yorktown (CV-5):

Poort- en stuurboorddetail, USS Hornet (CV-8):

USS Saratoga (CV-3) dra Camouflage Measure 32 Design 11a, 3d print deur Ebard at Shapeways, geverf deur FOlewnik. Dit het twee magnete vir vliegtuie wat onder die verf versteek is. Twee foto's uit 1944 word as verwysing getoon.








Kort Stirling -bomwerpers van HBG, geskilder deur u, werklik vir die Verenigde Koninkryk om te gebruik vir langafstand- of swaarbomwerpers (of albei). Dit is 'n skaal van 1/600, wat 'n bietjie groter is as die OOB -bomwerpers, maar dit gee ruimte vir meer besonderhede, so ek het probeer om dit te benut. Elke stuk moes sterk gesny word van flitsplastiek en vormgroewe, en verhit word met 'n haardroër om die romp los te trek en reg te maak en die vlerke en roer so goed as moontlik reg te maak. U kan sien dat 'n paar roere nog 'n bietjie verlep is, maar in vergelyking met wat dit was, was ek gelukkig. Van wat ek in navorsing gevind het, het die werklike bomwerper nie teendraaiende rekwisiete gehad soos hierdie beeldhouer nie. Dit dra die merk van 7 Sqn, RAF, wat die eerste eskader was wat toegerus was met die nuwe Short Stirling swaar bomwerper, en die eerste RAF -eskader wat tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog vier motorjagers gebruik het, wat die eerste bomaanvalle met die Stirling gevlieg het teen olieopgaartenks naby Rotterdam in die nag van 10/11 Februarie 1941 (uit die wiki).




Ek het die bedieningsoppervlaktes beklemtoon met dieselfde 20/0 -kwas wat gebruik word vir die fyn kajuitlyne, wat in die beeldhouwerk gevorm word. Eers 'n donkerbruin was oor die eerste laag camo, dan weer met die oorspronklike kleur, en dit help om die stofbeheeroppervlakke na te boots. Die boonste rewolwer en voor- en agtertorings en bombardier se venster is met die 005 swart pen gedoen. Die rompvensters is in silwer gemaak met die Insane Detail -kwas van Army Painter en, indien nodig, na die eerste laag dullcote gevorm met die swart 005 -pen.


Vyf Amerikaanse vlootskepe deur FOlewnik- The USS Allen M Sumner (DD-692), die USS Pittsburgh (CA-72), USS Washington (BB-56), USS Massachusetts (BB-59), en my persoonlike gunsteling van hierdie spesifieke pos, die Essex-klas USS Yorktown (CV-10) van begin tot einde. Om mee te begin, GHQ se Sumner-klasvernietiger as die Sumner self, DD-692. GHQ -stukke is gemaak van tin of soortgelyke legering en is ryklik gedetailleerd. Dit kos vyf keer die koste van 'n HBG -stuk, maar hulle het ook 'n groot verskeidenheid vernietigers, so ek dink u betaal vir verskeidenheid en detail. Hulle word vinnig geverf omdat hulle nie mods nodig het nie. FOlewnik het die afgelope vakansieseisoen verskeie verskillende DD -tipes vir die Amerikaanse vloot gekoop toe bestellings van meer as $ 100 'n vet afslag kry, sodat die Amerikaanse vloot die gewildste vernietigergroep sal hê as hulle klaar is. Hier is die USS Allen M Sumner (DD-692):


Die USS Pittsburgh (CA-72) is 'n historiese bordspeler in die Baltimore-klas, 'n swaar vaartuig. Hierdie stukke het baie detail, maar benodig baie voorbereidingswerk met die snoei van flitsplastiek, vanwaar die vorms 'n naat laat. Dit word aangepas met verkenningsvliegtuie en herstelkrane en nadat FOlewnik daarmee klaar is, lyk dit baie goed. Dit is gedoen volgens 'n skaalmodelgids wat hier getoon word.



Die USS Washington (BB-56) is die 2de van die stel van Ebard by Shapeways (daar was 2 uit hierdie klas). Dit het ook die verkenningsvliegtuig van GHQ bygevoeg, en FOlewnik het die reddingsvlotte tydens skildery bygevoeg. Dit is geverf soos dit gelyk het tydens die Slag van Savo-eiland, die nag van 14-15 November 1942.


HBG se Suid-Dakota slagskip is die basis vir FOlewnik se USS Massachusetts (BB-59). Dit het heelwat flitsplastiek nodig gehad voordat die herwinningskraan bygevoeg is. Die verkenningsvliegtuie van GHQ word afsonderlik geverf en dan vasgeplak voordat die klein Amerikaanse ster by die vlerke gevoeg word. Dit lyk asof die skip in Julie 1942 verskyn het.



