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Wanneer het die Eerste Barbary -oorlog begin?

Wanneer het die Eerste Barbary -oorlog begin?


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Ek lees oor die Eerste Barbary -oorlog vanuit Sweedse en Amerikaanse perspektief. Ek het volgens my 'n baie betroubare bron in Sweeds, en dit sê dat die Pascha van Tripoli op 9 Januarie 1801 oorlog teen die VSA verklaar het. Maar as u ander bronne, soos Wikipedia, lees, beweer dit dat die oorlog verklaar is deur die Pascha 10 Mei 1801.

Dit is 'n belangrike verskil sedert Jefferson op 4 Maart 1801 ingehuldig is. Dit wil sê, óf die oorlog is verklaar voordat Jefferson president geword het, óf Jefferson het dit verklaar deur te weier om as president te betaal.

Dit lyk vir my asof dit eintlik John Adams was wat opgehou het om hulde te bring? Die verhaal wat sommige skrywers blykbaar oordra, is dat Jefferson lank gewag het vir 'n kans om die Barbary -state te trotseer en die kans gewaag het sodra hy dit gekry het (aangesien hy ideologies sterk gekant was teen hul gedrag). Maar terselfdertyd het die eise van Tripoli belaglik hoog geword, en was 'n oorlog min of meer 'n kwessie van tyd?

Was die begin van die Eerste Barbary -oorlog 'n gevolg van John Adam se presidentskap, of 'n besluit wat Thomas Jefferson geneem het toe hy president was? Waar kan ek meer lees oor hierdie belangrike maande laat 1800 - middel 1801?


Kort antwoord

Tripoli het oorlog teen die Verenigde State verklaar 14 Mei 1801.


Gedetailleerde antwoord

Op die eerste oogopslag lyk dit na 'n triviale vraag. Die antwoord blyk verbasend omhul te wees agter verskeie teenstrydige datums in die internet. Ek sal probeer om te verduidelik hoekom ek dink dat hierdie antwoorde nie korrek is nie.

(A) 9 Januarie 1801

Ek het eintlik nie 'n verwysing na hierdie datum gevind nie, maar daar blyk geen bewyse daarvoor te wees nie. Kom ons verwys na die briewe van die James Leander Cathcart, Amerikaanse konsul aan Tripoli tot 24 Mei 1801hierdie datum is 'n wenk. Cathcart het op hierdie presiese datum geskryf dat, nadat sy hulde gebring het aan Swede:

So het die Bashaw sy belangrikste punt vasgestel - dit is 'n permanente annuïteit; en dit is die terme, of soortgelyke, wat hy van die Verenigde State van Amerika, Dene en Batawe vereis het ... As die Dey nie in hierdie saak inmeng nie, sien ek geen ander alternatief as oorlog nie.

- Cathcart, James L. Brief aan eerw. William Smith, Lissabon. 9 Januarie 1801.

En tog maak hy geen melding van hierdie oorlog wat in die volgende briewe uitbreek nie. Twee dae later skryf hy:

So het die Bashaw 'n permanente annuïteit gevestig, wat sy grootste doel was sedert hy die troon van Tripoli ingeneem het, en dit is die terme wat hy verklaar het (maar nie amptelik nie, maar deur insinuasies en wenke van sy sendelinge) wat hy van Denemarke, die Verenigde State van Amerika en die Bataafse Republiek sal eis ...

- Cathcart, James L. Untited Letter. 11 Januarie 1801.

Dus was daar nog nie eers amptelik aan die eise voldoen nie. Boonop sou u verwag dat die konsul sou noem dat 'n oorlog aan die gang was, maar daar is geen bewyse hiervan uit die res van sy Januarie -briewe nie. Dit is duidelik dat die oorlog nie in Januarie begin het nie.


(B) 26 Februarie 1801

Ek het wel ander bronne gevind wat beweer dat die oorlog begin het voor Jefferson se inhuldiging, in Februarie:

1801 26 Februarie Tripoli dek die oorlog teen die Verenigde State, die Amerikaanse regering het geweier om aan die eise van die pasha te voldoen; 'n paar weke later neem Thomas Jefferson sy amp aan as die derde Amerikaanse president.

- Fremont-Barnes, Gregory. The Wars of the Barbary Pirates: To the Shores of Tripoli - The Rise of the Us Navy and Marines. Vol. 66. Osprey Publishing, 2006.

Tripoli het in Februarie twee keer oorlog bedreig, op die 8ste en 16de. Spesifiek, op die 8ste het die Bashaw gedreig om binne 40 dae oorlog te verklaar, met die aankoms van inkomende geskenke uit Algiers.

Wat eintlik gebeur het, is dat die wispelturige Bashaw spoedig van plan verander het. Hy het besluit om die verklaring uit te stel gee die Verenigde State meer tyd om na sy bluf te vou skryf eers 'n brief aan Algiers:

Ek is ingelig, maar nie amptelik nie, dat die Bashaw van Tripoli aan Algiers geskryf het en nie van plan is om oorlog teen die Verenigde State te verklaar totdat hy nuus van Algiers ontvang het nie, waarvoor ek hoop dat ons vaartuie onder konvooi sal wees.

- Cathcart, James L. Brief aan mnre O'Brien en Eaton. 23 Februarie 1801.

Daar word beraam dat die antwoord "oor ongeveer agt weke sal wees". Gevolglik blyk daar geen oorlogsverklaring in Februarie te wees nie. Trouens, Cathcart sou in Maart en April skryf oor 'sou 'n oorlog ontstaan' en 'as daar oorlog verklaar word'. Weereens ongewone woorde as daar reeds op 26 Februarie oorlog verklaar is.

Hierdie verkeerde datum het moontlik ontstaan ​​omdat Cathcart op die 26ste geskryf het dat, as die Bashaw sy voorwaardes weier, 'oorlog onvermydelik' is.


(C) 10 Mei 1801

Hierdie datum, wat Wikipedia gebruik, is korrek. Wikipedia se verwysing is die volgende:

Op 10 Mei 1801 verklaar die Tripolitane op hul eie skilderagtige wyse oorlog teen die Verenigde State - deur voor die Amerikaanse konsulaat van die vlagstaaf af te spring.

- Miller, N. Die Amerikaanse vloot: 'n geskiedenis. Naval Institute Press, 1997.

Die datum is egter effens af:

Op 9 Mei 1801 kry Cathcart die boodskap dat soldate die volgende dag vlagpaal voor sy konsulaat sal afkap as 'n oorlogsverklaring die tradisionele manier om dit te doen in Noord -Afrika. Eers op 14 Mei het hulle opgedaag. Terwyl die mans probeer het om die vlagpaal in die helfte te breek, het Cathcart 'n boodskap aan die Pasha gestuur dat hy dadelik $ 10 000 kon aanbied om oorlog te vermy. Yusuf het die som van die hand gewys, en sy manne het na die paal met byle gekap en 'n uur geneem om dit uiteindelik te laat val. Die omgevalle vlagpaal dui daarop dat daar nou oorlog tussen Tripoli en die Verenigde State bestaan.

- Baumgartner, Frederic J. Oorlog in die vroeë moderne Europa verklaar. Palgrave Macmillan, 2011.

Met ander woorde, Tripoli het sy voorneme aangekondig om oorlog te verklaar, maar het dit slegs uitgevoer ("die tradisionele manier") 14 Mei 1801, nadat 'n laaste poging tot vrede misluk het. Ek sou aanvoer dat laasgenoemde datum die meer formeel korrekte datum is.

Op die 10de Mei, 1801, stuur die Bashaw Hadgi Mahomude la Sore, met die inligting aan mnr. Cathcart, dat "hy oorlog verklaar het teen die Verenigde State", en dat hy die Amerikaanse vlagpersoneel op Donderdag die 14de Mei sou afneem; dat as hy wil, hy in Tripoli kan bly en met respek behandel moet word, maar hy kan verdwyn as hy sou kies ... Op die 14de is die Amerikaanse vlagpersoneel afgesny, en oorlog is dus formeel verklaar.

- Goldsborough, Charles Washington. Die Naval Chronicle van die Verenigde State. Vol. 1. J. Wilson, 1824.

Ongeag die datum, was hierdie gebeurtenis die begin van die Eerste Barbary -oorlog. Die Amerikaanse konsul, James Leander Cathcart, het tien dae later, op 24 Mei 1801, uit Tripoli vertrek. Sy vertrek word ook bevestig in die versameling van sy briewe wat deur sy dogter gepubliseer is.


(D) Later datums

Sommige bronne het die datum as 10 Junie 1801 gegee:

Die Dey het gewaarsku dat as Bainbridge nie daaraan voldoen nie, hy die Verenigde State oorlog sou verklaar en die beamptes en bemannings van die George Washington in slawerny sou neem. Nadat Bainbridge geweier het, verklaar Tripoli op 10 Junie 1801 oorlog teen die Verenigde State.

- Dooley, P. red. Die vroeë republiek: primêre dokumente oor gebeure van 1799 tot 1820. Greenwood Publishing, 2004.

