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Temple Gateway

Temple Gateway


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Die raaisel van die Shushan -poort

Die 70 lang jare van die Babiloniese ballingskap was verby. Darius, die welwillende Persiese koning, seun van koningin Ester en koning Achashverosh, het sy Joodse onderdane toestemming verleen om na Sion terug te keer en hul tempel te herbou.1 Die Misjna vertel ons dat die terugkerende Jode 'n gravure gemaak het van Shushan, 2 die hoofstad van die Pers Ryk, bo die nuutgeboude Eastern Gateway van die Tempelberg.3 Die gravure herdenk die wonder van Purim4 en herinner die Joodse volk vanwaar hulle gekom het en om lojaal te bly aan hul Persiese weldoeners.5 Omdat Persië oos van die Heilige Land was, het die Eastern Temple Gateway is gekies as die plek vir hierdie gravure

Die Talmoed vertel ons ook dat naby die Eastern Gateway 'n kamer was waarin die nasionale lengte -lengte, die el, op die muur gegraveer was.

'N Middeleeuse Joodse tradisie voorspel dat die profeet Elia die Mashiach die tempelterrein binne deur hierdie Shushan -poort. Elia is 'n Kohain en a Kohain mag nie 'n begraafplaas betree nie. Baie eeue gelede het sommige skelm Moslems 'n Arabiese begraafplaas langs die oostelike muur geplaas om die plan van Elia (plaat nr. 1) te verydel. In die Talmoed8 word daar egter bespreek of a Kohain mag 'n nie-Joodse begraafplaas binnegaan. Die wyses het die mening van die profeet Elia self ingewin en hy het beslis dat 'n lid van die priesterlike stam inderdaad 'n nie-Joodse begraafplaas kan binnegaan. Die Moslem -ontwerper van die begraafplaas was duidelik nie 'n Talmoediese geleerde nie.

(Plaat #1) Arabiese begraafplaas gebou langs die muur van die oostelike tempel.

Hierdie Moslem -begraafplaas is langs die oostelike muur gebou en verduister die oorblyfsels van die Shushan -poort heeltemal. 'N Honderd jaar gelede het 'n plaag in Jerusalem die dood van baie Arabiere veroorsaak. Die slagoffers van die pes is begrawe in 'n massagraf voor die Shushan -poort en 'n monument vir die tragedie is daar naby geplaas. Met verloop van tyd het die liggame ontbind en saamgepers en 'n grot in die begraafplaas geskep.

(Plaat #2) Kyk binne -in die grot. Die klippe wat boontoe buig, is gebou op die oorspronklike Shushan Gateway.

Die bestaan ​​van hierdie grot is nie bekendgemaak nie omdat die Moslems nie wou hê dat nuuskieriges deur hul begraafplaas sou trap nie. Hulle laat nie-Moslems toe om die heilige terrein binne te gaan. Omdat ek nie van plan was om oneerbiedig te wees nie, het ek geweet dat ek die grot op my volgende reis na Jerusalem sou moes inspekteer om my mure van Jerusalem te voltooi.

Toe ek by die Oosmuur -begraafplaas kom, het ek gevind dat 'n Arabiese opsigter daar was om seker te maak dat daar geen onwettige inskrywing sou wees nie. Ek wag en kyk van ver af. Rondom die middag het die opsigter besluit om 'n middagete te neem. Toe hy wegstap na 'n middagete in die Arabiese dorpie hieronder, sluip ek die begraafplaas in tot op die plek waar die bokant van die grot geleë is. Dit was bedek met 'n geroeste metaalplaat. Nadat ek die metaalbedekking opsy gesit het, leun ek binne -in die grot. Dit was pikswart. Ek het lukraak begin foto's neem, onseker oor wat ek sou fotografeer. My werk is betyds voltooi, terwyl die opsigter met 'n metaalpyp in die hand terugkeer. Ek het haastig teruggetrek.

(Plaat #3) The Mercy Gate, Shaar Harachamim.

Toe ek terugkeer na die “States, het ek die foto's laat ontwikkel. Ek kon sien dat die vloer van die grot besaai was met die oorblyfsels van lyke, skedels en skeletreste. Belangriker nog, aan die agterkant van die grot was 'n blootgestelde onderste gedeelte van die Oosmuur. Op die blootgestelde gedeelte van die oostelike muur was die boonste gedeelte van 'n boog en die oorblyfsels van die Shushan -poort (plaat #2). Vanuit die klein gedeelte van 'n boog kon ek vasstel dat die oorspronklike Shushan Gateway 'n dubbele poort was, soortgelyk aan die dubbele Chuldah -uitgang aan die Suidelike Muur.10 Met die geringe stukkie inligting kon ek die ou Shushan Gateway rekonstrueer. (Sien tekening.)

Die vorming van die grot het ook die geleentheid gebied om te soek na die kamer naby die Shushan -hek waarna die Talmoed verwys wat die nasionale el -standaard bevat. So 'n ontdekking sou eens en vir altyd die groot halachiese debat oor die presiese lengte van die el oplos. 11 Ek het begin om my volgende onwettige ekspedisie na die webwerf te beplan.

Toe ek die volgende jaar daar aankom, het my groot verwagtinge vinnig in die wiele gery. Die Arabiere het die grot gevul met allerhande asblik en puin. Ek was nie bereid om 'n paar ton vullis op te grawe en weg te ry nie.

Toe koning Salomo die Eerste Tempel bou, het hy 'n spesiale tweekamergebou in die tempelgebou gebou. Die een kamer was vir bruidegomme en die ander vir mense wat die tradisionele tydperk van rou waarneem. Diegene wat aan die tempeldiens deelgeneem het, het na hierdie kamers gegaan om die gepaste woorde te bied, óf van gelukwensing óf van meegevoel.12 Hierdie kamers is bo die Eastern Gateway gebou en is in die Tweede Tempel gerekonstrueer.

Vandag is die enigste sigbare struktuur wat op die Oosmuur gebou is, 'n groot gebou met twee verseëlde boogvensters. Christene noem dit die Goue Poort, maar die Jode en Moslems verwys daarna as Shaar Harachamim, die Mercy Gate (bord #3). Dit is versier met versierde Bisantynse klipwerk soortgelyk aan die klipwerk bo die Chuldah -afrit aan die Suidelike Muur. #8217 se deernis om sy heilige nasie te verlos. Sommige sê dat die Mercy Gate 'n rekonstruksie is van koning Salomo se tweekamerkamer

(Plaat #4) Die vertikale lyn in die middel van die foto is die naat, wat die punt aandui waarvandaan Herodes die oostelike muur uitgestrek het. Die klippe links onder op die naat is tipiese Herodiaanse ashlers. Die klippe regs van die naat dateer uit Herodes en is die oudste tempelstene wat gesien kan word.

'N Paar jaar voor die gewone era herbou die Joodse tiran, Herodes die Grote, die Tweede Tempel volledig en brei die Tempelberg-samestelling uit. 16 Herodes het 10 000 Joodse ambagsmanne, 120 000 nie-Joodse houtsnyers en steengroewers, 50 000 Jerusalemse voormanne en 1 500 bymekaargemaak. uniform Kohanim en Leviim om toesig te hou oor die werk bo -op die Tempelberg

(Plaat #5) Die klippe wat uit die oostelike muur uitsteek, was die begin van 'n boog wat 'n trap ondersteun het wat na die kelder van die tempel gelei het.

By die voltooiing van die monumentale heropbouprojek van Herodes, was die tempelverbinding dubbel sy oorspronklike oppervlakte.18 Hy het die noordelike, westelike en suidelike mure verder na buite verskuif. Herodes kon die oostelike muur nie verder uitskuif nie, want die oostelike muur was naby die top van die berg Moriah geleë en die oostelike helling was 'n skerp daling van 300 voet na die Kidronvallei. Herodes moes egter die noordelike en suidelike ente van die Oosmuur uitbrei sodat dit die nuut verhuisde noordelike en suidelike tempelmure sou ontmoet.

