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Thoth as 'n bobbejaan

Thoth as 'n bobbejaan


Thoth as a Boboon - Geskiedenis

Thoth was die God van kennis, die maan, meting, wysheid, die alfabet, rekords, denke, intelligensie, meditasie, die verstand, logika, rede, lees, hiërogliewe, towerkuns, geheime, skrifgeleerdes en skryf. Hy het ook ander name gekry in die mites van antieke beskawings. Hy speel 'n groot god, hulle almal - dieselfde siel - verskillende identiteite.

Thoth of Djehuti was een van die gode van die Egiptiese panteon. In kuns word hy dikwels uitgebeeld as 'n man met die kop van 'n ibis of 'n bobbejaan, diere wat vir hom heilig is. Sy vroulike eweknie was Seshat, en sy vrou was Ma'at.

Die belangrikste tempel van Thoth was geleë in die stad Khmun, later Hermopolis Magna genoem tydens die Grieks-Romeinse era (met verwysing na hom deur die Grieke se interpretasie dat hy dieselfde was as hul god Hermes) en Shmounein in die Koptiese weergawe, en was gedeeltelik verwoes in 1826. In daardie stad het hy die Ogdoad -panteon van agt hoofgode gelei. Hy het ook talle heiligdomme gehad in die stede Abydos, Hesert, Urit, Per-Ab, Rekhui, Ta-ur, Sep, Hat, Pselket, Talmsis, Antcha-Mutet, Bah, Amen-heri-ab en Ta-kens.

Thoth het baie belangrike en prominente rolle gespeel in die Egiptiese mitologie, soos die handhawing van die heelal en een van die twee gode (die ander Ma'at) wat weerskante van Ra se boot gestaan ​​het. In die latere geskiedenis van antieke Egipte het Thoth sterk verband gehou met die arbitrasie van goddelike geskille, die kuns van towery, die skryfstelsel, die ontwikkeling van die wetenskap en die oordeel van die dooies.

Thoth het 'n deurslaggewende rol gespeel in die ontwerp en oriëntasie van baie beroemde piramides, tempels en ziggurate. In Desember 2000 het ek na Egipte gereis. Daar het ek die navorser John Anthony West ontmoet. Hy het my vertel dat die naam Khufu gevind word in meer as een kartouche in die Relief Chamber bokant die King's Chamber - in die Groot Piramide. Khufu word beskou as die bou van die Groot Piramide. Khufu was Thoth - Khufu's Folly.

Die eerste wedrenne kan geverifieer word in die Piramide -tekste, waar 'n vereniging met die ibis Thoth in die moerasagtige gebied van die Delta plaasvind. Die Piramide -tekste was 'n versameling Egiptiese sterfgebede, gesange en towerspreuke wat bedoel was om 'n dooie koning of koningin te beskerm en lewe en lewensonderhoud in die hiernamaals te verseker. Die tekste, ingeskryf op die mure van die binnekamers van die piramides [van ca. 2686-c. 2160 vC]., Word by Saqqara gevind in verskeie piramides van die 5de en 6de dinastie, waarvan die van Unas, die laaste koning van die 5de dinastie, die vroegste bekend is. Die tekste vorm die oudste oorlewende liggaam van Egiptiese godsdiens- en begrafnisgeskrifte wat beskikbaar is vir moderne geleerdes.


In die een of ander rol het Thoth 'n deurslaggewende rol gespeel in die

ontwerp en oriëntasie van die piramides

in lyn met Orion en mekaar.

Hy het berekeninge gemaak met betrekking tot die hemele, die sterre en die aarde ', die' berekener van tye en van seisoene ', die een wat die hemele gemeet en die aarde beplan het. Hy was 'Hy wat balanseer', die 'God van die ewewig' en 'Meester van die balans'. 'The Lord of the Divine Body', 'Scribe of the Company of the Gods', die 'Voice of Ra', die 'Author of Every Work on Every Trade of Knowledge, both Human and Divine', hy wat alles verstaan ​​het verborge onder die hemelse gewelf.

Thoth het 'n prominente rol gespeel in baie van die Egiptiese mites. Hy het sy rol as arbiter vertoon en het toesig gehou oor die drie epiese gevegte tussen goed en kwaad. Al drie die gevegte is in wese dieselfde en behoort aan verskillende tydperke. Die eerste geveg het plaasgevind tussen Ra en Apep, die tweede tussen Heru-Bekhutet en Set, en die derde tussen Horus, die seun van Osiris, en Set. In elke geval verteenwoordig die voormalige god orde, terwyl laasgenoemde chaos verteenwoordig. As die een god ernstig beseer is, sou Thoth hulle genees om te verhoed dat die een die ander inhaal.

Thoth was ook prominent in die Osiris -mite, en was baie nuttig vir Isis. Nadat Isis die stukke van die geskeurde liggaam van Osiris bymekaargemaak het, het hy haar die woorde gegee om hom opgewek te maak sodat sy bevrug kon word en Horus kan voortbring. Toe Horus vermoor is, het Thoth die formules gegee om hom ook op te wek. Net soos God die woorde spreek om die hemel en die aarde in die Joods-Christelike mitologie te skep, spreek Thoth, die god wat altyd die woorde spreek wat aan Ra se wense voldoen, die woorde wat die hemel en die aarde in die Egiptiese mitologie geskep het.

Hierdie mitologie erken hom ook met die skepping van die 365 dae kalender. Volgens die mite was die jaar oorspronklik slegs 360 dae lank en Nut was gedurende hierdie dae steriel en kon nie kinders baar nie. Thoth het met Khonsu, die maan, vir 1/72ste van sy lig (360/72 = 5) of 5 dae gespeel en gewen. Gedurende hierdie 5 dae het Nut die lewe geskenk aan Kheru-ur (Horus die ouderling, Face of Heaven), Osiris, Set, Isis en Nepthys.

In die Ogdoad -kosmogonie het Thoth geboorte geskenk aan Ra, Atum, Nefertum en Khepri deur 'n eier te lê terwyl hy in die vorm van 'n ibis was, of later as 'n gans wat 'n goue eier lê.

Thoth se rolle in die Egiptiese mitologie was baie. Hy het as bemiddelende mag gedien, veral tussen goed en kwaad, en het seker gemaak dat nie een 'n beslissende oorwinning oor die ander het nie.

Die eertydse Egiptenare beskou Thoth as Een, selfverwekend en selfgemaak. Hy was die meester van die fisiese en morele (dws. Goddelike) reg, en het Ma'at behoorlik gebruik. Hy word toegeskryf aan die berekeninge vir die vestiging van die hemel, sterre, aarde en alles daarin. Vergelyk dit met die manier waarop sy vroulike eweknie, Ma'at, die krag was wat die heelal in stand gehou het. Daar word gesê dat hy die bewegings van die hemelliggame rig. Sonder sy woorde, het die Egiptenare geglo, sou die gode nie bestaan ​​nie. Sy mag was byna onbeperk in die onderwêreld en was teenstrydig met dié van Ra en Osiris.

Die Egiptenare erken hom as die skrywer van alle wetenskaplike werke, godsdiens, filosofie en magie. Die Grieke verklaar hom verder as die uitvinder van sterrekunde, astrologie, die wetenskap van getalle, wiskunde, meetkunde, landmeting, medisyne, plantkunde, teologie, beskaafde regering, die alfabet, lees, skryf en redenaars. Hulle beweer verder dat hy die ware skrywer is van elke werk van elke tak van kennis, menslik en goddelik.

Egiptoloë verskil oor Thoth se aard, afhangende van hul siening van die Egiptiese panteon. Die meeste egiptoloë staan ​​vandag saam met sir Flinders Petrie voor dat die Egiptiese godsdiens streng politeïsties was, waarin Thoth 'n aparte god sou wees.

Sy vroulike eweknie was Seshat. Hy was die skrywer van die gode wat 'n groot biblioteek met boekrolle gehou het, waaroor Seshat (die godin van die skrywe) as meesteres beskou word. Hy is deur die Egiptenare verbind met spraak, letterkunde, kuns, leer. Sowel hy as Seshat was meetmeesters en het 'n rekord van tyd gehad. Baie antieke Egiptenare het geglo dat Seshat skryf uitgevind het, terwyl Thoth die mensdom skryf geleer het. Sy het bekend gestaan ​​as 'Meesteres van die Huis van Boeke', wat aandui dat sy ook vir Thoth se biblioteek met towerspreuke en boekrolle sorg.

Seshat - Godin van biblioteke

en die meting van tyd.

