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Romeinse baddens: die uiteindelike gids

Romeinse baddens: die uiteindelike gids


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1. Herculaneum

Die fassinerende ruïnes van Herculaneum het eers onlangs uit die skadu van Pompeji begin kruip, en bevat twee van die bes bewaarde Romeinse baddens ter wêreld - die Forum -baddens en die voorstedelike baddens. Dit is waarskynlik die beste Romeinse baddens wat daar ooit gevind is. Herculaneum was 'n hawedorp gestig deur die ou Romeine in die huidige Ercolano, Italië. Op sy hoogtepunt sou dit ongeveer 4 000 burgers gehad het en as 'n vakansiedorp vir ryk Campaniërs en Romeine gedien het. Soos die nabygeleë Pompeii, is Herculaneum verswelg deur die lawa en modder wat uit die uitbarsting van die berg Vesuvius in 79 nC gespuit is. Selfs die strate van Herculaneum is fassinerend en toon die hoë mate van beplanning wat die Romeine gebruik.


Villa Romana del Casale

Die Villa Romana del Casale (Siciliaans: Villa Rumana dû Casali) is 'n groot en uitgebreide Romeinse villa of paleis, ongeveer 3 km van die stad Piazza Armerina, Sicilië, af. Opgrawings het een van die rykste, grootste en gevarieerde versamelings Romeinse mosaïek ter wêreld onthul [1], waarvoor die terrein aangewys is as 'n UNESCO -wêrelderfenisgebied. [2] Die villa en kunswerke wat vervat is vanaf die vroeë 4de eeu nC.

Die mosaïek en opus sektiel vloere beslaan ongeveer 3 500 vierkante meter en is byna uniek in hul uitstekende staat van bewaring weens die grondstortings en vloede wat die oorblyfsels bedek het. [3]

Alhoewel dit minder bekend was, het 'n buitengewone versameling fresco's nie net die binnekamers bedek nie, maar ook die buitemure.


Inhoud

Die term is afgelei van die naam van die stad Spa, België, waarvan die naam uit die Romeinse tyd bekend was, toe die ligging genoem is Aquae Spadanae, [1] soms verkeerdelik met die Latynse woord verbind spargere wat beteken om te strooi, te strooi of te bevochtig. [2]

Sedert die Middeleeue is siektes wat deur ystertekort veroorsaak is, behandel deur die drink van chalibeaat (ysterhoudende) bronwater (in 1326 beweer die ystermeester Collin le Loup 'n genesing, [3] toe die fontein genoem word Espa, 'n Waalse woord vir "fontein" [3]).

In die 16de-eeuse Engeland is die ou Romeinse idees oor medisinale bad herleef op dorpe soos Bath (nie die bron van die woord bad), en in 1596 William Slingsby wat na die Belgiese stad was (wat hy genoem het Spoeg) 'n Chalybeate -lente in Yorkshire ontdek. Hy bou 'n omheinde put by wat bekend gestaan ​​het as Harrogate, die eerste oord in Engeland om medisinale waters te drink, en in 1596 het dr. Timothy Bright ontdek nadat hy 'n tweede put ontdek het, die oord genoem Die Engelse Spaw, begin met die gebruik van die woord Spa as 'n algemene beskrywing.

Daar word algemeen in 'n kommersiële konteks beweer dat die woord 'n akroniem is van verskillende Latynse frases, soos salus per aquam of sanitas per aquam, wat "gesondheid deur water" beteken. [4] Dit is baie onwaarskynlik: die afleiding verskyn nie voor die vroeë 21ste eeu nie en is waarskynlik 'n agternaam, aangesien daar geen bewyse is van akronieme wat voor die 20ste eeu in die taal oorgegaan het nie [5] en dit stem ook nie ooreen met die bekende Romeinse naam vir die ligging. [6]

Spa -terapieë bestaan ​​sedert die klassieke tyd toe bad met water beskou is as 'n gewilde manier om siektes te behandel. [7] Die gebruik om na warm of koue bronne te reis in die hoop om 'n siekte te genees, dateer uit die prehistoriese tyd. Argeologiese ondersoeke naby warmwaterbronne in Frankryk en Tsjeggiese Republiek het wapens en offertes uit die Bronstydperk onthul. In Groot -Brittanje het die ou legende die vroeë Keltiese konings erkenning gegee aan die ontdekking van die warmwaterbronne in Bath, Engeland.

Baie mense regoor die wêreld het geglo dat bad in 'n spesifieke bron, put of rivier lei tot fisiese en geestelike suiwering. Daar was vorme van rituele suiwering onder die inheemse Amerikaners, Babiloniërs, Egiptenare, Grieke en Romeine. Vandag kan rituele suiwering deur water gevind word in die godsdienstige seremonies van Jode, Moslems, Christene, Boeddhiste en Hindoes. Hierdie seremonies weerspieël die antieke geloof in die genesende en suiwerende eienskappe van water. Komplekse badrituele is ook in ou Egipte, in prehistoriese stede in die Indusvallei en in die Egeïese beskawings beoefen. Hierdie ou mense het meestal min bouwerk rondom die water gedoen, en wat hulle wel gebou het, was baie tydelik van aard. [8]

Bad in die Griekse en Romeinse tyd Redigeer

Sommige van die vroegste beskrywings van westelike badpraktyke kom uit Griekeland. Die Grieke begin badprogramme wat die grondslag vorm vir moderne spa -prosedures. Hierdie Egeïese mense het klein baddens, wasbakke en voetbaddens gebruik vir persoonlike netheid. Die vroegste sulke bevindings is die baddens in die paleiskompleks in Knossos, Kreta, en die luukse albast-baddens wat opgegrawe is in Akrotiri, Santorini, dateer albei uit die middel van die 2de millennium vC. Hulle het openbare baddens en storte in hul gimnasiumkomplekse gevestig vir ontspanning en persoonlike higiëne. Die Griekse mitologie het gespesifiseer dat sekere natuurlike bronne of getypoele deur die gode geseën is om siektes te genees. Rondom hierdie heilige poele het Grieke badgeriewe opgerig vir diegene wat genesing wil hê. Versoekers het op hierdie plekke offerandes aan die gode oorgelaat vir genesing en hulself gebad in die hoop op genesing. Die Spartane het 'n primitiewe dampbad ontwikkel. By Serangeum, 'n vroeë Griek balneum (badhuis, losweg vertaal), is badkamers in die heuwel gesny waaruit die warmwaterbronne uitgekom het. 'N Reeks nisse wat in die rots bokant die kamers ingekap is, bevat badklere. Een van die badkamers het 'n dekoratiewe mosaïekvloer met 'n bestuurder en wa wat deur vier perde getrek is, 'n vrou gevolg deur twee honde en 'n dolfyn daaronder. Die vroeë Grieke het dus die natuurlike kenmerke gebruik, maar dit uitgebrei en hul eie geriewe bygevoeg, soos versierings en rakke. Tydens die latere Griekse beskawing is badhuise dikwels saam met atletiekvelde gebou. [8]

Die Romeine het baie van die Griekse badpraktyke nagevolg. Romeine het die Grieke oortref in die grootte en kompleksiteit van hul baddens. Dit het baie faktore veroorsaak: die groter omvang en bevolking van Romeinse stede, die beskikbaarheid van lopende water na die bou van akwadukte en die uitvinding van sement, wat die bou van groot geboue makliker, veiliger en goedkoper gemaak het. Soos in Griekeland, het die Romeinse bad 'n fokus sentrum geword vir sosiale en ontspanningsaktiwiteite. Namate die Romeinse Ryk uitgebrei het, het die idee van die openbare bad na alle dele van die Middellandse See en na streke van Europa en Noord -Afrika versprei. Met die bou van die akwadukte het die Romeine genoeg water gehad, nie net vir huishoudelike, landbou- en industriële gebruike nie, maar ook vir hul rustige aktiwiteite. Die akwadukte verskaf water wat later verhit is vir gebruik in die baddens. Vandag word die omvang van die Romeinse bad onthul by ruïnes en in argeologiese opgrawings in Europa, Afrika en die Midde -Ooste. [8]