Maar dit blyk dat die meeste ander bronne dit weerspreek. Dit lyk byvoorbeeld of hy op 2 Mei in die Verenigde State was en op 20 Mei aangestel is onder bevel van USS Essex daarna oorlog begin het.

Sommige bronne meen ook dat die Amerikaanse kongres oorlog verklaar het toe dit verby is Wet vir die beskerming van handel en seemanne van die Verenigde State teen die Tripolitiaanse korsers. Maar dit was duidelik nie die begin van die oorlog nie, maar eerder die Amerikaanse reaksie. En ook minder van 'n oorlogsverklaring en meer van 'n wetsontwerp op magtiging.


Vraag:
Wanneer het die Eerste Barbary -oorlog begin?


Kort antwoord

Daar was geen formele oorlogsverklaring deur die Pasha van Tripoli of die Verenigde State om die Eerste Barbary -oorlog te begin nie.

Die eerste barbaarse oorlog
op 10 Mei 1801 verklaar die Pasha oorlog teen die VSA, nie deur formele geskrewe dokumente nie, maar op die gebruiklike manier van Barbary om die vlagstaaf voor die Amerikaanse konsulaat af te sny. [

Alhoewel die kongres nooit oor 'n formele oorlogsverklaring gestem het nie, het hulle wel die president gemagtig om die bevelvoerders van gewapende Amerikaanse vaartuie opdrag te gee om alle vaartuie en goedere van die Pasha van Tripoli in beslag te neem "en ook al die ander voorsorgmaatreëls te laat doen. vyandigheid soos die oorlogstoestand dit regverdig. ”

Ek sou aanvoer dat die oorlog begin het óf toe Tripoli die verdrag van 1796 met die Verenigde State verbreek en die Amerikaanse handelsskepe in beslag neem. Dit is Julie 1800 toe Tripoli die Catherine in beslag neem. of 6 Februarie 1802 toe die kongres die Amerikaanse vloot gemagtig het om Tripoli -skepe as vergelding te neem. Die eerste korsair van Tripoli wat deur die Amerikaanse vloot geneem is, het plaasgevind 1 Augustus 1802 wanneer die USS Enterprise het dit gedoen, in 'n eensydige stryd. Enige van hierdie datums kan die begin van die eerste Barbary -oorlog genoem word, wat geen formele oorlogsverklaring deur enige party gehad het nie.

Die 9 Januarie 1801 die datum was 'n sperdatum wat die Pasha van Tripoli aan James Leander Cathcart, die konsole van Tripoli, gegee het om in te stem tot die voorwaardes vir 'n jaarlikse betalingskedule. Die Verenigde State wat hy aangevoer het, het betaal vir die verdrag van 1797, maar het nie betaal vir voortdurende vrede nie. As die Verenigde State op 9 Januarie nie tot die punt gekom het nie, het die Pasha gewaarsku, sou seerowers in Tripoli oorlog voer. Eers toe die Pasha die eis / ultimatum stel, het sy Barbary Pirates reeds die Amerikaanse handelsskip die Cathrine gevang en hul verdrag met die VSA verbreek.

10 Mei 1801 word verkeerdelik as die amptelike oorlogsverklaring deur Tripoli beskou, alhoewel geen dokument onderteken of aan die Verenigde State voorgelê is nie, nóg sy agente. Dit word gesê dat dit die amptelike datum is, want dit is die datum waarop die Pasha van Tripoli die Amerikaanse vlag by die Amerikaanse konsulaat in Tripoli beveel het. So word gesê dat dit 'n amptelike breuk met die VSA, oorlogsverklaring, op die 'gebruiklike' manier van die Barbary Pirate simboliseer. Dit is egter nie akkuraat nie. Die Pasha het beslag gelê op Amerikaanse aflewering Julie 1800, byna 'n jaar vroeër, en die Amerikaanse konsulaat het nog twee jaar oop gebly.

Daar is gesê in 'n vorige pos dat die Pasha die Amerikaanse konsulaat van Mei 1801 gesluit het toe die konsol van Tripoli, James Leander Cathcart, Tripoli verlaat het. Cathcart was die konsul van Tripoli, maar die konsul -generaal wat Cathcart oorspronklik as konsultant aangestel het, was William Eaton.

  • Konsul -generaal - 'n konsulêre offisier van die hoogste rang, as 'n persoon wat op 'n plek van groot kommersiële belang gestasioneer is of toesig hou oor ander konsuls.

Eaton is nie amptelik aan Tripoli gestuur nie, maar is na Tripoli ontbied toe spanning begin toeneem. William Eaton bly nog twee jaar in Tripoli as die Amerikaanse verteenwoordiger nadat Cathcart na bewering vertrek het. Eaton is geskors, 10 Maart 1803; nadat die Pasha van Tripoli $ 22,000 dollar van 'n Amerikaanse Commodore afpers. Eaton se teenwoordigheid en sake kan bevestig word deur die brief wat Carthcart aan die destydse minister van buitelandse sake, James Madison, op 15 Maart 1803 gestuur het waarin hy William Eaton as die konsul van Tripoli identifiseer en betreur dat die Pasha nie die Amerikaanse konsul mag kies deur ontslaan mnr Eaton en sien hom vervang.

Die Pasha het altyd probeer om meer geld te kry, en 'n mens kan nie meer geld kry nie, tensy die ander lande se troos oop is en die konsulêre beamptes teenwoordig is om mee te dwing en te onderhandel. Die sluiting van die Amerikaanse vlag in Mei 1801 het dus meer te doen gehad met die frustrasie van Pasha dat die Amerikaanse konsulaat -offisier William Eaton nie 'n skuld betaal het nie, eerder as die begin van vyandelikhede wat op daardie stadium amper 'n jaar oud was. In reaksie op die optrede van Pasha (die vlag afsny) het Eaton (met 'n bruglening) sy skuld vervul Junie 1801. Gedurende al hierdie datums het die Amerikaanse konsulaat egter oop gebly en betalings van die Verenigde State na Tripoli het voortgegaan. (Eers William Eaton se betaling in Junie, en dan Commodore Morris se betaling in 1803).


Agtergrond

Uiteindelik was die eerste Barbary -oorlog nie 'n klassieke oorlog nie. Dit het nie gegaan oor grondgebied of om 'n spesifieke item van die ander te verkry nie. Dit het gegaan oor afpersing om 'n dwang te gee Verhoog in die jaarlikse huldeblyk wat Amerika aan Tripoli betaal het. In dié maatreël word formele oorlogsverklarings wat nooit plaasgevind het nie, aangeraai om Amerika se eerste buitelandse oorlog eerbaarder te laat lyk. 'N Geskil wat tussen twee nasies kan ontstaan ​​en nie wat dit was nie, ondersoekende, onderskeidende swakheid, afpersing, kapitulasie en onderwerping. Alles wat die Pasha gedoen het, was om die sterkte van die Verenigde State te ondersoek of nie die sterkte daarvan te hê nie; en dwing dan en dwing geld uit. Die geld wat die Pasha van Tripoli gesoek het, was 'n toename in die voortdurende huldeblyk uit Amerika. Die Pasha het geglo dat ander Barbary -state, soos Marokko en Tunisië, 'n groter jaarlikse huldeblyk ontvang het en hy wou hierdie probleem aanspreek. Alles wat Amerika uiteindelik gedoen het, was om die onderhandelingsposisie te probeer verbeter om minder geld te betaal. Nie minder geld as wat Amerika ingevolge die verdrag van 1897 betaal het nie, maar minder geld as wat die Pasha in 1800 geëis het. Dit is uiteindelik wat Amerika sowel as Tripoli in die 'oorlog' bereik het, en 'n prys gemaak vir 'n herhalende huldeblyk wat Amerika kon bekostig en die Pasha sou aanvaar.

My persoonlike wegneem van die eerste Barbary -oorlog was dat geen van die nasies eerbaar was nie. The Barbary Pirates was klassieke gangsters wat swakheid opgemerk het en ingespring het om die swak party tot en met hul betaalvermoë te laat bloei. Amerika was ver van afstaan ​​teen die Pirates en weier om afpersing te betaal, en was altyd bereid om hulde te bring, selfs as dit ongelooflike persentasies van die jaarlikse begroting van die Amerikaanse regering bereik het. Selfs toe dit blyk dat die oorwinning amper op hande was vir die Verenigde State, verkies die Jefferson -administrasie, verteenwoordig deur Tobias Lear, hulde as om na te streef na 'n belowende moontlike militêre resolusie. Die Jefferson -administrasie het letterlik 'n nederlaag uit die oorwinningskake geruk en ingestem tot hernuwing van die jaarlikse huldeblyk in die lig van 'n suksesvolle grondinval in Tripoli. Die enigste eerbare ding in die hele oorlog was die optrede van William Eaton, 'n dunk, onbehoorlike, ongelukkige, voormalige rewolusionêre oorlogsheld wat hemel en aarde beweeg het en alles in gevaar gestel het om te doen wat volgens hom eerbaar was, selfs al het hy geen persoonlike belange nie. belang. William Eaton wat deur elke tree ondermyn is deur burokrasie en politici. William Eaton wat dit amper afgetrek het. Hy het nie net amper die Eerste Barbary -oorlog gewen nie, wat die Verenigde State van Amerika grof verloor het, maar ook amper die oorlog oor afstaan ​​teen afpersers en boewe, waaroor die geskiedenis die oorlog verkeerd onthou het.