HBG se Essex-klasdraer is die basis vir FOlewnik se USS Yorktown (CV-10). Die kaal beeld moes skoongemaak en voorberei word- u kan sien hoe die bruin stopverf bygevoeg word om die dek gelyk te maak. Magnete word vasgeplak met die vliegdek. Op die tweede foto kan u die 10/0 -kwas van FOlewnik op die vliegdek aan die linkerkant sien, en regs is sy verfpalet met die verfputte.










Skepe soortgelyk aan of soos USS Quincy (CA-71)

Die sesde skip van die Amerikaanse vloot wat vernoem is na die Amerikaanse stad Boston, Massachusetts. Gestig op 26 Augustus 1942 deur Bethlehem Steel Company 's, Fore River Shipyard in Quincy, Massachusetts, geborg deur mev Helen Noonan Tobin, vrou van die burgemeester van Boston, Maurice J. Tobin en in opdrag van 30 Junie 1943, kaptein J. H. Carson in bevel. Wikipedia

Die hoofskip van die Portland -kruiser en die eerste skip van die Amerikaanse vloot wat vernoem is na die stad Portland, Maine. Sy is in 1932 gelanseer en voltooi 'n aantal opleidings- en welwillendheidsvaarte in die tussenoorlog voordat sy uitgebreide diens tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog sien, begin met die Slag om die Koraalsee in 1942, waar sy die vliegdekskip begelei en oorlewendes uit die versonke opneem draer. Wikipedia

Die vierde ligte kruiser, oorspronklik geklassifiseer as 'n verkenningskruiser, gebou vir die Amerikaanse vloot. Die derde vlootskip is vernoem na die stad Raleigh, Noord -Carolina. Wikipedia

Ligte kruiser, oorspronklik geklassifiseer as 'n verkenner, van die Amerikaanse vloot. Die vierde vlootskip is vernoem na die stad Detroit, Michigan. Wikipedia


2 September 1945 gee Japan formeel oor

My FIL (rus in vrede) wat gedien het, het 'n blywende afkeer van die Japannese gehad as gevolg van sy ervarings. Hulle voel waarskynlik dieselfde.

USS Colorado (BB-45) USS Mississippi (BB-41)

HMS Duke of York (17) USS Missouri (BB-63)

USS Idaho (BB-42) USS New Mexico (BB-40)

USS Iowa (BB-61) USS South Dakota (BB-57)

HMS King George V (41) USS West Virginia (BB-48)

Klein vliegdekskepe (CVL)

USS Bataan (CVL-29) USS Cowpens (CVL-25)

HMS -liniaal (D.72) HMS -luidspreker (D.90)

USS Boston (CA-69) USS St. Paul (CA-73)

USS Chicago (CA-136) HMAS Shropshire (96)

USS Detroit (CL-8) USS Pasadena (CL-65)

HMNZS Gambië (48) USS San Diego (CL-53)

HMAS Hobart (I.63) USS San Juan (CL-54)

HMS Newfoundland (59) USS Springfield (CL-66)

USS Oakland (CL-95) USS Wilkes-Barre (CL-103)

USS Ault (DD-698) USS Mayo (DD-422)

USS Benham (DD-796) HMAS Napier (G.97)

USS Blue (DD-744) HMAS Nizam (G.38)

USS Buchanon (DD-484) USS Nicholas (DD-449)

USS Caperton (DD-650) USS Perkins (DD-877)

USS Charles F. Hughes (DD-428)# HMS Kwaliteit (G.62)

USS Clarence K. Bronson (DD-668) USS Robert K. Huntington (DD-781)

USS Cogswell (DD-651) USS Southerland (DD-743)

USS Colahan (DD-658) USS Stockham (DD-683)

USS Cotten (DD-669) USS Taylor (DD-468)

USS Cushing (DD-797) HMS Teazer (R.23)

USS De Haven (DD-727) HMS Tenacious (R.45)

USS Dortch (DD-670) HMS Terpsichore (R.33)

USS Frank Knox (DD-742) USS Twining (DD-540)

USS Gatling (DD-671) USS Uhlmann (DD-687)

USS Halsey Powell (DD-686) USS Wadleigh (DD-689)

USS Healy (DD-672) HMS Wager (R.98)

USS Hilary P. Jones (DD-427) USS Wallace L. Lind (DD-703)

USS Ingersoll (DD-652) HMAS Warramunga (I.44)

USS Kalk (DD-611) USS Wedderburn (DD-684)

USS Knapp (DD-653) HMS Whelp (R.37)

USS Lansdowne (DD-486) ​​HMS Wizard (R.72)

USS Lardner (DD-487) USS Wren (DD-568)

USS Madison (DD-425) USS Yarnall (DD-541)