Die ou Egiptenare het Thoth as die uitvinder van die skrywe en alfabet (dws hiërogliewe) self erken. Hy word ook beskou as die skrywer van die onderwêreld, en die maan word soms as 'n aparte entiteit beskou, noudat Thoth minder assosiasie daarmee gehad het, en meer met wysheid. Om hierdie rede is Thoth universeel deur die ou Egiptiese skrifgeleerdes aanbid.

Thoth word erken as die uitvinder van die 365-dae (eerder as 360-dae) kalender, en daar word gesê dat hy die ekstra 5 dae gewen het deur te dobbel met die maan, destyds bekend as Iabet, in 'n dobbelsteen, vir 1 /72ste van sy lig (5 = 360/72). Toe die Ennead- en Ogdoad -stelsels begin saamsmelt, was een gevolg dat Horus vir 'n tyd lank as 'n broer van Isis, Osiris, Set en Nephthys beskou is, en daar word gesê dat Hathor/Nuit vervloek was om kinders te hê tydens die (360) dagjaar, maar kon hierdie vyf oor die 5 ekstra dae deur Thoth wen.

Thoth was betrokke by arbitrasie, towerkuns, skryfwerk, wetenskap en die beoordeling van dooies.


Thoth in die Book of the Dead


In die onderwêreld, Duat, verskyn Thoth as 'n aap, A'an, die god van ewewig, wat berig het toe die weegskaal van die oorledene se hart teen die veer, wat die beginsel van Ma'at verteenwoordig, presies gelyk was. Maat word uitgebeeld as 'n lang vrou wat 'n kroon dra met 'n groot volstruisveer. Maat was die eertydse Egiptiese konsep van waarheid, balans, orde, wet, sedelikheid en geregtigheid, wat soms gepersonifiseer word as 'n godin wat die sterre, seisoene en die optrede reguleer van sterflinge en gode, wat die orde van die heelal bepaal het chaos op die oomblik van skepping. Later, as 'n godin in ander tradisies van die Egiptiese panteon, waar die meeste godinne met 'n manlike aspek gekoppel was, was haar manlike eweknie Thoth en hul eienskappe is dieselfde.

Na haar rol in die skepping en voortdurend keer dat die heelal terugkeer na chaos, het haar primêre rol in die Egiptiese mitologie gehandel oor die weeg van siele wat in die onderwêreld, Duat, plaasgevind het. Haar veer was die maatstaf wat bepaal het of die siele (oorweeg om in die hart te woon) van die ontslape die paradys van die hiernamaals suksesvol sou bereik.

In die kuns is Thoth op baie maniere uitgebeeld, afhangende van die era en die aspek wat die kunstenaar wou oordra. Thoth word gewoonlik uitgebeeld met die kop van 'n ibis, afkomstig van sy naam, en die kromme van die ibis se bek, wat lyk soos die sekelmaan.

Soms word hy uitgebeeld as 'n bobbejaan wat 'n sekelmaan hou, aangesien die bobbejaan as 'n nagtelike en intelligente wese beskou word. Die omgang met bobbejane het daartoe gelei dat hy soms as 'n gemaal Astennu, een van die (mannetjies) bobbejane op die plek van oordeel in die onderwêreld, gehad het, en by ander geleenthede word gesê dat Astennu self Thoth is.

Hy verskyn ook as 'n bobbejaan met 'n hond of 'n bobbejaan as 'n A'an, die god van ewewig. In die vorm van A'ah-Djehuty het hy 'n meer menslike voorkoms aangeneem. Hierdie vorms is almal simbolies en is metafore vir Thoth se eienskappe. Die Egiptenare het nie geglo dat hierdie gode eintlik soos mense lyk met dierekoppe nie.

Thoth in ander bekende rolle



Sumer: Anunnaki, Enki onder ander skeppingsmagte wat in mites oor die werklikheid uitgebeeld word as 'n biogenetiese eksperiment met buitenaardse konnotasies



Griekeland: Zeus - Weerlig - Fisiese werklikheid is elektromagnetiese energie - bipolêr



Meso -Amerika: Quetzalcoatl - Wiskunde, Wetenskap, Argitektuur


Celtic: Merlin die towenaar en storieverteller,

Van A tot Z is die lys rolle wat hierdie siel speel eindeloos, insluitend alle mitologiese gode, godsdienstige figure, beroemde mense in die wetenskap en geskiedenis, skeppingsmagte, insluitend uitheemse gode, ens.

Thoth as Tehuti Heerser van Atlantis

Daar was nog altyd 'n verband tussen Atlantis en Egipte. Die ander name van Thoth sluit in Djehuty, Jehuti, Tehuti, Zehuti, Lord of the Khemenu. In die mitologie, toe Atlantis in die see val (vloedmite, vloei van die kollektiewe bewusteloosheid), begrawe Tehuti en sy priesters die kennis en verhaal van Atlantis in reuse kristalle as tekens vir die volgende werklikheid wat dit beleef.

Hulle het in groot ruimteskepe gegaan waar hulle gebly het totdat die waters bedaar en 'n nuwe roosterbewussyn manifesteer waarin siele sou ervaar. Dit sluit aan by die verband tussen Ancient Alien Theory and Reality - vreemdelinge wat realiteite skep vir watter doel ook al, hulle vernietig en nuut skep. En so wil dit voorkom asof Thoth in enige werklikheid 'n storieverteller en skeppergod is wat baie rolle gelyktydig speel. Hy dra maskers wat verband hou met die persoon wat hy uitbeeld.

Thoth was oorspronklik die vergoddeliking van die maan in die Ogdoad -geloofstelsel. Aanvanklik, in die stelsel, was die maan die oog van Horus, die hemelgod, wat halfblind (dus donkerder) was in 'n geveg teen Set, terwyl die ander oog die son was. Met verloop van tyd het dit egter afsonderlik begin oorweeg en 'n maangod in eie reg geword, en daar word gesê dat dit nog 'n seun van Ra was. Aangesien die sekelmaan sterk lyk aan die geboë snawel van die ibis, is hierdie aparte godheid Djehuty (d.w.s. Thoth) genoem, wat ibis beteken.

Thoth het met die maan geassosieer, as gevolg van die antieke Egiptenare se waarneming dat bobbejane (heilig aan Thoth) snags vir die maan 'gesing' het.

Die maan verskaf nie net lig in die nag nie, sodat die tyd nog sonder die son gemeet kan word, maar die fases en prominensie daarvan het dit 'n belangrike rol in die vroeë astrologie/sterrekunde gegee. Die maansiklusse het ook 'n groot deel van die burgerlike en godsdienstige, rituele en gebeure van die Egiptiese samelewing georganiseer. Gevolglik word Thoth geleidelik beskou as 'n god van wysheid, magie en die meting en regulering van gebeure en tyd. Daar word gesê dat hy die sekretaris en raadgewer van Ra is, en saam met Ma'at (waarheid/orde) langs Ra op die nagreise deur die lug gestaan, terwyl Ra 'n songod was.

Die ou Egiptenare het Thoth erken dat hy die uitvinder van die skryfwerk was, en dit word ook beskou as die skrifgeleerde van die onderwêreld, en die maan word soms as 'n aparte entiteit beskou, noudat Thoth minder assosiasie daarmee gehad het, en meer met wysheid. Om hierdie rede is Thoth universeel deur die ou Egiptiese skrifgeleerdes aanbid. Baie skrifgeleerdes het 'n skildery of 'n prentjie van Thoth in hul 'kantoor' gehad. Net so was een van die simbole vir skrifgeleerdes die van die ibis.

Gedurende die laat periode van die Egiptiese geskiedenis het 'n kultus van Thoth bekendheid verwerf vanweë die belangrikste sentrum, Khnum (Hermopolis Magna), wat ook die hoofstad geword het, en miljoene dooie ibis is gemummifiseer en ter ere van hom begrawe. Die opkoms van sy kultus het ook daartoe gelei dat sy kultus die mitologie wou aanpas om Thoth 'n groter rol te gee.

Thoth is in baie verhale ingevoeg as die wyse raad en oorreder, en sy assosiasie met leer en meting het daartoe gelei dat hy verbind was met Seshat, die vroeëre vergoddeliking van wysheid, waarvan gesê word dat dit sy dogter is, of veranderlik sy vrou. Thoth se eienskappe het ook daartoe gelei dat hy deur die Grieke geïdentifiseer is met hul naaste bypassende god Hermes, met wie Thoth uiteindelik gekombineer is, as Hermes Trismegistus, wat ook daartoe gelei het dat die Grieke Thoth se kultusentrum as Hermopolis, wat stad Hermes beteken, noem.