Die interessante dinge oor die eerste Barbary -oorlog was nie Amerika wat die Tripoli Pirates opstaan ​​nie. Omdat dit nie regtig gebeur het nie. Amerika se verbintenis tot die grondoorlog, wat uiteindelik die Pasha van Tripoli gedwing het om 'n kleiner verhoging in sy jaarlikse betaling te aanvaar as wat hy oorspronklik wou hê, was 8 mariniers. Amerika se twee mees prominente uitstallings van vlootmag in daardie oorlog was bewys van onbevoegdheid deur die Amerikaanse vloot. Eers, Februarie 1803, het die Amerikaanse kommodoor Morris se eskader die hawe van Tripoli binnegekom, nadat alle redelike datums vir die begin van vyandelikhede/oorlog verby was. Die Commodore is gevange geneem toe hy Tripoli binnegekom het aan die voorkant van 'n liggewapende landingspartytjie. Die Commodore word dan gedwing om $ 22,000 dollar te betaal vir sy persoonlike vryheid voordat hy terugtrek soos die stomp dwaas wat hy beslis was. William Eaton het gesê van die Amerikaanse vloot sou 'n eskader van vergaderhuise in Quaker net so effektief gewees het. Die tweede was Oktober 1803, toe die formidabele geweerskip USS Philadelphia die hawe van Tripoli binnegedring het om 'n seerower cairair te probeer vang, net om aan die strand te loop. Dit gee dan oor sonder om 'n skoot af te vuur, ure tevore, volgens 'n Europese diplomaat in Tripoli, het die gety die skip bevry.

Die interessante merkwaardige dinge oor die eerste Barbary -oorlog was nie oor die state wat geveg het nie. Ek dink ook nie dit het gegaan oor die voorspelbare gedrag van die Pasha ter bevordering van sy afpersingskema nie. Dit het gegaan oor die betrokkenheid van twee funksionarisse.

William Eaton, wat 'n kompromislose idealistiese uitsonderlike blokkop, en hoe hy dit amper uit die weg geruim het. Organisering en uitvoering van 'n landinval in Tripoli met 8 mariniers en 'n gewaagde plan, wat uiteindelik die tweede grootste stad in Tripoli verower. Tweedens, Tobias Lear, een van die grootste en minste bekende herhalende skelms in die Amerikaanse geskiedenis en hoe hy in nog 'n skandaal verskyn en dit verdraai na sy swak en basiese eiebelang.

Belangrike konsepte:

  1. Die Barbary Pirate States het ingesluit:

    • Tripoli
    • Tunisië
    • Algerië
    • Marokko
  2. Die Barbary Pirate -state was verenig in seerowery, maar nie in bestuur nie. Om vrede met een staat te maak was nie om vrede met almal te maak nie. Elke staat het hul eie vredesonderhandelinge gevoer en hul eie huldeblyk ontvang.

  3. Die Eerste Barbary Pirate War was tussen die Verenigde State en die Barbary -staat Tripoli.
  4. Die Verenigde State het jaarliks ​​groot hulde gebring aan die Barbary Pirate -state tydens en na die Eerste Barbary -oorlog.
  5. Die Verenigde State het jaarliks ​​hulde gebring aan Tripoli voor en na die eerste Barbary -oorlog.


Belangrike datums:

  • 1778 Amerika onderteken die Alliansieverdrag met Frankryk wat America Shipping tydens die Revolusionêre Oorlog teen die Barbary Pirates beskerm.
  • 1783 Die verdragsalliansie met Frankryk verstryk en Amerikaanse skeepvaart is onbeskermd teen die Barbary Pirate -state in Noord -Afrika.
  • 11 Oktober 1784 - Amerika verloor sy eerste skip, The Betsy to the Barbary Coast Pirates. Marokko neem die skip.
  • 23 Junie 1786 - Die Verenigde State onderteken sy eerste verdrag met 'n staat Barbary Coast, Marokko.
  • 25 Julie 1785 - Algerië begin Amerikaanse vaartuie neem, begin met die Maria en dan die Dauphin, en maak hul bemanning verslaaf.
  • Maart 1786 - Thomas Jefferson en John Adams begin eers onderhandel met die Barbary Coast Pirate -staat Tripoli in Londen.
  • 1796, Amerika onderteken sy eerste verdrag met Tripoli en maak daar 'n konsulaat oop.
  • 27 Maart 1794 Die kongres aanvaar die vlootwet van 1794 wat die bou van die eerste ses skepe van die Amerikaanse vloot befonds. hulle is.
    1. Verenigde State
    2. Konstellasie
    3. Grondwet
    4. Chesapeake
    5. Kongres
    6. President
  • 1795 - Amerika los 116 matrose uit Algerië af en stem in om 1/6 van die hele Amerikaanse begroting te betaal. Dit word 'n jaarlikse huldeblyk en word vir die volgende 15 jaar aan Algerië betaal.
  • 3 September 1798, Tripoli se raiding party vang die 12 -jarige koninklike Anna Porcile uit San Pietro.
  • Julie 1800 Pasha van Tripoli verbreek die verdrag met die VSA en neem die Amerikaanse brig, die Catharine. Kla dat sy jaarlikse betaling minder was as ander Barbary Coast Pirate -betalings.
  • 11 Oktober 1800, William Eaton by die Amerikaanse konsulaat belowe Amerika se krediet vir $ 5000, om Anna Porcile se vrylating te verseker.
  • 1800, tydens die Adams -administrasiekongres slaag die
  • 4 Maart 1801, As Thomas Jefferson ingehuldig word, eis Yusuf Karamanli, die Pasha van Tripoli, $ 225,000, ongeveer 33% van die federale begroting in 'n jaarlikse huldeblyk om nie Amerikaanse skeepvaart te seer nie.
  • 10 Mei 1801, The Pasha of Tripoli kap die Amerikaanse vlag af by die Amerikaanse konsulaat in Tripoli. Hierdie daad word beskou as 'n oorlogsverklaring wat die eerste Barbary Pirate War begin.
  • Junie 1801, William Eaton kry 'n bruglening van 'n Tripoliese handelaar om sy skuld aan Anna te betaal by die Pasha van Tripoli.
  • 6 Februarie 1802, Het die Amerikaanse kongres aangeneem "The Act for the Protection of the Commerce and Seamen of the United States, Against the Tripolitan Cruisers" wat die Jefferson magtig om Amerikaanse vlootskepe opdrag te gee om Tripoli -skepe op die see te vang. Tog nie 'n formele oorlogsverklaring nie.
  • 1 Augustus 1802, Die skoener Enterprise (onder bevel van luitenant Andrew Sterret) het die Tripolitaanse korsair Tripoli met 14 kanonne verslaan na 'n eensydige geveg.
  • Februarie 1803, Word die Amerikaanse kommodoor Richard Morris gevange geneem toe sy party sy oorlogskepe verlaat en in die stad Tripoli beland. Die Commodore word gedwing om $ 22,000 te betaal om die skuld van William Eaton op sy bruglening te vereffen om sy (die Commodore's) vryheid te verseker
  • 10 Maart 1803, William Eaton aan boord van die USS Chesapeake om in skande na die VSA terug te keer. Die Pasha van Tunisië het hom uit die land verdryf, aangesien sy skuld deur die Amerikaanse kommodoor Morris betaal is.
  • Oktober 1803, Tripolian Pirates vang die USS Philadelphia ongeskonde en dwing Thomas Jefferson om kreatief te wees in hoe om dit te hanteer.
  • 1805, William Eaton in die rigting van Thomas Jefferson keer terug na Noord -Afrika met 8 mariniers en val Tripoli suksesvol binne en vang die tweede grootste stad in die staat Barbary vas.

Langer antwoord

Ek stel voor dat die datum van Mei 1801 vir die begin van die oorlog willekeurig is. Die heel eerste keer dat Thomas Jefferson en John Adams met die verteenwoordigers van Tripoli -seerowers vergader het, het in Maart 1786 plaasgevind. Destyds het die Tripoli -verteenwoordiger dit duidelik gemaak dat die Pirates dit as 'n godsdienstige plig beskou om Christelike handelaars te roof.