USS Goss (DE-444) USS Ulvert M. Moore (DE-442)

USS Kendall C. Campbell (DE-443) USS Waterman (DE-740)

USS Lyman (DE-302) USS Weaver (DE-741)

USS Major (DE-796) USS William Seiverling (DE-441)

HMS Derg (K.257) HMAS Gascoyne (K.354)

HMS Crane (U.23) HMS Whimbrel (U.29)

USS Gwin (DM-33) USS Thomas E. Fraser (DM-24)

Mynveger, hoë spoed (DMS)

USS Ellyson (DMS-19) USS Hopkins (DMS-13)

USS Fitch (DMS-25) USS Jeffers (DMS-27)

USS Gherardi (DMS-30) USS Macomb (DMS-23)

USS Archer-Fish (SS-311) USS Pilotfish (SS-386)

USS Cavalla (SS-244) USS Razorback (SS-394)

USS Gato (SS-212) USS Runner (SS-476)

USS Haddo (SS-255) USS Sea Cat (SS-399)

USS Hake (SS-256) USS Segundo (SS-398)

USS Muskallunge (SS-262) USS Tigrone (SS-419)

*Genoteerde skepe het name in 1956 gekry.

PC-466 [USS Carmil]* PCE (R) -849 [USS Somersworth]*

PCE-877 [USS Havre]* PCE (R) -850 [USS Fairview]*

HMAS Ballarat (K.34) USS Pochard (AM-375)

HMAS Cessnock (J.175) USS Revenge (AM-110)

HMAS Ipswich (J.186) USS-token (AM-126)

USS Pheasant (AM-61) USS Tumult (AM-127)

*Genummerde skepe is in 1947 benoem en herklassifiseer

YMS-343 YMS-441 [USS Pelikaan (AMS-32)]*

YMS-362 [USS Hawk (AMS-17)]* YMS-461 [USS Swallow (AMS-36)]*

YMS-371 [USS Hornbill (AMS-19)]* YMS-467

Amphibious Force Flagship (AGC)

USS Ancon (AGC-4) USS Teton (AGC-14)

USS Barr (APD-39) USS Pavlic (APD-70)

USS Begor (APD-127) USS Reeves (APD-52)

USS Burke (APD-65) USS Runels (APD-85)

USS Gosselin APD-126) USS Sims (APD-50)

USS Hollis APD-86) USS Wantuck (APD-125)

USS Horace A. Bass APD-124) USS William M. Pattison (APD-104)

*Genoteerde skepe in 1955 vernoem.

LST-648 LST-846 [USS Jennings County]*

LST-717 LST-1083 [USS Plumas County]*

USS Catamount (LSD-17) USS Shadwell (LSD-15)

Landing Craft, Infanterie (LCI)

USS Monitor (LSV-5) USS Ozark (LSV-2)

USS Bosque (APA-135) USS Highlands (APA-119)

USS Botetourt (APA-136) USS Lavaca (APA 180)

USS Briscoe (APA-65) USS Lenawee (APA-195)

USS Cecil (APA-96) USS Mellette (APA-156)

USS Clearfield (APA-142) USS Missoula (APA-211)

USS Cullman (APA-78) USS Rutland (APA-192)

USS Darke (APA-159) USS St. Mary's (APA-126)

USS Dauphin (APA-97) USS Sherburne (APA-205)

USS Deuel (APA-160) USS Sheridan (APA-51)

USS Dickens (APA-161) USS Talladega (APA-208)

USS General Sturgis (AP-137)

USS Weegskaal (AKA-12) USS Todd (AKA-71)

USS Medea (AKA-31) USS Tolland (AKA-64)

USS Pamina (AKA-34) USS Whiteside (AKA-90)

USS Sirona (AKA-43) USS Yancy (AKA-93)

St. Lawrence Victory (VS) Winthrop Victory (VS)

Landing Craft Repair Ship (ARL)

USS Chiwawa (AO-68) USS Niobrara (AO-72)

USS Mascoma (AO-83) USS Tamalpais (AO-96)

Carelia (Brits) Fort Wrangell (Brits)

Stad Dieppe (Brits) Wave King (Brits)

USS Benevolence (AH-13) HMHS Tjitjalengka (Nederlands)

USS Cumberland Sound (AV-17) USS Hamlin (AV-15)

Tender vir klein watervliegtuie (AVP)

USS Gardinersbaai (AVP-39) USS Suisun (AVP-53)

Submarine Rescue Ship (ASR)

USS Moctobi (ATF-105) USS Wenatchee (ATF-118)

*Genummerde skip in 1955 vernoem

Die Tweede Wêreldoorlog het amptelik presies ses jaar en nul dae geduur.

Eerste oorlogsverklaring: Brittanje en Frankryk teen Duitsland op 3 September 1939.