Die Romeine het ook baddens in hul kolonies ontwikkel en gebruik gemaak van die natuurlike warmwaterbronne in Europa om baddens te bou in Aix en Vichy in Frankryk, Bath en Buxton in Engeland, Aachen en Wiesbaden in Duitsland, Baden, Oostenryk en Aquincum in Hongarye, onder ander plekke. Hierdie baddens het sentrums geword vir ontspanning en sosiale aktiwiteite in Romeinse gemeenskappe. Biblioteke, lesingsale, gimnasiums en formele tuine het deel geword van 'n paar badkomplekse. Boonop het die Romeine die warm termiese waters gebruik om rumatiek, artritis en te veel eet en drank te verlig. Die agteruitgang van die Romeinse Ryk in die weste, begin in 337 nC na die dood van keiser Konstantyn, het daartoe gelei dat Romeinse legioene hul afgeleë provinsies laat vaar het en dat die baddens deur die plaaslike bevolking oorgeneem of vernietig is. [8]

Die Romeine het dus die bad tot 'n kuns verhoog, en hulle badhuise weerspieël hierdie vordering fisies. Die Romeinse bad bevat byvoorbeeld 'n baie meer ingewikkelde ritueel as 'n eenvoudige onderdompeling of sweetprosedure. Die verskillende dele van die badritueel - uittrek, bad, sweet, massering en rus - vereis aparte kamers wat die Romeine gebou het om hierdie funksies te vervul. Die skeiding van die geslagte en die toevoeging van afwykings wat nie direk met bad verband hou nie, het ook 'n direkte impak op die vorm en vorm van badhuise. Die uitgebreide Romeinse badritueel en die gevolglike argitektuur daarvan dien as presedente vir latere Europese en Amerikaanse badgeriewe. Formele tuinruimtes en weelderige argitektoniese rangskikking gelyk aan dié van die Romeine het teen die einde van die 18de eeu weer in Europa verskyn. Groot Amerikaanse spa's het 'n eeu later gevolg. [8]

Bad in die Middeleeue Redigeer

Met die agteruitgang van die Romeinse Ryk het die openbare bad dikwels plekke van losbandige gedrag geword, en die gebruik daarvan was verantwoordelik vir die verspreiding eerder as om siektes te genees. 'N Algemene opvatting onder die Europese bevolking was dat gereeld bad siektes en siektes bevorder. Middeleeuse kerkowerhede het hierdie geloof aangemoedig en alles in hul vermoë gedoen om openbare baddens te sluit. Kerklike amptenare het geglo dat openbare bad 'n omgewing skep wat oop is vir immoraliteit en siektes. Amptenare van die Rooms -Katolieke Kerk het selfs openbare bad verbied in 'n onsuksesvolle poging om sifilis -epidemies te keer om deur Europa te vee. Oor die algemeen verteenwoordig hierdie tydperk 'n tyd van afname in openbare bad. [8]

Mense het voortgegaan om 'n paar uitgesoekte warm en koue bronne te soek, vermoedelik heilige putte, om verskillende siektes te genees. In 'n era van godsdienstige ywer is die voordele van die water toegeskryf aan God of een van die heiliges. In 1326 ontdek Collin le Loup, 'n ystermeester van Luik, België, die chalibeaatbronne van Spa, België. Rondom hierdie bronne het uiteindelik 'n beroemde kuuroord gegroei en die term "spa" het verwys na enige kuuroord naby natuurlike bronne. Gedurende hierdie tydperk het individuele bronne geassosieer met die spesifieke kwaal wat hulle na bewering kan baat. [8]

Groot badhuise is gebou in Bisantynse sentrums soos Konstantinopel en Antiochië, [9] en die pouse wat aan die Romeine toegewys is, diakonie, of privaat Lateraanse baddens, of selfs 'n magdom kloosterbadhuise wat in die agtste en negende eeu funksioneer. [10] Die pouse het hul baddens in hul koshuise onderhou, en badhuise, insluitend warm baddens wat in die Christelike kerkgeboue of die van kloosters opgeneem is, wat bekend staan ​​as 'liefdadigheidsbaddens' omdat hulle beide die geestelikes en behoeftige arm mense bedien het. [11] Die kerk het ook openbare badgeriewe gebou wat vir beide geslagte apart was, naby kloosters en pelgrimstogte. [12] Katolieke godsdienstige ordes van die Augustiniërs en Benediktines se reëls bevat rituele suiwering, [13] en geïnspireer deur Benedictus van Nursia aanmoediging vir die gebruik van terapeutiese bad Benediktynse monnike het 'n rol gespeel in die ontwikkeling en bevordering van spa. [11] Protestantisme het ook 'n prominente rol gespeel in die ontwikkeling van die Britse spa's. [11]

Badprosedures gedurende hierdie tydperk het baie gewissel. Teen die 16de eeu het dokters in Karlsbad, Bohemen, voorgeskryf dat die mineraalwater intern sowel as ekstern geneem moet word. Pasiënte bad gereeld tot 10 of 11 uur lank in warm water terwyl hulle glase mineraalwater drink. Die eerste badsessie het in die oggend plaasgevind, die tweede in die namiddag. Hierdie behandeling het etlike dae geduur totdat velpustels gevorm en gebreek het, wat veroorsaak dat die gifstowwe wat as die bron van die siekte beskou word, uitloop. Daarna volg nog 'n reeks korter, warmer baddens om die infeksie weg te was en die uitbarstings te sluit. [8]

In die Engelse kusdorp Scarborough in 1626 ontdek mevrou Elizabeth Farrow 'n stroom suur water wat van een van die kranse na die suide van die stad loop. Dit word beskou as voordelige gesondheidseienskappe en het geboorte gegee aan Scarborough Spa. Dr Wittie se boek oor die spa -waters wat in 1660 gepubliseer is, het 'n vloed besoekers na die stad gelok. Seebad is bygevoeg tot die genesing, en Scarborough het Brittanje se eerste kusoord geword. Die eerste rollende badmasjiene vir swemmers word in 1735 op die sand aangeteken. [ aanhaling nodig ]

Bad in die 18de eeu Redigeer

In die 17de eeu was die meeste hoër-klas Europeërs gereeld hul klere met water en was hulle net hul gesig (met linne), met die gevoel dat die hele liggaam bad was 'n laer klas aktiwiteit, maar die hoër klas het stadig begin om hul houding teenoor bad te verander. as 'n manier om gesondheid later in daardie eeu te herstel. Die rykes het na kuuroorde gestroom om in die waters te drink en te bad. In 1702 het Anne, koningin van Groot -Brittanje, na Bath, die voormalige Romeinse ontwikkeling, gereis om te bad. 'N Rukkie later kom Richard (Beau) Nash na Bath. Deur die krag van sy persoonlikheid het Nash die skeidsregter geword van goeie smaak en maniere in Engeland. Hy het saam met finansier Ralph Allen en argitek John Wood Bath van 'n plattelandse spa omskep in die sosiale hoofstad van Engeland. Bath het die toon gegee vir ander spa's in Europa om te volg. Skynbaar het die rykes en beroemdes op 'n seisoenale basis daar aangekom om in te bad en die water te drink, maar hulle het ook hul weelde betoon. Sosiale aktiwiteite by Bath sluit in danse, konserte, speelkaartjies, lesings en kuier in die straat. [8]