Die eerste barbaarse oorlog
Daar is in hulle Koran geskryf (dat alle nasies wat die profeet nie erken het nie, sondaars was, na wie dit die reg en plig was van die gelowiges om te plunder en te verslaaf; en dat elke mosselman wat in hierdie oorlog gedood is, sekerlik na sou gaan) Hy het ook gesê dat die man wat die eerste aan boord van 'n vaartuig was, een slaaf bo sy deel gehad het, en dat wanneer hulle na die dek van 'n vyand se skip spring, elke matroos 'n dolk in elke hand en 'n derde in sy mond; wat gewoonlik so 'n verskrikking in die vyand geslaan het dat hulle vir 'n kwartaal dadelik uitgeroep het.

In die Eerste Barbary -oorlog was daar nooit 'n formele oorlogsverklaring tussen die Pasha van Tripoli en die Verenigde State nie. Die handeling van Bey om die Amerikaanse vlag by die Amerikaanse konsulaat in Tripoli op 10 Mei 1801 af te sny, is 'n arbitrêre datum as die begin van die oorlog. Voor die datum het die Pasha van Tripoli die verdrag van 1897 verbreek en sy eerste Amerikaanse koopskip, die Catherine, ingeneem. Na die datum het die Verenigde State steeds hulde gebring aan Tripoli. Selfs na Mei 1801 bly die konsulaat in Tripoli oop vir sake en die Amerikaanse amptenare in Tripoli. Die onderdrukking van die Amerikaanse vlag het plaasgevind vanuit die perspektief van Bey, nie uit 'n oorlogsoorlog met die Verenigde State nie, maar uit frustrasie en om die Amerikaanse konsulaatbeampte by die vlag, William Eaton, te motiveer om sy skuld af te betaal. Dit is wat mnr. Eaton na hierdie gebeurtenis gedoen het.

Dit is waarskynlik meer realisties om 'n ander datum as die begin van die oorlog te neem. Ek dink 'n beter datum sou wees.

Julie 1800 toe die Pasha van Tripoli sy verdrag van 1897 met die Verenigde State verbreek en die Brig, die USS Catherine, vang. Dit is egter gedoen om druk op die Verenigde State uit te oefen. Die konsulaat bly in hierdie opsig oop en afpersingsbetalings uit die Verenigde State word voortgesit.


Die antwoord op u vraag, die oorloë, het by die Adams -administrasie die primêre Amerikaner, wat verantwoordelik was vir die stryd teen die Tripoli -pasha, aangestel deur Adams. Maar dit was Jefferson se lomp mishandeling wat Amerika se eerste oorlog ná die rewolusie verloor het.

Die Amerikaanse amptenaar wat die moeilikheid begin het, was William Eaton wat namens 'n 12 -jarige koninklike meisie Anna Porcile, wat deur die seerowers gevang is tydens 'n aanval op die eiland San Pietro naby Sardinië, op 3 September tussenbeide tree. 1798. Nadat die gesin van die kind nie die losprys kon haal uit appèlle by die groot moondhede van Europa nie, was hul laaste beroep op die pas gesnyde republiek van die Verenigde State en Eaton het sy land se krediet vir $ 5000 toegesê om die kind vry te laat (11 Oktober, 1800). Aan die einde van ses maande sou die Verenigde State verantwoordelik wees as die Porcile -gesin steeds nie kon betaal nie. In Junie 1801 word Eaton genoodsaak om geld te leen om die skuld van 'n Tripoli -handelaar aan die Bey te oorbrug. In Februarie 1803, toe die skuld nog nie betaal was nie, het die Bey van Tripoli Commodore Richard Morris van die Amerikaanse vloot gevange geneem wat saam met 'n landingparty in Tripoli geland het. Die Bey eis en ontvang $ 22,000 om Eaton se skuld te betaal.

Commodore Morris se broer was 'n Amerikaanse senator van Vermont wat die laaste stem uitgebring het om Thomas Jefferson in die Withuis te plaas.

Op 10 Maart 1803 stap Eaton aan boord van die USS Chesapeake om na die VSA terug te keer. Die Bey van Tunisië het hom uit die land verdryf.

Selfs voordat Eaton in die Verenigde State aankom, is die Bey van Tripoli, wat glo dat die Verenigde State 'n maklike punt is, sy eerste Amerikaanse vlootskip. Die USS Philadelphia loop vas in die hawe van Tripoli en gee oor sonder om 'n skoot af te vuur of weerstand te bied. Ooggetuies in Tripoli vertel ons dat die skip binne enkele ure na die oorgawe bevry is toe Jeffri desperaat was vir intelligensie op Tripoli, nader Eaton en stuur hom met 'n wilde plot om die Pasha te onttroon.

Binne twee jaar sou hierdie ontevrede diplomaat (Eaton) 'n groep van agt mariniers, agt en 'n paar honderd buitelandse huursoldate, die droging van Alexandrië, op 'n mal hopelose sending lei om oor die hel van die Libiese woestyn te marsjeer. Hy sou die missie probeer finansier met die geld wat hom verskuldig was vir die loskoop van Anna, die Italiaanse slavin. Thomas Jefferson sou Eaton na Amerika se eerste geheime militêre operasie oorsee stuur om die regering van Tripoli omver te werp om die driehonderd Amerikaanse matrose wat daar slawe was, te bevry. Hierdie man op die rand van persoonlike ondergang, saam met sy handjievol mariniers, waaronder Presley OBannon, vioolspeler, sou die tweede grootste stad van Tripolis verras, en hulle sou 'n byna wonderbaarlike oorwinning behaal. Hy sou help om die destydse tweedeklasdiens, die United States Marines, met 'n nuwe reputasie te moedig. Sy bedrywighede sou die toekomstige geslagte Amerikaners trots laat sing: Van die sale van Montezuma tot by die oewers van Tripoli sal ons ons landgevegte op die land en op die see voer.

Bronne:

  • The Pirate Coast: Thomas Jefferson, die eerste mariniers en die geheime sending van 1805
  • Die eerste barbaarse oorlog
  • Monticello: Die eerste barbaarse oorlog
  • Die oorspronklike ses fregatte van die Amerikaanse vloot
  • James Leander Cathcart
  • Oorwinning in Tripoli: hoe Amerika se oorlog met die Barbary Pirates die Amerikaanse vloot gestig en 'n nasie gebou het
  • Wet vir die beskerming van die handel en seemanne van die Verenigde State, teen die Tripolitaanse kruisers
  • Aan James Madison van James Leander Cathcart, 15 Maart 1803
  • Tripoli: die Verenigde State se eerste oorlog teen terreur
  • Van James Madison tot James Leander Cathcart, 6 Februarie 1802
  • Woordeboek Konsul -generaal

Die Barbary Wars

Stephen Decatur se misdade teen die Barbary -state het hom een ​​van die jongste mans gemaak wat ooit tot die rang van kaptein verhef is.

Op 'n laat Februarie -oggend in 1804 het Lord Horatio Nelson, besig om die Franse Middellandse hawe Toulon te beleër, 'n paar nuus gehoor oor 'n konflik in die suide tussen die Barbary -seerowers van Tripoli en 'n groep Amerikaanse seelui. Soos hy dit gehoor het, het die seerowers die vorige Oktober daarin geslaag om 'n Amerikaanse fregat, die USS Philadelphia, in die hande te kry. Diegene wat wel ontsnap het, het weggekruip, maar in plaas van om te verdwyn, het hulle teruggekeer na die hawe van Tripoli, waar die skip as plaaslike inwoners vermom is, in die middel van die nag aan boord gesluip, die wagte doodgemaak wat daaroor waak en haar aan die brand gesteek en ontsnap en verhoed dat die vyand dit gebruik sonder om 'n enkele man te verloor. Toe hy hierdie nuus hoor, verklaar Lord Nelson, miskien die beroemdste marine -figuur in die geskiedenis, die prestasie van die Amerikaner bloot "die gewaagdste en gewaagdste daad van die eeu." Hy was nie die enigste figuur wat die Amerikaanse vloot geprys het nie. Pous Pius VII het ook die Amerikaners en hul leier, kaptein Stephen Decatur, geprys en gesê: 'Die Verenigde State het al in hul kinderjare meer gedoen om die anti-Christelike barbare aan die Afrika-kus in een nag te verneder en te verneder as almal die Europese state lankal gedoen het. ” Maar waarom was die Amerikaanse vloot in die eerste plek aan die kus van Noord -Afrika, tot op die punt waar hierdie seerowers een van hul fregatte kon vang, en waarom het hulle oorlog teen hierdie seerowers so 'n opwinding in 'n Europa in die middel van die Napoleon gehad? Oorloë?