Finale oorgawe van Japannese: 2 September 1945.

Dit is vreemd, maar waar dat hoewel die Japannese Chinese Mantsjoerije in 1931 binnegeval het, en China in 1937, China eers oorlog teen Japan verklaar het ná die aanval op Pearl Harbor meer as vier jaar later op die VSA.

Hierdie plasing is 2 jaar gelede deur packfanstk geredigeer

Daar was ook 450 vliegtuie wat oor die geleentheid gevlieg het.

U moet sien wat NIE by die oorgawe was nie, maar in die buurt as daar verraad was.
Let op dat nie een van ons groot vlootvervoerders daar was nie.

Hierdie plasing is 2 jaar gelede deur Pacfanweb geredigeer

USS Detroit en Wes -Virginia was getuie van die begin en die einde van die Stille Oseaan -oorlog

wolfgar gesê. (oorspronklike plasing)

USS Detroit en Wes -Virginia was getuie van die begin en die einde van die Stille Oseaan -oorlog

Wes-Virginia was die skip wat die swaarste beskadig is in Pearl Harbor, wat grootgemaak en in diens geneem is.
As jy lees oor haar berging, is dit ongelooflik hoe erg sy beskadig is en nog steeds herstel is, en sy was die skeepskut van die ou BB's.

'N Paar wonderlike beeldmateriaal van die WeeVee nadat sy in die lente van 1942 opgedroog het op pad na droogdok. Ander groot beeldmateriaal van daardie tyd ook.

PEARL HAWEL LENTE 1942

Scenes van Pearl Harbor in die maande na die verwoestende Japannese aanval op 7 Desember 1941. Skeepswerftonele as slagskepe word herstel, insluitend die USS Nevada wat later deelgeneem het aan die invalle in Normandië, Suid -Frankryk, Iwo Jima en Okinawa. Nevada was 'n teikenskip tydens die Bikini -atoombomtoetse in 1946. Besoek ons ​​webwerf www.victoryfilms.us vir lugvaartfilms van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog van hoë gehalte - gratis en gratis gestuur oral.

Pacfanweb gesê. (oorspronklike plasing)

Wes-Virginia was die skip wat die swaarste beskadig is in Pearl Harbor, wat grootgemaak en in diens geneem is.

As jy lees oor haar berging, is dit ongelooflik hoe erg sy beskadig is en nog steeds herstel is, en sy was die skeepskut van die ou BB's.

https://www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar/OnlineLibrary/photos/events/wwii-pac/pearlhbr/ph-wv9.htm

https://www.history.navy.mil/research/library/online-reading-room/title-list-alphabetically/u/uss-west-virgina-report-of-salvage.html

Some great footage of the WeeVee after she was refloated in spring of 1942, on her way to drydock. Other great footage of that time as well.

PEARL HARBOR SPRING 1942

Scenes of Pearl Harbor in the months after the devastating Japanese attack on December 7, 1941. Shipyard scenes as battleships are being repaired include USS Nevada which later participated in the Normandy, southern France, Iwo Jima and Okinawa invasions. Nevada was a target ship at the Bikini atom bomb tests in 1946. Please visit our website www.victoryfilms.us for high quality World War II aviation films - region free and free shipping anywhere.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t5cqIT6_Cbs

There were evidences that some of the men had lived for considerable period and finally succumbed due to lack of oxygen. In the after engine room, several bodies were found lying on top of the steam pipes, which areas were probably within the air bubble existing in that flooded space.

31. Three bodies were found on the lower shelf of storeroom A-111 clad in blues and jerseys. This storeroom was open to fresh water pump room, A-109, which presumably was the battle station assigned to these men. The emergency rations at this station had been consumed and a manhole to the fresh water tanks below the pumps had been removed. A calendar which was found in this compartment had an "X" marked on each date from December 7, 1941 to December 23, 1941 inclusive.


USS Quincy (CA-71) (originally St Paul) - History

0000 Steaming in TG 38.1 CTG is USS Bennington CV-20. Guide is USS South Dakota BB-57 .
Course is 295 ° t. Speed 10 knts. Ship is darkened.
0003 Changed course to 180 ° t. 0010 USS Ashtabula AO-51 is designated guide.
0425 Changed course to 150 ° t. Changed speed to 8 knts. 0440 set Fueling at sea detail.
0535 Changed course to 180 ° t. 0807 Changed speed to 9 knts.
0947 USS John Rodgers DD-574 [183] came alongside strbd. 1013 Cast off recvd 222 brls. of fuel oil.
1030 USS Caperton DD-650 [184] came alongside strbd. 1059 Cast off recvd 221 brls. fuel oil.
1155 Changed speed to 8 knts. 1222 Changed course to 165 ° t. Changed speed to 14 knts. Maneuvered to join main body.
1225 Secured Fueling at Sea detail. 1250 Changed course to 180 ° t. USS Marias AO-57 designated guide.
1340 Changed speed to 13.5 knts. 1355 Changed course to 155 ° t.
1408 Changed course to 135 ° t. 1420 Changed course to 165 ° t. 1437 Changed course to 180 ° t.
1455 Changed speed to 9 knts. 1510 Assumed position in Task Group 30.8 - Course 180 ° t. Guide is USS Nantahala AO-60.