Die oorspronklike Oosmuur was ongeveer 750-1000 voet lank. Na die toevoeging van Herod aan die muur, was dit 1,530 voet lank. Hierdie toevoegings het twee interessante argitektoniese kenmerke opgelewer. Herodes het sy bouers opdrag gegee om 'n unieke ontwerp vir sy tempelstene te gebruik. Die middelpunte van die klippe moes gladde, gladde, gepoleerde oppervlaktes wees, wat 'n sentimeter van die ingeboude rande van die rande af uitsteek. Die oorspronklike tempelstene het ook die ingeboude grense, maar het ruwe, onvoltooide sentrums wat 'n paar sentimeter uitsteek. Baie van die oostelike muur vertoon hierdie primitiewe, ruwe tempelstene. Maar die noordelike en suidelike ente van die muur het die gladde gepoleerde Herodiaanse klippe.

(Plate #6a, 6b) Twee soorte boustene. Die klip met die weefagtige patroon is gebruik om buite die azarahouterrein te bou. Die fragment van gesplinterde klip met die gladde middelpunt is binne gebruik.

'N Ander argitektoniese kenmerk wat geproduseer is toe Herodes die lengte van die Oosmuur bygevoeg het, is 'n naat. Elke keer as 'n verlenging teen 'n muur gebou word, bly 'n vertikale lyn, 'n naad genoem, waar die ou muur eindig en die nuwe konstruksie begin. Vandag kan ons die naat 105 voet van die suidelike punt van die oostelike muur sien. Ons kan die Herodiaanse klippe, met hul gladde middelpunte, aan die linkerkant van die naat sien en die pre-Herodiaanse klippe, met hul growwe uitsteekende middelpunte, regs van die naat (plaat #4).

Naby die suidelike punt van die Oosmuur is verskeie ander interessante kenmerke. Die opvallendste is 'n reeks klippe wat uit die muur uitsteek (bord #5). Dit was die begin van 'n tempelboog. Die boog ondersteun trappe wat na die kelder van die Tweede Tempel lei, wat in die volksmond koning Salomo se stalle genoem word. Hierdie boog aan die oostelike muur was reg oorkant die boog aan die westelike muur waarna Robinson se boog 20 verwys word. As 'n mens mooi kyk bo die klippe van die boog, kan jy die buitelyne van twee verseëlde tempelgate sien. Weereens, met 'n noukeurige ondersoek, kan u die buitelyne van drie vensters van die tempel, ongeveer 40 voet links van die twee verseëlde poorte, uitmaak. Die middelste venster is gerekonstrueer.

'N Ander merkwaardige kenmerk word ongeveer 50 meter van die suidelike punt van die Oosmuur gevind. Die Herodiaanse klippe uit die boonste helfte van die muur steek effens uit die muur uit. Hoe verder jy teen die muur kyk, hoe verder steek die klippe na buite. Hierdie projeksie vorm die basis van 'n tempelwagtoring. Na alle waarskynlikheid was sulke torings in al vier hoeke van die Tempelberg geleë.

(Plaat #8) Twee marmer vloerklippe uit die Beit Hamikdash.

In die laat negentiende eeu het die Engelse argeoloog Charles Warren 'n mynskag gesink naby die suidoostelike hoek van die Tempelberg. Sy doel was om vas te stel hoe ver die muur afloop voordat dit die grond raak. Tot sy verbasing het die skag 80 voet afgegaan voordat hy soliede rots en die voet van die muur bereik het. Die totale hoogte van die muur op daardie stadium was naby 160 voet, amper 16 verdiepings hoog.

Warren het ook die wonderlike ontdekking gemaak dat die grondstene Fenisiese letters bevat. Sommige letters is in die klip gesny, ander is in rooi ink geverf. Hierdie letters was merke wat by die steengroef gemaak is om later die klippe te identifiseer sodat hulle in die regte posisie geplaas kon word vir die fondament van die groot muur.

(Plaat #9) Korinthiese hoofstad bo -op die Mercy Gate.

Die kolomme bo -op die Tempelberg het bestaan ​​uit dele, wat tromme genoem word, wat bo -op die ander pas (bord #13). Die tromme moes in 'n spesifieke volgorde gerangskik word. Om die korrekte rangskikking te verseker, is die onderkant van die tromme by die steengroef met letters gemerk. Alle werk wat bo -op die Tempelberg uitgevoer is, is uitgevoer deur Kohanim wat dus nie die Fenisiese letters ken nie, is die merke op die onderkant van die tromme in Hebreeus gemaak. Aangesien die merke van hierdie fondamente Fenisies was, is hierdie klippe waarskynlik opgestel deur nie-Jode wat meer vertroud was met die vreemde skrif.

(Plaat #10) Binne die Mercy Gate. Die kolom aan die agterkant dateer waarskynlik uit die Tweede Beit Hamikdash. Die kolom op die voorgrond dateer uit die Bisantynse era uit die vierde eeu.

Die 80 voet-diep steel van Warren was ongeveer 100 jaar lank blootgestel. 'N Paar jaar gelede het die munisipale amptenare die oop put as 'n veiligheidsgevaar beskou en dit laat invul.' N Stootskraper het grond uit die omliggende gebied gegrawe en in die skag gestort.

Op enige argeologiese terrein, hoe verder dit delf, hoe meer oud word die oorblyfsels wat ontbloot word. Maar hier het die volgorde omgekeer. Die stootskraper het boonste lae aarde opgedraai en in die bodem van die put neergelê. Dit keer dan terug om die volgende laag te grawe en in die put te plaas. Toe die taak voltooi is, bevat die onderste laag van die ingevulde Warren-as die oorblyfsels van die erdewerk uit die 20ste eeu, Coke-bottels en weggegooide koerante, wat ek vermoed beslis argeoloë van toekomstige geslagte sal raai. Stel jou voor dat jy 'n afskrif van Ma ’ariv in die eetkamer van 'n Bisantynse huis uit die vierde eeu! Maar, nog belangriker, die boonste laag vulsel in Warren se skag bevat die oorblyfsels van baie ou oorblyfsels, 'n ware skatkis wat ek net moes ondersoek.

Deur die vulsel te soek, het ek twee soorte Herodiaanse boustene gevind. Beide tipes het die gekerfde rande wat tipies is vir die Herodiaanse tempelstene. 22 Die een klip het egter 'n perfek gladde middelpunt, die ander tipe het 'n weefagtige ontwerp op die klip. Die verskil kan verduidelik word volgens halachah. Die uitspraak is dat bouklippe wat in die binnehof gebruik is (azarah) moes perfek glad wees. 23 Geen nekke of krake moet opgespoor word deur die kleinkiekie oor die oppervlak te laat loop nie. Stene wat in die konstruksie van die buitehowe gebruik is, het nie hierdie halachiese beperking nie (plate #6a, 6b).

Die Talmoed vertel ons dat die vloer van marmerteëls gemaak is.24 Daar was drie kleure teëls: wit, bruin en blou-pers. In die vulsel het ek twee fragmente van marmerteëls gevind. Een fragment was bruin, die ander fragment was blou-pers (bord #8). Ek het ook 'n klipolielamp (bord #7) gevind. Die meeste olielampe in die Heilige Land is gemaak van klei. Maar gebakte kleiwerktuie is vatbaar vir besoedeling (tumah), terwyl klipvate nie kan nie. Dit is dus te verstane dat 'n olielamp wat in die omgewing van die tempel gevind is, uit klip gemaak sou word.

(Plaat #11) Die agterkant van die Mercy Gate. Op hierdie 110 jaar oue foto kan 'n Korintiese kolom tussen die twee boë gesien word.

