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Brittanje en die koloniale maritieme oorlog in die vroeë agtiende eeu - Silwer, Seapower en die Atlantiese Oseaan, Shinsuke Satsuma

Brittanje en die koloniale maritieme oorlog in die vroeë agtiende eeu - Silwer, Seapower en die Atlantiese Oseaan, Shinsuke Satsuma


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Brittanje en die koloniale maritieme oorlog in die vroeë agtiende eeu - Silwer, Seapower en die Atlantiese Oseaan, Shinsuke Satsuma

Brittanje en die koloniale maritieme oorlog in die vroeë agtiende eeu - Silwer, Seapower en die Atlantiese Oseaan, Shinsuke Satsuma

Hierdie boek dek 'n effens minder bekende tydperk van die militêre geskiedenis - die Oorlog van die Spaanse Erfopvolging en die onmiddellike opvolgers daarvan, in 'n tydperk toe die Royal Navy nie die see regeer het nie (hoewel die teks dit duidelik laat blyk dat baie politici en kommentators dit het) geglo het dit wel).

Verwag geen groot besonderhede oor die werklike maritieme ekspedisies van die tydperk nie. Die fokus is hier baie op die Britse binnelandse politieke toneel. Dit beteken nie dat daar geen dekking is oor die vlootekspedisies van die tydperk nie, maar dit is nie die hoofdoel van die boek nie.

Een rede hiervoor is die relatiewe ondoeltreffendheid van die Royal Navy in hierdie tydperk, ten minste in vergelyking met die openbare verwagtinge. Die politieke debat het teruggekyk na die waargenome heerlikhede van Elizabethaanse vlootoorlogvoering, en vorentoe na die vermeende voordele van moontlike vlootekspedisies (veral van die beslaglegging op die Spaanse silwer konvooie uit die Nuwe Wêreld). Dit dui ook op 'n nuwe aspek van hierdie tydperk - baie skryfwerk oor Britse vlootoorlogvoering in die seiltydperk dek periodes waarin Frankryk die belangrikste vyand was, maar hier is Spanje baie sterker.

Die belangrikste vrae wat hier gevra word, is: wie was ten gunste van maritieme ekspedisies; wat het hulle verwag om uit hulle te kom; hoe realisties was die verwagtinge; watter impak het hierdie beroeringe op die werklike Britse vlootbeleid gehad? hoe suksesvol was die ekspedisies wat wel plaasgevind het en wat was die perke vir die ekspedisies? Ons word in die hart van 'n reeks politieke debatte ingeneem, met die spelers aan elke kant wat gereeld hul siening verander namate hulle in en uit die krag val. Dit is sleutelvrae, en as gevolg hiervan is dit 'n waardevolle toevoeging tot die literatuur oor vlootoorlogvoering.

Hoofstukke

1 - Engelse uitbreiding na Spaans -Amerika en die ontwikkeling van 'n pro -maritieme oorlogsargument

Deel 1: Argumente vir maritieme oorlog tydens die Spaanse opvolgingsoorlog
2 - Die idee van ekonomiese voordele van maritieme oorlog in Spaanse Amerika
3 - Pro -maritieme oorlogsargumente en partypolitiek

Deel 2: Impak op die werklikheid
4 - Impak op die werklikheid: Vlootbeleid
5 - Impak op die werklikheid: Wetgewing
6 - The South Sea Company en sy plan vir 'n vlootekspedisie in 1712

Deel 3: Pro-maritieme oorlogsargumente na 1714
7-Argumente vir maritieme oorlog tydens die oorlog van die Quadruple Alliance en Anglo-Spaanse konflik van 1726-29
8 - Veranderinge in die vlootbeleid na 1714: van verowering tot handelsveiligheid

Skrywer: Shinsuke Satsuma
Uitgawe: Hardeband
Bladsye: 296
Uitgewer: Boydell
Jaar: 2013



Brittanje en die koloniale maritieme oorlog in die vroeë agtiende eeu - Silwer, Seapower en die Atlantiese Oseaan, Shinsuke Satsuma - Geskiedenis

Ek is 'n vroeë loopbaan -akademikus wat ondersoek instel na die sosiale geskiedenis van vroeë moderne seevaarders, en is meer geïnteresseerd in die politieke, kulturele en ekonomiese geskiedenis van die vroeë moderne tydperk. My navorsingsbelangstellings sluit in die rol van seevaarders in verskillende maritieme wêrelde (Atlantiese Oseaan, Middellandse See, Noordsee, Indiese Oseaan), die sosiale aspekte van die maritieme gemeenskap, die verhouding tussen seevaarders, die vloot en staatsvorming en die sosiale en kulturele aspekte van vroeë moderne navigasie. My huidige projek fokus op die rol van Britse seevaarders in die ontwikkeling van ryk en internasionale handel vanaf die laat sestiende tot die vroeë agtiende eeu.

Ek is dosent in die geskiedenis van die Atlantiese wêreld aan die Universiteit van Reading. Voordat ek na Reading gekom het, het ek gewerk aan die 'Sailing into modernity ' -projek, gebaseer by die Centre for Maritime Historical Studies, Universiteit van Exeter, waar ek nog steeds 'n erelid is, en was twee jaar as junior navorsingsgenoot aan die Merton College , Oxford. Ek is ook 'n Trustee van die British Commission for Maritime History en adviseur van die MarineLives -projek.