Daar word ook geglo dat Thoth die Skrifgeleerde was en nie 'n boodskapper nie. Anubis word beskou as die boodskapper van die gode terwyl hy in en uit die onderwêreld gereis het, na die teenwoordigheid van die gode en ook na mense. Sommige noem hierdie samesmelting Hermanubis. Dit is in meer guns dat Thoth 'n rekordhouer was, en nie die boodskapper nie. In die Papyrus van Ani-afskrif van die Egiptiese Boek van die Dood verklaar die skrifgeleerde: "Ek is jou skryfpalet, O Thoth, en ek het jou inkpot vir jou gebring. Ek is nie van diegene wat onreg in hul geheime plekke bewerk nie. gebeur nie die onheil met my nie. ” Hoofstuk XXXb (Budge) van die Book of the Dead is volgens die oudste tradisie die werk van Thoth self.

Daar is ook 'n Egiptiese farao uit die Sestiende Dinastie van Egipte met die naam Djehuty (Thoth) na hom, en wat drie jaar lank regeer het.


Na jare se intensiewe opleiding, lê 'n ingewyde in die sarkofaag in die Kings Chamber. Deur die destydse beskikbare tegnologie, gekoppel aan ou vreemdelinge, het 'n energiestraal 'n witligspiraal geskep wat deur die ingewyde se kop sou gaan. Die ingewyde kon dan sy of haar bewussyn koppel aan die spiraal van die wit lig en in 'n hoër bewussyn geprojekteer word om deur Thoth ontmoet te word.

Thoth soos Hermes in antieke Griekeland voldoen aan die Hermetiese teks wat na hom verwys is Kore Kosmu. Wat hy geweet het, het hy op 'n klip gesny [die metafoor van die fisiese vlak] en het die meeste inligting weggesteek. Die heilige simbole van die kosmiese elemente het hy weggesteek met behulp van die geheime van Osiris, terwyl hy die stilte behou en behou het, sodat die jonger ouderdomme van die kosmiese tydklok dit kan opspoor. Daar word gesê dat Thoth daarin geslaag het om die verborgenhede van die hemele te verstaan ​​en dit te onthul het deur dit in heilige boeke op te skryf wat hy dan hier op aarde verberg het, met die bedoeling dat dit deur toekomstige geslagte gesoek moes word, maar deur die van die bloedlyn gevind sou word.

Sommige van hierdie heilige boeke word die 42 Instruksiesboeke of die 42 Boeke van Thoth genoem, wat die instruksies vir die bereiking van onsterflikheid beskryf, plus nog twee boeke wat apart gehou word. Die datering van die boeke is iewers tussen die derde eeu vC en die eerste eeu nC. Hulle invloed was geweldig op die ontwikkeling van Westerse okkultisme en magie. Neo-heidense heksery bevat baie rituele en baie esoteriese simboliek gebaseer op Hermetiese geskrifte.

Volgens een legende skryf Hermes Trismegistus, 'n kleinseun van Adam en 'n bouer van die Egiptiese piramides, die boeke. Maar waarskynlik is die boeke deur verskeie opvolgende persone geskryf. Volgens die legende is die boeke aanvanklik op papirus geskryf.

'N Kroniekskrywer van heidense lering, Clemens van Alexandrië, het gesê dat ses en dertig van die Hermetiese boeke die hele Egiptiese filosofie bevat, vier boeke oor astrologie, tien boeke genaamd die Hiëratiese wet, tien boeke oor heilige rituele en vieringe, twee oor musiek en die res oor skryf, kosmografie, aardrykskunde, wiskunde en maatreëls en opleiding van priesters. Ses oorblywende boeke het betrekking op medisyne en die liggaam wat siektes, instrumente, die oë en vroue bespreek. Die meeste Hermetiese boeke - saam met ander - het verlore gegaan tydens die verbranding van die koninklike biblioteke in Alexandrië. Die oorlewende boeke is in die geheim begrawe in die woestyn waar dit tans geleë is. 'N Paar ingewydes van die raaiselskole, antieke geheime kultusse, ken na bewering hul ligging. Wat oorbly van die oorlewende Hermetiese verhaal, is deur die generasie oorgedra en in baie tale gepubliseer.

Die belangrikste van alles is drie werke.

    Die belangrikste en oudste is The Divine Pynander. Dit bestaan ​​uit 17 fragmente in een werk. Binne hierdie fragmente is baie van die Hermetiese konsepte, waaronder die goddelike wysheid en die geheime van die heelal is aan Hermes geopenbaar en die manier waarop Hermes sy bediening gestig het om hierdie wysheid oor die hele wêreld te versprei. Die Goddelike Pynander is blykbaar gedurende die eerste eeue nC hersien, maar het niks van betekenis verloor nie as gevolg van verkeerde vertalings.

Thoth en verborge kennis

Daar is in verskeie ou tekste geskryf dat Thoth 'n groot skriftuurlike werk geskryf het wat eendag gevind sou word. Thoth het na bewering boeke geskryf waarin hy wonderlike kennis van magie en beswering uiteengesit het, en dit dan in 'n graf verberg.

Thoth, gedagte, tyd, meetkunde en werklikheid

Werklikheid is mite, wiskunde en metafoor. Dit is 'n bewussynrekenaar -eksperiment in tyd en illusie wat deur denkbewussyn geskep word. Die naam Thoth beteken 'gedagte' en 'tyd'. Thoth was die meesterargitek wat die bloudruk van ons werklikheid geskep het op grond van die patrone van heilige meetkunde. Dit is hier, in die dualiteit - duat - onderwêreld - chaos - leemte - skeppingsplek 'buite die boks' van ons ervaring - weerspieël in gode en godinne, die landskappe van Egipte, insluitend die piramides en tempels - wat ons ervaar totdat ons ontwikkel in die alchemie van tyd en bewussyn.


Thoth het 'n netwerkprogram vir ervaring opgestel - elektromagneties van aard om voorsiening te maak vir die bipolêre aspekte van lineêre tyd en illusie. Thoth het 'n piramidale voertuig gevorm wat die aard van die werklikheid verpersoonlik. Hy het die helfte hierbo geplaas - "As is Above" in die nie -fisiese en half onder "As is onder" en sodoende die sand van tyd - die uurglas - die X Box - in die middel van die planeet geskep waar dit alles begin het en sal ontwikkel. Zero Point 'n tyd of plek waar alles in balans kom.


Toetredingsnommer: 235
Metings: Lengte: 2,45 cm Breedte: 0,78 cm Hoogte: 1,86 cm
Materiaal: Egiptiese Faience
Datum: 25ste-26ste dinastie, ca. 747-525 vC
Herkoms: Onbekend

Beskrywing (235)

Hierdie faience -amulet beeld die god Thoth in ibis -vorm uit, sit op 'n lang, reghoekige basis. 'N Volstruisveer, die Egiptiese hiëroglief vir die woord' waarheid '(Maat), staan ​​aan die voorkant van die amulet en bied 'n plek vir die ibis om sy snawel te laat rus. 'N Ophanglus is op die ibis se rug, agter sy nek, gevorm.

Beskrywing (2044d D)

Hierdie steatiet -amulet beeld die god Thoth uit in bobbejaanvorm, hurkend op 'n dun, sirkelvormige basis. 'N Ophanglus is aan die agterkant van die bobbejaan se kop gekerf. 'N Turkoois gekleurde glans bedek die amulet.

Bespreking

As die "heer van hiërogliewe" wat die ou Egiptenare geleer het hoe om te skryf, was die god Thoth vereer as 'n besitter van kennis en wysheid. Thoth, wat onder die naam Djehuty aan die Egiptenare bekend staan, kom meestal in die vorm van 'n bobbejaan voor (Papio cynocephalus) of die van 'n ibis (Threskiornis aethiopicus) of 'n ibis-kop man. In een of ander gedaante kan hy die maanmaan op sy kop dra, wat sy rol as 'n maangod aandui. In amuletiese vorm verskyn Thoth die meeste as 'n bobbejaan. Sulke amulette is gedurende die lewe deur mense gedra, en veral deur skrifgeleerdes en geleerdes wat Thoth, die uitvinder van die skrywer en die skrywer van die gode, as 'n beskermheilige beskou het. Amulette wat Thoth as 'n ibis voorstel, is aan die ander kant feitlik uitsluitlik in begrafniskontekste gebruik. Dit geld veral vir amulette wat wys hoe Thoth sy snawel op die veer van rus Maat (waarheid), soos die geval is met JHUAM 235. Tydens die laaste oordeel van die oorledene in die onderwêreld is sy of haar hart geweeg teen die veer van Maat - as die hart so lig soos die veer was, kon die oorledene in die hiernamaals oorgaan as dit te swaar was, sou dit verslind word en sou die oorledene vir ewig ophou bestaan. As die goddelike skrifgeleerde het Thoth by hierdie seremonie bygestaan ​​om die resultate van die finale oordeel op te teken, 'n rol waaraan die Maat veer op die amulet sinspeel.