'N Tipiese dag by Bath kan 'n vroeë oggendbad wees, gevolg deur 'n privaat ontbytpartytjie. Daarna het een óf water gedrink by die Pump Room ('n gebou wat oor die termiese waterbron gebou is) óf 'n modevertoning bygewoon. Dokters het besoekers van die kuuroord aangemoedig om ewe sterk te bad en die water te drink. Die volgende paar ure van die dag kan bestee word aan inkopies doen, die uitleenbiblioteek besoek, konserte bywoon of by een van die koffiehuise stop. Om 16:00 het die rykes en beroemdes hul aantreklikhede aangetrek en in die strate geloop. Daarna kom aandete, nog 'n wandeling en 'n aand van dans of dobbel. [8]

Soortgelyke aktiwiteite het in gesondheidsoorde in Europa plaasgevind. Die spa's het verhoë geword waarop die Europeërs met groot prag pryk. Hierdie oorde het berug geraak as plekke vol skinder en skandes. Die verskillende sosiale en ekonomiese klasse het spesifieke seisoene gedurende die jaar se kursus gekies, van een tot 'n paar maande, om by elke vakansie vakansie te hou. Een seisoen het aristokrate die oorde op ander tye beset, welvarende boere of afgetrede militêre manne het gaan bad. Die rykes en die misdadigers wat hulle aangeval het, het van die een spa na die volgende beweeg, namate die modieuse seisoen vir die oord verander het. [8]

Gedurende die 18de eeu is 'n herlewing in die mediese gebruik van fonteinwater bevorder deur Verligte dokters in Europa. [14] Hierdie herlewing het die manier waarop 'n spa -behandeling gevolg word, verander. Byvoorbeeld, in Karlsbad moes die aanvaarde metode om mineraalwater te drink, groot vate na individuele losieshuise stuur waar die pasiënte in die eensaamheid van hul kamers dosisse voorgeskryf het. Dr David Beecher het in 1777 aanbeveel dat die pasiënte na die fontein kom vir die water en dat elke pasiënt eers 'n paar voorgeskrewe oefeninge moet doen. Hierdie innovasie het die medisinale voordele verhoog en geleidelik word fisieke aktiwiteit deel van die Europese badprogram. In 1797, in Engeland, het dr. James Currie gepubliseer Die gevolge van water, koud en warm, as 'n middel teen koors en ander siektes. Soos aangetoon deur MD Eddy, het hierdie boek, tesame met talle plaaslike pamflette oor die samestelling van kuurwater, 'n bykomende belangstelling vir water genees, geprikkel en die eksterne en interne gebruik van water bepleit as deel van die genesingsproses. [8] [15]

Bad in die 19de en 20ste eeu Redigeer

In die 19de eeu het bad 'n meer aanvaarde praktyk geword, aangesien dokters 'n paar voordele van netheid besef het. 'N Cholera-epidemie in Liverpool, Engeland in 1842, het 'n renaissance van sanitasie tot gevolg gehad, vergemaklik deur die oorvleuelende hidropatie- en sanitasiebewegings, en die implementering van 'n reeks statute wat gesamentlik bekend staan ​​as "The Baths and Wash-houses Acts 1846 to 1896". [16] [17] [18] [19] Die gevolg was verhoogde fasiliteite vir bad en gewaste klere, en meer mense wat aan hierdie aktiwiteite deelneem.

Ook in 1842 het 'n huis in Cincinnati, Ohio, die eerste binnebad in die Verenigde State ontvang. Bad was egter steeds nie 'n universele gebruik nie. Slegs 'n jaar later - in 1843 - is bad tussen 1 November en 15 Maart in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, as 'n gesondheidsmaatreël verbied, en in 1845 is bad verbied in Boston, Massachusetts, tensy dit onder direkte bevel van 'n dokter was. Die situasie het egter verbeter, en teen 1867 in Philadelphia het die meeste huise van die welgesteldes bad en binnenshuise loodgieterswerk. In Engeland is daar teen die 1880's warm storte in kaserne en skole geïnstalleer. Die taboes teen bad verdwyn met die vordering in die mediese wetenskap, die wêreldwye mediese gemeenskap bevorder selfs die voordele van bad. Boonop het die Victoriaanse smaak van die eksotiese hom perfek gehelp om die genesende kragte van termiese water te soek. [8]

In die meeste gevalle het die formele argitektoniese ontwikkeling van Europese spa's in die 18de en 19de eeu plaasgevind. Die argitektuur van Bath, Engeland, ontwikkel langs Georgiese en neoklassieke lyne, wat gewoonlik Palladiaanse strukture volg. Die belangrikste argitektoniese vorm wat na vore gekom het, was die "halfmaan"-'n semi-elliptiese straatplan wat in baie dele van Engeland gebruik is. Die spa-argitektuur van Carlsbad, Marienbad, Franzensbad en Baden-Baden was hoofsaaklik neoklassiek, maar die literatuur dui daarop dat groot badhuise eers in die 19de eeu gebou is. Die klem op die drink van die waters eerder as om daarin te bad, het gelei tot die ontwikkeling van aparte strukture, bekend as Trinkhallen (drinkhuise) waar diegene wat die geneesmiddel geneem het, ure lank water uit die bronne gedrink het. [8]

Teen die middel van die 19de eeu het die situasie dramaties verander. Besoekers aan die Europese spa's het begin om te bad, benewens die drink van die waters. Benewens fonteine, paviljoene en Trinkhallen, is badhuise op die skaal van die Romeinse baddens herleef. Foto's van 'n spa-kompleks uit die 19de eeu wat in die dertigerjare geneem is, met 'n uiteensetting van die vroeëre argitektuur, toon baie gebruik van mosaïekvloere, marmermure, klassieke beeldhouwerke, geboë openinge, koepelplafonne, segmentboë, driehoekige voetstukke, Korintiese kolomme en al die ander kenmerke van 'n neoklassieke herlewing. Die geboue is gewoonlik geskei deur funksie - met die Trinkhalle, die badhuis, die inhalatorium (vir die inaseming van die dampe), en die Kurhaus of Conversationhaus dit was die middelpunt van sosiale aktiwiteit. Baden-Baden het gholfbane en tennisbane, "uitstekende paaie om oor te ry, en ry langs oulike bane waar wildehertjies so gereeld soos koeie by ons voorkom, en amper so onbevrees". [8]

Die Europese spa het toe begin met strukture om die drinkfunksie te huisves - van eenvoudige fonteine ​​tot paviljoene tot uitgebreide Trinkhallen. Die enorme badhuise kom later in die 19de eeu as 'n hernieude voorkeur vir 'n uitgebreide badritueel om siektes te genees en gesondheid te verbeter. Europese argitekte het teruggekyk na die Romeinse beskawings en hulle fyn argitektoniese presedente noukeurig bestudeer. Die Europeërs het dieselfde formaliteit, simmetrie, kamerindeling volgens funksie en weelderige interieurontwerp in hul badhuise gekopieer. Hulle navolg die fonteine ​​en formele tuinruimtes in hul oorde, en hulle het ook nuwe afleidings bygevoeg. Die toerboeke noem altyd die ruim, houtagtige aanbiedinge in die omgewing en die vinniger aanduitstappies. [8]