Brittanje en die koloniale maritieme oorlog in die vroeë agtiende eeu: Silwer, Seapower en die Atlantiese Oseaan.

Brittanje en die koloniale maritieme oorlog in die vroeë agtiende eeu: Silwer, Seapower en die Atlantiese Oseaan.

Wat was die doel van Brittanje se 18de -eeuse oorloë in Wes -Indië, insluitend die vestiging van vlootbasisse in Antigua en Jamaika? Satsuma voer die argument aan dat hul hoofdoel maklik finansiële wins was, terwyl dit Spanje, en in mindere mate Frankryk en Nederland, finansiële skade berokken. Hierdie bundel ondersoek die interne Britse sake vir pro-maritieme oorloë, beide tydens die Spaanse opvolgingsoorlog wat van 1702-13 duur, en daarna tydens beide die War of Quadruple Alliance van 1718-20 en die Anglo-Spaanse konflik van 1726- 29. In 'n middelste gedeelte word die impak van hierdie gedagtegang op vlootbeleid en parlementêre wetgewing ontleed, met spesiale aandag aan die Amerikaanse wet van 1708. 'n Bykomende hoofstuk ondersoek die oprigting van die South Sea Company en die planne wat later laat vaar is vir 'n vloot. ekspedisie wat dit in 1712 ondersteun. 'n Uitbreiding van akronieme met twee bladsye word aan die begin van die boek gegee. Hierdie werk is gebaseer op Satsuma se proefskrif in die geskiedenis aan die Universiteit van Exeter.


Die versoekings van handel: Brittanje, Spanje en die stryd om ryk, deur Adrian Finucane

Jeremy Black, The Temptations of Trade: Britain, Spain, and the Struggle for Empire, deur Adrian Finucane, Die English Historical Review, Deel 133, uitgawe 562, Junie 2018, bladsye 724–725, https://doi.org/10.1093/ehr/cey106

Deur die onlangse werk deur 'n aantal geleerdes voort te sit - veral Satsuma Shinsuke in sy uitstekende Brittanje en die koloniale maritieme oorlog in die vroeë agtiende eeu: Silwer, Seapower en die Atlantiese Oseaan (2013) —Adrian Finucane oorweeg die betrekkinge tussen Brittanje en Spanje, veral oor die handel in die Karibiese Eilande in die vroeë agtiende eeu. Die kompleksiteit van skakels, van die regering tot die rol van individue, kom duidelik na vore, hoewel die konteks in Brittanje, Spanje en die Karibiese Eilande verre van konsekwent was. Byvoorbeeld, die Tory -ministerie wat 'n skikking met Frankryk onderhandel het in die Vrede van Utrecht van 1713, wat die Britse deelname aan die Spaanse Erfopvolging beëindig het, was deels daartoe in reaksie op die intervensie van Whig op die vasteland in die 1700's verbind tot 'n beleid van kommersiële groei.


Brittanje en die koloniale maritieme oorlog deur Shinsuke Satsuma

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Update tot 31 Mei 2016 op HistoryofWar.org: Aichi Aircraft, Douglas Aircraft, USAA Fighter Groups, Monaghan -klasvernietigers, Frankryk 1814, Amerikaanse medium tenks, afname van Sparta

Hierdie maand kyk ons ​​na die oorloë wat die agteruitgang van Antieke Sparta veroorsaak het, wat eers gelei het tot die eerste nederlaag van 'n groot Spartaanse hopliet -leër, en daarna baie van haar besittings in die Peloponnesos ontneem het. Ons reeks van Napoleon se verdediging van Frankryk in 1814 dek sy laaste paar oorwinnings, wat ons laat terugkeer na Rheims laat op 13 Maart. Op see gaan ons voort met ons reeks artikels oor die Amerikaanse vernietigers van die Eerste Wêreldoorlog van die Monaghan -klas, terwyl ons in die lug kyk na Aichi- en Douglas -vliegtuie en vegtergroepe van die Amerikaanse negende lugmag. Uiteindelik kyk ons ​​reeks oor tenks na die US Medium -tenks wat gelei het tot die M2 Medium -tenk, die direkte voorouer van die M4 Sherman.

Die Aichi B7A Ryusei (Shooting Star) 'Grace ' was 'n groot torpedobomwerper wat ontwerp is vir gebruik op 'n nuwe generasie Japannese vliegdekskepe, maar dit het slegs beperkte diens vanaf die land gesien nadat die Japannese vlootvliegtuig vernietig is.

Die Aichi D1A Diver Bomber 'Susie ' was 'n draaibom-bomwerper gebaseer op die Heinkel He 66 wat diens gedoen het by die Japannese vloot gedurende die 1930's.

Die Aichi H9A -vliegboot was die enigste toegewyde vliegboot -afrigter wat tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog in groot getalle in produksie geplaas is.

Die Aichi S1A Denko (Bolt of Light) was 'n Japanse vlootnagvegter wat in 'n gevorderde stadium van ontwikkeling was, voordat Amerikaanse bombardemente die twee prototipes vernietig het en die program effektief beëindig het.