Verwysings

Andrews, Carol, 1994. Amulette van antieke Egipte. Austin: Universiteit van Texas. 27, 49.


Wie is Thoth?

Thoth het 'n paar verskillende verhale wat verband hou met sy geboorte.

Daar word gesê dat Thoth uit Ra se lippe gebore is.

In hierdie legendes staan ​​hy bekend as die 'God sonder 'n moeder'.

In ander verhale word Thoth nou verbind met 'n ibis- die voël waarvan gesê word dat hy die eier gelê het wat die hele heelal geskep het.

Nog ander meen Thoth is die seun van Horus se saad via die voorkop van Set.

Dit is albei manlike gode. Terwyl Set oorlog en chaos verteenwoordig, is Horus 'n welwillende hemelgod wat hemelse wese verteenwoordig.

In die seun van Horus en Set -teorie verteenwoordig Thoth 'n beginsel van goddelike balans wat aan die ou Egiptenare bekend was as Ma'at.

Daar is ook 'n godin met dieselfde naam wat gereeld as Thoth se vrou beskou word.

Thoth staan ​​tussen die aarde en die hemel, tussen oorlog en goddelikheid.

Dit is sy dubbele aard en sy vloeibaarheid wat hom so gewild maak as 'n moderne ikoon.

Hoe lyk Thoth?

Thoth word, net soos ander Egiptiese gode en godinne, meestal uitgebeeld as 'n dier se kop met 'n menslike liggaam.

In die geval van hierdie spesifieke god is sy kop die van 'n ibis. Die ibis is nie net heilig nie, maar sy bek is geboë soos 'n sekelmaan.

Die sekelmaan is 'n roepingskaart vir Thoth.

Soms word Thoth as 'n bobbejaan uitgebeeld, en selfs dan hou hy 'n sekelmaan.


Mense wat hierna gekyk het, het ook gekyk

Die boek eindig op 'n baie ware punt dat Thoth moontlik nie so gewild is soos gode soos Horus, Osiris of Anubis nie, maar hy is nietemin 'n noodsaaklike rat in die ontwikkeling van baie of alle gode en in die uitbreiding van die hele geloof van Antieke Egipte. . Hierdie wonderlike werk mis nie 'n maat om die betekenis van Thoth met betrekking tot die gode, plaaslike EN vreemde kulture, en selfs in sake soos die ontwikkeling van Egiptiese opvolgingswette van 'broers' tot 'seuns', te regverdig nie.

Hierdie boek het my minder as 'n dag geneem om te lees, en ek was aanvanklik bekommerd oor die relatief dun grootte van die boek, maar ek het dit vandag nie net tevrede en verstaan ​​nie, maar ook so opgewonde oor die vooruitsig dat meer onbedekte kennis agter Dit kan heel moontlik deur Egiptoloë in die komende dekades opgegrawe word. Dit gesê, hierdie boek is baie handig om omtrent alles wat u moet weet oor Thoth aan te bied, met behulp van kontemporêre inligting uit begrafnistekste, spreuke en selfs standbeelde. Die boek verken nie net Thoth soos hy deur vroeëre Egiptenare bekend was nie, maar leer ook die leser oor sy Griekse ekwivalent, Hermes (in hierdie tye was dit nie ongewoon dat vreemde gode bloot as dieselfde van die eie beskou word nie. in hierdie geval word Hermes (Hellenies) en Thoth (Egipties) as dieselfde beskou.)

Vir potensiële kopers sal ek u waarsku dat dit nie 'n boek is wat van Thoth en SLEGS Thoth van die eerste tot die laaste bladsy praat nie; 'n baie goeie deel van die lesing lig u eintlik in oor ander gode of verhale van die Egiptiese mitologie, gewoonlik om die konteks neer te lê . Dit is eenvoudig om te sê, u sal dalk verbaas wees om verskeie gevalle te vind waar u oor Horus of Re sou lees sonder om Thoth te noem of te min. Selfs alhoewel dit die geval is, sou ek dit steeds as een van die beste boeke beskou wat u hoofsaaklik kan konsentreer op die nie-Thoth-inligting, hoewel dit soms oorweldigend is, maar tog baie insiggewend en nuttig is om die gedagtes en optrede van ander gode as dié van Thoth. Deur te lees oor die verhale van ander gode, sal u vinnig in kontras sien hoe Thoth werklik iemand is wat wysheid, geregtigheid en bemiddeling hoog ag op vinnige, abrupte optrede.

Ek sal vinnig sê dat die boek nie bladsynommers het nie, maar ek vind dit skaars 'n gevolg van die ervaring, aangesien dit uiteindelik 'n kort lesing is.

Ek kon nie gelukkiger wees om hierdie uitstekende werk met 'n 5/5 -gradering te lewer nie, en ek sal nog 'n boek bestel, gegewe die uitstekende kwaliteit (veral in aanbieding en navorsing) van hierdie boek.


Inhoud

Volgens Theodor Hopfner, [10] Thoth se Egiptiese naam geskryf as tywyt ontstaan ​​het uit ḏḥw, beweer dat dit die oudste bekende naam vir die ibis is, gewoonlik geskryf as hbj. Die toevoeging van -ty dui aan dat hy die eienskappe van die ibis besit. [11] Daarom sou Thoth se naam volgens hierdie interpretasie 'Hy wat soos die ibis is' beteken.

Verdere name en spelling Redigeer

Ander vorme van die naam tywyt die gebruik van ouer transkripsies sluit in Jehuti, Jehuty, Tahuti, Tehuti, Zehuti, Techu, of Tetu. Veelvuldige titels vir Thoth, soortgelyk aan die faraoniese titel, is ook bekend, insluitend A, Skaap, Heer van Khemennu, Asten, Khenti, Mehi, Hab, en A'an. [12]

Boonop was Thoth ook bekend deur spesifieke aspekte van homself, byvoorbeeld die maangod Iah-Djehuty (j3ḥ-ḏḥw.ty), wat die maan vir die hele maand verteenwoordig. [13] Die Grieke verwant Thoth aan hul god Hermes vanweë sy soortgelyke eienskappe en funksies. [14] Een van Thoth se titels, "Thrice great", is vertaal in die Grieks τρισμέγιστος (trismégistos), wat Hermes Trismegistus maak. [15] [16]

Thoth is op baie maniere uitgebeeld, afhangende van die era en die aspek wat die kunstenaar wou oordra. Gewoonlik word hy in sy menslike vorm uitgebeeld met die kop van 'n ibis. [17] In hierdie vorm kan hy as die rekenmeester van tye en seisoene voorgestel word deur 'n hooftooisel van die maanskyf wat bo -op 'n sekelmaan op sy kop rus. As dit uitgebeeld word as 'n vorm van Shu of Ankher, word dit voorgestel dat hy die hooftooisel van die onderskeie god gedra het. Soms het hy ook in die kuns gesien dat hy die Atef -kroon of die dubbele kroon van Bo- en Benede -Egipte dra. [11] As dit nie in hierdie algemene vorm uitgebeeld word nie, neem hy soms die vorm van die ibis aan. [17]

Hy verskyn ook as 'n bobbejaan met 'n hond of 'n bobbejaan met 'n kop as hy A'an is, die god van ewewig. [18] In die vorm van A'ah-Djehuty het hy 'n meer menslike voorkoms aangeneem. [19] Hierdie vorms is almal simbolies en is metafore vir Thoth se eienskappe. Thoth word dikwels uitgebeeld met 'n ankh, die Egiptiese simbool vir die lewe.