So it seems that during the last hours of July 31, Taluga had moved to complete different TG to fuel two DD's.
Comment from a ship commander: Just t over 200 bbl hardly seems worth the effort. That is less than 5% fuel capacity on a WW II DD. In the 80's we would typically refuel a battlegroup when the ships got to 85% fuel. For a DD/FF it would be 1200-1500 bbl and averaged 42 minutes from first to last line. Capt. Moloney

It took 3 hours at 14 knts. to return to main group.
Comment from a ship engineer: If the Taluga was making 14 knots she was absolutely WIDE OPEN. In the 1980's the standard UNREP speed was 12 knots, but Taluga could only make that if she had only one small ship alongside and was pumping through only one hose. For two ships or for a carrier alongside, she could not generate enough steam to keep up the 12 knot speed with all the winches and pumps running as well, and would gradually slow down to about 8 or 9 knots. The boilers were the limiting factor, they just weren't very big. It was a 450 PSI steam system. Lary Harris

1705 Changed course to 160 ° t. 1802 Changed course to 135 ° t. USS Thetus Bay CVE-90 designated guide.
1900 - 2400 log hours not available.

0000 Steaming in TG 30.8. CTU is in USS Stevenson DD-645 . Guide is USS Cacapon AO-52 .
Course is 015 ° t. Speed 16 knts. Ship is darkened. 0206 USS Sabine AO-25 is designated guide.
0215 Changed course to 043 ° t.
1150 While the USS Stevenson DD-645 was delivering mail alongside strbd., she was carried against the side of
USS Taluga by heavy seas. Damages to this ship were M Strake #8 was dished betwwn frames 45-46 & 42-43.
1553 Changed speed to 10 knts. 1658 Changed speed to 16 knts.
1817 Sunset - Darkened ship. 2000 Changed course to 035 ° t.


USS Quincy (CA-71) (originally St Paul) - History

Crossings: Massachusetts-Malta (2009-2019)

Valletta Contemporary presents an art project by Kathleen Bitetti, a U.S. visiting artist from Massachusetts who is returning to Malta after 10 years, to complete her project which the artist started at Gozo Contemporary as an artist-in-residence in 2009.

Introducing Crossings: Massachusetts-Malta (2009-2019)

The project consists of four works that Bitetti created from her research findings: Crossings: Dec. 16, 1773 Crossings: Emerson was Here (Valletta) Crossings: Feb. 2nd, 1945 and Crossings: HERE 2019 (Malta ). All four crossings include a unique and intricate backstory that relate Malta to Massachusetts.

Upon returning on the island, the artist threads her own 4th crossing alongside with the initial 3 connections related to Malta as part of the project: &lsquoCrossings: HERE 2019 (Malta)&rsquo. Moreover, Crossings: Massachusetts-Malta (2009-2019) will involve the artist leaving works behind for members of the public to find relevant memorabilia related to the previous connections.

For Nick Capasso's short essay on Crossings click about Kathleen Bitetti's project click here .

The crossings between Malta and Massachussetts are:

1. Crossings: Dec. 16, 1773 &mdash February 11th- 15th, 2019. (Marks 1700&rsquos or the 18th century)

This piece commemorates the Maltese man, Nicolas Campbell, who took part in the Boston Tea Party on December 16, 1773.

The Boston Tea Party &ldquowas a political protest that occurred on December 16, 1773, at Griffin&rsquos Wharf in Boston, Massachusetts. American colonists, frustrated and angry at Britain for imposing &ldquotaxation without representation,&rdquo dumped 342 chests of British tea into the harbor. The event was the first major act of defiance to British rule over the colonists.&rdquo It was a key event that lead up to the American Revolution. (1)

Each artwork Bitetti leaves behind for this work consists of a large clear plastic bag with a light brown envelope that also contains an off white square envelope and a muslin cloth bag. Bitetti choose the cloth bag to represent Nicolas Campbell&rsquos occupation as a sailor and his sea travels. Bitetti has also included maps of the City of Boston that indicate where the Boston Tea Party occurred. Bitetti was also born in the City of Boston.