Die Douglas RD was die vlootweergawe van die Douglas Dolphin tweemotorige amfibiese vliegtuig, en is vervaardig in 'n aantal variante vir die vloot en kuswag.

Die Douglas C-29 Dolphin was die kragtigste vliegtuig in die Dolphin-reeks en is aangedryf deur twee 550 pk-enjins.

Die 366ste vegtergroep het saam met die negende lugmag gedien en het deelgeneem aan die D-Day-inval, die opmars in Frankryk, Operation Market Garden, die Slag van die Bulge en die inval in Duitsland.

Die 367ste vegtergroep het by die negende lugmag gedien en het deelgeneem aan die D-Day-inval, die opmars in Frankryk, die Slag van die Bulge en die inval in Duitsland.

Die 368ste vegtergroep dien by die negende lugmag en neem deel aan die D-Day-inval, die beleg van Cherbourg, die opmars in Frankryk, die aanval op Duitsland en die Slag van die Bulge.

USS Fanning (DD-37) was 'n vernietiger van die Monaghan-klas wat in 1914 aan die Amerikaanse ingryping in Mexiko deelgeneem het en gehelp het om te sink U-58, een van slegs twee Duitse duikbote wat tydens die Eerste Wêreldoorlog deur Amerikaanse vernietigers gesink is.

USS Jarvis (DD-38) was 'n verwoester van die Monaghan-klas wat in 1914 aan die Amerikaanse ingryping in Mexiko deelgeneem het en daarna tydens die Eerste Wêreldoorlog vanuit Queenstown en Brest diens gedoen het.

USS Henley (DD-39) was 'n verwoester van die Monaghan-klas wat gebruik is om turbines met ratte te toets en daarna langs die Amerikaanse ooskus te werk ná die Amerikaanse toetrede tot die Eerste Wêreldoorlog. In die 1920's het sy by die kuswag gedien, voordat sy in 1934 vir afval verkoop is.

USS Beale (DD-40) was 'n vernietiger van die Monaghan-klas wat in 1914 aan die Amerikaanse ingryping in Mexiko deelgeneem het, in 1917 in die Amerikaanse waters gepatrolleer het en vanaf 1918 vanuit Queenstown gewerk het.

USS Jouett (DD-41) was 'n verwoester van die Monaghan-klas wat in 1914 aan die Amerikaanse ingryping in Mexiko deelgeneem het, wat toe grootliks aan die Amerikaanse kus opereer het ná die Amerikaanse toetrede tot die Eerste Wêreldoorlog. In die 1920's is sy aan die Kuswag geleen.

USS Jenkins (DD-42) was 'n vernietiger van die Monaghan-klas wat in 1914 aan die Amerikaanse ingryping in Mexiko deelgeneem het, en daarna vanaf Queenstown in Ierland gedurende 1917-18.

Die slag van Montereau (18 Februarie 1814) was Napoleon se laaste beduidende oorwinning oor generaal Schwarzenberg se leër van Bohemen tydens die veldtog van 1814, en dwing Schwarzenberg om ooswaarts terug te trek uit die omgewing van Parys terug na Troyes.

Die slag van Bar-sur-Aube (27 Februarie 1814) was een van 'n reeks nederlae wat ondergeskiktes van Napoleon tydens die veldtog van 1814 gely het, en 'n gesamentlike Russiese en Beierse mag het marskalk Oudinot verslaan na 'n poging om die Geallieerdes te oortuig dat Napoleon nog steeds in die gebied teenwoordig was, het misluk.

Die slag van Craonne (7 Maart 1814) was 'n seldsame voorbeeld van 'n geveg waarin beide bevelvoerders die situasie verkeerd beoordeel het en vir beide die Franse en die Geallieerdes onbevredigend was, hoewel dit as 'n smal Franse oorwinning beskou word.

Die slag van Laon (8-9 Maart 1814) was 'n Franse nederlaag wat Napoleon se hoop om Blucher vir die tweede keer tydens die veldtog van 1814 vir 'n tweede keer te verslaan, beëindig het en hom gedwing het om terug te keer in 'n posisie tussen die twee belangrikste geallieerde leërs.

Die slag van Arcis-sur-Aube (20-21 Maart 1814) was die laaste groot geveg van Napoleon tydens die veldtog van 1814 en het gesien hoe hy sy teenstanders verkeerd beoordeel, in 'n gevaarlike strik optrek en dan daarin slaag om 'n groot deel van sy leër uit te haal.

Die Slag van Rheims (13 Maart 1814) was die laaste beduidende sukses van Napoleon tydens die veldtog van 1814, en het gesien hoe sy troepe Rheims herower in 'n nagaanval, wat kortliks paniek onder die Geallieerde bevelvoerders veroorsaak het.

Die Medium Tank T1 was die laaste poging om 'n effektiewe tenk te vervaardig op grond van die vorige Medium Tank M1921, maar hoewel dit kortliks as die Medium Tank M1 aanvaar is, het dit nooit in produksie gekom nie.

Die Medium Tank T2 was 'n tenk van 15 ton wat as die beste tenk beskou is wat nog deur die Amerikaanse Ordnance Department ontwerp is toe dit in 1931 getoets is, maar dit het nie in produksie gekom nie weens finansiële beperkings tydens die Groot Depressie.