Piraterij was lankal 'n groot probleem vir matrose aan die Middellandse See. Die Romeinse staatsmanne en generaal Julius Caesar is beroemd ontvoer deur seerowers en een keer vir losprys aangehou. Maar van die 15de tot die 19de eeu het die Barbary Corsairs sowel die suidelike kuslyne as die gedagtes van die Europeërs geteister. Hierdie seevaarders is as sodanig gemerk vir hul gedeelde vaderland aan die Noord -Afrikaanse (Barbary) kus, veral die hawens van Tunis, Algiers en Tripoli, en het nooit werklik as 'n enkele georganiseerde groep opgetree nie. 'N Diverse etniese mengsel van Turke, Arabiere en Berbers, wat hulle gedeel het, was die verdraagsaamheid en dikwels stilswyende goedkeuring van die plaaslike owerhede, tipies outonoom beys (Turks vir "Heer") wat die nominale getrouheid van die Ottomaanse Ryk behou het. Dit was omdat die Corsairs, in teenstelling met die algemene beeld van seerowery, 'n belangrike rol gespeel het in die Noord -Afrikaanse en Ottomaanse ekonomie, veral die slawehandel. Hulle het nie na goedere van handelaars gegaan of na begrawe skatte gesoek nie. In plaas daarvan het die seerowers, met effens verouderde galeie, wat met soveel roeimagasine gepak was, met onbepaalde skepe en kusnedersettings geteiken en nie-Moslems wat hulle kon vind, losgekoop. As 'n losprys nie betyds betaal is nie, is die ongelukkige slagoffers op plaaslike slawemarkte of by groter in Istanbul verkoop. Diegene wat nog minder gelukkig was, is onderwerp aan die haglike toestande van 'n kombuisslaaf. Europese state het hul vloot gereeld opdrag gegee om die kus te verwyder van seerowery, wat slegs tydelik werk, en het bevind dat diplomasie en huldeblyk aan die beys verantwoordelik om 'n goedkoper oplossing te wees.

Terwyl hulle onder Britse beheer was, het Amerikaanse handelaars wat aan die Middellandse See vaar, beskerming teen seerowery onder hierdie soort ooreenkoms, maar dit het verander nadat hulle onafhanklikheid in 1783 gewen het. heersers van Tunis, Algiers en Tripoli was baie meer twisgierig. President Thomas Jefferson, ondanks vorige besware teen 'n professionele vloot, het dit nou probeer gebruik om die seerowers te onderwerp, maar die klein eskader wat hy na die Middellandse See gestuur het, het slegs vier skepe, nie naastenby groot genoeg om 'n bedreiging te vorm nie, alhoewel hulle wel skermutseling suksesvol sonder ongevalle. Intussen het die heerser van Tripoli, Yusuf Karamanli, binnekort oorlog teen die Verenigde State verklaar, en die Amerikaanse vloot het 'n blokkade van die stad begin met die hulp van 'n Sweedse vloot. Dit was tydens hierdie blokkade dat 'n groep seerowers die Philadelphia omsingel en verower het, voordat Decatur 'n paar maande later hul prys geweier het. The war continued indecisively just outside Tripoli Harbor until the Spring of 1805. In late April, a small group of U.S. Marines landed in Alexandria, Egypt, hired a few hundred Greek, Arab and Turkish mercenaries and began a long march towards the town of Derna, where they fought and routed a defensive force of 4,000 with the aid of naval bombardment. Hearing of the defeat, Karamanli sued for peace and brought the First Barbary War to a close, promising to release all prisoners of war and refrain for antagonizing American merchants further.

A typical Barbary galley. Most of the space on the ship was taken up by armed men, meaning that the pirates could not go hunting on long voyages and relied on coastal support.

Peace in the Mediterranean did not last, however. While the Americans were busy with the War of 1812 and the rest of Europe busy with Napoleon Bonaparte, Barbary pirates began attacking American and European vessels once again. President James Madison authorized Stephen Decatur, now commodore, to set sail for the Mediterranean and bring the ruler of Algiers to heel with ten warships under his command in the May of 1815. Decatur fought two battles with the pirates off the coast of Spain, both of which were overwhelming American victories and allowed him to capture almost 500 prisoners. The Bey of Algiers, now facing pressure from both Britain and the Netherlands as well as the United States, surrendered to Decatur.

North African piracy proved to be a difficult problem until 1830, when French conquest and colonization of the region put an end to the issue for good. For America, the Barbary Wars were minor conflicts compared to the contemporary wars in Europe and America at the time but proved to be an important proving ground for the United States Navy. William Bainbridge, Stephen Decatur and Oliver Hazzard Perry all saw some of their first action in the Mediterranean, which proved to be valuable experience in the later War of 1812. More broadly, the wars were a sign that the young nation could maintain its independence in the truest sense, managing its own foreign policy and successfully defending its own interests against outside aggression.


The First Barbary War 1801–05

The First Barbary War (1801–1805), also known as the Tripolitanian War and the Barbary Coast War, was the first of two Barbary Wars between the United States and the four North African states known collectively as the “Barbary States”. Three of these were nominal provinces of the Ottoman Empire, but in practice autonomous: Tripoli, Algiers, and Tunis. The fourth was the independent Sultanate of Morocco. The cause of the war was pirates from the Barbary States seizing American merchant ships and holding the crews for ransom, demanding the U.S. pay tribute to the Barbary rulers. United States President Thomas Jefferson refused to pay this tribute.

The First Barbary War 1804. Image is taken from the book American Battles and Campaigns

Tripoli Harbour, 1804

Cdre Edward Preble assumed command of the US Mediterranean Squadron in 1803 and blockaded Tripoli harbor to prevent raids by the Barbary pirates. The first significant action of the blockade came on 31 October, when the 36-gun frigate USS Philadelphia ran aground on an uncharted reef and was captured by Tripolitan gunboats together with its crew and Capt William Bainbridge. Although the frigate was unfit for sea, it was anchored in the harbor as a floating battery.

If the Philadelphia could be repaired, it would become the Barbary pirates’ most powerful naval unit and its destruction was Preble’s top priority. The defenses of Tripoli harbor ruled out a conventional naval attack and it was decided that a night raid offered the best chance of success. On the night of 16 February 1804, a captured Tripolitan ketch renamed USS Intrepid disguised as a local merchant vessel sailed into the harbor under the command of Lt Stephen Decatur, Jr. He bluffed his way alongside the Philadelphia, allowing his detachment of marines hidden below decks to board the frigate and set her on fire. Despite heavy fire from the shore batteries, Decatur and his men successfully escaped in Intrepid.

Stephen Decatur boarding a Tripolitan gunboat during the First Barbary War, 3 August 1804. By Painter: Dennis Malone Carter – Naval Historical Center. Image is in the public domain via Wikimedia.com

In August 1804, Intrepid was converted into a ‘floating volcano’ to be sent into the harbor and blown up in the midst of the corsair fleet. The vessel was loaded with 100 barrels of powder and 150 shells, with their fuses set to burn for 15 minutes. On the evening of 4 September, Intrepid sailed into the harbor commanded by Master Commandant Richard Somers, but was hit by fire from shore batteries and blew up with the loss of all hands before reaching the enemy fleet.

Derna, 27 April–13 May 1805

Six months after failing to destroy the pirate fleet at Tripoli, American forces turned against Derna, which was attacked by a force from Alexandria, comprising a small detachment of US Marines and 500 Arab and Greek mercenaries under Capt William Eaton, Marine Lt Preston O’Bannon and the deposed Tripolitan ruler Hamet Karamanli. The USS Nautilus, the USS Hornet and the USS Argus were detailed to supply the force and provide naval gunfire support. On 27 April, the three vessels bombarded the defenses of Derna, and Eaton’s force successfully stormed the city, whose garrison fled after a short fight. The Pasha of Tripolitania, Yusuf Karamanli, had sent reinforcements to Derna, which arrived too late to prevent its capture. They made several attempts to retake the city, all of which were beaten off with the loss of 2000 men. Thus ended the First Barbary War.

Dr Chris McNab is die redakteur van AMERICAN BATTLES & amp CAMPAIGNS: A Chronicle, van 1622-hede en is 'n ervare spesialis in wildernis- en stedelike oorlewingstegnieke. He has published over 20 books including: How to Survive Anything, Anywhere — an encyclopedia of military and civilian survival techniques for all environments — Special Forces Endurance Techniques, First Aid Survival Manual, and The Handbook of Urban Survival. In his home country of Wales, UK, Chris provides instruction on wilderness hunting techniques and he is also an experienced martial arts instructor.


What was the cause of the Barbary Wars?

The cause of the U.S. participation was pirates from the Barbary States seizing American merchant ships and holding the crews for ransom, demanding the U.S. pay tribute to the Barbary rulers. United States President Thomas Jefferson refused to pay this tribute. Sweden had been at oorlog with the Tripolitans since 1800.

Subsequently, question is, why was the Barbary War important? He demanded that all hostages be released, and that they pay for any damages as a result of their earlier actions. It was with this, that America had won a decisive victory in the Barbary Wars. This military victory was vitally belangrik in the formation of the United States of America.

Keeping this in consideration, what was the result of the Barbary Wars?

Die Barbary Wars were a series of conflicts culminating in two main wars fought between the United States, Sweden, and the Barbary states (Ottoman Empire, including Tunis, Algiers, and Tripoli) of North Africa in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

Barbary Wars.

Datum 10 May 1801 &ndash 10 June 1805, July 1815
Result American victory

Which act best describes the reason for the Barbary War?