En nou vir die raaisel waarna in die titel van hierdie artikel verwys word. Vroeër aangehaal is die mishnah wat verklaar dat bo die Shushan Gateway 'n voorstelling van die Persiese hoofstad Shushan was. Ek het gereeld gewonder hoe die tempelbouers Shushan uitgebeeld het. Het die stad 'n herkenbare skyline gehad, soos New York, Chicago of St. Het Shushan 'n merkwaardige struktuur gehad, soos die Empire State -gebou of die Akropolis, wat die hoofstad van die Persiese Ryk simboliseer? Waarskynlik nie. Indien wel, hoe is Shushan bo die Eastern Gateway uitgebeeld?

Aan die bokant van die fasade van die Mercy Gate is 'n klein hoofstad van 'n Korintiese kolom (plaat #9) opgemerk. In klassieke Griekse en Romeinse argitektuur is daar drie verskillende style: Dories, Ionies en Korinties. 'N Hoofletter van 'n kolom is die siersteen bo -op 'n kolom. Korinthiese hoofstede is die mooiste van die drie style en bestaan ​​gewoonlik uit drie lae acanthusblare. Vir 'n voorbeeld van tipiese Korintiese kolomme en hoofletters, kyk ons ​​na die binnekant van die Mercy Gate (bord #10). Die hoofstede, sowel as die kolomme self, is heel moontlik oorblyfsels van die Tweede Tempel.

Die Tempelberg en die Oosmuur, gesien vanaf Har Hatzofim.

Die Joodse historikus van die laat Tweede Tempel-era, Josephus Flavius, vertel ons dat die argitektoniese styl van die Herodiaanse Tweede Tempel Korinties was.25 Klassieke rabbynse literatuur vertaal die woord “Corinthian ” in Hebreeus as shushan, wat lelie-agtige of blomme beteken .26 Koning Salomo het ook blomme -hoofletters vir sy kolomme van die Eerste Tempel gebruik en die Hebreeuse term wat in Tanach gebruik is om dit te beskryf, is ook die woord shushan.

(Plaat nr. 13) Trommels kolomme lê versprei voor die Suidelike Muur.

In baie tale word dieselfde woord gebruik om die kapitaal van 'n kolom en die kapitaal stad van 'n land. Miskien was daar bo die ou Eastern Gateway 'n groot Korinthiese/Shushan (dws blomme) hoofstad wat Shushan, die hoofstad, simboliseer. Met ander woorde, daar was geen snywerk of gravure wat die geboue van Shushan uitgebeeld het nie, maar 'n argitektoniese spel met woorde verteenwoordig die Persiese hoofstad.

'N Verdere verband tussen die Korintiese argitektuur en die Shushan Gateway kan gemaak word deur die versierde ontwerpwerk wat op die struktuur bly. 'N Meer volledige weergawe bly nog op die agterdeur van die gebou (bord nr. 11). Hierdie ontwerp is beslis van Korintiese styl. Sommige argeoloë, soos W. Harold Mare, meen dat hierdie ontwerpwerk uit die Tweede Tempel-era kom.

Die klein Korinthiese hoofstad wat vandag bo -op die Mercy Gate rus, moontlik 'n relikwie van 'n Tweede Tempel -kolom, is moontlik 'n argitektoniese herinnering aan eeue gelede toe 'n reuse Shushan -hoofstad daar rus.

In die verlede het die antieke marmerhoofstad ons herinner aan die plek waar ons vandaan kom. Dit herinner ons vandag aan die dag waarop die profeet Elia die Messiaanse era sal aankondig en van die plek waarheen ons sal terugkeer. Mag dit vinnig gebeur in ons dae.

Lugfoto van die Tempelberg en die Oosmuur.

Rabbi Reznick is 'n maagd shiur in die Beit Midrash van Shaarei Torah van Rockland. Hy is die skrywer van Die Heilige Tempel is weer besoek, Wee Jerusalem, 'N Tyd om te huil en Die raaisel van Bar Kokhba.

Hierdie artikel verskyn die eerste keer in die somer 1996 -uitgawe van Joodse aksie.

1. Rashi Esra 1:1, Toldot Am Olam vol.I, bl. 329.

3. Tiferet Yisrael Kelim 17, noot 67.

4. Sefer HaYuchsin 61a.

6. Ezrat Kohanim vol. Ek, p. 105, paragraaf. 10.

7. Sien Menochot ibid. en Kelim 17: 9 en kommentare ad loc.

8. Baba Metzia 114a en amp b.

9. “States ” is 'n term wat gebruik word deur gesofistikeerde reisigers wat minstens een keer in die buiteland was. Dit word gewoonlik deur inboorlinge van Brooklyn gebruik, maar dit kan in die meeste Joodse dele van die staat New York gehoor word.

10. Sien Joods Aksie Somer 5755/1995, “The Forgotten Wall, ” vir 'n gedetailleerde beskrywing van hierdie poort en die hele uitgestrektheid van die Suidelike Muur.

11. Sien Joods Aksie Winter 1991/1992 vir 'n bespreking gebaseer op argeologiese bewyse oor die lengte van 'n el in my artikel oor die Bar Kokhba -tempel.

13. Kaftor Voferach, hfst. 6.

14. Sien Joods Aksie Somer 5755/1995, “The Forgotten Wall. ”

17. Yossiphon hfst. 55.

18. Josephus, Oorloë van die Jode Boek I, hoofstuk 21 en boek V, hoofstuk 5.

19. Sien Joods Aksie Somer 5755/1995 vir 'n beskrywing en foto's van die “ -stalle. ”

20. Sien Joods Aksie Winter 5753/1992-3, “ 'n Privaat toer deur die Westelike Muur, ” vir 'n beskrywing van Robinson ’s Arch.

21. Sien Die Heilige Tempel is weer besoek, uitgegee deur Jason Aronson Inc., p. 62 vir 'n prentjie en 'n bespreking van moontlik datering van die letters.

22. Sien Joods Aksie Winter 5753/1992-3.

23. Rambam Beit Habechirah 1:15.

24. Baba Batra 4a en Rashi ad loc.

25. Oorloë van die Jode Boek V, hfst. 5.

26. Soos Ezrat Kohanim.

28. Onder die suidelike deel van Har Habayit is 'n 300 voet lange tonnel met koepels ondersteun deur kolomme. Sien aantekening #13. Een van die kolomme het 'n baie primitiewe hoofstad van Korinthe/Shushan, moontlik 'n oorblyfsel van koning Salomo se eerste tempel.


Geskiedenis van Harmandir Sahib

Die oorsprong en evolusie van die plek waar die Goue Tempel nou staan, is bedek met geheimsinnigheid. Sommige bronne vind die oorsprong daarvan uit die pre-historiese era as 'n Indiese plek van aanbidding. Die Goue Tempel is 'n laagliggende gebied met 'n groot dam omring deur digte oerwoud. Hierdie stuk grond is gesny deur die dorpe Sultanwind Tung, Gilwali en Gumtala, ens. Meer oor sy geografiese ligging was uitstekend. Dit was langs die stad Lahore, die destydse hoofstad van Punjab en die snelweg wat Indië en Sentraal -Asiatiese lande verbind, loop ook deur hierdie stuk grond.

Kies die chronologie van Harmandir Sahib en Amritsar

1573 AD Die bouwerk van die heilige watertenk het onder toesig van Guru RamDas Ji begin.

1577 AD Guru Ram Das Ji het die grondslag gelê van Amritsar (vroeër bekend as Ram Das Pur)

1588 AD Die fondament van Harimandir is gelê deur 'n Moslem -heilige Mian Mir.

1604 AD Die sentrale heiligdom is voltooi.

1606 AD Die Sikh Guru Hargobind ji het twee swaarde aangeneem, een vir godsdienstige aangeleenthede en 'n ander vir wêreldse aangeleenthede. Guru Hargobind sahib ji het ook die fondament van Akal Takht gelê.

1621 AD Guru Teg Bahadur ji is in Amritsar gebore.

1628 AD Die eerste gewapende konflik Sikh-Mughal ooit, en die Sikhs het as oorwinnaars uit die stryd getree onder bevel van Guru Hargobind sahib ji.