Die Medium Tank T4/ Medium Tank M1 was die laaste medium tenk wat in die Christie -styl omskepbare lopers gebruik is, en was gebaseer op die Combat Car T4, self ontwikkel uit die Christie M1931/ Medium Tank T3.

Die Medium Tank T5 was die prototipe vir die Medium Tank M2, en was ook die eerste in die reeks ontwerpe wat met die M4 Sherman geëindig het.

Die slag van Apollonia (381 vC) het Sparta se bondgenoot Derdas van Elimia 'n Olynthiaanse kavalerie -aanval verslaan wat die gebied van Apollonia binnegekom het.

Die slag van Olynthus (381 vC) was die tweede geveg wat die Spartane naby die stad geveg het tydens hul ekspedisie na Chalcidice, en eindig met 'n nederlaag en die dood van die Spartaanse bevelvoerder Teleutias.

Die Thebaanse veldtog van 378 vC was die eerste van twee onsuksesvolle invalle in Boeotia onder leiding van koning Agesilaus II van Sparta, en eindig na 'n opstand naby die stad Thebe.

Die slag van Thespiae (378 v.C.) was 'n Thebaanse oorwinning wat 'n tydperk van Sparta-aanvalle van hul basis by Thespiae beëindig het, en waarin die Spartaanse bevelvoerder Phoebidas gedood is. 'n konflik wat veroorsaak is deur Sparta se pogings om haar oorheersing oor die res van Griekeland af te dwing, en dit eindig met 'n dramatiese Spartaanse nederlaag wat die begin van die einde vir Sparta as 'n groot moondheid was.

Die Thebaanse Hegemonie (371-362) was 'n kort tydperk waarin die oorwinnings van die slagveld van Epaminondas die mag van Sparta omvergewerp het en Thebe die magtigste staat in Griekeland gemaak het. Dit begin met die verpletterende Thebaanse oorwinning oor 'n Spartaanse leër in Leuctra, en eindig effektief met die dood van Epaminondas in die slag van Mantinea.

Redeye - Fulda Cold, Bill Fortin.

'N Roman wat grootliks op die Oos-Wes-Duitse grens tydens die Koue Oorlog afspeel, na aanleiding van die ervarings van 'n Amerikaanse ontvanger tydens sy twee jaar diens in die laat 1960's. Dit voel meer soos 'n outobiografie as 'n roman, met 'n mengsel van historiese en fiktiewe figure, terwyl die hoofkarakter betrokke is op die rand van 'n stuk militêre diplomasie van die Koue Oorlog.

The Rebel in Me - A ZANLA Guerrilla Commander in the Rhodesian Bosh War, 1975-1980, Agrippah Mutambara.

Baie insider se siening van die bevrydingstryd in Zimbabwe (met ongeveer die helfte van die boek wat kyk na die Rhodesiese aanval op die ZANLA -hoofkwartier by Chimoio), geskryf deur 'n sleutelfiguur in die politieke kant van die stryd wat steeds lojaal is aan Mugabe. Fassinerende materiaal oor die ZANLA -stryd, wees net bewus daarvan dat dit polities baie eensydig is.

Die beleg van LZ Kate, Arthur G. Sharp.

Kyk na die kort maar kwaai Noord -Viëtnamese beleg van 'n Amerikaanse vuurbasis naby die Kambodja -grens, en die dramatiese ontvlugting in die nag wat die beleërde Amerikaanse en geallieerde soldate uit hierdie lokval ontsnap het. Die beleg het eintlik net vier dae geduur, dus word dit in detail bespreek, veral van die onskatbare lugsteun wat die basis verskaf het, die gewondes ontruim en vuurkrag verskaf om die geïsoleerde pos teen baie groter aanvalsmag te verdedig.

Moltke en sy generaals: 'n Studie in leierskap, Quintin Barry.
Kyk na die verhouding tussen Helmuth von Moltke, hoof van die Pruisiese generale staf tydens die oorloë van Duitse eenwording, en die generaals waarmee hy moes saamwerk. Toon die vaardigheid waarmee hy 'n baie uiteenlopende groep offisiere bestuur het, van verskillende vaardigheidsvlakke, onafhanklikheid en koppigheid. Dit help ook om te verduidelik waarom die Pruis 'n stelsel nodig gehad het waar professionele stafoffisiere saam met eenheidsbevelvoerders gewerk het, waarvan baie 'n aristokratiese of koninklike agtergrond gehad het.
[lees volledige resensie]

SS: Hitler se buitelandse afdelings-buitelandse vrywilligers in die Waffen-SS, 1940-45, Chris Bishop.
Kyk na die verbasend groot aantal buitelandse troepe wat tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog met die SS geveg het, begin met 'n land-tot-land-ondersoek na die motivering, omvang en organisasie van werwing, en draai dan na 'n eenheid per eenheid rekening van hul dikwels nogal indrukwekkende gevegsrekord. Dek 'n mengsel van eenhede, waaronder 'n handjievol hooggekwalifiseerde frontlinie-afdelings, maar veel meer kwaai anti-partydige eenhede met vreeslike rekords en laatoorlogseenhede wat saamgevoeg is toe die Nazi-ryk verbrokkel het.
[lees volledige resensie]