The correct answer is D. The reason for the Barbary War was an attempt to increase protection money from American ships by Tripoli. Explanation: This oorlog would end with the taking of Derna by US forces, which would trigger the start of negotiations for the release of hostages and the end of the oorlog.


Conclusion

The United States military reputation improved after the victory in the first Barbary war. The military was tested and passed the test.

The victory showed that America was capable of handling a war away from home competently. The fact that the eight states won the war by working together was a good example of how the United States should work together for a greater common good. Furthermore, the navy and the Marines became part of the United States history as well as a significant component of the American government. More importantly, this war set out a precedent that America has followed ever since of fighting wars abroad to date.


Inhoud

The First Barbary War (1801–05) had led to an uneasy truce between the US and the Barbary states, but American attention turned to Britain and the War of 1812. At the prompting of Britain, the Barbary pirates returned to their practice of attacking American merchant vessels in the Mediterranean Sea and ransoming their crews to the United States government. [7] At the same time, the major European powers were still involved in the Napoleonic Wars, which did not fully end until 1815. [8]

At the conclusion of the War of 1812, however, the United States returned to the problem of Barbary piracy. On 3 March 1815, Congress authorized deployment of naval power against Algiers, and the squadron under the command of Commodore Stephen Decatur set sail on 20 May. It consisted of USS Guerriere (flagship), Konstellasie, Macedonia, Epervier, Ontario, Vuurvlieg, Spark, Flambeau, Fakkel, en Spitfire. [9]

Shortly after departing Gibraltar en route to Algiers, Decatur's squadron encountered the Algerian flagship Meshuda and captured it in the Battle off Cape Gata, and they captured the Algerian brig Estedio in the Battle off Cape Palos. By the final week of June, the squadron had reached Algiers and had initiated negotiations with the Dey. The United States made persistent demands for compensation, mingled with threats of destruction, and the Dey capitulated. He signed a treaty aboard the Guerriere in the Bay of Algiers on 3 July 1815, in which Decatur agreed to return the captured Meshuda en Estedio. The Algerians returned all American captives, estimated to be about 10, in exchange for about 500 subjects of the Dey. [10] Algeria also paid $10,000 for seized shipping. The treaty guaranteed no further tributes by the United States [11] and granted the United States full shipping rights in the Mediterranean Sea.

In early 1816, Britain undertook a diplomatic mission, backed by a small squadron of ships of the line, to Tunis, Tripoli, and Algiers to convince the Deys to stop their piracy and free enslaved European Christians. The Beys of Tunis and Tripoli agreed without any resistance, but the Dey of Algiers was less cooperative, and the negotiations were stormy. The leader of the diplomatic mission, Edward Pellew, believed that he had negotiated a treaty to stop the slavery of Christians and returned to England. However, just after the treaty was signed, Algerian troops massacred 200 Corsican, Sicilian and Sardinian fishermen who had been under British protection thanks to the negotiation. This caused outrage in Britain and Europe, and Pellew's negotiations were seen as a failure. [12]

As a result, Pellew was ordered to sea again to complete the job and punish the Algerians. He gathered a squadron of five ships of the line, reinforced by a number of frigates, later reinforced by a flotilla of six Dutch ships. On 27 August 1816, following a round of failed negotiations, the fleet delivered a punishing nine-hour bombardment of Algiers. The attack immobilized many of the Dey's corsairs and shore batteries, forcing him to accept a peace offer of the same terms that he had rejected the day before. Pellew warned that if the terms were not accepted, he would continue the action. The Dey accepted the terms, but Pellew had been bluffing since his fleet had already spent all its ammunition. [13]


When did the First Barbary War start? - Geskiedenis

The story of the United States of America is dynamic. From discovery of the Americas to the first elected African American president, U.S History is thriving, alive, and well. However, to become the rich, successful, and prosperous nation that we are today, America had to overcome obstacles and face many battles. These battles include international warfare as well as war against other nations such as the Revolutionary War, Spanish War, WW I and II, Vietnam War, Desert Storm, to the war in Iraq and Afghanistan. In order face these battles, our nation created a strong military that was able to face these conflicts. Consequently, the Army, Navy, Coast Guard, Air Force, Marines, and National Reserve were set in place. Each force has its own obligations, missions, and capabilities and can work separately as a strong power force. However, it was the war against Barbary pirates that ultimately brought our nation together, creating military power acting collectively as one entity for the name of the United States of America. The Barbary War tested the endurance of a country newly formed and became a staple of freedom and success for the United States armed forces.

From England and Great Britain, thirteen colonies formed themselves along the eastern coast of the New World. Found by Christopher Columbus and funded by the English, the colonies continued to send shipments of goods, services, and materials to and from the New World, Africa, the Caribbean, and Europe. These voyages were accomplished with little molestation from Pirates that caravan the open seas of the Mediterranean. However, when the thirteen colonies fought and won independence from the English, things changed dramatically. Thereafter, the newly formed country of America was now separated from the royal nation and to left to fend for themselves. Previously, U.S ships sailed the seas unbothered by convoying with the British Navy[i]. Now a sovereign nation, the U.S was soon troubled by pirates, specifically the Barbary Pirates.

Who were the Barbary Pirates?

The Barbary pirates were notorious. They were known for their ruthlessness as they captured islands and ships, took materials, and enslaved its people. Originating from the coast of North Africa, the Barbary Pirates gained pride, riches, and notoriety from thievery, bullying, and enslavement. For centuries the Barbary pirates killed and stole, so much so that some islands were left abandoned and neglected[ii]. In some instances, entire nations were stolen from their land and taken to Africa for enslavement[iii]. In 1784, when Barbary pirates seized American ships, enslaving shipmates and taking goods and materials, the newly formed U.S government angered and frustrated took action.

Before the colonies formed a union, tributes or taxes were paid to the Barbary pirates. With payments and treaties in place, the Barbary pirates allowed ships to cross through the Mediterranean safe and unharmed. Various countries including Spain, Portugal, Britain and France paid the pirates large sums of money[iv]. Abraham Lincoln, focused on the Civil War, willingly paid annual fees to reduce conflict. Not only were American ships able to sail the seas without harassment, upon payment American captures were released from African enslavement. It was estimated that Lincoln paid up to 20% of U.S gross income to these pirates[v]. By 1793 up to 12 American ships were captured[vi]. However, in 1801 Thomas Jefferson was elected the third president of the United States of America. Jefferson held a different view regarding the Barbary pirates.

Thomas Jefferson Takes Charge

In 1786, Jefferson, then U.S ambassador of France, met and talked with Ambassador Sidi Haji Abdrahaman of the Tripoli nation, home of Barbary pirates. Upset about the enslavement of Americans and frustrated by the treaty, Jefferson questioned him seeking to understand the brutality and harsh treatment. Ambassador Abdrahamn answered, “It was written in their Koran, that all nations which had not acknowledged the Prophet were sinners, whom it was the right and duty of the faithful to plunder and enslave”[vii]. Jefferson made up his mind. Standing strong and unwilling to pay such high taxes, President Jefferson refused to commit to the former treaty. In 1801, just two months into his presidency, Barbary pirates declared war against the United States of America.

The United States Armed Forces

This signified the beginning of the Barbary War. Before this event, the only battles America faced were that of the Civil War and battles against the Native Americans for land rights. The New World had little war experienced in comparison to other nations. A country with no real military force was then put to the test. “With the Continental Navy and Marines created and disbanded over a decade earlier”[viii], the armed forces were reunited. The United States Navy was formed, officially created October 13, 1775[ix]. This was only the beginning of what would later become the most powerful band of armed forces in the world, the U.S military. That same year on November 10, the nation officially gave birth to the U.S Marine Corps[x]. Originally created to “maintain security on naval ships”[xi], the Marine’s job was to “act as a unit aboard ships and engage in combat”[xii] with enemies. The Marine’s function allowed the Navy to continue their voyage and reach its objective. From the beginning of its military history, the U.S Navy and Marines worked together in missions to obtain the common goal of freedom and victory.

The staple, symbol, and showmanship of the United States military, Jefferson quickly put the new force into action. In May of 1801, the same year he was inaugurated into presidency, Jefferson sent a ship named the “Enterprise” into the Mediterranean. The mission of this deployment was to take over Tripolian ships, “establish blockades, and calm the situation”[xiii]. This objective was obtained quickly and swiftly with little combat. However, in 1803 the American offense soon turned to defense when the Barbary pirates arrested the American ship “Philadelphia”. Rumored that the pirates would use the “Philadelphia” against them, one courageous sailor stepped forward and took action.

In 1804, Lt. Stephen Decatur of the U.S Navy, who was 25 at the time, apprehended an enemy ship. Under the guise of Tripoli, Lt. Decatur gained access to the coast and entered the Tripoli port on February 15. He bravely battled with Tripoli combat. During the fight, Lt. Decatur was able to take back “Philadelphia” and burn the ship and all its contents[xiv]. This way, the ship would not be put to use by the Barbary. He then continued to lead his platoon, killing many Tripoli sailors and escaping back into the seas without harm. The act of Lt. Decatur became a legend of Naval history. For his bravery and quick thinking, Lt. Decatur was promoted to Captain. To this day, he is the youngest person in American military history to be named captain[xv]. His successful concur engrained him in times past as a national hero.