Thoth se rolle in die Egiptiese mitologie was baie. Hy dien as skriba van die gode, [20] wat erkenning kry aan die uitvinding van skrif en Egiptiese hiërogliewe. [21] In die onderwêreld, Duat, het hy verskyn as 'n aap, Aani, die god van ewewig, wat berig het toe die weegskaal van die oorledene se hart teen die veer, wat die beginsel van Maat verteenwoordig, presies gelyk was. [22]

Die eertydse Egiptenare beskou Thoth as Een, selfverwekend en selfgemaak. [17] Hy was die meester van die fisiese en morele (dws goddelike) wet, [17] en het Ma'at behoorlik gebruik. [23] Hy word toegeskryf aan die berekeninge vir die vestiging van die hemel, sterre, aarde, [24] en alles daarin. [23]

Die Egiptenare erken hom as die skrywer van alle wetenskaplike werke, godsdiens, filosofie en magie. [25] Die Grieke verklaar hom verder as die uitvinder van sterrekunde, astrologie, die wetenskap van getalle, wiskunde, meetkunde, landmeting, medisyne, plantkunde, teologie, beskaafde regering, die alfabet, lees, skryf en redenaars. Hulle beweer verder dat hy die ware skrywer is van elke werk van elke tak van kennis, menslik en goddelik. [21]

Die Egiptiese mitologie erken Thoth met die skepping van die 365-dae kalender. Volgens die mite was die jaar oorspronklik slegs 360 dae lank en Nut was gedurende hierdie dae steriel en kon nie kinders baar nie. Thoth het met die maan gespeel vir 1/72ste van sy lig (360/72 = 5), of 5 dae, en gewen. Gedurende hierdie 5 dae het Nut en Geb die lewe geskenk aan Osiris, Set, Isis en Nephthys.

In die sentrale Osiris -mite gee Thoth Isis die woorde om haar man te herstel, sodat die paar Horus kan verwek. Na 'n geveg tussen Horus en Set, bied Thoth raad en bied hy wysheid.

Thoth was oorspronklik 'n maangod. Die maan verskaf nie net lig in die nag nie, sodat die tyd nog sonder die son gemeet kan word, maar die fases en prominensie daarvan het dit 'n belangrike rol gespeel in die vroeë astrologie/sterrekunde. Die waargenome siklusse van die maan organiseer ook baie van die rituele en gebeure van die Egiptiese samelewing, beide burgerlik en godsdienstig. Gevolglik word Thoth geleidelik beskou as 'n god van wysheid, magie en die meting en regulering van gebeure en tyd. [27] Daar word dus gesê dat hy die sekretaris en raadgewer van die songod Ra is, en saam met Ma'at (waarheid/orde) langs Ra op die nagreise oor die lug gestaan ​​het.

Thoth word deur die ou Egiptenare erken as die uitvinder van die skryf (hiërogliewe) [28] en word ook beskou as die skrywer van die onderwêreld. Om hierdie rede is Thoth universeel aanbid deur antieke Egiptiese skrifgeleerdes. Baie skrifgeleerdes het 'n skildery of 'n prentjie van Thoth in hul 'kantoor' gehad. Een van die simbole vir skrifgeleerdes was ook die van die ibis.

In kuns word Thoth gewoonlik met die kop van 'n ibis uitgebeeld, moontlik omdat die Egiptenare die kromme van die ibis se bek gesien het as 'n simbool van die sekelmaan. [29] Soms word hy uitgebeeld as 'n bobbejaan wat 'n sekelmaan ophou.

Gedurende die laat periode van antieke Egipte het 'n kultus van Thoth bekendheid verwerf omdat die belangrikste sentrum, Khmun (Hermopolis Magna), ook die hoofstad geword het. Miljoene dooie ibis is gemummifiseer en begrawe ter ere van hom.

Thoth was inserted in many tales as the wise counselor and persuader, and his association with learning and measurement led him to be connected with Seshat, the earlier deification of wisdom, who was said to be his daughter, or variably his wife. Thoth's qualities also led to him being identified by the Greeks with their closest matching god Hermes, with whom Thoth was eventually combined as Hermes Trismegistus, [30] leading to the Greeks' naming Thoth's cult center as Hermopolis, meaning city of Hermes.

In the Papyrus of Ani copy of the Egyptian Book of the Dead the scribe proclaims "I am thy writing palette, O Thoth, and I have brought unto thee thine ink-jar. I am not of those who work iniquity in their secret places let not evil happen unto me." [31] Chapter XXXb (Budge) of the Book of the Dead is the oldest tradition said to be the work of Thoth himself. [32]

There was also an Egyptian pharaoh of the Sixteenth dynasty named Djehuty (Thoth) after him, and who reigned for three years.

Plato mentions Thoth in his dialogue, Phaedrus. He uses the myth of Thoth to demonstrate that writing leads to laziness and forgetfulness. In the story, Thoth remarks to King Thamus of Egypt that writing is a wonderful substitute for memory. Thamus remarks that it is a remedy for reminding, not remembering, with the appearance but not the reality of wisdom. Future generations will hear much without being properly taught and will appear wise but not be so.

Artapanus of Alexandria, an Egyptian Jew who lived in the third or second century BC, euhemerized Thoth-Hermes as a historical human being and claimed he was the same person as Moses, based primarily on their shared roles as authors of texts and creators of laws. Artapanus's biography of Moses conflates traditions about Moses and Thoth and invents many details. [33] Many later authors, from late antiquity to the Renaissance, either identified Hermes Trismegistus with Moses or regarded them as contemporaries who expounded similar beliefs. [34]

Archaeology Edit

Egypt’s Minister of Tourism and Antiquities announced the discovery of the collective graves of senior officials and high clergies of the god Thoth in Tuna el-Gebel in Minya in January 2020. An archaeological mission headed by Mostafa Waziri reported that 20 sarcophagi and coffins of various shapes and sizes, including five anthropoid sarcophagi made of limestone and carved with hieroglyphic texts, as well as 16 tombs and five well-preserved wooden coffins were unearthed by their team. [35] [36]

Thoth has been seen as a god of wisdom and has been used in modern literature, especially since the early 20th century when ancient Egyptian ideas were quite popular.


Thoth: Ancient Egyptian God of Scribes

Thoth is die Egiptiese god van skryf, magie, wysheid en die maan. He was one of the most important gods of ancient Egypt alternately said to be self-created or born of the seed of Horus from the forehead of Set. As the son of these two deities, who represented order and chaos respectively, he was also the god of equilibrium and balance and associated closely with both the principle of ma’at (divine balance) and the goddess Ma’at who personified this principle (and who was sometimes seen as his wife). Another of his consorts was the goddess Nehemetawy (‘She Who Embraces Those In Need”) a protector goddess. In his form as A’an, Thoth presided over the judgment of the dead with Osiris in the Hall of the Truth and those souls who feared they might not pass through the judgment safely were encouraged to call upon Thoth for help. The consort most often associated with Thoth was Seshat, goddess of writing, the keeper of books, and patron goddess of libraries and librarians who was alternately his wife or daughter.

Worship of Thoth began in Lower Egypt most likely in the Pre-Dynastic Period (c. 6000-3150 BCE) and continued through the Ptolemaic Period (323-30 BCE), the last dynastic era of Egyptian history, marking Thoth’s veneration as among the longest of the Egyptian gods or any deity from any civilization. His name was often taken by the kings of Egypt (example, Tuthmoses – “Born of Thoth”), scribes, and priests. He is most commonly depicted as a man with the head of an ibis or a seated baboon with or without a lunar disc above his head. He was the patron god of scribes and it was said that scribes would pour out one drop of their ink in Thoth’s honor before they began their daily work.

Name and Origin

Thoth’s Egyptian name was Djehuty (also dhwty) meaning “He Who is Like the Ibis”. The ibis was a sacred bird in ancient Egypt as well as a popular pet and associated with wisdom. Other forms of his name are Jehuti, Tahuti, Tehuti, Zehuti, Techu, Tetu, and Lord of the Khemenu (the later city of Hermopolis) which was his major cult center. Hermopolis was so named because of the Greek association of Thoth with their god Hermes and to the Greeks Thoth became Hermes Trimegistus (Thoth the Thrice Great often given as “Three Times Great, Great”). He was also known as “Lord of Ma’at”, “Lord of Divine Words”, “Scribe of Ma’at in the Company of the Gods”, and as a just and incorruptible judge.

According to one story, Thoth was born “from the lips of Ra” at the beginning of creation and was known as the “god without a mother”. In another tale, Thoth is self-created at the beginning of time and, as an ibis, lays the cosmic egg which holds all of creation. He was always closely associated with Ra and the concept of divine order and justice. In a third story, The Contendings of Horus and Set (an Egyptian manuscript from c. 1190-1077 BCE), when Horus and Set are fighting for the right to rule, Thoth is said to have been created from the semen of Horus which was accidentally swallowed by Set during the struggle. Thoth was born from Set’s forehead and, in some versions, then mediated the struggle between the gods (in other versions the battle between Horus and Set is resolved by Neith and, in others, by Isis). In every version, Thoth is the scribe who records the events of the contest and offers advice to the gods. He heals both Horus and Set at different times in their battle in order to make sure that both sides are equally capable and none can gain advantage over the other so that the contest will be fair. In this same way, Thoth presided over justice on earth among human beings. Egyptologist Geraldine Pinch writes:

Thoth set a divine example as a just judge and an incorruptible official. He lifted Ma’at, the goddess of justice, to her father, Ra. Thoth was responsible for framing and enforcing the laws of ma’at. In this role he could be either a gracious peacemaker or a merciless executioner (210).