Agbare krygers: veg teen die Taliban in Afghanistan, Richard Streatfield.
Volg die ervaring van 'n kommandant van die maatskappy wat in 2009-2010 in Sangin werksaam was, tydens 'n tydperk van intense aktiewe operasies waarin sy eenheid stadig beheer oor die gebied begin kry het, weg van die plaaslike Taliban, hoewel dit redelik duur was. Bevat 'n gedetailleerde ontleding van die korrekte manier om in hierdie soort omgewing te werk as daar 'n kans op sukses op lang termyn is, en hoe dit op ondernemingsvlak geïmplementeer is.
[lees volledige resensie]

Die Winteroorlog, Eloise Engle en Lauri Paananen.
'N Klassieke weergawe van hierdie vroeë uitloop van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog, grotendeels uit die Finse oogpunt geskryf (miskien onvermydelik gegewe die beperkte hoeveelheid betroubare Sowjet -bronne in die sewentigerjare). Alhoewel daar meer onlangse werke bestaan, is dit 'n uitstekende beginpunt en gee dit 'n goeie indruk van die impak van die oorlog op die Finne.
[lees volledige resensie]

The Men Who Gave Us Wings: Britain and the Airplane 1796-1914, Peter Reese.
'N Interessante weergawe van die vroeë vlugdae in Brittanje, van die ondersoek na sweeftuie, deur verskeie onsuksesvolle pogings om aangedrewe vlugte en die post-Wright Brothers-wêreld toe die pioniers van die Britse lugvaartbedryf na vore gekom het, 'n groep merkwaardige mans wat die Short -broers, AV Roe, Geoffrey de Havilland en sir Thomas Sopwith.
[lees volledige resensie]

Brittanje en koloniale maritieme oorlog in die vroeë agtiende eeu - Silwer, Seapower en die Atlantiese Oseaan, Shinsuke Satsuma.
'N Kykie na die politieke invloede op die Britse vlootbeleid gedurende die eerste helfte van die agtiende eeu, 'n tydperk waarin Spanje nog steeds die belangrikste fokus van vlootoorlog was en Spaanse silwer nog steeds in baie verbeeldingskragte geheers het. Dit fokus veral op die politieke toneel in Brittanje, eerder as op die besonderhede van werklike vlootekspedisies, hoewel dit ook behandel word.
[lees volledige resensie]

A Biographical Dictionary of the Twentieth Century Royal Navy: Volume 1 Admirals of the Fleet and Admirals, Alastair Wilson.

Die begin van 'n groot projek om 'n woordeboek van die Britse seevaartbiografie van die 20ste eeu op te stel, begin met Admirals en Admirals of the Fleet. Verdeel in twee, met die biografieë in pdf -vorm op CD en 'n gedrukte volume om die formaat en inhoud van die biografie te verduidelik. Dit is 'n baie nuttige naslaanwerk op sigself - dit sal beslis vir my baie nuttig wees as ek 'n paar van die meer duistere admiraals uit die oorlog probeer opspoor - en die volledige reeks sal 'n baie indrukwekkende prestasie wees.

Watershed - Angola en Mosambiek: 'n Fotogeskiedenis - Die Portugese ineenstorting in Afrika, 1974-75, Wilf Nussey.

'N Uitstekende fotografiese geskiedenis van die einde van die Portugese Ryk in Afrika, veroorsaak deur die omverwerping van die Fascistiese bewind in Portugal. Gebaseer op die foto's geneem deur die Argus Africa News Service, ondersteun deur 'n teks geskryf deur die destydse hoof van die diens. Dit volg 'n tragiese verhaal van groot, maar teleurgestelde verwagtinge nadat onafhanklikheid gevolg is deur langdurige burgeroorloë in beide lande.

Oor die presisie: Stalin, die leierskap van die Rooi Leër en die pad na Stalingrad 1931-42, Peter Mezhiritsky.

'N Beskrywing van die pad na Stalingrad wat losweg gebaseer is op 'n bespreking van die herinneringe van Marshal Zhukov, maar met die fokus op die rol van Stalin in die katastrofes wat die Sowjetunie amper oorweldig het ná die Duitse inval in 1941. Dikwels gespreksmatig en met 'n Die neiging om te geniet van fantasie- en spekulasievlugte, is nog steeds 'n vermaaklike lees wat 'n interessante standpunt bied oor hierdie verwoestende tydperk.


Wat is die langtermynimpak van die Spaanse opvolgingsoorlog op Europa?

Die Spaanse opvolgingsoorlog was 'n verwoestende oorlog wat tussen 1702-1715 plaasgevind het. Dit het al die groot moondhede van Europa ingesluit, waaronder Brittanje, Frankryk, Oostenryk, Spanje, Pruise en ander Duitse koninkryke, Italiaanse koninkryke, Portugal en Nederland. Die belangrikste gevolg van die oorlog is dat dit Frankryk verhinder het om hom met Spanje te verenig na die dood van Karel II uit die Habsburgse dinastie. Maar meer as om hierdie moontlike eenwording op te los, het dit 'n nuwe magorde geskep wat globale gevolge het.