Aan die begin van die 19de eeu bestaan ​​die Europese badprogram uit talle opgehoopte tradisies. Die badroetine het ingesluit om in warm water te week, water te drink, in 'n dampkamer te stoom en te ontspan in 'n koelkamer. Daarbenewens het dokters beveel dat pasiënte met warm of koue water gedompel moet word en 'n uitgesoekte dieet moet kry om 'n geneesmiddel te bevorder. Skrywers het begin met die skryf van gidsboeke na die gesondheidsoorde van Europa waarin hulle die mediese voordele en sosiale geriewe van elkeen verduidelik. Ryk Europeërs en Amerikaners het na hierdie oorde gereis om kulturele aktiwiteite en die baddens te besoek. [8]

Elke Europese spa het soortgelyke geneesmiddels begin aanbied, met behoud van 'n sekere mate van individualiteit. Die 19de-eeuse badregime in Karlsbad kan dien as 'n algemene voorstelling van Europese badpraktyke gedurende hierdie eeu. Besoekers het om 06:00 opgestaan ​​om die water te drink en omring te word deur 'n groep. Daarna kom 'n ligte ontbyt, bad en middagete. Die dokters in Karlsbad beperk pasiënte gewoonlik tot sekere kosse vir elke maaltyd. In die namiddag het besoekers gaan kyk of konserte bygewoon. Nagteateropvoerings het gevolg op die aandete. Dit eindig omstreeks 21:00 met die pasiënte wat teruggekeer het na hul koshuise tot 6 die volgende oggend. Hierdie behandeling duur so lank as 'n maand en daarna keer die pasiënte huis toe tot die volgende jaar. Ander 19de-eeuse Europese spa-behandelings volg soortgelyke skedules. [8]

Aan die begin van die 20ste eeu het Europese spa's 'n streng dieet- en oefenprogram gekombineer met 'n ingewikkelde badprosedure om voordele vir die pasiënte te behaal. Een voorbeeld is voldoende om die verandering in badprosedures te illustreer. Pasiënte in Baden-Baden, wat spesialiseer in die behandeling van rumatoïede artritis, is versoek om 'n dokter te raadpleeg voordat hulle gaan bad. Sodra dit gebeur het, het die swemmers na die hoofbadhuis gegaan waar hulle vir hul bad betaal het en hul waardevolle besittings gebêre het voordat hulle 'n stand vir uitkleding gekry het. Die badhuis het handdoeke, lakens en pantoffels aan die swemmer voorsien. [8]

Die badprosedure in Baden-Baden het begin met 'n warm stort. Die baders het daarna 20 minute lank in 'n sirkelende, 60 ° C (60 ° C) warm lug gegaan, nog tien minute in 'n kamer met 'n temperatuur van 66 ° C (68 ° C) C) 'n dampbad, daarna gestort en 'n seepmassering ontvang. Na die massage het die badgaste in 'n swembad geswem wat ongeveer tot liggaamstemperatuur verhit is. Na die swem het die swemmers 15 tot 20 minute in die warm "Sprudel" kamer swembad gerus. Die bodem van hierdie vlak swembad bevat 'n 200 mm (8 duim) laag sand met natuurlik koolzuurhoudende water. Dit is gevolg deur 'n reeks geleidelik koeler buie en swembaddens. Daarna vryf die bediendes die badgaste met warm handdoeke af en draai dit dan in lakens toe en bedek dit met komberse vir 20 minute. Dit was 'n einde aan die badgedeelte van die behandeling. Die res van die geneesmiddel bestaan ​​uit 'n voorgeskrewe dieet, oefening en waterdrinkprogram. [8]

Die Europese spa's het gaste na die bad verskeie ander afleidings gebied, waaronder dobbel, perderesies, visvang, jag, tennis, skaats, dans, gholf en perdry. Besienswaardighede en teateropvoerings was 'n verdere aansporing vir mense om na die spa te gaan. Sommige Europese regerings erken selfs die mediese voordele van spa -terapie en betaal 'n deel van die pasiënt se uitgawes. 'N Aantal van hierdie spa's het bykomend tot verskeie ander mediese klagtes voorsiening gemaak vir diegene wat aan vetsug en oorgenoeging ly. In onlangse jare het die elegansie en styl van vroeëre eeue moontlik verminder, maar mense kom steeds na die natuurlike warmwaterbronne vir ontspanning en gesondheid. [8] In Duitsland bestaan ​​die tradisie tot vandag toe. 'Geneesmiddel' (Kur) in 'n spa word oor die algemeen deur 'n groot bedrag gedek deur beide openbare en private gesondheidsversekering. Gewoonlik skryf 'n dokter 'n verblyf van drie weke voor by 'n minerale bron of in 'n ander natuurlike omgewing waar die toestand van 'n pasiënt behandel sal word met genesende fonteinwater en natuurlike terapieë. Terwyl die versekeringsmaatskappye ook maaltye en verblyf dek, betaal baie nou slegs vir die behandelings en verwag dat die pasiënt vir vervoer, verblyf en etes moet betaal. Die meeste Duitsers kom in aanmerking vir 'n Kur elke twee tot ses jaar, afhangende van die erns van hul toestand. Duitsers kry steeds hul gewone salaris gedurende hierdie tyd weg van hul werk, wat nie uit hul vakansiedae geneem word nie. [20]

In koloniale Amerika Edit

Sommige Europese koloniste het kennis gebring van die warmwaterterapie vir medisinale doeleindes, en ander het die voordele van warmwaterbronne by die inheemse Amerikaners geleer. Europeërs het geleidelik baie van die warm en koue bronne van die verskillende Indiese stamme verkry. Hulle ontwikkel toe die veer volgens Europese smaak. Teen die 1760's het Britse koloniste na warm en koue bronne in Connecticut, Pennsylvania, New York en Virginia gereis op soek na water geneesmiddels. Onder die meer gereeld besoekte van hierdie bronne was Bath, Yellow en Bristol Springs in Pennsylvania en Warm Springs, Hot Springs en White Sulphur Springs (nou in Wes -Virginia) in Virginia. [8] In die laaste dekade van die 1700's begin spa's in New York gereeld besoek word deur onverskrokke reisigers, veral Ballston Spa. Saratoga Springs en Kinderhook in die omgewing moes nog ontdek word. [21] [22]

Koloniale dokters het geleidelik begin om warmwaterbronne vir siektes aan te beveel. Dr Benjamin Rush, Amerikaanse patriot en dokter, prys die fonteine ​​van Bristol, Pennsylvania, in 1773. Dr Samuel Tenney in 1783 en dr Valentine Seaman in 1792 ondersoek die water van Ballston Spa in New York en skryf oor moontlike medisinale gebruike van die vere. Hotelle is gebou om besoekers aan die verskillende fonteine ​​te akkommodeer. Entrepreneurs het ondernemings bedryf waar reisigers kon bly, eet en drink. So begin die kuuroordbedryf in die Verenigde State. [8]