1634 nC Guru Hargobind sahib ji het saam met sy aanhangers na Kiratpur vertrek om moontlike aanval op besoekende Sikh -toegewydes te voorkom.

1665 nC Guru Teg Bhadur het die Goue Tempel besoek nadat hy die negende Sikh Guru geword het, maar hy is deur die priesters toegang geweier.

1721 nC Bhai Mani Singh word aangestel as die priester en administrateur van die Goue Tempel. Na 'n eeu lange tydperk was die beheer van die Goue Tempel weer onder die Sikhs.

1725 nC Geskil tussen die twee Sikh -sektes oor die beheer van die Goue Tempel. Bhai Mani singh het dit op 'n regverdige manier opgelos.

1738 nC Die hoofpriester Bhai Mani Singh het in stukke gekap omdat hy nie die vereiste inkomste aan die Mughal -owerhede betaal het nie

1739 AD Die Mughals het vrede beding en onafhanklike gebied [jagir] aan die Sikhs toegestaan.

1739 AD Persiese koning Nadis Shah het die Goue Tempel aangeheg

1740 AD Die Sikhs het wraak geneem op die daad van heiligmaking deur 'n Mughal -administrateur met die naam Massa Ranghard. Twee Sikh -krygers Sukha singh en Mehtab singh kap sy kop in die heiligdom waar hy dans kyk onder die invloed van alkohol saam met sy vriende en soldate.

1745 AD 'N Golf van onderdrukking het die Sikhs begin bekamp.

1757 AD Die Afghaanse koning Ahmed Shah Abdali het die Goue Tempel aangeval en Baba Deep Singh is gemartel.

1762 AD Na die groter slagting van 5 Februarie, het die Afghaanse koning, Abdali, die Goue Tempel in 1762 platgeslaan en sy heilige tenk gevul met puin, rommel en dierekarkasse.

1764 AD Weer het Abdali na Amritsar gekom en alles wat hy teëgekom het, verwoes. Baba Gubaksh Singh en sy dertig kamerade is genadeloos vermoor naby die Akal Takhat.

1767 AD Udasi -heiliges Nirvan Pritam Das en Mahant Santokh Das het 35 myl lange waterkanaal gebring om die heilige watertenk te vul met die water van die rivier Ravi.

1773 AD Sikh Misal -kapteins het die gebou van Gurdwara baba Atal naby die Goue Tempel verhoog.

1776 AD Heropbou van die beskadigde tenk, ingangshek en brug.

1802 AD Maharaja Ranjit Singh het die gebied van Amritsar beset.

1808 AD Amritsar se beroemde Gobindghar -fort is opgewek om die skat van Lahore na Amritsar te verskuif.

1813 AD Maharaja Ranjit Singh verkry die beroemde diamant & quot; Ko-he-noor & quot; nou in die Engelse kroon, en 'n groot weermag marsjeer verby in die strate van Amritsar.

1822 AD Amritsar se vestingmuur met twaalf hekke voltooi.

1831 AD Goue wêreld van die Golden Temple Bereik sy laaste stadiums.

1839 AD Maharaja Ranjit Singh het in Maart 1839 na die Goue Tempel gekom, dit was sy laaste besoek.

1849 AD Die Sikhs het hul heerskappy oor die verenigde gebied Punjab verloor.

1857 AD Amritsar het 'n klein effek van die muitery teen die Britte waargeneem.

1871 AD Kuka [Namdhari] -beweging het Amritsar geruk, verskeie Moslem -slagters is vermoor. Britse administrateurs het verskeie Kuka -dissipels in Amritsar naby Maharaja Ranjit Singh se somerpaleis aan die dood gehang.

1873 AD Singh Sabha -beweging het wortels gekry.

1881 AD Die Britse regering het hul bestuursagente of bestuurders [Sarbarah] voorgestel om hul volle beheer oor die Goue Tempel uit te oefen.

1893 AD Khalsa College, Amritsar geopen.

1902 AD Die Britse hoof, Khala Diwan, gevorm.

1919 AD Jallian Wala Bagh -slagting het etlike duisende onskuldige Sikhs en ander op die Baisakhi -dag in Amritsar lewe geneem.

1921 AD Die Sikhs het beheer geneem oor verskeie Sikh -heiligdomme, waaronder die Goue Tempel. SGPC het soos 'n moederliggaam ontstaan ​​wat na 'n paar jaar sy finale vorm aangeneem het.

1923 AD Die eerste Ka Sewa of skoonmaak van die heilige watertenk het plaasgevind.

1925 AD Sikh Gurdwara -wet aangeneem.

1947 AD Amritsar het 'n grensstad geword na die verdeling van Indië.

1949 AD Sikh Verwysingsbiblioteek gevorm.

1958 AD Sentrale Sikh -museum gevorm.

1973 AD Die tweede Kar Sewa van die heilige watertenk.

1977 AD Die stad Amritsar vier sy 400ste verjaardag.

1978 AD Sikh – Nirankari -konflik het dertien onskuldige Sikh -betogers die lewe geneem en dit het die Punjab vir ewig verander.

1984 AD Die Indiese leër het die Goue Tempel binnegeval onder operasie, "Blue Star", wat die lewe van etlike onskuldige duisende lewens geëis het en tot die vernietiging van die Goue Tempel -kompleks gelei het.

1988 AD Nog 'n Para -militêre aksie het hierdie jaar plaasgevind om Sikh -militante uit die Golden Temple -kompleks te verwyder.

1988 AD Etlike duisende winkels en huise in die algemeen van die Sikhs is verwyder om 'n gang rondom die Goue Tempel te maak. Dit het die langverwagte skoonheid en ruimte bygevoeg aan die Goue Tempel.

1997 AD Die Engelse koningin Elizabeth II en haar man het 'n besoek aan die Goue Tempel gebring.

2004 AD Die Goue Tempel het die eerste Kar Sewa van die 21ste eeu waargeneem vir die installering van waterbehandelingsaanlegte. Hierdie jaar was ook die grootste sterkte ooit aangeteken van toegewydes wat die Goue Tempel tegelyk besoek het, aan die vooraand van vier vierjarige installasievieringe van die Sikh -Skrif in September 2004.


46 gedagtes oor & ldquoThe Golden Gate of the Temple Mount in Jerusalem & rdquo

/>Leen Ritmeyer sê:

Dit is nutteloos om slegs uit die teks te redeneer sonder om die argeologiese oorblyfsels in ag te neem. U lees slegs tekste en is onkundig oor die argeologie van Jerusalem.

Daar is geen "[sommige]" in 6: 149 (Loeb -vertaling). Die rotskarp van die Antonia was, en is steeds, baie hoog en het 'n goeie standpunt vir Titus gebied, selfs nadat sy soldate dit tot in sy (rotsagtige) fondament vernietig het. Selfs na die vernietiging daarvan het dit die naam Antonia behou.
Oorlog 6.166 praat van die portieke wat by die rotsagtige fondamente van die Antonia -vesting gevoeg is. Sommige van die voetstukke vir die dakbalke van hierdie portieke het tot vandag toe oorleef - sien my pos op die Antonia.
Oorlog 7.1 spreek van die huise van Jerusalem wat op die Western Hill gestaan ​​het, want dit is waar die torings van Phasael, Hippicus (vandag nog staan) en Mariamne gestaan ​​het. Hulle beskerm Herodes se paleis wat na die dood van Herodes deur die Romeinse prokonsuls oorgeneem is. Dit is waar Pilatus gebly het toe hy in Jerusalem gekom het. Dit is waar die Praetorium geleë was, en nêrens anders nie. Oorblyfsels van hierdie paleis is opgegrawe in die Citadel en sy aangrensende terreine.