Oorlog en die uitkomste daarvan

Die oorlog is aanvanklik veroorsaak deur die dood van Charles II, die laaste Habsburgse monarg op die troon van Spanje (Figuur 1). Karel II het die troon belowe aan Philip, hertog van Anjou, die kleinseun van Lodewyk XIV. Met die dood van Charles en Philip in Spanje tot koning uitgeroep, het Lodewyk XIV die res van die Spaanse gebiede begin inneem, veral in Spaanse Nederland. Dit word beskou as 'n poging van Louis om 'n groot deel van Wes -Europa onder sy beheer te verenig en Frankryk se oorheersing in Europa te versterk. Dit het 'n alliansie veroorsaak tussen die Nederlanders, Engeland, Pruise, Hannover, ander Duitse state en Portugal. Aan die ander kant was Frankryk se Louis verbonde aan die hertogte van Beiere, Keulen, Mantua en Savoye. Savoy het egter later van kant verander. [1]

Engeland is bekwaam op die slagveld gelei deur die hertog van Marlborough en prins Eugene van Savoye. As gevolg van 'n uitval het prins Eugene sy alliansie van Frankryk oorgeskakel na die een van Engeland. Met miskien die twee bekwaamste generaals van Europa, onder Marlborough en prins Eugene, is beslissende oorwinnings behaal wat die Franse winste omgekeer het. Hulle is gedwing om terug te trek uit Duitsland, Nederland en Italië. Die Britte het veral minder op sy monargie staatgemaak, en die parlement het 'n meer aktiewe rol in die oorlog gespeel. Teen 1708 was Frankryk gereed om terme te maak. Britse eise was nietemin swaar, aangesien Brittanje wou hê dat Louis sy eie leër moes stuur om sy eie kleinseun van sy troon in Spanje af te sit. Dit het tot die oorlog gelei.

Teen 1711 het dinge egter verander, aangesien die hertog van Marlborough met sy Engelse ondersteuners uitval en die opkoms van aartshertog Charles uit die Habsburgers in Oostenryk die situasie verander, waar sy opkoms dreig om Spanje weer onder hom te bring. Dit het in werklikheid die aptyt in Europa verminder om die oorlog voort te sit. Boonop het die alliansie teen Frankryk moeilik geveg in Spanje self, waar die gebied en gevegte moeiliker was. Dit het gelei tot 'n uiteindelike reeks verdrae wat die oorlog beëindig het, begin in 1713 (Verdrag van Utrecht) en later die verdrae van Rastatt en Baden. [2]

Die verdrae het Spanje effektief onder Louis se kleinseun gehou, waar die Huis van Bourbon nou regeer het, hoewel dit ook beteken het dat dit nie met Spanje kon verenig nie. Verder is Frankryk en Spanje gedwing om afstand te doen van gebiede, waaronder die Spaanse Nederland en Napels in Europa. Ander kleiner gebiede soos Gibraltar het verlore gegaan. In die New World is Newfoundland aan die Britse magte gegee. Volgens die partye wat die verdrae aanvaar het, het die oorlog die magsbalans in Europa behou, waar Frankryk en Spanje hul begeerte na 'n Bourbon -koning behou het. Tog was die mag nie so sterk soos Louis aanvanklik wou hê nie, aangesien dit gebiede moes prysgee. Die oorlog kon meer 'n ramp vir Frankryk gewees het. Teen 1711-13 was hulle egter in 'n beter posisie om te onderhandel. [3]

Impak op lang termyn

Terwyl die oorlog in beginsel 'n balans in die Europese politiek onder die moondhede behou het, was die werklikheid anders. Eerstens het die nuwe Verenigde Koninkryk wat Skotland formeel met Engeland verenig het, grootliks as 'n wêreldmag verskyn, danksy die oorlog en die gevolge daarvan. Brittanje het verskeie belangrike gebiede gekry, veral in die nuwe wêreld, soos Newfoundland, en toegang tot handel en gebiede waar die Franse eens gedomineer het. Boonop beheer hulle Gibraltar en neem dit uit Spanje (en moet dit nog steeds doen).

Die oorlog het die Nederlanders egter aansienlik verswak, eerder as om hul hoofvyand, Frankryk, hoofsaaklik te verswak, waar groot skulde oor hulle gekom het. Dit het Brittanje nou in staat gestel om baie handelsgeleenthede in Afrika, Noord -Amerika en veral in Indië en die ooste wat die Nederlanders eens beheer het, oor te neem. Brittanje se opkoms as 'n kommersiële en territoriale ryk het in wese versnel weens die gevolge van die oorlog. Trouens, die opkoms van die British India East Company het byvoorbeeld na hierdie tyd baie versnel, veral omdat die lot van die Nederlandse Oos -Indiese Kompanjie kort ná die oorlog begin afneem het (figuur 2). [4]

Vir die Nederlanders het die oorlog lank gesleep, en die bevolking van drie miljoen kon nie 'n groot skuld hanteer nie. In wese was die Nederlanders baie invloedryk in Europese aangeleenthede in die 17de eeu. Na hierdie oorlog het die invloed egter skerp afgeneem namate hul maritieme ryk, en handelskrag afgeneem het as gevolg van die oorlog se skuld en koste. Ondanks die feit dat hulle aan die kant was wat die meeste gebaat het uit die einde van die oorlog, het die Nederlanders aansienlike verliese in hul algehele invloed en ekonomiese vaardigheid beleef. [5]