By April of 1805, the Barbary war was still raging. Once again, the U.S Marines and Navy banded together, again gaining victory and making history. Lead by Marine Lt. Presley O’Bannon, troops landed on the Tripolian coast, now known as Liberia. With a “mission to reinstate a new ruler”[xvi], over 500 troops marched 600 miles through the dessert and into the city of Derma. There, they quickly overcame the enemy, rescuing the enslaved crew of “Philadelphia” and allowing Prince Hamet Bey to reclaim his rightful throne as ruler of Tripoli. This event marked the first victory made on foreign soil[xvii]. Furthermore, it was the first time the American Flag was raised over alien territory. This historical moment was memorialized by two separate events. Grateful of the defeat of the Barbary, Prince Bey presented a “Mameluke” sword to Lt. O’Bannon. “Mameluke”, meaning North African Warrior[xviii], symbolized success and conquest. Today, the sword is used as a ceremonial weapon and is an official part of the Marine Corps uniform. The conquest is also commemorated in the U.S Marine’s official hymn. It further documents the importance of the event by giving tribute. The first line of this hymn reads: “From the Halls of Montezuma to the shores of Tripoli, we fight our country’s battles in the air, on land and sea.”[xix]

A New War and A Broken Treaty

The first Barbary war officially ended June 4, 1805 with the signing of a peace treaty[xx]. The Tripoli, the combined nation of North Africa’s Morocco, Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli known as the Barbary States, agreed to allow American sea merchants to caravan the sea in peace. However, by 1807, the Barbary pirates had continued the over take sea vessels. They maintained their antics by stealing goods and enslaving American people. By this time, the U.S military was distracted by the war of 1812 and made little passage through the Mediterranean. America was in battle with the British again, however this time over U.S commerce. This distraction allowed piracy to continue as the treaty between the nations remained broken. However, by 1815 the war of 1812 was over, and the United States Military refocused its attention upon the Barbary nation and war continued.

The United States Military Endures and Conquers

The Barbary made a wrong assumption. The Tripoli thought of America as weak from battle and indebt from the war of 1812. Once the conflict between Great Britain and America ended in 1815, the Dey of Algiers declared war on the United States. The military quickly responded. By July of 1815, 10 ships set sail for the coast of North Africa[xxi]. Commanded by Capt. Decatur and Capt. Brainbridge from the first Barbary war, these leaders displayed confidence and fearlessness. Within a couple of weeks, the captains had captured several Algerian ships, awakening fear and apprehension within the Barbary. Soon after this battle, the Dey relented his armed forces. After witnessing and experiencing the strength and mite of the American military, the Dey adhered to the regulations of the signed treaty.

The Foundation of History of the U.S Navy and Marine Corps

The Barbary War had within it, the first of many accomplishments. In this war was the first victory won on foreign soil, the first official battle of the U.S Navy and Marines, and the first raising of the flag on alien land. Furthermore, the battle became a significant part of militaries uniform, ceremonial rituals, and monuments. The “Tripoli Monument”[xxii] is known as the oldest military sculpture. The tribute honors the many heroes that participated in the Barbary War and helped to win the battle over the pirates. The historical monument that once sat amidst the Capitol, now stands confidently at the U.S Naval Academy in Annapolis Maryland. The U.S was able to gain so much privilege and accomplishment through wining great battles and obtaining victory. The United States came together as a people, as well as joined military forces for the name of liberty.

The Barbary war remains a battle of great precedence in relation to the history of the United States armed forces. The war created the beginning of a nation. The Barbary helped America to institute its independence, as they fought for freedom and established the strong reputation that America continues to hold to this day. As a militia, America is a force to be reckoned with. After fighting internal battles within the nation, the government was able to unite thirteen colonies and form this great nation. The U.S remains the riches, successful, and prosperous country in the world. People from different parts of the world come to America for equal opportunity, freedom, and liberty. However, these things did not come easily. If the Barbary War was a test of what our nation was to become, America passed with flying colors the war continues to symbolize triumph and sovereignty not only for our nation as a whole but also the commanding presence of the United States military.

[i] Chidsey, Donald. The Wars in Barbary. New York: Crown Publishers, 1971. Pg 52

[ii] Zacks, Richard. The Pirate Coast. New York: Hyperion Publishers, 2005. Pg 103


Forgotten U.S. History: The Barbary Wars

America’s new belligerent engagement in Libya, along with its NATO allies, has led me to think of our old engagement in Libya, which inspired the U.S. Marine anthem, “From the Halls of Montezuma to the Shores of Tripoli.” Not only have most Americans never heard of that war fought during Thomas Jefferson’s administration, but today’s schools don’t even bother to teach it.

About a year ago, I visited a prestigious private school in Oregon and was joined at lunch by a group of the school’s best students of high-school age. I assumed that they were well versed in American history. But to find out if I was right, I asked if they could tell me what was the first war the United States was engaged in after we had established an independent government under the new constitution.

There was a moment of silence while they wracked their brains for the correct answer. “The War of 1812,” they responded confidently. “No,” I said. “That was not the first war we were engaged in.” They seemed puzzled and disappointed. After all, they were the best students in the school. How could they be wrong? But they were. America’s first conflict is known as the Barbary Wars, fought in 1801-05 and 1815 against the Islamic powers of North Africa.

The Muslims of North Africa had begun attacking and capturing the ships of Christian nations after their expulsion from Spain and France in the 15th century. By the 17th century there were as many as 20,000 Christian captives in Algiers. Ransom payments were the sole means of freeing some of the captives. Others were condemned to slavery by the Muslims.

Incapable of conquering the North African coast, the European nations were able to gain a modicum of immunity from Barbary piracy by paying an annual tribute to the governments there. Prior to independence, American shipping was protected by payments made by the British government. However, after independence, American ships were on their own. They were seized in the Mediterranean and their crews held as hostages subject to ransom or enslaved. In response to these depredations, the Congress voted in 1794 to build a navy. However, in 1795 and 1797, under Presidents Washington and Adams, the United States signed extortion treaties with the Muslim Barbary states of Morocco, Algiers, Tripoli, and Tunis in order to protect hundreds of American merchant vessels from harassment in the Mediterranean.

However, in 1801 the Pasha of Tripoli, Yusuf Karamanli, declared war on the United States and seized several Americans and their vessels. In 1803, Commodore Edward Preble was sent to the Mediterranean with the Grondwet, Philadelphia, and several brigs and schooners. Making a naval demonstration before Tangiers, which brought the Emperor of Morocco to make amends for treaty violations, Preble set up a blockade of Tripoli itself. On October 31, 1803, the Philadelphia ran on a reef and was captured by the Tripolitans, who anchored her in their harbor. But on February 16, 1804, Lieutenant Stephen Decatur and eighty officers and men recaptured and burned her in a daring night attack.

During August and September of 1804, Preble harassed Tripolitan shipping and fortifications with frequent attacks. The massive fortifications had been built by Christian slaves. Preble’s actions reached a climax when the fire-ship Onversetlik, loaded with a cargo of gunpowder and explosive shells, was maneuvered into the harbor at night. But the ship exploded prematurely, doing little damage to Tripolitan shipping.

Meanwhile, William Eaton, the U.S. Consul at Tunis, got permission from Jefferson and Madison to attack Tripoli by land with the help of the Pasha’s exiled older brother Hamet, whose throne had been usurped by Yusuf. With the help of seven United States Marines, Eaton was able to organize a small army made up of Greeks and discontented Arabs who marched from Alexandria to Derna, halfway to Tripoli, in 30 days. The small army, led by the seven Marines, stormed Derna, which fell after a two-hour battle.

The Pasha in Tripoli was so alarmed by the fall of Derna that he signed a peace treaty with the United States on June 4, 1805. It abolished all annual payments, but provided for $60,000 ransom money for the officers and crew of the Philadelphia.

But payments were continued to the other Barbary states until 1815, when Commodore Stephen Decatur was sent to the Mediterranean where he captured the Algerian flagship Mashuda in a fight off Cape de Gat. Appearing off Algiers, Decatur demanded and obtained a treaty humiliating to the once proud piratical state: no future payments, restoration of all American property, the emancipation of all Christian slaves, civilized treatment of all prisoners of war and $10,000 for a merchantman recently seized. And so ended the Barbary Wars for the United States.

However, it wasn’t until France invaded North Africa in 1830 and set up a permanent government there that the Barbary pirates were finally put out of business. France then encouraged over a million Europeans to settle in Algeria, making it a permanent part of the French Republic. The settlers created industries, farms, vineyards, and cultural institutions. Thus, Algeria became a productive part of France until the 1950s when the Soviet Union helped Algerian communists create a national liberation movement using terrorism to create fear among Muslims who were, on the whole, loyal to France.