Bad in die 19de en 20ste eeu Amerika Edit

Na die Amerikaanse rewolusie het die spa -industrie steeds gewild geword. Die eerste werklik gewilde spa was Saratoga Springs, wat teen 1815 twee groot Griekse herlewingshotelle met vier verdiepings gehad het. Dit het vinnig gegroei en teen 1821 het dit ten minste vyfhonderd kamers vir verblyf gehad. Die relatiewe nabyheid aan New York en die toegang tot die mees ontwikkelde stoombootlyne in die land, het beteken dat die spa teen die middel van die 1820's die gewildste toeristebestemming van die land geword het, wat beide die elite van die land en 'n meer middelklasgehoor bedien het. [23] [24] Alhoewel die spa -aktiwiteit in die 1810's sentraal was in Saratoga, het die oord teen die 1820's hotelle gehad met uitstekende balsale, operahuise, winkels en klubhuise. Die Union Hotel (wat eers in 1803 gebou is, maar die komende dekades geleidelik uitgebrei het) het sy eie esplanade en teen die 1820's het dit 'n eie fontein en formele landskap, maar met slegs twee klein badhuise. Namate die oord as 'n toeristebestemming ontwikkel het, het minerale badhuise hulpstrukture geword en nie die sentrale kenmerke van die oord nie, hoewel die drink van mineraalwater ten minste as 'n pro-forma-aktiwiteit gevolg is deur die meeste wat dit bygewoon het, ondanks aandete wat uitgebrei en uitgebreid. Alhoewel die oënskynlike doel van die Saratoga en ander spa's in New York was om toegang tot die gesonde mineraalwater te bied, was hul werklike tekenkaart 'n komplekse sosiale lewe en 'n kulturele cachet. Die groter gehoor wat dit teen die laat 1820's gekry het, het egter 'n deel van die bloei van die oord begin haal, en in die middel van die 1830's het dit as 'n suksesvolle poging om homself te herleef, oorgegaan tot perdewedrenne. [8] [25]

Teen die middel van die 1850's het warm en koue lentebome in 20 state bestaan. Baie van hierdie oorde bevat soortgelyke argitektoniese kenmerke. Die meeste kuuroorde het 'n groot sentrale gebou met twee verdiepings naby of by die fonteine ​​gehad, met kleiner strukture daar rondom. Die hoofgebou het die gaste voorsien van eet- en dansplekke op die eerste verdieping, en die tweede verdieping bestaan ​​uit slaapkamers. Die buitestrukture was individuele gastehutte, en ander hulpgeboue het 'n halfsirkel of U-vorm om die groot gebou gevorm. [8]

Hierdie oorde bied swem, visvang, jag en perdry, sowel as badgeriewe. Die Virginia -oorde, veral White Sulphur Springs, was gewild voor en na die burgeroorlog. Na die Burgeroorlog het spa -vakansies baie gewild geraak omdat terugkerende soldate gebad het om wonde te genees en die Amerikaanse ekonomie meer vrye tyd toegelaat het. Saratoga Springs in New York het een van die belangrikste sentrums vir hierdie tipe aktiwiteite geword. Deur die warm, koolzuurhoudende bronwater in te bad en te drink, was dit slegs 'n voorspel vir die meer interessante sosiale aktiwiteite van dobbelary, wandeling, perdewedrenne en dans. [8] [26] [27]

Gedurende die laaste helfte van die 19de eeu het Westerse entrepreneurs natuurlike warm en koue bronne tot oorde ontwikkel - van die Mississippirivier tot die Weskus. Baie van hierdie spa's het hul gaste individuele baddens, dampbaddens, spuitnewel, naaldstorte en swembaddens aangebied. Die verskillende spoorweë wat oor die land strek, bevorder hierdie oorde om treinreise aan te moedig. Hot Springs, Arkansas, het 'n belangrike oord geword vir mense uit die groot metropolitaanse gebiede St. Louis en Chicago. [8]

Die gewildheid van die spa's het tot in die 20ste eeu voortgeduur. Sommige mediese kritici beweer egter dat die termiese water in bekende oorde soos Hot Springs, Virginia en Saratoga Springs, New York, nie meer voordelig vir die gesondheid is as gewone verhitte water nie. Die verskillende spa -eienaars het hierdie argumente teëgestaan ​​deur beter hidroterapie vir hul pasiënte te ontwikkel. By die Saratoga -spa is behandelings vir hart- en sirkulasie -afwykings, rumatiese toestande, senuweestoornisse, metaboliese siektes en velsiektes ontwikkel. In 1910 het die staatsregering in New York begin met die aankoop van die belangrikste bronne om hulle teen uitbuiting te beskerm. Toe Franklin Delano Roosevelt goewerneur van New York was, het hy aangedring op 'n Europese soort spa -ontwikkeling in Saratoga. Die argitekte vir die nuwe kompleks bestudeer twee jaar die tegniese aspekte van bad in Europa. Die ontwikkeling, wat in 1933 voltooi is, het drie badhuise - Lincoln, Washington en Roosevelt - 'n dranksaal, die Hall of Springs en 'n gebou wat die Simon Baruch Research Institute huisves. Vier bykomende geboue bestaan ​​uit die ontspanningsgebied en het arcades en 'n swembad versier met 'n blou geel terracotta-teël. Die neoklassieke geboue van Saratoga Spa State Park is op 'n wonderlike manier uitgelê met formele loodregte byle, soliede baksteenkonstruksie en Romeinse herlewing van klip en beton. Die spa is omring deur 'n natuurpark van 1,200 hektaar met 'n teelpaadjie van 29 km, "met afgemete wandelinge by wetenskaplik berekende hellingen deur sy bome en valleie, met uitloopspronge wat onverwagte aanraking aan die uitsigte, met die tuimelende waters van Geyser Brook wat vloei onder brûe van die fyn paaie. Die natuurlike skoonheid van die park word ten volle benut, maar geen formele landskap nie ". Promotional literature again advertised the attractions directly outside the spa: shopping, horse races, and historic sites associated with revolutionary war history. New York Governor Herbert Lehman opened the new facilities to the public in July 1935. [8]

Other leading spas in the U.S. during this period were French Lick, Indiana Hot Springs and White Sulphur Springs, West Virginia Hot Springs, Arkansas and Warm Springs, Georgia. French Lick specialized in treating obesity and constipation through a combination of bathing and drinking the water and exercising. Hot Springs, Virginia, specialized in digestive ailments and heart diseases, and White Sulphur Springs, Virginia, treated these ailments and skin diseases. Both resorts offered baths where the water would wash continuously over the patients as they lay in a shallow pool. Warm Springs, Georgia, gained a reputation for treating infantile paralysis by a procedure of baths and exercise. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, who earlier supported Saratoga, became a frequent visitor and promoter of this spa. [8]

A 'body treatment', 'spa treatment', or 'cosmetic treatment' is non-medical procedure to help the health of the body. It is often performed at a resort, destination spa, day spa, beauty salon or school.

Typical treatments include:

By the late 1930s more than 2,000 hot- or cold-springs health resorts were operating in the United States. This number had diminished greatly by the 1950s and continued to decline in the following two decades. In the recent past, spas in the U.S. emphasized dietary, exercise, or recreational programs more than traditional bathing activities.

Up until recently, [ wanneer? ] the public bathing industry in the U.S. remained stagnant. [8] Nevertheless, in Europe, therapeutic baths have always been very popular, and remain so today. [ aanhaling nodig ] The same is true in Japan, where the traditional hot springs baths, known as onsen, always attracted plenty of visitors. [ aanhaling nodig ]

But also in the U.S., with the increasing focus on health and wellness, such treatments are again becoming popular. [30]

    , a form of beauty salon. , a resort for personal care treatments. , a town visited for the supposed healing properties of the water.
  • Foot spa , in United States usage. , from the sources in Spa. , a hot stone spa
  • Spas usually offer mud baths for general health, or to address a variety of medical conditions. This is also known as 'fangotherapy'. A variety of medicinal clays and peats is used. [31]

Spa - places devoted to overall well-being through a variety of professional services that encourage the renewal of mind, body and spirit. [32]

Types Edit

"Balneotherapy treatments can have different purposes. In a spa setting, they can be used to treat conditions such as arthritis and backache, build up muscles after injury or illness or to stimulate the immune system, and they can be enjoyed as a relief from day-to-day stress." [33]

    , a spa offering an on-site source of natural mineral, thermal or seawater used in hydrotherapy treatments.
  • Resort/hotel spa, a spa owned by and located within a resort or hotel providing professionally administered spa services, fitness and wellness components and spa cuisine menu choices.
  • Mobile spa, a spa which provides services at home, hotels, or wherever you are.