Vir Frankryk lyk dit asof die oorlog in die eerste paar jaar rampspoedig gaan, maar teen die einde van die oorlog was hulle in 'n sterker posisie, en ondanks verliese in Noord -Amerika het hulle nie die grootste deel van hul kolonies verloor nie. Wat Frankryk moontlik verswak het, het meer te doen gehad met die monargie van Frankryk, wat te sentraliseer en sterk geword het. Boonop het die koste van die oorlog 'n langtermyngevolge gehad, net soos Frankryk, na hierdie oorlog, dit moeiliker begin maak het om vir sy konflikte te betaal, en meer skuld aangegaan het. Dit het groter afstand tussen die Franse regering en die Franse bevolking veroorsaak, waar hierdie afstand na verloop van tyd verwoestend was en tot die Franse rewolusie gelei het. Trouens, die latere Sewejarige Oorlog en die Amerikaanse Revolusie het waarskynlik meer bygedra tot die agteruitgang van die koninklike familie in Frankryk. Die buigsaamheid van die parlementêre stelsel, wat nie afhanklik was van 'n sterk heerser nie, soos die stelsel in Brittanje, kan egter 'n uitwerking en invloed hê deur die doeltreffendheid daarvan te demonstreer om veldtogte te voer deur leierskap te verander en nie geneig te wees tot impulsiewe vorste nie. [6]

Vir Spanje het die oorlog 'n groot territoriale verlies in Europa meegebring, hoewel die oorsese ryk ongeskonde gebly het. Nooit weer was Spanje so invloedryk soos in Europese sake in die 16de en 17de eeu nie. Die belangrikste uitwerking was dat die nuwe regeerhuis, die Bourbons, nuwe idees in die regering en administrasie gebring het wat in Frankryk ontwikkel het, wat Spanje in staat gestel het om sy politieke infrastruktuur in die 18de eeu vinniger te moderniseer. Dit het die Spaanse mag kortliks herstel, hoewel dit nooit sy oorheersing gekry het voor die oorlog in Europese aangeleenthede nie. Spanje het ook meer gesentraliseer geraak, waar koning Filippus die krone van Aragon en Kastilië verenig het. [7]

Uitwerking op States Today

Die gevolge van die oorlog is vandag duidelik. In Gibraltar wil Spanje die gebied terug hê, waar dit nog steeds 'n Britse oorsese gebied is. Die opkoms van Brittanje na die oorlog het dit ook in staat gestel om die grootste ryk in die geskiedenis te word. In die besonder kon Brittanje ná hierdie oorlog beter op die Ooste fokus, aangesien die Oos -Indiese Kompanjie ontstaan ​​het as 'n kommersiële en later territoriale mag. Deur die seehandel na die ineenstorting van die Nederlanders te oorheers, kon Brittanje in werklikheid sy oorsese ryk finansier. Dit het beteken dat geen groot wêreldkonflik Brittanje na hierdie oorlog op 'n sekere vlak betrek het nie, aangesien die Britse Ryk nou die dominante handels- en territoriale ryk oor 'n groot deel van die wêreld geword het. Dit het vandag beteken dat baie lande die erfenisse van die Britse keiserlike bewind effektief opgeneem het. In Indië, byvoorbeeld, is erflating oor onderwys, regering en taal duidelik. Dit geld ook in ander lande waartoe Brittanje kon uitbrei namate sy mag oorsee toegeneem het, ook in Afrika en Asië. [8]

Die oorlog het daartoe gelei dat die Franse monargie in die val was, aangesien dit toenemend geïsoleer geraak het van die bevolking en meer gesentraliseer was. Hoë finansiële koste het ook gelei tot skuld wat dit vir Frankryk moeilik gemaak het om van te verhaal. In Frankryk en elders in Wes-Europa, veral namate die Franse rewolusie invloedryk geword het, het die geleidelike beweging na parlementêre stelsels begin versnel, aangesien verwoestende oorloë die swakheid van monargies onder leiding toon. Die pad na Wes -Europa se demokrasieë het in werklikheid versnel as gevolg van die duur en veranderings wat veroorsaak is deur oorloë soos die Spaanse opvolgingsoorlog.

Verder het die Spaanse opvolgingsoorlog getoon dat verwoestende oorloë geskep kan word deur bloot 'n monarg sonder erfgename te laat sterf. Die skep van stelsels wat veranderinge in enige individuele gesin of huishouding kan weerstaan, was aantrekliker namate die Europese Verligting voortduur. Die state wat ons vandag in Wes -Europa sien, weerspieël die evolusionêre veranderinge wat deur die oorlog gevorm is, aangesien die finansiële en menslike koste daarvan tot verskillende vorme van state begin lei het, met minder afhanklikheid van monarge. [9]