Some of the other objects in the bag/envelopes: 1) a packet of tea - Bitetti chose to include a packet of the brand of tea that was thrown into the sea for the 1773 Boston Tea Party 2) several small charms and a commemorative coin. Several of the charms underscore Campbell&rsquos occupation as a sailor and highlight Boston as a historic major trading seaport. The coin is from what is called &ldquoThe Freedom Trail&rdquo and depicts the Old South Meeting House. The &ldquoOld South&rdquo was one of the four sites that those participating in the Boston Tea Party gathered at on the evening of Dec. 16, 1773. One of the charms has multiple meanings. The ship charm once again references travel and trade. It also references Bitetti&rsquos immigrant past, as both sides of her family immigrated from Europe to the U.S. in the early 1900&rsquos via ship, and her love of the ocean.

2. Crossings: Emerson Was Here (Valletta) February 11th- 15th 2019 (Marks the 1800&rsquos or the 19th century)

This is Bitetti&rsquos fourth work commemorating the American writer and philosopher Ralph Waldo Emerson.

Starting on February 11, 2019 and ending on February 15th, 2019, Bitetti will leave an artwork at a site in or near Malta&rsquos capital city, Valletta, where Ralph Waldo Emerson visited during his stay in this country. On Christmas Day, December 25th, 1832, Emerson set sail on the Brig named Jasper from Boston, Massachusetts, U.S. and arrived in the port of St. Paul Bay, Malta on February 2nd 1833. He was one of the five passengers on board. His journals of 1833 detail his trip to Malta and his journey across Europe. This trip was taken by Emerson at age 29 and it was during a critical time in his life as he had recently decided to leave preaching as his vocation in 1832. This is the trip that set him on his path to become the acclaimed and influential writer, lecturer, poet, and thinker we know today. After serving the mandatory quarantine period in St. Paul&rsquos Bay, Emerson spent the rest of his time in or near the city of Valletta. Bitetti has chosen some of the sites Emerson mentioned in his journal, as well as landmarks/streets he would have encountered during his stay in Valletta.

Each artwork Bitetti leaves behind consists of a large clear plastic bag with a white envelope that also contains a blue envelope and a sheer white cloth bag. She has included a picture of the 44th U.S. President, Barack Obama, not only to reference the historic importance of the U.S.&rsquos first African American president, but to directly call attention to Emerson&rsquos abolitionist/anti-slavery activist work and his support of civil and women&rsquos rights.

Some of the objects in the bag/envelopes: 1) a hand made bookmark that symbolizes Emerson&rsquos love of reading and his strong belief in public education and community libraries 2) a packet of tea 3) charms. Bitetti chose to include a packet of the brand of tea that was thrown into the sea for the 1773 Boston Tea Party as way to reference Emerson reading his poem Boston on December 16, 1873 at Faneuil Hall to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the Boston Tea Party. Several of the charms underscore Emerson&rsquos travels and highlight Boston as a historic major trading seaport. These charms also reference Bitetti&rsquos love of the ocean. The leaf charms represent Emerson&rsquos transcendentalism and his love of nature. Several of the charms have multiple meanings: The lady bug is Massachusetts&rsquo official state bug and symbolizes good luck the ship charms once again reference travel and trade, but also reference Bitetti&rsquos immigrant past as both sides of her family immigrated from Europe to the U.S. in the early 1900&rsquos via ship and symbolically the dragonfly in &ldquothe west&rdquo has negative connotations, while in &ldquothe east&rdquo it has positive connotations. This particular charm is also a homage to Bitetti&rsquos long standing friend and supporter: Sophia Solar Michalski.

*This is Bitetti&rsquos fourth work commemorating Emerson. As part of her 2009 residency in Gozo, she brought with on her plane trip to Malta the cargo that was on the Brig -the Jasper- that Emerson traveled on. During May 8-15, 2010, Bitetti completed &ldquoCrossings: Emerson Was Here (London)&rdquo. She selected several of the places Emerson stayed at or visited in London and left an art work at those sites as part of the 2010 London Biennale (which was founded in 1998 by artist David Medalla). In 2018 she completed her third piece, &ldquoCrossings: Emerson Was Here (Boston)". That work started on September 9th, 2018 and ended on December 25th, 2018 -the date Emerson left for Malta in 1832. She left an artwork at a site in Boston where Emerson lived, lectured, visited, and/or frequented.

3. Crossings: Feb. 2nd, 1945 February 11th- 15th, 2019 (Marks 1900&rsquos or the 20th century)

This piece is about U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt's trip to Valletta/Malta and the USS Quincy- the Massachusetts-made ship that brought him to Malta. It will mark some of the places in Valletta FDR visited.

Each artwork Bitetti leaves behind for this work consists of a large clear plastic bag with a light brown envelope that also contains an off white square envelope. The envelopes contain historical images and information about U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt&rsquos visit, the USS Quincy, the Adams Family, etc.