Die International Spa and Body Wrap Association (ISBWA) is an international association for spas and body wrap centers around the world. [34] The main concern of the ISBWA is the regulation of the industry and the welfare of the consumers. Member organisations are to adhere to the ISBWA code of ethics, which requires them to do the following:

  • Provide treatments and products that are safe, sanitary, and effective.
  • Adhere to the highest standards of professionalism and honesty in all client interactions, and will not engage in any unethical practices.
  • Respect the right of its clients to dignity, confidentiality, and privacy.
  • Make a commitment to improving its services and treatments.
  • Adhere to the laws, rules and regulations governing the provision of treatments and services as required by their local government in which they operate.

Die Uniform Swimming Pool, Spa and Hot Tub Code (USPSHTC) is a model code developed by the International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials (IAPMO) to govern the installation and inspection of plumbing systems associated with swimming pools, spas and hot tubs as a means of promoting the public's health, safety and welfare.


Beckford’s Tower

Built between 1826 and 1827, Beckford’s Tower and Museum, with its winding staircase and impressive view across the historic Lansdown Cemetery, is somewhere a little different to visit in picturesque Bath. The only surviving example of the architecture of William Beckford, who also designed Fonthill Abbey in Wiltshire, the 120-foot-tall neo-classical tower provides a peculiar charm and gorgeous countryside vistas.


Santo Stefano Island

A little more than one sea mile from Ventotene there lies the island of Santo Stefano, dominated by the imposing bulk of the penitentiary built in 1700 by the architect Francesco Carpi, who designed a model penitentiary on behalf of Ferdinand IV King of Naples. It was used until 1965 and saw illustrious prisoners during the twenty years of Fascism, including the future President of the Republic Sandro Pertini. Unfortunately, visits to the Bourbon prison of Santo Stefano have been forbidden for some years due to the unsafe state of the structure.

Ancient Roman Remains

Grab a mask and snorkel and dive under the cliff of the lighthouse of Ventotene and you can still see the remains of Roman fish farms.

The Romans inhabited the island of Ventotene making it a fairly prosperous port.

Villa Giulia

Roman cisterns of Ventotene

The Cistern of Villa Stefania is a perfect example of a rainwater supply system leftover from Ancient Rome: it is perfectly stuccoed and intact.

Island Views

Following the Via degli Ulivi in the opposite direction of the town, there is the Semaforo, an old anti-aircraft post dating back to the Second World War. The Semaforo is an excellent observation point not only to view in one glance the whole island but also to admire the flight of seagulls and kestrels.

Both Ventotene and the islet of Santo Stefano are of great importance for the stopover of migratory birds on their way from Europe to Africa. There are 194 species of birds that stop over the islands throughout the year. There is even the Ornithological Museum of Ventotene that can be visited throughout the year.

From this vantage point, you can also admire the sea. Along the coast, observe posidonias and seaweeds while, in the tidal pools, just below the surface of the water, you can spot: jellyfish, corals, gorgonians and actinias, molluscs, crustaceans, starfish and sea urchins. It is not uncommon to see evolutions of a small group of dolphins that frequent the waters of this sea and plunder the networks of fishermen along the reef called Moggio di Terra.

The waters are rich in squid, groupers, mullets, snappers, breams, mullets, amberjacks, turbot. The characteristics and the abundance of fish species and avifauna on the island have meant that in 1999 Ventotene was included, by the Ministry of Environment, among the Marine and Terrestrial Parks. Rich in beaches and coves, some reachable only by sea, the island also lives on tourism.

Among the typical products of the island there is the very precious Ventotene Lentil, as well known as the one from Castelluccio. The inhabitants serve it in soup with an abundant amount of basil and fish.

The Emerald and Turquoise Beaches of Ventotene

Cala Nave

One of the iconic beaches of Ventotene is located below the town and is called Cala Nave. It takes its name from the sedimentary rock that emerges in front of the beach and resembles a ship. It is narrow and has dark sand. Cala Nave is a private beach with umbrellas and sunbeds that you can rent for the day.

Lighthouse rocks

Cala Rossano

Punta Pascone

Secca dell'Archetto is a shoal located about 300 meters from the coast of the island in the open sea. The underwater tunnel inhabited by sea sponges leaves you breathless.


Roman Baths: The Ultimate Guide - History

Of all the leisure activities, bathing was surely the most important for the greatest number of Romans, since it was part of the daily regimen for men of all classes, and many women as well. We think of bathing as a very private activity conducted in the home, but bathing in Rome was a communal activity, conducted for the most part in public facilities that in some ways resembled modern spas or health clubs (although they were far less expensive). A modern scholar, Fikret Yegül, sums up the significance of Roman baths in the following way ( Baths and Bathing in Classical Antiquity . Cambridge: MIT, 1992):

Although wealthy Romans might set up a bath in their town houses or especially in their country villas, heating a series of rooms or even a separate building especially for this purpose, even they often frequented the numerous public bathhouses in the cities and towns throughout the empire. Small bathhouses, called balneae , might be privately owned, but they were public in the sense that they were open to the populace for a fee, which was usually quite reasonable. The large baths, called thermae , were owned by the state and often covered several city blocks. Fees for both types of baths were quite reasonable, within the budget of most free Roman males. Since the Roman workday began at sunrise, work was usually over at little after noon. About 2:00-3:00 pm, men would go to the baths and plan to stay for several hours of sport, bathing, and conversation, after which they would be ready for a relaxing dinner. Republican bathhouses often had separate bathing facilities for women and men, but by the empire the custom was to open the bathhouses to women during the early part of the day and reserve it for men from 2:00 pm until closing time (usually sundown, though we occasionally hear of a bath being used at night). For example, one contract for the management of a provincial bath specified that the facility would be open to women from daybreak until about noon, and to men from about 2:00 pm until sunset although the women got the less desirable hours, their fee was twice as high as the men's, 1 as (a copper coin) for a woman and ½ as for a man. Mixed bathing was generally frowned upon, although the fact that various emperors repeatedly forbade it seems to indicate that the prohibitions did not always work. Certainly women who were concerned about their respectability did not frequent the baths when the men were there, but of course the baths were an excellent place for prostitutes to ply their trade.

Exercise: Bathing had a fairly regular ritual, and bathhouses were built to accommodate this. Upon entering the baths, individuals went first to the dressing room ( apodyterium —this reconstruction drawing shows the men's dressing room in the Forum Baths in Pompeii), where there were niches and cabinets to store their street clothes and shoes (in the model above, the dressing room is on the left, farthest from the furnace click here for a closer look). Many bathers were accompanied by one or more slaves to carry their gear and guard their clothes in the dressing rooms, but the bathhouses provided attendants who would watch over the belongings of the poorest for a fee. Sometimes the dressing room did double duty for example, in the Stabian Baths in Pompeii the women's dressing room also served as a frigidarium, containing a small cold-water pool (note the graffito of a ship scratched into the post separating two niches in this room). Although the evidence is not clear about exactly what Romans wore when bathing, it seems probable that they did not exercise in the nude (as Greek males did) and may also have worn some light covering in the baths—perhaps the subligaculum . Within the baths special sandals with thick soles were needed to protect the feet from the heated floors.