Toe Jesus van “nie een klip nie” praat, verwys hy na die “geboue” (meervoud) wat op die Tempelberg staan. Daar is net een Tempelberg (enkelvoud), daarom kon Jesus nie daarna verwys het nie, maar hy het na die vele geboue gekyk toe hy die vernietiging daarvan voorspel het. Lees asseblief aandagtig deur.
Die ploeg van die Romeine verwys na die ploeg van 'n vore om die grense van Aelia Capitolina uiteen te sit. Dit is standaard Romeinse praktyk.
Daar was nooit 'n Bisantynse kerk op die plek van die Rotskoepel nie, wat deur baie geleerdes deeglik ondersoek is. Die Christene bou die Heilige Graf, wat hulle hoofkerk was. Dit is onsin om aan te dui dat die Praetorium by die Dome of the Rock was. Geen geleerde sal daarmee saamstem nie.

Dit is nie my persoonlike opinies nie, maar die van 'n argitek wat jare lank, en saam met baie kollegas, gewerk het aan die opgrawings op die Tempelberg, die opgrawings in die Joodse wyk, die stad Dawid en die citadel.

Tensy u die regte boeke oor die argeologie van Jerusalem gelees het deur professionele persone wat jare lank in Jerusalem gewerk het, sal u nooit die teks van Josefus verstaan ​​nie en is dit vir my nutteloos om met mense te praat wat niks van Jerusalem se verlede weet nie. .

As u ernstig wil wees om Jerusalem beter te leer ken, beveel ek aan om die volgende boeke te lees:
Dan Bahat: Die geïllustreerde atlas van Jerusalem.
Ronny Reich: Opgrawing van die Stad van Dawid.
Leen Ritmeyer: The Quest - Die onthulling van die Tempelberg in Jerusalem.
Leen en Kathleen Ritmeyer: Jerusalem - die Tempelberg.
Nahman Avigad: Ontdek Jerusalem.
Hillel Geva (red.): Ancient Jerusalem Revealed, 1998-2018.
Hillel Geva en Ephraim Stern (reds.): The New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land.

Dit is standaardwerke wat gebruik word in voorgraadse studies van baie universiteite wat die Argeologie van Jerusalem onderrig. As u eers die ware argeologie van Jerusalem verstaan ​​deur hierdie boeke te lees, kan ons verder bespreek, maar nie as u slegs vertrou op baie ou verslae en hoorsê van ongekwalifiseerde mense nie.

“ hulle het Zion vergeet ”
.
Sion is die berg Moriah, die Tempelberg, hoewel dit ook van toepassing was op David's City, maar nie die huidige heuwel wat genoem word nie. Zion ”.


Verheerliking: 'n Gesinsverhouding

President Nelson: Verheffing is 'n familie -aangeleentheid. Slegs deur die reddende verordeninge van die evangelie van Jesus Christus kan gesinne verhef word. Die uiteindelike doel waarna ons streef, is dat ons as gesin gelukkig word - toegerus, verseël en voorbereid op die ewige lewe in die teenwoordigheid van God.

Suster Nelson: Elke Kerkklas wat ons bywoon, elke keer as ons dien, elke verbond wat ons met God sluit, elke priesterskapverordening wat ons ontvang, alles wat ons in die Kerk doen, lei ons na die heilige tempel, die huis van die Here. Daar is soveel krag beskikbaar vir 'n paartjie en vir hul kinders deur die seëlverordening wanneer hulle hul verbonde nakom.

President Nelson: Elke dag kies ons waar ons ewig wil lewe deur hoe ons dink, voel, praat en optree. Ons hemelse Vader het verklaar dat Sy werk en Sy heerlikheid die onsterflikheid en die ewige lewe van sy kinders moet bewerkstellig (sien Moses 1:39). Maar Hy wil ons kies om na Hom terug te keer. Hy sal ons op geen manier dwing nie. Die presisie waarmee ons ons verbonde nakom, wys vir Hom hoeveel ons wil terugkeer om saam met Hom te lewe. Elke dag bring ons nader aan of verder van ons heerlike moontlikheid van ewige lewe. Ons moet elkeen ons verbonde nakom, daagliks tot bekering kom en probeer om meer soos ons Verlosser te wees. Dan en slegs dan kan gesinne vir altyd saam wees.

Suster Nelson: Dit is my getuienis dat hoe wonderlik jou lewe ook al is, of hoe ontmoedigend en hartverskeurend dit ook al is, jou betrokkenheid by die tempel- en familiegeskiedeniswerk sal dit beter maak. Wat het jy nou in jou lewe nodig? Meer liefde? Meer vreugde? Meer selfbeheersing? Meer vrede? Meer betekenisvolle oomblikke? Het u meer die gevoel dat u 'n verskil maak? Meer pret? Meer antwoorde op u sielondersoekende vrae? Meer hart-tot-hart-verbintenisse met ander? Meer begrip van wat u in die Skrif lees? Meer vermoë om lief te hê en te vergewe? Meer vermoë om met krag te bid? Meer inspirasie en kreatiewe idees vir u werk en ander projekte? Meer tyd vir wat regtig saak maak?

Ek smeek u om 'n tydoffer aan die Here te bring deur die tyd wat u daaraan bestee om tempel- en familiegeskiedenis te doen, te vergroot, en dan te kyk wat gebeur. Dit is my getuienis dat as ons die Here wys dat ons ernstig is om ons voorgeslagte te help, die hemele sal oopgaan en ons alles sal ontvang wat ons nodig het.

President Nelson: Ons kan die hele dag geïnspireer word oor tempel- en familiegeskiedenis -ervarings wat ander gehad het. Maar ons moet iets doen om die vreugde self te ervaar. Ek wil 'n uitdaging aan elkeen van ons stel, sodat die wonderlike gevoel van hierdie werk kan voortduur en selfs toeneem. Ek nooi u uit om biddend na te dink watter soort opoffering - verkieslik 'n tydoffer - om hierdie jaar meer tempel- en familiegeskiedeniswerk te doen.

Ons is besig met die werk van die Almagtige God. Hy lewe. Jesus is die Christus. Dit is Sy Kerk. Ons is Sy verbondskinders. Hy kan op ons reken.


Missieverklaring

Geleentheid. Verlowing. Ontdekking.

Temple University educates a vibrant student body and creates new knowledge through innovative teaching, research and other creative endeavors. Our urban setting provides transformative opportunities for engaged scholarship, experiential learning, and discovery of self, others and the world. We open our doors to a diverse community of learners and scholars who strive to make the possible real.

We are committed to the ideals upon which Temple was founded:

  • providing access to an excellent, affordable higher education that prepares students for careers, further learning and active citizenship.
  • creating a collaborative community of outstanding faculty and staff who foster inclusion and encourage the aspirations of Temple students.
  • promoting service and engagement throughout Philadelphia, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the nation and the world.

Meenakshi Temple

Meenakshi Amman Temple, also known as Minakshi-Sundareshwara Temple, is one of the oldest and most important temples in India. Located in the city of Madurai, the temple has a great mythological and historical significance. It is believed that Lord Shiva assumed the form of Sundareswarar (the handsome one) and married Parvati (Meenakshi) at the site where the temple is currently located. Renowned for its astonishing architecture, Meenakshi Temple was nominated as one of the wonders of the world, but couldn’t make it into the list of ‘Seven Wonders of the World’. However, the temple is definitely one of the ‘Wonders of India’. It is also one of the main attractions of South India with thousands of devotees thronging it every day. During the ‘Tirukalyanam Festival,’ which takes place over a period of 10 days, the temple attracts more than a million devotees. Despite many people visiting it every day, the temple is well-maintained and was named the ‘Best Swachh Iconic Place’ (cleanest iconic place) in India.