On January 23rd 1945, the USS Quincy (CA-71) left Newport News, Virginia, U.S.A with President Franklin D. Roosevelt and his staff on board. The vessel arrived in the port of Valletta, Malta on February 2nd 1945. In Malta FDR met with British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and from Malta they both went on by plane to meet with Stalin in Yalta in the Crimea to discuss the post W.W.II reorganizing of Europe.

The USS Quincy (CA-71) has also been referred to as the Quincy III because it was the 3rd ship named for the city Quincy, Massachusetts, U.S.A.

The USS Quincy was a Bailtimore-class heavy cruiser built by Bethlehem Steel Co, Shipyard Division in the area of Quincy, Massachusetts (U.S.A.) known as Quincy Point. This shipyard was later referred to as the Fore River Shipyard. Bitetti, although born in Boston, spend most of her childhood growing in in Quincy Point near this shipyard. The cruiser was first named the St. Paul and was finished on Oct. 9th 1941. It was renamed the USS Quincy and was relaunched on June 23, 1943. The ship was commissioned at the U.S Naval Dry Dock in South Boston, Massachusetts. It was 13,600 tons. Elliot M. Senn was the captain of the vessel.

The heavy cruiser was sponsored by Mrs. Henry S. Morgan (Catherine Adams Morgan) who was a daughter of Charles Francis Adams. She was a direct descendant of John & Abigail Adams of Quincy, Massachusetts. The Adams family is one of the most well known historical families of the United States. John Adams was the U.S second president.

For its 1945 trip out of Virginia (U.S.A) to Malta with President Roosevelt, the cruiser was docked in Boston, Massachusetts (U.S.A) for changes in preparation for the presidential cruise. Two of the needed modifications were the installation of a bathtub and of an elevator for the president. Bitetti now is based in South Boston.

The USS Quincy had been to Malta before its historic 1945 trip with President Franklin D. Roosevelt. From July 27 to August 13th 1944 it participated in training exercises at Malta and Camarota, Italy. The heavy cruiser was involved with the final invasion of Europe by the Allies.

4. Crossings: Here 2019 (Malta). February 9th-18th, 2019 (Marks 2000&rsquos or the 21st century)

During Bitetti&rsquos full stay in Malta, February 9th, 2019 to February 18th, 2019, she will be leaving behind envelopes that contain a guardian angel image and a miniature sword for someone to find. The angel image is from her childhood and for her it symbolizes protection and safety. She includes it in all her art installations. Sometimes it is hidden out of view and other times it is highly visible. The sword is her &ldquovisual ode&rdquo to Malta.


Planning and construction

Immediately after the outbreak of World War II in September 1939, the US Navy initiated studies regarding a new class of heavy cruiser, which eventually led to the construction of the Baltimore klas. With the start of the war, the limitations instituted by the Second London Naval Treaty, which had completely banned the construction of heavy cruisers, became obsolete. Die Baltimore class was based partly on USS Wichita, a heavy cruiser from 1937, which represented the transition from inter-war to World War II designs. It was also based partly on the Cleveland class, a light cruiser that was then being built. In profile, the Baltimores looked very much like the Cleveland-class light cruisers, the obvious difference being that the larger Baltimores carried nine 8-inch (200 mm) guns in three triple turrets, compared to the 12 6-inch (150 mm) guns in four triple turrets of the Clevelands.

The construction of the first four ships of the Baltimore class began on July 1, 1940, and four more were ordered before the year was out. A second order, which consisted of 16 more ships, was approved on August 7, 1942. Despite the heavy losses in cruisers during the first 14 months of the Pacific War, the completion of the ships was delayed, because the Navy gave priority to the construction of the lighter Cleveland-class ships, as more of the lighter ships could be completed more quickly for deployment in carrier groups. With the construction of the first eight Baltimore-class ships moving slowly, the US Navy used the time to review the initial plans and improve them. The new, modified design was itself delayed, so that construction had begun on a further seven ships—for a total of 15—using the original design before the revisions were completed. The final twelve ships ordered were converted to the second, and in the case of Oregon City, Rochester, en Albany further modified design. Between 1943 and 1947, 17 ships of the Baltimore class entered service. Construction of the eighteenth ship, which would have been named Norfolk, was stopped at the end of the war after eight months of work had already been done, and the half-completed hull was scrapped. A nineteenth hull (Northampton) was suspended, to eventually be completed as a flagship/command ship in 1950.

The largest contractor for the construction of the Baltimore-class ships was Bethlehem Steel, which produced eight ships at the Fore River Shipyard in Quincy, Massachusetts. New York Shipbuilding in Camden, New Jersey, built four and the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard in Philadelphia completed one in addition to working on the final, uncompleted ship. The ships were named after cities in the United States, the only exception being USS Canberra, which was named in honor of HMAS Canberra (sunk at the battle of Savo Island), which had been named after Canberra, the Australian capital. The classification "CA" originally stood for "armored cruiser" but was later used for heavy cruisers.