This drawing of the Stabian Baths shows the efficient design of a relatively small Republican bathhouse with separate facilities for men and women. The large central courtyard was the exercise ground ( palaestra ) it was surrounded by a shady portico which led into the bathing rooms. They might also take a swim in the large outdoor pool ( natatio ) such as this one in the Stabian Baths. After changing clothes and oiling their bodies, male bathers typically began their regimen with exercise, ranging from mild weight-lifting (as shown in the image at left), wrestling, various types of ball playing, running, and swimming (click here to find out more about Roman ball games). Although women athletes (like the one at left) are shown in the famous fourth-century CE mosaics from Piazza Armerina in Sicily, these apparently depict some sort of contest or competition rather than ordinary practice. Most of those exercising in the palaestrae were likely to be men.

Bathing: After exercise, bathers would have the dirt and oil scraped from their bodies with a curved metal implement called a strigil. Then the bathing proper began. Accompanied by a slave carrying their towels, oil flasks and strigils, bathers would progress at a leisurely pace through rooms of various temperature. They might start in the warm room ( tepidarium ), which had heated walls and floors but sometimes had no pool, and then proceed to the hot bath ( caldarium ), which was closest to the furnace. This room had a large tub or small pool with very hot water and a waist-high fountain ( labrum ) with cool water to splash on the face and neck. After this the bather might spend some time in the tepidarium again before finishing in the cold room ( frigidarium ) with a refreshing dip in the cold pool. Other rooms provided moist steam, dry heat like a sauna ( laconicum ), and massage with perfumed oils.

After their baths, patrons could stroll in the gardens, visit the library, watch performances of jugglers or acrobats, listen to a literary recital, or buy a snack from the many food vendors. Doubtless the baths were noisy, as the philosopher Seneca complained when he lived near a bathhouse in Rome, but the baths were probably very attractive places. Although most of the fine decor has not survived, many writers comment on the beauty and luxury of the bathhouses, with their well-lighted, airy rooms with high vaulted ceilings, lovely mosaics, paintings and colored marble panels, and silver faucets and fittings. This computer-generated reconstruction of the frigidarium of the baths of Hadrian at Lepcis Magna in Libya gives some idea of the splendor of the Roman thermae . The model at right depicts the baths of Trajan, located near the Colosseum. Enjoy a virtual bath by visiting these baths in Region III of VRoma, either via the web gateway or the anonymous browser.)

Heating System: Roman engineers devised an ingenious system of heating the baths—the hypocaust. The floor was raised off the ground by pillars and spaces were left inside the walls so that hot air from the furnace ( praefurnium ) could circulate through these open areas (see drawing of hypocaust design). Rooms requiring the most heat were placed closest to the furnace, whose heat could be increased by adding more wood. Click here to see the skeleton of a dog found in the hypocaust of a bath in Germany it had apparently crawled beneath the floor seeking warmth and been asphyxiated by the fumes.

Latrines: Bathhouses also had large public latrines, often with marble seats over channels whose continuous flow of water constituted the first “flush toilets.” A shallow water channel in front of the seats was furnished with sponges attached to sticks for patrons to wipe themselves.


In the vintage baths, especially Széchenyi, retirees often meet at dawn in the various saunas and springs to fulfill their “bath prescriptions.” (The water allegedly cures arthritis and other joint ailments, as well as pretty much everything else. Balneology, the study of mineral hot springs and their medicinal effects, is an official thing.) But they’re also there to shoot the breeze and famously play floating chess in the steaming outdoor pools. It’s about community and tradition, wet and mostly undressed.

Younger couples or friends meet at Gellért or Király, the latter of which has dark stone walls and skylights whose perforations look like stars (a long-overdue renovation and expansion of this Turkish-style bath is set to be complete in 2020).

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Guy groups spend the men’s days lounging at the atmospheric Rudas, under a domed and vaulted interior built in the 16th century by an Ottoman pasha and in continuous operation since the year 1572 (it was tastefully renovated in 2014).


The origins of spa

Where does the word spa come from?

Although there is no clear answer as to where the word spa began to be associated with healing practices, but there are two main theories about the term&rsquos etymology:

- 'Spa&rsquo is an acronym of the Latin phrase &lsquoSalus per Aquam&rsquo, meaning &lsquohealth from water&rsquo.
- &lsquoSpa&rsquo is named after the Belgian village, Spa, where hot mineral springs were used by Roman soldiers to treat aching muscles and wounds from a battle.

How old are spas?

Whilst many people associate traditional spas with Roman baths, there is evidence of spa-type therapies dating back thousands of years when there was a belief in the curative powers of mineral waters. Paul Joseph, co-founder of Health and Fitness Travel explains: &ldquoSpas, healing waters, thalassotherapy, hydrotherapy and hot springs date back thousands of years - an ancient practice conducted long before the Greeks and Romans!&rdquo

One of the first written accounts of bathing being used as a curative process rather than a simple hygiene ritual was by ancient Greek philosopher Hippocrates, who was alive over 2000 years ago between 460 and 370 B.C. Hippocrates proposed that the cause of all ailments was an imbalance of bodily fluids, and advocated that &ldquothe way to health is to have an aromatic bath and scented massage every day.&rdquo

This process, using bathing as a treatment of disease, is known as balneotherapy and is considered the founding principle of spa-going. Its influence can be seen today in everything from mineral-infused treatments or jumping in the hot tub after a swim to thalassotherapy - swimming in seawater to heal the skin.

In their early history, the primary use of curative baths was to heal the wounds of Roman soldiers during the reign of Augustus from 27 B.C. to 14 A.D. At this time, there were approximately 170 baths, known as a thermae, in Rome and it didn&rsquot take long before all the city&rsquos citizens began to view baths as a form of rest and relaxation. It was in 70 A.D. that the Romans built a thermae bath spa around the hot springs at Bath, the first of its kind in Britain.

In 1326, Collin le Loup, an ironmaster from Liège, Belgium, discovered the chalybeate springs in the town of Spa, Belgium. A famous health resort eventually grew around these springs and the term &lsquospa&rsquo came to refer to any health resort located near natural springs, with individual springs being associated with the disease they were thought to benefit.

However, it was not only in Europe that rituals associated with spa-going were developing. From Japanese ryokan to Turkish hammams and Finnish saunas/steam rooms, different healing facilities were growing around the world. By the Elizabethan era, spa resorts were fully ingrained into British culture and since then they have become more advanced but still stick to their humble, restorative origins.

The spa’s renaissance: an exercise in luxury

Before long, the enthusiasm for spa treatments was taken across to the United States, which is where the first mass-audience spa was established in Saratoga Springs, New York. By 1815, the area boasted two huge Greek revival hotels, with up to 500 accommodation rooms for visitors eager to take solace from the rapidly modernising world.

The first ever day spa was introduced by Elizabeth Arden in 1910, known as Manhattan&rsquos Red Door Salon. This spa offered manicures, facials and more, bringing it much closer to the modern-day experience. As Beth McGroarty, Research Director at the Global Wellness Institute explains: &ldquoThe modern concept of the spa really started to take off in the 1980s.&rdquo Over the next 20 years, spa days would be regarded as a treat for primarily wealthy women, who visited in groups to celebrate birthdays, hen dos, and other social occasions. Beth points out that &ldquothe big, recent story is one of explosive growth: the global spa industry grew from $60 billion USD in 2007 to $98.6 billion USD in 2015 &ndash while spa locations jumped from 71,762 to 121,595 in those same short eight years.&rdquo

Inclusive indulgence

As the demand for spas increased, establishments proliferated, and with their presence came a widened accessibility to spa services, along with more niche offerings for individuals&rsquo needs. Beth notes that, in the past decade, &ldquothe focus of spas has shifted from a narrow association with wealthy women and &ldquopampering&rdquo to include all demographics: men, teens, children, and experiences at a larger range of price-points.&rdquo

Although back in the Roman era throughout history, gentlemen were the main patrons of spas, it seems perceptions have changed, and spas are now primarily viewed as a place for women. Chris Perrett from Spa Guide explained: &ldquoUp until relatively recently there's been a stigma surrounding men going to spas in the UK. While our friends in Scandinavia, Germany and Italy continued to embrace the health benefits, public perception made them a no-go zone for British men due to constrictive notions of traditional masculinity&rdquo.