A relief carving of the Egyptian god Thoth from the Temple of Ramesses II (1279-1213 BCE), Abydos / Photo by Olaf Tausch, Wikimedia Commons

As Thoth was credited with the creation of a number of branches of knowledge (law, magic, philosophy, religion, science, and writing) he was thought to be an infallible judge capable of rendering completely just decisions. The Greeks admired him so greatly that they credited him as the originator of all knowledge on earth and in the heavens. He was so important to the gods, and especially to Ra, that he was the god chosen to retrieve Ra’s daughter from the distant lands she sometimes fled to.

Thoth and the Distant Goddess

The motif of The Distant Goddess appears in a number of Egyptian myths but always has the same meaning no matter who the specific goddess is or where she has gone: Ra’s daughter disagrees with him on some matter and leaves him to vanish into some far off land and someone has to be sent to bring her back upon her return she brings some sort of transformation to the people. The Distant Goddess story also always involved the Eye of Ra, the all-seeing eye, which Ra needed on a daily basis it was therefore imperative that the goddess be brought back quickly and the eye returned but she was too powerful to be forced and the task called for subtlety. Geraldine Pinch writes:

Ra chose Thoth to fetch this Distant Goddess back from a remote desert. Disguised as a baboon or monkey, Thoth accomplished his task through humility, cunning, and perseverance. According to one account he had to ask the goddess to come home 1,077 times (210).

As a reward for his services, Thoth was given the goddess Nehemtawy as his consort who, Pinch claims, was “a pacified version of the Distant Goddess” (210).

Thoth was also instrumental in the birth of the original five gods of Egypt. When Nut became pregnant by Geb at the beginning of the world, Ra (also known as Atum) was so angry he decreed she would not give birth on any day of the year. Thoth gambled with Iah, the moon god, for five days’ worth of moonlight. He won the gamble and divided Iah’s moonlight into five days of sunlight which were not part of the year as decreed by Ra. Nut was then able to give birth to each of her children (Osiris, Isis, Set, Nephthys, and Horus) on each of the days. Even though Ra had been angry with his daughter, Nut, he relented and honored Thoth for his part in getting around Ra’s decree. Thoth was given a seat of honor in the sky boat which crossed the heavens by day and, by night, Thoth helped to drive away the serpent Apophis who sought to destroy the sun god. His participation in the overthrowing of Apophis linked him to the cycle of day and night and so intimately to the lives of human beings.

Thoth and the Written Word

Thoth created the written word people used to record their history and keep track of their daily lives. According to some stories, Thoth invented the word and gave it to humanity while, in others, Thoth was the creator and his consort Seshat gave words to the people. In still other variations, Thoth was the creator but Osiris or Isis gave words to humanity. In every case, Thoth is the creator of written language and the literary arts both for humans and the gods. Geraldine Pinch writes:

Thoth, the “excellent of understanding”, observed and wrote down everything that happened and reported it to Ra every morning. As the record keeper of the gods he was paired with the librarian Seshat. Thoth and Seshat knew the future as well as the past. They inscribed a person’s fate on the bricks on which their mother gave birth and the length of a king’s reign on the leaves of the ished tree (210).

Thoth was therefore linked with the concept of fate even though this responsibility was shared, in different variations of the myths from different eras, with the Seven Hathors or other deities. As the record keeper of the gods, Thoth also kept account of the days of human beings. He is seen in a number of images keeping track of the days and numbering the years by which the Egyptian scribes were able to record the country’s history.

A statue of the Egyptian god Thoth as a baboon. 1400 v.C. (British Museum, London) / Photo by Steven G. Johnson, Wikimedia Commons

Scribes, naturally, claimed Thoth as their patron and began each day honoring him. A statue from the 18th Dynasty shows Thoth as a baboon with the lunar disc on his head seated above a working scribe at his writing desk. The work of these scribes was, hopefully, approved of by Thoth who then gave leave to Seshat to house them in her immortal library and protect them in earthly ones. The concept of writing making the author immortal was well respected in Egypt as a scribe’s work lived on after his death through the written words in books but was also known by the gods as Seshat kept the words in her heavenly books as well. Scribes had every reason to believe they would be welcomed warmly after death in the Hall of Truth and pass on to paradise in the Field of Reeds.

Thoth in the Afterlife

Thoth appears regularly at the side of Osiris and Anubis in the Hall of Truth as the scribe who has kept accounts of the life of the soul of the deceased and who records the outcome of the weighing of the heart against the feather of truth. Scholar Richard H. Wilkinson writes:

In vignettes of the Book of the Dead [Thoth] stands before the scales which weigh the heart of the deceased and record the verdict. This role gave Thoth a reputation for truth and integrity and is seen in the common assertion that a person had conducted his life in a manner “straight and true like Thoth” (216).

His home in the afterlife, known as the Mansion of Thoth, provided a safe place for souls to rest and receive magic spells to help them against the demons who would prevent them from reaching paradise. His magic was also instrumental in the revitalization of the soul which brought the dead back to life in the underworld. The association of writing with magic gave rise to the belief that Thoth had written magical treatises based on all he knew of the heavens, the earth, and the afterlife, and that these books were hidden away to be found by the initiates of later generations. Pinch writes:

All funerary spells could be regarded as works of Thoth. A tradition grew up that Thoth had written forty-two books containing all the knowledge needed by humanity. Some of this was occult knowledge to be revealed only to initiates who would not misuse the power it gave them. The Greeks identified Thoth with their messenger god, Hermes. The body of literature known as the Hermetica claimed to preserve the teachings of Hermes Trismegistus (Thoth the Thrice Great). Hermes Trismegistus was eventually reinterpreted as a great thinker who had lived thousands of years in the past (211).

Thoth, enameled clay / Louvre Museum, Project Gutenberg

This claim regarding Thoth and the 42 books was first made by the church father Clement of Alexandria (c. 150-215 CE) who recorded in his Stromata that they were written by the god Hermes. Hermes the god was later understood as Hermes the wise man and in largely this manner the Book of Thoth has come into modern day understanding. Fictional representations of the Book of Thoth – written either by the Egyptian god, the Greek god, or the Greek sage – have appeared in books and films throughout the past century. The continued fascination with Thoth and his far-ranging knowledge is a testament to his enduring popularity.

Worship of Thoth and Legacy

Thoth’s main center of worship was at Hermopolis but he was widely venerated throughout the land of Egypt. As with other gods, his temples and shrines would have served as a focal point for the community and a resource for counsel, spiritual advice, and general aid in procuring food or medical attention. The priests of Thoth were highly educated scribes and his cult was closely associated with the ruling class. It was not only the monarchy or the educated elite who admired Thoth, however, as Wilkinson points out:

Thoth’s appearance in the names of several New Kingdom monarchs shows important royal acceptance and patronage of the god’s cult, but earlier references to offerings made in private tombs on the festival of Thoth also show the importance of this god to non-royal individuals and his worship appears to have always had a wide base among ancient Egyptians…Amulets of the god as an ibis or an ibis-headed man – sometimes holding the divine wedjat eye occur, though those depicting him as a baboon were more common. These amulets were worn in life, many presumbably by scribes. The wisdon and magical powers ascribed to Thoth meant that he was naturally invoked in many spells utilized in popular magic and religion (216-217).

His cult center at Hermopolis was extremely popular. Mummified ibises and baboons were sold to pilgrims coming to the festival as votive offerings to the gods. Excavations of the nearby necropolis of Tuna el-Gebel revealed thousands of these mummified animals. Wilkinson writes, “Another large burial ground for ibises and baboons was located at Saqqara and these catacombs well illustrate the continued widespread popularity of Thoth in the religion of the later periods (217). Thoth’s enduring veneration is also recognized through the number of amulets to him which have been found from different time periods throughout Egypt’s history.

Even today, Thoth is recognized as an important spiritual entity. Aside from those in the New Age, Wiccan, or Neo-Pagan communities who revere the god, he is one of the better known Egyptian deities in popular culture. The University of Cairo features Thoth on his throne as their logo and statuary of the god remains one of the most popular and recognizable, after images of King Tutankhamun, Queen Nefertiti, and the goddess Bastet, in the modern world.


Three reasons to love the Egyptian God Thoth

  • He&aposs a trickster. Who doesn&apost love a trickster god?
  • He&aposs the god of magic. Dumbledore, step aside!
  • He&aposs makin&apos a list, checkin&apos it twice he knows if you&aposve been naughty or nice -- and if you land in the "naughty" column, your heart gets eaten by a crocodile-headed hippo. So stay on his good side.