French patriots brought Charles de Gaulle out of retirement to help win the war for France. But he did just the opposite in one of the most cynical betrayals in all of French history. He surrendered Algeria to the communists, which forced over a million Europeans and loyal Muslims to leave Algeria and settle in France.

Today France is overrun with Algerians who don’t want to live in their own liberated state where radical Islamists have killed thousands of Algerians. And so, we are now fighting barbaric Muslims all over again. Now they are called al-Qaida and radical Jihadist Islamists who are preparing to become the dominant religious power in Europe.

Lesson to be learned? We are threatened today by the same kind of terrorism and barbarism we fought in our first foreign war. However, distinct differences exist, since U.S. ships have not been attacked by an Islamic state, nor have Americans been held for ransom. As for the attacks against our nation on 9-11, the al-Qaeda terrorists responsible have actually been linked to the rebel opposition in Libya, posing a problem to America in determining who is “friend” and who is “foe” in the Libyan conflict. An article in Britain’s Telegraph for July 11 quoted the Libyan rebel leader, Abdel-Hakim al-Hasidi, as stating that “jihadists who fought against allied troops in Iraq are on the front lines of the battle against Muammar Gaddafi’s regime.” However, if an unmistakable enemy threatening American interests in northern Africa or the Middle East should be determined, a Congressional declaration of war would be in order, as our Constitution mandates.

Apparently, the Muslim world is reverting to its age-old barbaric practices, which forced the Europeans to fight back and subdue them in North Africa. Under the French, they were pacified and productive. Today, the Muslims have invaded France and believe they are in a position to conquer the Europeans. As the French say, “Plus ça change, plus c’est la même chose.” The more it changes, the more it remains the same. Or perhaps better put by George Santayana: “Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it.”


Barbary Wars

On a mission to free the 307 men taken prisoner from the captured Philadelphia, the USS Constitution, under the command of Commodore Edward Preble, blasts the shore batteries in the harbor of Tripoli.

“Barbary Wars” is a collective name for two naval conflicts, the Tripolitan War of 1800–05 and the Algerine War of 1815. Both were USN actions against the state-sanctioned piracy of Muslim mariners operating out of the “Barbary states” (present-day Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya) on the coast of North Africa. Such piracy had been directed against the shipping of Christian (i. e., non-Muslim) nations since the 17th century, and governments became accustomed to paying extortionate tribute money to the Barbary states for protection against the pirates. Beginning in the administration of Thomas Jefferson, however, U. S. policy would no longer brook extortion, which was seen as a threat to sovereignty.

The origin of the Tripolitan War may be traced to 1785, when Great Britain encouraged Algiers to capture two American vessels. At the time, Jefferson was American minister plenipotentiary to France from this post, he attempted to draw Portugal, Naples, Sardinia, Russia, and France into an anti-Algerian alliance. A French refusal to cooper- ate brought the collapse of the alliance, and Britain incited Algeria to an even more vigorous piracy, in which a dozen American ships were captured and more than 100 American sailors imprisoned. The U.S. government negotiated a treaty with the bey of Algiers in 1795, pledging tribute to secure release of the captives and to ensure freedom of navigation. Additional treaties were concluded with Tunis and Tripoli. The United States, however, delayed sending the tribute money, which, shortly after the inauguration of President Jefferson in 1801, moved Pasha Yusuf Qaramanli, Tripoli’s ruler, to declare war, albeit informally.

Jefferson responded by creating a coalition with Sweden, Sicily, Malta, Portugal, and Morocco against Tripoli, forcing Qaramanli to back down. From 1801 to 1803, one USN frigate and several smaller USN vessels patrolled the Tripolitan coast. In October 1803, USS Philadelphia ran aground and was captured 300 American sailors were imprisoned in Tripoli. In February 1804, however, Lieutenant STEPHEN DECATUR led a daring raid on Tripoli harbor and burned Philadelphia, thereby denying the prize to the bey. Following this, Commodore Edward Preble increased an ongoing bombardment of Tripoli while the American consul at Tunis, William Eaton, proposed an alliance with Ahmed Qaramanli, the brother Yusuf had deposed in 1795. At the same time, Eaton recruited a force of Arabs and Greeks who joined a contingent of U.S. Marines to support the restoration of Ahmed. In coordination with the USN bombardment, Eaton’s force captured Derna in 1805. Eaton had never secured the authorization of the Jefferson government, however, and the president concluded a treaty of peace with Yusuf Qaramanli on June 4, 1805. Although the treaty stipulated a $60,000 ransom to be paid for the release of the American prisoners, it also ended the practice of annual tribute payment, establishing unhindered commerce between the United States and Tripoli. Americans hailed the war as a triumph of U. S. seapower.

Despite the Treaty of Tripoli, Barbary piracy soon revived, especially during the W AR OF 1812, when U. S. Navy vessels that had been patrolling the Barbary waters had to be withdrawn for service closer to home. The bey of Algiers exploited the absence of patrolling vessels to resume piracy. After expelling the U. S. consul and imprisoning or enslaving American nationals, the bey formally declared war in 1815. His timing, however, was bad. With the War of 1812 ended, Commodore Stephen Decatur was able to lead a 10-ship squadron into the Mediterranean and, between March 3 and June 30, 1815, capture two Algerian warships. He then sailed into the harbor of Algiers, where, at the mouth of his cannon, he demanded an end to tribute and the release of all prisoners without ransom. The bey acquiesced, concluding on June 30, 1815, a treaty ending state-sanctioned piracy. Decatur continued on to Tunis and Tripoli, where he also coerced treaties and even secured compensation for American vessels that had been seized by those states (at British prompting) during the War of 1812. Like the Tripolitan War, the briefer Algerine War was a triumph for the U. S. Navy as an instrument of American international policy. Nevertheless, despite the treaty of 1815 and another concluded in 1816, Algerian piracy remained a threat—although at a significantly reduced level— until France captured Algiers in 1830.

BARBARY PIRATES VERSUS US MARINES

For a long time, the Muslim rulers of the so-called Barbary States—Morocco, Algiers, Tripoli, and Tunis—sanctioned piracy against the vessels of Christian nations plying the Mediterranean near the coast of North Africa. The so-called Barbary Pirates demanded tribute—protection money—in return for allowing shipping to be conducted unmolested. In its early years, the United States, a struggling young republic in no position to wage war against the Barbary Pirates, concluded tribute treaties. However, in May 1801, a new bey assumed the Tripolitan throne, demanded a more exorbitant tribute, then declared war on the United States in an effort to get it. In 1803, during the course of the war, the bey’s navy captured the USN frigate Philadelphia. Lieutenant Stephen Decatur, USN, led a daring raid, which included marines, to set fire to the Philadelphia while it was in harbor, thereby depriving the bey of his prize.

In 1804, while the U. S. Navy blockaded the harbor of Tripoli, a mixed force of Egyptians, European troops, and eight U. S. Marines under the command of Lieutenant PRESLEY O’BANNON in- cited a revolt against the bey. O’Bannon and his marine detachment led the force 600 miles across the Libyan desert and attacked and took Derna on April 27, 1805, defeating superior forces. Shortly afterward, the bey concluded a favorable peace treaty with the United States—and presented O’Bannon with a jeweled MAMELUKE SWORD , which became the model for that worn by USMC officers on ceremonial occasions. O’Bannon’s victory was also the source of the reference to the “shores of Tripoli” in the MARINE HYMN .

EDWARD PREBLE, (1761–1807) NAVY CAPTAIN

One of the early heroes of the U. S. Navy, Preble was born in Falmouth (modern Portland), Maine, and, during the AMERICAN REVOLUTION , enrolled as a midshipman, not in the fledgling Continental navy but in the state navy of Massachusetts, one of sev- eral navies raised by the states during the conflict. He rose to lieutenant in this service and, after the war, shipped out with the merchant marine. When the QUASI – WAR WITH FRANCE heated up in 1798, Preble joined the USN and, the following year, was promoted to captain. As skipper of the USS Essex, he led an expedition to Batavia, Dutch East Indies. and his ship became the first USN vessel to show the flag beyond the Cape of Good Hope. With the outbreak of the BARBARY WARS , Preble commanded a squadron against the Tripolitan raiders and against Tripoli itself. He enjoyed great success during 1804, then returned to the United States, where he took charge of the construction of a much-needed fleet of GUNBOATS .


Legacy of the Wars Against the Barbary Pirates

The threat of the Barbary pirates faded into history, especially as the age of imperialism meant the African states supporting piracy came under the control of European powers. And pirates were mainly found in adventure tales until incidents off the coast of Somalia made headlines in the spring of 2009.

The Barbary Wars were relatively minor engagements, especially when compared to European wars of the period. Yet they provided heroes and thrilling tales of patriotism to the United States as a young nation. And the fights in distant lands can be said to have shaped the young nation's conception of itself as a player on the international stage.

Gratitude is extended to the New York Public Library Digital Collections for the use of images on this page.


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