Diens

Of the seventeen completed ships, twelve were launched before the Japanese capitulation on September 2, 1945, though only seven took part in the battles of the Pacific Theater and one in the European Theater. The other ships were still completing their testing in the final days of the war. By 1947, nine of the Baltimores had been decommissioned and placed in the reserve fleet, while seven (Helena, Toledo, Macon, Columbus, St Paul, Rochester, en Albany) remained in service. However, at the start of the 1950s, six were reactivated (Macon had been decommissioned for four short months: June–October 1950), making thirteen available for deployment in the Korean War. Six of these were used for escort missions and coastal bombardment in Korea, while the other seven reinforced fleets in other areas of the globe. Four ships remained out of service: the Fall River was never reactivated, the Boston en Canberra were refitted as Boston-class guided missile cruisers (CGs), and the Chicago was reactivated after being converted to an Albany-class CG.

After the Korean War beginning in 1954 with Quincy, some of the Baltimores decommissioned for good. By 1969, six ships were still in commission five (Boston, Canberra, Chicago, Columbus, Albany) as CGs, and only one unmodified ship, the Saint Paul, which remained active to serve in the Vietnam War, providing gunfire support. St Paul was the only member of the class to serve continuously from commissioning (serving 26 years) and was finally decommissioned in 1971. Boston en Canberra retired in 1970, Columbus (serving 29.5 years) in 1975, and finally Chicago in 1980. All fourteen of the original Baltimores were sold for scrap after being decommissioned, with Chicago being the final one broken up in 1991.

Damage and casualties

In World War II, only Canberra was damaged through enemy fire, when she was struck with a air-dropped torpedo on October 13, 1944, which killed 23 men in the engine room and left the ship immobilized. The ship was hit amidships and both boiler rooms were flooded with 3,000 tons of seawater. She was towed away by sister ship Boston, and as a result both ships missed the crucial Battle of Leyte Gulf. A year later, repairs were completed at the Boston Naval Shipyard and Canberra was assigned to the Atlantic Fleet. In June 1945, Pittsburgh had her entire bow ripped off in a typhoon, but there were no casualties. The ship struggled through 70-knot (130 km/h) winds to Guam, where provisional repairs were made before sailing to the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard for a full reconstruction. Pittsburgh‍ '​s detached bow stayed afloat, and was later towed into Guam and scrapped.

During the Korean War, a fire in a forward turret on April 12, 1952 killed 30 men on St Paul. Then, in 1953, the same ship was hit by a coastal battery, though without injury to the crew. Helena in 1951 and Los Angeles in 1953 were also struck by coastal batteries without injuries during the war.

In June 1968, Boston, along with its escort, the Australian destroyer HMAS Hobart, were victims of friendly fire when planes of the US Air Force mistook them for enemy targets and fired on them with AIM-7 Sparrow missiles. Enigste Hobart was seriously damaged although Boston was hit, the warhead of the missile failed to detonate.

Refittings (Albany en Boston classes)

By the latter half of the 1940s, the navy was planning warships equipped with missiles. In 1946 the battleship USS Mississippi and in 1948 the seaplane tender USS Norton Sound were converted to test this idea. Both were equipped, among other weapons, with RIM-2 Terrier missiles, which were also used after 1952 on the first series of operational missile cruisers. Twee Baltimore-class cruisers were refitted in this first series, Boston en Canberra. These were the first operational guided missile cruisers in the world. They were designated the Boston class and returned to service in 1955 and 1956 respectively, reclassified as CAG-1 and CAG-2--"G" for "guided missile" and maintaining the "A" because they retained their heavy guns.

In the following years six ships of the Cleveland class were equipped with guided missiles and in 1957 the first ship designed from the start to be a missile cruiser was completed (Lang strand). Ships also continued to be converted, so starting in 1958, two Baltimore-kruisers van die klas, Chicago en Columbus, along with an Oregon City-class cruiser, (considered a sub-class of the Baltimore class) Albany, were converted to the new Albany klas. These were launched in 1962 and 1964, respectively. Two more ships were planned to be refitted as Albanys, the Baltimore klas Bremerton and another Oregon City-class cruiser, Rochester but these conversions were cancelled on financial considerations. As opposed to the Boston-class refit, the Albany-class refit required a total reconstruction. Both entire weapons systems and the superstructure were removed and replaced with new ones the cost of one refit was $175 million. Because no high-caliber weapons were used, the Albany class ships received the designation CG.


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USS Satterlee DD-626 (1943-1970)

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