According to a legend, Meenakshi emerged out of a ‘Yajna’ (sacred fire) as a three-year-old girl. The ‘Yajna’ was performed by a king named Malayadwaja Pandya along with his wife Kanchanamalai. Since the royal couple had no child, the King offered his prayers to Lord Shiva, requesting him to grant them a son. But to their dismay, a triple-breasted girl emerged from the sacred fire. When Malayadwaja and his wife expressed their concern over the girl’s abnormal appearance, a divine voice ordered them not to fret over the girl’s physical appearance. They were also informed that the girl’s third breast will disappear as soon as she meets her future husband. The relieved King named her Meenakshi and in due course crowned her as his successor.

Meenakshi ruled over the ancient city of Madurai and also went on to capture the neighboring kingdoms. Legend has it that she even captured Indralok, the abode of Lord Indra, and was on her way to capture Kailash, the abode of Lord Shiva, as well. When Shiva appeared before her, Meenakshi’s third breast disappeared and she knew that she had met her better half. Shiva and Meenakshi returned to Madurai where their wedding took place. It is said that the wedding was attended by all the gods and goddesses. Since Parvati herself had assumed the form of Meenakshi, Lord Vishnu, Parvati’s brother, handed her over to Lord Shiva. Even today, the wedding ceremony is celebrated every year as ‘Chithirai Thiruvizha’ which is also known as ‘Tirukalyanam’ (the grand wedding).

The history of Meenakshi Temple dates back to the 1st century C.E with scholars claiming it to be as old as the city itself. It is said that Kulashekarar Pandyan, a king who ruled over the Pandyan dynasty, built the temple as per the instructions given in his dream by Lord Shiva. A few religious texts that belong to the 1st to 4th century C.E talk about the temple and describe it as the central structure of the city. Texts dating back to the early 6th century, describe the temple as a place where scholars met to discuss important topics. The temple as it stands today, however, was rebuilt throughout the 16th century as it was destroyed by the Muslim invaders.

During the 14th century C.E, Malik Kafur, a commander of Delhi Sultanate, led his army into most parts of southern India and looted many temples including the famed Meenakshi Temple. Valuables, such as gold, silver and precious gems were taken to Delhi. Since temples in those days had abundance of valuables, most of the temples were destroyed and were left in ruins. When the Vijayanagar Empire took over Madurai after defeating the Muslim Sultanate, the temple was rebuilt and reopened. The temple was further expanded during the late 16th century and early 17th century by Vishwanatha Nayakar, a king of the Nayaka dynasty. According to researchers, while rebuilding the temple, the rulers of Nayaka dynasty followed the architectural style of ‘Silpa Shastras.’ ‘Silpa Shastras’ are a set of architectural laws found in the ancient texts.

The temple was once again expanded by Thirumalai Nayak who ruled over Madurai from 1623 to 1655. During his reign, many ‘Mandapams’ (pillared halls) were built. The temple was then expanded by many later Nayaka rulers before the advent of the British East India Company. The temple was once again degraded and parts of it were destroyed during the British Rule. In 1959, the restoration work was started by Tamil Hindus by collecting donations and by collaborating with historians and engineers. The temple was completely restored in 1995.

Temple Structure

The temple occupies a huge area in the heart of Madurai as it spreads over 14 acres. The temple is enclosed with huge walls, which were built in response to the invasions. The entire structure, when viewed from above, represents a mandala. A mandala is a structure built according to the laws of symmetry and loci. There are various shrines built within the temple complex. Apart from the two main shrines, which are dedicated to Sundareswarar and Meenakshi, the temple has shrines dedicated to various other deities like Ganesha and Murugan. The temple also houses goddesses Lakshmi, Rukmini, and Saraswati.

The temple also has a consecrated pond named ‘Porthamarai Kulam.’ The term ‘Potramarai Kulam’ is a literal translation of ‘pond with a golden lotus.’ The structure of a golden lotus is placed at the center of the pond. It is said that Lord Shiva blessed this pond and declared that no marine life would grow in it. In the Tamil folklore, the pond is believed to be an evaluator for reviewing the worth of any new literature.

The temple has four main towering gateways (gopurams) that look identical to each other. Apart from the four ‘gopurams,’ the temple also houses many other ‘gopurams’ that serve as gateways to a number of shrines. The temple has a total of 14 towering gateways. Each one of them is a multi-storey structure and displays thousands of mythological stories and several other sculptures. The major ‘gopurams’ of the temple are listed below:

  • Kadaka Gopuram – This towering gateway leads to the main shrine that houses Goddess Meenakshi. The gateway was rebuilt by Tumpichi Nayakkar during the mid-16th century. The ‘gopuram’ has five storeys.
  • Sundareswarar Shrine Gopuram – This is the oldest ‘gopuram’ of the temple and was built by Kulasekara Pandya. The ‘gopuram’ serves as a gateway to the Sundareswarar (Lord Shiva) shrine.
  • Chitra Gopuram – Built by Maravarman Sundara Pandyan II, the gopuram depicts the religious and secular essence of Hinduism.
  • Nadukkattu Gopuram – Also called as the ‘Idaikattu Gopuram,’ this gateway leads to the Ganesha shrine. The gateway is placed right in between the two main shrines.
  • Mottai Gopuram – This ‘gopuram’ has fewer stucco images when compared to the other gateways. Interestingly, ‘Mottai gopuram’ had no roof for nearly three centuries.
  • Nayaka Gopuram – This ‘gopuram’ was built by Visvappa Nayakkar around 1530. The ‘gopuram’ is astonishingly similar to another gateway called ‘Palahai Gopuram.’

The temple also has numerous pillared halls called ‘Mandapams.’ These halls were built by various kings and emperors and they serve as resting places for pilgrims and devotees. Some of the most important ‘mandapams’ are given below:

  • Ayirakkal Mandapam – It literally translates to ‘hall with thousand pillars.’ The hall, which was built by Ariyanatha Mudaliar, is a true spectacle as it is supported by 985 pillars. Each and every pillar is sculpted magnificently and has images of Yali, a mythological creature.
  • Kilikoondu Mandapam – This ‘mandapam’ was originally built to house hundreds of parrots. The parrots that were kept there in cages were trained to say ‘Meenakshi’. The hall, which is next to the Meenakshi shrine, has sculptures of characters from Mahabharata.
  • Ashta Shakthi Mandapam – This hall houses the sculptures of eight goddesses. Built by two queens, the hall is placed in between the main ‘gopuram’ and the gateway that leads to the Meenakshi shrine.
  • Nayaka Mandapam – ‘Nayaka Mandapam’ was built by Chinnappa Nayakkar. The hall is supported by 100 pillars and houses a Nataraja statue.

Significance & Worship

Since Meenakshi is the main deity of the temple, the temple signifies the importance of woman in a Tamil Hindu family. The temple also portrays the cordial relationship between Shaivism, Vaishnavism and Shaktism. The Sundareswarar shrine is known as one fifth of ‘Pancha Sabhai’ (five courts) where Lord Shiva is believed to have performed the cosmic dance. Worship mainly involves rituals and processions. One of the rituals involves placing an image of Sundareswarar inside a palanquin which is then moved to the shrine of Meenakshi. The palanquin is taken into the shrine every night and is brought back to the shrine of Sundareswarar every morning. The devotees usually worship Meenakshi before offering their prayers to Sundareswarar.

Apart from the main festival, which is basically the wedding ceremony of the deities, a number of other festivals are celebrated in the temple. Some of these include ‘Vasantham festival,’ ‘Unjal festival,’ ‘Mulai-Kottu festival,’ ‘Arudhra Dharsan festival,’ ‘Thai utsavam,’ ‘Kolattam festival,’ etc. Each of these festivals has its own significance and is celebrated during various months throughout the year. The temple also celebrates ‘Navarathri festival.’ During ‘Navarathri’ the temple displays colorful dolls which are collectively called ‘gollu.’ ‘Gollu’ often convey stories from mythological scenes.