The Egyptians also loved Thoth as a trickster god. In one myth, Hathor, the hot-tempered goddess of love and destruction, stormed off across the desert in a snit. She was called the Eye of Re -- the personification of the sun&aposs heat -- so Re needed her back. Thoth, as the moon-god and so-called second Eye of Re, was assigned to fetch his missing counterpart.

Thoth had a problem. In this myth, he took the guise of a small baboon, sent to fetch a goddess who had assumed the form of a huge ravening lioness with the devouring heat of the desert sun. Once he found her, he played the same trick later found in The Arabian Nights: "Please don&apost kill me, ma&aposam, until I&aposve told you this wonderful story!" Inching towards Egypt a few steps at a time, he kept stringing her along with stories.

The moral of most of the stories was that powerful folks should be nice to the little guys. Hathor got the point, and decided that the little monkey had entertained her well enough that she wouldn&apost eat him.

I once worked on a Greek manuscript containing one of Thoth&aposs stories, and adapted it for oral performance. Here you may listen to my re-telling of "The Tale of Two Jackals."

In another myth, Re grew angry with Nut the sky-goddess and wouldn&apost let her give birth to her children on any day of the year, because he knew her son, Osiris, might supplant him. Nut was cursed to stay pregnant. forever! In desperation she asked Thoth for help.

Geen probleem! In this myth, the moon-god was actually a separate deity named Khons. Thoth challenged Khons to a game of senet, an ancient Egyptian form of backgammon. The Man in the Moon bet his own light as the stakes. Thoth won enough light for an extra five days. These days weren&apost part of the regular year, so Nut was able to give birth to her five children. The lost light accounts for the moon&aposs waxing and waning, and the extra time explains why the year isn&apost an even 360 days.

The Egyptians invented one of the oldest writing systems in the world. They had to! Without organized record-keeping, they would never have been able to use Egypt&aposs resources so efficiently and redistribute grain to everybody during the lean seasons. So writing was incredibly important.

The Egyptians also noticed that people and things from a few centuries ago were quickly forgotten and essentially disappeared, unless there was a record of them. So in Egyptian mythology, Re the Creator god first spoke the names of things to make them, and then Thoth wrote them down to make them stick. Egyptians would say, "In the beginning was the Word. and Thoth took note of it."

The Egyptians thought that turning sounds into pictures was a magical, almost alchemical process. So you can see how writing, speech, and "magic words" all came to be related for the Egyptians. Words have power! For the Egyptians, words were the stuff of creation itself.

According to legend, Thoth wrote the king&aposs name on the leaves of the sacred tree of Heliopolis (city of Re) each year of the king&aposs reign. He also recorded all happenings during the reign to "fix" them in history. His royal recordkeeping helped to maintain the reign&aposs stability and to ensure the pharaoh&aposs immortality. Many relief sculptures show Thoth (and Horus) pouring water over the pharaoh&aposs head to establish him as king.

In the all-important Weighing of the Heart ritual shown in Egyptian tombs, where the deceased was brought before Osiris and the Hall of Judges to prove himself worthy of the afterlife, the dead man had to declare all his good deeds and proclaim himself innocent of sin. Anubis the god of mummification weighed the dead person&aposs heart against the Feather of Truth (Ma&aposat).

Thoth recorded everything on a tablet. If all went well, Thoth announced: "What you have said is true. [X] is righteous."Without those magic words, the heart would be gobbled up by a monster lurking under the scales, and the deceased&aposs soul would be lost.

Thoth&aposs wife is sometimes said to be Ma&aposat, truth or "righteousness," the way things are or at least ought to be. The Egyptians are fond of visual puns, so you will sometimes see statues of an ibis facing a little figure of Ma&aposat. The empty space between them makes the symbol of Ma&aposat, a feather. Thoth challenges you to find the hidden truth.


Thoth as a Baboon - History

Ancient Egyptian Gods and Goddesses for kids - Thoth

The History of ancient Egypt surrounding Thoth, the ibis-headed god of knowledge, wisdom, the moon and magic

Who was Thoth?
Thoth was the Egyptian ibis-headed god of knowledge, magic and wisdom. The ibis was used as a recognition aid and a device to visually convey the powers, identity and attributes of Thoth. An ibis is a large wading bird with a long slender down-curved bill, long neck, and long legs. Thoth is also connected with baboons who were guardians of the first gate of the underworld.

Facts about Thoth
The following facts and profile provides a fast overview of Thoth. Alternative Names: Djehuty, Djhuty, Tehuty and Tehuti.

Thoth Profile & Fact File

Role & Function: The roles of the moon god Thoth include the development of science, the arts of magic, the system of writing, arbitration and the judgment of the dead.

Status: He was a mediating power between good and evil, the secretary of Ra and the scribe of the Underworld.

Symbols: The ibis, moon disk, reed pen, papyrus scroll, palm branch, baboon, was scepter and ankh

Cult Center: Hermopolis (Khmunu) in the Nile Delta lands of Lower Egypt

Titles: The "Lord of the reed pen", "Twice Great", the "Scribe of Ma'at in the Company of the Gods", "Lord of the Sacred Words"

Name in Hieroglyphics: Translation of Hieroglyphics for Thoth: The ibis, bread (giver of food), the two strokes of duality symbolizing his association with earth and the Underworld, Thoth as the seated god

Thoth in Egyptian Mythology
Thoth, the Egyptian god of knowledge, featured in the stories, myths and legends in Egyptian Mythology. According to one myth Horus lost his left eye in his war with Set who tore the eye into six pieces. Thoth, the god of wisdom and magic, was able to reassemble the eye and return it to Horus who gave the reassembled eye to his murdered father Osiris, thereby bringing him back to life. He is associated with jackal-headed god Anubis at the 'Weighing of the Heart' and with the Seshat, his female counterpart and the goddess of writing and libraries. Thoth also plays an important role in the legend concerning the Tree of Life. He is sometimes referred to as the consort of Ma'at, the goddess of truth, justice, morality and balance.

Priestess of Thoth and the sacred ibis

The Role of Thoth
The attributes and accreditations given to Thoth, in his role as the god of knowledge and wisdom, were numerous and complex but included:

  • Lord of Wisdom
  • Inventor of Hieroglyphic Writing
  • Keeper of Records
  • Scribe of the gods and secretary of Ra
  • Arbitrator and Messenger of the gods
  • Master of passing time, the lunar cycle and the movement of the stars - the God of Chronology
  • Creator of the 365 day calendar.
  • The inventor of mathematics, astronomy and engineering
  • God of justice and "supreme judge"
  • Author of all works of science, religion, philosophy and magic
  • The Creator of spells and Lord of Magic

The profession of scribes was under his protection, as the writing of hieroglyphics was a sacred and magical act. Scribes were one of the most respected professions in ancient Egypt and Thoth was their patron, his image was present in their place of work and one of the symbols for scribes was the ibis refer to the article on Seshat for facts and information about the ancient Egyptian scribe.

The Library of Thoth
Thoth was believed to have created a great library of scrolls containing all of his knowledge and his magic spells. His books of magic contained 'formulas which commanded all the forces of nature and subdued the very gods themselves'. His consort, Seshat the goddess of writing, was the "Mistress of the House of Books" indicating that she also took care of his great library of spells and scrolls. He was revered as the great teacher who taught mankind the art of writing and as a great magician.

Thoth - The Moon and Magic
Thoth was an important lunar god and linked to astronomy. The Moon enabled the ancient Egyptians to measure time without the sun. The phases of the moon gave it a significant importance in early Egyptian astrology and astronomy. The cycles of the moon were central to the organization and timing of both civil and religious ceremonies, rituals, and events. As time passed Thoth gained prominence as the knowledge of the ancient Egyptians increased and was consequently seen as the god of wisdom, the measurement of time and the regulator of events. His association with the mysterious elements of astrology and astronomy resulted in his position as the god of magic.

Thoth and the Ibis
The Egyptian name for Thoth is 'Tehuti' which is derived from the Egyptian word 'tehu', the oldest name of the Ibis in Egypt. The association between Thoth and the ibis can be traced to the Pyramid Texts from the second half of the Old Kingdom:

& quot. the king can transform himself into a bird whose wing feathers are those of Thoth, the mightiest of gods"

Iconography - Thoth and the Ibis
Thoth is usually represented as an ibis (Threskiornis aethiopicus) or a man with the head of an ibis. As an ibis, Thoth often appears perched on a standard as on the relief at the temple at Kom Ombo. However, he most common representation of Thoth is as an ibis headed man, holding a reed pen and a scribe's palette.