However, as society at large has begun to understand the flaws in gender stereotypes, spas and wellness, in general, have become open to men again. Chris says: &ldquoLuckily the popularity of male grooming products has led to men actively seeking spas and targeted body treatments, which in turn has given rise to many health spas now providing men's treatment lists. The most popular treatments range from men's facials and head massages to deep tissue massages, showing men are just as keen to look good as they are to aid their sports recovery.&rdquo

The contemporary spa

The expansion of the modern-day spa&rsquos demographic is largely due to a redefinition that has slowly been developing over the last 10 years &ndash and not just when it comes to men. Whereas the majority of spas of the 1980s to early 2000s were luxury establishments offering lavish service to simply make the customer feel great topped off with afternoon tea, today&rsquos leading spas instead focus on intrinsic health. Wellness is now the ultimate goal, whether this is deep tissue massages that target pressure points, balancing steam rooms, or more carefully-tailored spa breaks aimed at achieving certain benefits such as weight loss or detoxifying.

Beth McGroarty defines this process as the development of spas as wellness centres. This growing trend involves changes such as &ldquoadding everything from yoga, fitness or meditation classes, to having healthy food and spa cafes, to more alternative medicine approaches from Ayurveda to traditional Chinese medicine and reiki. We&rsquove even seen spas partnering with medical professionals to offer services which aim to accomplish a more integrative lifestyle change.&rdquo

What was once luxury pampering has now become a holistic approach to health and wellbeing which Beth argues has resulted in a serious perceptual shift in what a spa is, becoming &ldquoa far more mainstream, serious and widely attractive concept where real prevention and stress-reduction take place.&rdquo She comments that the core of this progression is the integration of &ldquoevidenced-based modalities. Those approaches have clinical evidence behind them so there are real results which consumers increasingly demand.&rdquo

Champneys owner Stephen Purdew adds: &ldquoOur healthy eating options, for example, are carefully considered down to the very last detail. I think our guests really appreciate and understand that we are a wellbeing destination spa &ndash this is where our energies are focused. Our wellbeing values are not a token gesture it is our ethos across all of our spa resorts, and we constantly research worldwide to evolve.&rdquo

Global spa trends

As spas seek to develop new, exciting and effective treatments for guests, the industry has begun searching for new global influences from across the world. Paul Joseph comments on this phenomenon, saying: &ldquoMore world spas now enable you to dip your toes in another country's culture and experience your destination on a holistic level.&rdquo

As Beth McGroarty points out, this is a stark contrast from the spas of the 80s and 90s, which &ldquolooked very much the same - a generic, beige, vaguely Asian space with a few massages.&rdquo Now, she says, &ldquoglobalisation has made spa-goers more keenly aware of indigenous spa and wellness practices from around the world. So, we have access to and knowledge of every kind of massage imaginable from Thai to Indian varietals, and excitement around so many global experiences, whether it be the Middle Eastern hammam, Mexican temezcal or Russian banya.&rdquo

However, it&rsquos not just a taste of different cultures that spa customers desire, they are also increasingly attracted to hyper-local offerings. Beth notes: &ldquoThe biggest trend in travel in the last few years is people&rsquos seemingly insatiable quest to experience the authentic and indigenous - and it extends to what they want in spa experiences. So, spas are using local ingredients, even grown on-site, and practices for what you could call a farm-to-massage-table movement.&rdquo

Champneys owner Stephen Purdew comments: &ldquoOur Detox and Wellbeing Centre at Champneys Tring was the first of its kind in the UK. The size alone - 400 square metres &ndash provides an amazing offering for our residents and day guests. It&rsquos a development that underlines our position as a leading wellness destination in Europe.&rdquo

Tailored treatments

As spas have looked further afield for influence, they have also focused on providing more tailored treatments for different conditions and demographics. Chris explains: &ldquoSpas are now becoming much better at offering tailored, medical spa treatments to guests who can't always enjoy the more traditional spa treatments. It's rare not to find pregnancy-related treatments on the list at your local spa, and some venues are training massage therapists specifically to assist cancer patients after it being a real taboo subject for a number of years.&rdquo

Beth McGroarty predicts that this tailoring of day spa packages will not only cater to specific individuals&rsquo needs but will also foster a holistic community impact. This is as much a return to the spa&rsquos roots as it is a development. Even in the Roman era, spas were more than just bathing areas, they were all-encompassing recreational centres. As Mikkel Aaland suggests in his book Sweat, &ldquomost spa walls (in Roman times) enclosed sports centres, swimming pools, parks, libraries, little theatres for poetry readings and music, and great halls for parties &ndash a city within a city.&rdquo Today, Beth anticipates more social and fun aspects will come to spas, &ldquofrom more art, music and creativity programming at spas to things like the sauna as a social event.&rdquo

Broadening horizons

The most inventive of spas are not only widening their offerings and influences but are broadening their horizons outside of the building and into nature itself. Beth McGroarty comments on these so-called destination spas: &ldquoA big trend at the moment is to move the spa experiences and treatment rooms outside and deeper into nature: whether they're played out in treehouses, gardens, by the ocean or in the forest &ndash while simultaneously bringing more nature inside the spa.&rdquo This encapsulates everything from outdoor guided exercise sessions to natural décor inside the building and botanicals in treatments, aimed at connecting mind, body and soul. Paul Joseph suggests that this recent move is premised on fostering a connection with the local environment as a means to balance the individual, explaining: &ldquoMore innovative spas have created treatments based on their local culture and customs and turning back to nature.&rdquo

Champneys Fitness Director Louise Day explains: &ldquoOur selection of outdoor classes is one of the best. Our countryside resorts are perfectly positioned, so we like to incorporate our natural environment as much as possible. We&rsquore very reactive to trends quite often we&rsquore the first to introduce programmes &ndash in this day and age it&rsquos important that spas offer something different. Our boot camps, for example, have really taken off. Led by top fitness and nutrition experts, our team motivate and guide participants through an intensive weight loss package that includes fun indoor and outdoor activities, team games, health and weight monitoring and healthy food options. We inspire them to make positive lifestyle changes.&rdquo

What&rsquos the future of spa and spa treatments?

With the modern-day spa having come so far from the thermae and baths of ancient history, what is in store for spas and spa treatments in the coming years? Beth McGroarty predicts that, in the future, &ldquowellness programming will continue to move out of the confined walls of the spa and get incorporated throughout the entire resort, whether baked into the physical building (wellness architecture) or in healthy food, sleep, classes &ndash everything &ndash infused throughout the property.&rdquo

A holistic approach is the key to the spa&rsquos future, from health management retreats to life coaching we can expect to see spas revert more to community spaces that offer a large range of services as opposed to just traditional treatments.

Whatever the future of the spa brings, it is sure to be an exciting and inspirational journey founded on a rich history of nature, healing and exploration. If you&rsquod like to book one of our spa days, we have a large selection of tailored treatments and wellbeing experiences perfect for any kind of spa-goer.


7. Temple Courtyard



Die Temple Courtyard was a sacred space within the Roman Baths used for Roman worshippers to gather and pray.

Above the ruins, there was a projector screen showing a reconstructed animation of the courtyard, which gave me an idea of the site’s original state.

I also saw the famous gilt bronze head of Sulis Minerva here, arguably one of the most famous Roman Britain relics.


Kyk die video: romeinse badhuis (Mei 2022).