Inhoud

In the Middle Ages, the authority of the City of London Corporation reached beyond the City's ancient defensive walls in several places, known as the Liberties of London. To regulate trade into the City, barriers were erected on the major entrance routes wherever the true boundary was a substantial distance from the nearest ancient gatehouse in the walls. Temple Bar was the most used of these, since traffic between the City of London (England's prime commercial centre) and the Palace of Westminster (the political centre) passed through it. It was located where Fleet Street now meets The Strand, which is outside London's old boundary wall. [1]

Its name derives from the Temple Church, adjoining to the south, which has given its name to a wider area south of Fleet Street, the Temple, once belonging to the Knights Templar but now home to two of the legal profession's Inns of Court.

The historic ceremony of the monarch halting at Temple Bar and being met by the Lord Mayor has often featured in art and literature. It is commented on in televised coverage of modern-day royal ceremonial processions. The City of London's own website describes the ceremony as:

The Temple Bar ceremony, which is still occasionally re-enacted at a monument to the Bar, involves the monarch stopping to request permission to enter the City and the Lord Mayor presenting the Sword of State as a sign of loyalty. [1]

A bar is first mentioned in 1293 and was probably only a chain or bar between a row of posts. [1] More substantial structures with arches followed. After the Battle of Evesham of 1265, Prince Edward punished the rebellious Londoners, who had befriended Simon de Montfort, by taking away all their street chains and bars, and storing them in the Tower of London. [2] By 1351, a wooden archway had been built housing a small prison above it. The earliest known documentary and historical notice of Temple Bar is in 1327, concerning a hearing before the mayor regarding a right of way in the area. In 1384, Richard II granted a licence for paving the Strand Street from Temple Bar to the Savoy, and collecting tolls to cover the expense.

On 5 November 1422, the corpse of Henry V was borne to Westminster Abbey by the chief citizens and nobles, and every doorway from Southwark to Temple Bar had a torch-bearer. In 1503 the hearse of Elizabeth of York, queen of Henry VII, halted at Temple Bar, on its way from the Tower to Westminster, and at the Bar the Abbots of Westminster and Bermondsey blessed the corpse, and the Earl of Derby and a large company of nobles joined the funeral procession. Anne Boleyn passed through the Bar on May 31, 1534, the day before her coronation, on her way to the Tower. On that occasion Temple Bar was new painted and repaired, and near it stood singing men and children—the Fleet Street conduit all the time running claret. [2]

In 1554, Thomas Wyatt led an uprising in opposition to Queen Mary I's proposed marriage to Philip II of Spain. When he had fought his way down Piccadilly to The Strand, Temple Bar was thrown open to him, or forced open by him but when he had been repulsed at Ludgate he was hemmed in by cavalry at Temple Bar, where he surrendered. This revolt persuaded the government to go through with the verdict against Lady Jane Grey. [2]

The notable Scottish bookseller Andrew Millar owned his first London shop at Temple Bar, taken over from the ownership of James McEuen in 1728, whom Millar had apprenticed to. [3]

Wren's Temple Bar Gate Edit

Although the Bar Gate escaped damage by the Great Fire of London of 1666, it was rebuilt as part of the general improvement works made throughout the City after that devastating event. Commissioned by King Charles II, and attributed to Sir Christopher Wren, the fine arch of Portland stone was constructed between 1669 and 1672, by Thomas Knight, the City Mason, and Joshua Marshall, Master of the Mason's Company. The statues of Anne of Denmark, James l, Charles I, and Charles II, in niches in the upper floor were carved by John Bushnell. [4]

Rusticated, it is a two-story structure consisting of one wide central arch for the road traffic, flanked on both sides by narrower arches for pedestrians. On the upper part, four statues celebrate the 1660 Restoration of the Stuart monarchy: on the west side King Charles II is shown with his father King Charles I whose parents King James I and Anne of Denmark are depicted on the east side. [5] During the 18th century the heads of convicted traitors were frequently mounted on pikes and exhibited on the roof, as was the case on London Bridge. The other seven principal gateways to London, (Ludgate, Newgate, Aldersgate, Cripplegate, Moorgate, Bishopsgate and Aldgate) were all demolished in the 1760s, but Temple Bar remained despite its impediment to the ever-growing traffic. The upper-storey room was leased to the neighbouring banking house of Child & Co for storage of records. [2]

In the 1853 Bleak House, Charles Dickens described it as "that leaden-headed old obstruction, appropriate ornament for the threshold of a leaden-headed old corporation". It was also the subject of jokes, "Why is Temple Bar like a lady's veil? Both must be raised (razed) for "busses" ('buses). It was noted in jest "as a weak spot in our defenses", since one could walk through the adjoining barbershop where one door opened on to the City and the other in the area of Westminster.

In 1874 it was discovered that the keystones had dropped and the arches were propped up with timbers. The steady increase in horse and cart traffic led to complaints that Temple Bar was becoming a bottleneck, holding back the City trade. In 1878 the City of London Corporation, eager to widen the road but unwilling to destroy so historic a monument, dismantled it piece-by-piece over an 11-day period and stored its 2,700 stones carefully. In 1880 the brewer Henry Meux, at the instigation of his wife Valerie Susan Meux, bought the stones and re-erected the arch as the facade of a new gatehouse in the park of his mansion house Theobalds Park in Hertfordshire, the site of a former substantial prodigy house of James VI and I. [6] There it remained, positioned in a woodland clearing, until 2003. A plaque marks the site where Temple Bar once stood.


Nicanor's Gate

NICANOR'S GATE, one of the gates leading to the Temple courtyard during the period of the Second Temple. According to the Mishnah, "There were seven gates in the Temple courtyard.… In the east there was the gate of Nicanor, which had two rooms attached, one on its right and one on its left, one the room of Phinehas the dresser and one the room of the griddle cake makers" (Mid. 1:4). This gate was one of the best known of the gifts made to the Temple and "miracles were performed in connection with the gate of Nicanor and his memory was praised" (Yoma 3:10). Of these miracles the Talmud states: "What miracles were performed by his doors? When Nicanor went to Alexandria in Egypt to bring them, on his return a huge wave threatened to engulf him. Thereupon they took one of the doors and cast it into the sea but still the sea continued to rage. When they prepared to cast the other one into the sea, Nicanor rose and clung to it, saying ⟊st me in with it.'" The sea immediately became calm. He was, however, deeply grieved about the other door. As they reached the harbor of Acre it broke the surface and appeared from under the sides of the boat. Others say a sea monster swallowed it and ejected it out onto dry land. Subsequently all the gates of the Sanctuary were changed for golden ones, but the Nicanor gates, which were said to be of bronze, were left because of the miracles wrought with them. But some say that they were retained because the bronze of which they were made had a special golden hue. R. Eliezer b. Jacob said, "It was Corinthian copper which shone like gold" (Yoma 38a). Corinthian gold was the name given to a family of copper alloys with gold and silver which were depletion-gilded to give them a golden or silver luster (see Jacobson ). An important production center for Corinthian gold was in Egypt, where, according to tradition, alchemy had its origins.

Scholars disagree over where the gates stood. Some claim that they were on the western side of the Court of Women which was to the east of the Court of Israelites others maintain that they were on the eastern side of the Court of Women. The basis of this conflict is in the interpretation of a passage in Josephus (Wars, 5:204). Schalit's discussion of the problem concludes that the words of Josephus are to be explained as meaning that the gates of Nicanor were "beyond" the entrance to the Sanctuary and facing "the gate that was larger," i.e., that it was on the eastern side of the Court of Women. The gates were undoubtedly made after the time of Herod (the most reasonable date being about the middle of the first century, a generation before the destruction) and were the work of an Alexandrian craftsman. Nicanor is also recorded in a first century C.E. inscription on an ossuary found in October 1902 in a cave on Mt. Scopus in Jerusalem ("the Cave of Nicanor"). The Greek inscription reads: "the remains of the children of Nicanor of Alexandria who made the doors." Nicanor's name also appears in a Hebrew inscription as well. Nicanor's gift was so well known that no additional explanation was necessary. Nicanor was an Alexandrian, though he may have gone to live in Jerusalem. It seems more likely, however, that his remains were brought from Alexandria to Jerusalem, where he had a family tomb. The ossuary mentioning Nicanor is now in the collections of the British Museum. Klein (1920 see also Tal 2002) expressed certainty that the Nicanor of the ossuary was the same as the Nicanor who made the set of gates of the Temple according to rabbinic sources Schwartz (1991), however, has expressed some doubts about this.