Thoth as an Ibis at the temple at Kom Ombo.

Thoth relief Luxor Temple

Thoth and the Baboon
In ancient Egyptian mythology Thoth is connected with baboons but it is unclear that Thoth the god was actually represented as a baboon as most would suggest. The baboon was a symbol of Thoth and seen to undertake work he directed. Baboons are often shown directing scribes in their work and involved with duties relating to the measurement of time. Many of the gods of the most ancient Egyptians were subsumed (meaning absorbed) into new deities. The practice of creating new deities, by combining them with the attributes of old gods, is called 'syncretism'. It is possible that this was the case with Hedjwer, Babi and then Thoth. The Ancient Egyptians identified the baboon with at least two main deities before Thoth - refer to the article on Baba for associations between Thoth and the baboon.

Cult Center of Thoth - Hermopolis (Khnum)
Cities that were cult centers became extremely rich and therefore powerful. The Egyptian Priests of Hermopolis vied for position and power, re-inventing gods and creation myths to ensure that Hermopolis retained its position as one of the great cult centers of ancient Egypt. The city of Hermopolis had been a cult center for the worship of Baba and Hedjwer and as time passed its own version of the creation myth in respect of the Ogdoad of Hermopolis was created. During the late period of Egyptian history Khnum (Hermopolis Magna), in Lower Egypt also becoming the capital. The cult gained prominence with Thoth as the creator god.

Thoth and the Creation Myth
In ancient Egyptian mythology, in the Ogdoad creation myth, Thoth gave birth to Atum Ra by laying an egg, while in the form of an ibis. The sound of his song was thought to have created four frog gods and snake goddesses of the Ogdoad who sang the song of Thoth, helping the sun journey across the sky.

Cult Center for the Worship of Thoth
The Cult Center at Hermopolis housed the Great Temple of Thoth, and also had a sanctuary that was one of the great centres of Egyptian learning for priests and was called Het Abtit, 'The House of the Net'. The priests were taught various secret spells, ceremonies and rituals in relation to survival in the Underworld increasing their powers in ancient Egyptian society. There were secret halls containing historical records which had been kept for thousands of years including forty-two sacred writings of Thoth (42 Books of Thoth) encapsulating all the training and knowledge of Egyptian priests and scribes and described the instructions for achieving immortality. There were both priests and priestesses, mysteries and initiations rituals for each separately, and ceremonies for both. The priests were taught the secret rites and observances, astrology, law, music, writing, cosmography, geography, medicine, mathematics and measures. Ibises were reared specifically for sacrificial purposes and millions of dead ibis were mummified and buried in honor of Thoth. A great annual festival called the Feast of Thoth was celebrated in the Inundation season.

Temple of Thoth at Hermopolis

Thoth and Hermes - The Emerald Tablets of Thoth
Thoth and the Greek god Hermes were both gods of writing and of magic in their respective cultures and during the Greco-Roman Period (332 BC - 641 AD) the two gods were worshipped in what had been the Temple of Thoth in at Hermopolis. "The Emerald Tablets of Thoth" or the "Secret of Hermes" as the Hermetic Corpus was a table made of green stone that contained a series of sacred texts. These secret and sacred texts were believed to reveal the secret of life, the primordial and all other substances and provided the key to the ideas of the earth, fire, the sun and the moon. The Emerald Tablets of Thoth were believed to be a combination of the knowledge and wisdom of Hermes and Thoth in layers of cryptic meanings. The sacred texts contained in the Emerald Tablets of Thoth survived in eastern Byzantine libraries. Their re-discovery and translation into Latin during the late-fifteenth century was sought by European alchemists looking for the recipe for alchemical gold and the secrets of raising the consciousness to a new degree. The Emerald Tablets of Thoth became a core element in the foundation of alchemy and commentaries and/or translations were published by famous people including Roger Bacon, Aleister Crowley, Albertus Magnus, C.G. Jung and Isaac Newton.

Thoth and the Tree of Life
Thoth, the secretary of the sun god Ra and scribe of the Underworld, played an important role in the myths relating to the Tree of Life. The Tree of Life was believed to hold the Knowledge of the Divine Plan or the equivalent to a map of destiny which existed from when the world was created, marking the beginning of time. Thoth wrote the king's name and the length of his reign on the Tree of Life which protected the ruler and perpetuated his name. Thoth and his counterpart Seshat were the guardians of the sacred hieroglyphs.

Role of Thoth in the Underworld
Thoth was always present in the Judgement Hall of the Two Truths during the Weighing of the Heart ceremony in which the eternal fate of a soul of the dead was determined. The role of Thoth, as the scribe of the Underworld, wrote the results of the judgement of every soul.

Papyrus of Ani (Book of the Dead) - Thoth records the judgements

Facts about Thoth in Egyptian Mythology
Discover interesting information and research facts about Thoth, the Egyptian god of knowledge. The facts about Thoth provides a list detailing fascinating additional info to increase your knowledge about Thoth in Egyptian Mythology.

History, Mythology and Facts about Thoth

Fact 1: He was the moon god and revered as a god of wisdom, magic, music, astronomy, geometry, drawing and writing.

Fact 2: One of his roles was as the secretary of Ra in the Underworld.

Fact 3: The god was generally depicted in human form with the head of an ibis.

Fact 4: Khonsu was the mathematical aspect of Thoth

Fact 5: The Greeks identified Thoth with their god Hermes and named him Thoth, the thrice great


THOTH

THOTH was the god of wisdom from Hermopolis in Middle Egypt. According to the Hermopolitan cosmology (which is best known from texts found at other sites), the eight primordial gods representing "hiddenness," "darkness," "formlessness" (?), and the "watery abyss" produced an egg that appeared at Hermopolis when the inundation subsided and from which the creator god appeared and brought everything else into being. When mentioned in the Heliopolitan Pyramid Texts, this creator god was Atum, but in the local Hermopolitan tradition he could have been Thoth.

Thoth was the moon god and as such was the companion of Re, the sun god, but he also had his own following among the stars in the night sky. One mortuary tradition, probably originating at Hermopolis, permitted the dead who knew the correct spells to accompany Thoth in the sky. Thoth was the son of Re, but he also represented the injured eye of the falcon-headed sky god, Horus, whose sound eye was Re. For unknown reasons Thoth is identified with both the ibis and the baboon. He is regularly depicted as a human with the head of an ibis. Baboons often appear in temple reliefs worshiping the sun god, and this association might indicate his subordinate relationship to Re. In the judgment scene of chapter 125 of the Book of Going Forth by Day, Thoth as the ibis-headed god presides over and records the weighing of the heart of the deceased owner of the book. A baboon is also represented in this scene seated atop the balance, apparently to ensure its accuracy. Thoth is credited in Egyptian mythology with separating the two contenders, Horus and Seth, as well as with magically restoring Horus's injured eye. He has one of the major supporting roles in much of Egyptian religious literature, and a number of hymns are addressed to him directly, although Re and Osiris are the principal gods discussed and invoked in these texts.

Thoth was renowned for his wisdom and praised as the inventor of writing. Die mdw-ntr ("god's words," i.e., hieroglyphs) were recognized as perhaps his greatest contribution, and he was frequently shown with brush and papyrus roll in the attitude of the scribes, whose patron he was.

In the eighteenth dynasty several kings took as their throne name Thothmose ("Thoth is the one who bore him"). This Thutmosid family included several other members with ʿ i' ḥ ("moon") in their names, so it is clearly Thoth's position as moon god that is being recalled. Remains of two small temples to Thoth survive in the Theban area, one very late and poorly decorated. Since the eighteenth dynasty was of Theban origin and the son of Amun-Re at Thebes was the moon god, Khonsu, these two moon gods could have been assimilated, but the family could also have chosen the name of the northern god (Thoth) when they moved their residence (capital) to Memphis.

In Egyptian literature there clearly was an ancient tradition concerning the secret knowledge of Thoth. Secret rooms and mysterious books were sought by learned scribes, priests, and princes. This tradition was carried over into some of the Coptic gnostic library tractates, and the question arises whether these were Egyptian or Greek in origin since the Greeks had early identified their god Hermes with Thoth. The origins of the continuing traditions of Hermes Trismegistos and gnosticism can be traced to Egypt, to Thoth, and perhaps even to the Hermopolitan cosmology, but the extent of Egyptian influence on these beliefs remains to be determined.

The great temple of Thoth at Hermopolis has not survived, although its location is known from finds in the area. A large catacomb for the burial of mummified ibises and baboons has been found nearby at the necropolis of Tuna al-Gabal.


Kyk die video: Light of Thoth - The Best Documentary Ever (Januarie 2022).