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

H. Graetz, in: MGWJ, 25 (1876), 434f. A. Buechler, in: JQR, 11 (1898/99), 46-63 W. Dittenberger, Orientis Graeci Inscriptiones Selectae, 2 (1905), 295f., no. 519 E. Schuerer, in: ZNW, 7 (1906), 54ff. O. Holtzmann, ibid., 9 (1908), 71-74 idem (ed.), Die Mischna Middot (1913) H. Vincent and F.M. Abel, Jérusalem, 2 (1914), 45ff. S. Klein, Juedisch-palaestinisches Corpus Inscriptionum (1920), 17f., no. 9 Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum, 8 (1937), 30, no. 200 Frey, Corpus, 2 (1952), 261f., no. 1256 M. Avi-Yonah, Sefer Yerushalayim, 1 (1956), 412 E. Wiesenberg, in: JJS, 3 (1952), 14-29 E. Bammel, ibid., 7 (1956), 77-78 A. Schalit, Koenig Herodes, 1 (1969), 389ff. ADD. BIBLIOGRAPHY: G. Dickson, "The Tomb of Nicanor of Alexandria," in: PEFQSt (1903), 326-31 C. Clermont-Ganneau, "The 'Gate of Nicanor' in the Temple of Jerusalem," in: PEFQSt (1903), 125-31 R.A.S. Macalister, "Further Observations on the Ossuary of Nicanor of Alexandria, in: PEFQSt (1905), 253� R.D. Barnett, Illustrations of Old Testament History (1977), 93� J. Schwartz, "Once More on the Nicanor Gate," in: HUCA, 62 (1991), 245� T. Ilan, Lexicon of Jewish names in Late Antiquity. Part Ek: Palestine 330 B.C.E.200 C.E. (2002), 297� D.M. Jacobson, "Corinthian Bronze and the Gold of the Alchemists," in: Gold Bulletin, 33 (2) (2000), 60�.

[Uriel Rappaport / Shimon Gibson (2 nd ed.)]

Bron: Encyclopaedia Judaica. © 2008 The Gale Group. Alle regte voorbehou.

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Life Among the Ruins

NEXT month, the Temple of Baal will come to Times Square. Reproductions of the 50-foot arch that formed the temple’s entrance are to be installed in New York and in London, a tribute to the 2,000-year-old structure that the Islamic State destroyed last year in the Syrian town of Palmyra. The group’s rampage through Palmyra, a city that reached its peak in the second and third century A.D., enraged the world, spurring scholars and conservationists into action. Numerous nongovernmental organizations are now cataloging and mapping damaged cultural heritage sites in the region.

It will be uncanny and thrilling to see this arch from an ancient desert civilization set against the bright lights of New York. Unfortunately, facsimiles can achieve only so much. Denuded of people, stripped of the rich social contexts in which they were once embedded, antiquities appear just as evidence of the grandeur of the past, the accomplishments of another place in another time. But what did these assemblages of stone mean to the modern Iraqis and Syrians who lived with them?

For Salam al-Kuntar, a Syrian archaeologist who works at the University of Pennsylvania Museum, the loss of the Temple of Baal was deeply personal. “I have a special love for Palmyra because the Temple of Baal is where my mother was born,” she said.

Ms. Kuntar’s grandfather was a policeman in Palmyra when its Roman-era ruins were inhabited. Well into the 20th century, generations of Palmyrenes made their homes in the shade of millenniums-old columns. The locals taught Ms. Kuntar’s grandmother — who was a young bride when she arrived in Palmyra — how to cook and how to bake bread.

Her daughter was among the last generation born inside the ancient city. In the late 1920s and early 1930s, French colonial authorities cleared the area of its inhabitants and dismantled their mud-brick house. That paved the way for the archaeological exploration and preservation of the site, but it also definitively ended ancient Palmyra’s habitation as well as the use of the Temple of Baal, which over the centuries had transformed into a Byzantine church, then a mosque, before eventually becoming part of the village where Ms. Kuntar’s mother was born.

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When lamenting the masonry and sculpture destroyed by the Islamic State, we can easily overlook this shifting human story. We too readily consign antiquities to the remote province of the past. But they can remain meaningful in surprising and ordinary ways. “This is the meaning of heritage,” Ms. Kuntar said. “It’s not only architecture or artifacts that represent history, it’s these memories and the ancestral connection to place.”

Bulldozed by the Islamic State in 2015, the 1,500-year-old monastery of St. Elian, near Al Qaryatain, Syria, was a symbol of these connections. It was a modest and unadorned structure that had none of the glamour of the Temple of Baal a 3D reconstruction of the rather plain sarcophagus that held the remains of its eponymous saint won’t be coming to a major Western city any time soon. But its importance lay in its role as a bridge between communities.

Al Qaryatain is a small town in the desert between Palmyra and Damascus. For centuries, Christian and Muslim pilgrims alike came to the monastery to seek the blessings of the saint. Muslims venerated St. Elian as a Sufi sheikh, known to them as Sheikh Ahmed the Priest. His tomb was draped in the green satin common to Sufi holy sites.

Until the turbulence of the civil war, the monastery hosted the festival of Eid Mar Elian every Sept. 9. Five to six thousand devotees — Muslim and Christian — would converge on the monastery, where under a large tent erected in the central cloister they would swap tales about St. Elian/Sheikh Ahmed, share plates of lamb and rice, and dance the dabka.

In attacking the monastery, the Islamic State was not simply leveling a holy place. The militants struck at a site that had knit Muslim and Christian communities together for centuries. Local legend has it that centuries ago, the townspeople decided that no matter whether Islam or Christianity gathered more believers, the group in the majority would always protect the one in the minority. Generations of pilgrims left affectionate graffiti on the sarcophagus of Mar Elian, including a Star of David suggesting that at least one Jew visited the saint.

Another instance of revealing graffiti can be found on an antiquity destroyed last year in northern Iraq. After the Islamic State seized Mosul in 2014, important archaeological sites fell into the group’s hands. These included the ancient Assyrian city of Nineveh, which the Islamic State pillaged in 2015.

One of the antiquities demolished at Nineveh was an enormous figure of a “lamassu,” a winged bull with the torso of a man and the beard of a king. It was a protective deity that watched over the Nergal Gate, a major entrance into the city. The lamassu was probably installed during the reign of King Sennacherib, who ruled from 705 to 681 B.C. He was an expansionist leader under whom Nineveh became the capital of the Assyrian Empire. The muscular iconography of the lamassu matched Sennacherib’s imperial ambition. Before smashing the sculpture, Islamic State fighters chiseled off its face with a pneumatic drill.

The winged bull carried the history not only of kings, but also of ordinary people. Archaeologists had noticed webs of lines scratched into the plinth of the lamassu. These markings, they determined, were the traces of a board game, possibly a version of the ancient Mesopotamian pastime known as the Twenty Squares, a descendant of which is still played in Iraq today. Bored Assyrian guards probably played as they whiled away their shifts. On the surface of a grand political statement, they left the irrepressible evidence of humbler life.

We should not think of the destroyed or at-risk heritage sites in the Middle East as history frozen in stone. It is, of course, worthwhile to study their structures, to resurrect them digitally and even raise them in the metropolitan plazas of the West. But those efforts will be hollow if we forget how antiquities have remained present in the lives of Iraqis and Syrians right up to this grim modern era of destruction.


Kyk die video: Galactic Gateway Temple (Julie 2022).


Kommentaar:

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