Opsomming

Aanvanklik was die Spaanse opvolgingsoorlog soortgelyk aan ander oorloë wat Europa aan die einde van die 17de eeu oorheers het. Die langtermyn-aard van die konflik en die gebrek aan duidelike oplossing vir baie jare het egter daartoe gelei dat dit duur was vir sommige lande, veral die Nederlanders en Spanje, terwyl ander groot baat gevind het, soos Brittanje. Dit het gehelp om globale aangeleenthede wat in die volgende paar eeue ontwikkel het, te vorm, toe Brittanje die wêreldhandel en wêreldsake oorheers het. Op lang termyn kon die Europese monargieë egter nie 'n probleem soos opvolging maklik oplos nie, sonder om groot oorloë te begin wat die invloed van monargieë in Europa verswak het. Hierdie proses het vroeër tydens die Engelse burgeroorlog in Brittanje begin, maar die Spaanse opvolgingsoorlog en later die sewejarige oorlog het gehelp om die ondergang van die Franse monargie te bespoedig. Die opkoms van die Franse Republiek sou nog 'n kritieke stap in Europa wees om die invloed van monargieë te verwyder, maar die Spaanse opvolgingsoorlog het hierdie proses op baie maniere gevorm. Some of Western Europe's last remaining territorial conflicts, such as the debate regarding Gibraltar, is also a legacy from this war.


Britain and Colonial Maritime War in the Early Eighteenth Century - Silver, Seapower and the Atlantic, Shinsuke Satsuma - History

研究協力者の 薩摩真介 著 Britain and Colonial Maritime War in the Early Eighteenth Century: Silver, Seapower and the Atlantic , Boydell & Brewer(September 19, 2013)が出版されました。是非ご一読ください。

Inhoud

  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 English Expansion into Spanish America and the Development of a Pro-maritime War Argument
  • 3 Idea of Economic Advantages of Maritime War in Spanish America
  • 4 Pro-maritime War Arguments and Party Politics
  • 5 Impact on Reality: Naval Policy
  • 6 Impact on Reality: Legislation
  • 7 The South Sea Company and its Plan for a Naval Expedition in 1712
  • 8 Pro-maritime War Argument during the War of the Quadruple Alliance and Anglo-Spanish Conflict of 1726-29
  • 9 Changes in Naval Policy after 1714: From Conquest to Security of Trade
  • 10 Conclusion

In early modern Britain, there was an argument that war at sea, especially war in Spanish America, was an ideal means of warfare, offering the prospect of rich gains at relatively little cost whilst inflicting considerable damage on enemy financial resources. This book examines that argument, tracing its origin to the glorious memory of Elizabethan maritime war, discussing its supposed economic advantages, and investigating its influence on British politics and naval policy during the War of the Spanish Succession (1702-13) and after. The book reveals that the alleged economic advantages of war at sea were crucial in attracting the support of politicians of different political stances. It shows how supporters of war at sea, both in the government as well as in the opposition, tried to implement pro-maritime war policy by naval operations, colonial expeditions and by legislation, and how their attempts were often frustrated by diplomatic considerations, the incapacity of naval administration, and by conflicting interests between different groups connected to the West Indian colonies and Spanish American trade. It demonstrates how, after the War of the Spanish Succession, arguments for active colonial maritime war continued to be central to political conflict, notably in the opposition propaganda campaigns against the Walpole ministry, culminating in the War of Jenkins's Ear against Spain in 1739. The book also includes material on the South Sea Company, showing how the foundation of this company, later the subject of the notorious 'Bubble', was a logical part of British strategy. Shinsuke Satsuma completed his doctorate in maritime history at the University of Exeter.


Inhoud

The cause of the war is traditionally seen as a dispute between Britain and Spain over access to markets in Spanish America. Historians such as Anderson and Woodfine argue it was one of several issues, including tensions with France and British expansion in North America. They suggest the decisive factor in turning a commercial dispute into war was the domestic political campaign to remove Robert Walpole, long-serving British Prime Minister. [7]

The 18th century economic theory of mercantilism viewed trade as a finite resource if one country increased its share, it was at the expense of others and wars were often fought over commercial issues. [8] The 1713 Treaty of Utrecht gave British merchants access to markets in Spanish America, including the Asiento de Negros, a monopoly to supply 5,000 slaves a year. Another was the Navio de Permiso, permitting two ships a year to sell 500 tons of goods each in Porto Bello in present-day Panama and Veracruz in present-day Mexico. [9] These rights were assigned to the South Sea Company, acquired by the British government in 1720. [10]

However, trade between Britain and mainland Spain was far more significant. British goods were imported through Cadiz, either for sale locally or re-exported to Spanish colonies, with Spanish dye and wool being sold to England. A leading City of London merchant called the trade 'the best flower in our garden.' [11] Die asiento itself was marginally profitable and has been described as a 'commercial illusion' between 1717 and 1733, only eight ships were sent from Britain to the Americas. [12] Previous holders made money by carrying smuggled goods that evaded customs duties, demand from Spanish colonists creating a large and profitable black market. [13]

Accepting the trade was too widespread to be stopped, the Spanish authorities used it as an instrument of policy. During the 1727 to 1729 Anglo-Spanish War, French ships carrying contraband were let through, while British ships were stopped and severe restrictions imposed on British merchants in Cadiz. This was reversed during the 1733 to 1735 War of the Polish Succession, when Britain supported Spanish acquisitions in Italy. [14]

The 1729 Treaty of Seville allowed the Spanish to board British vessels trading with the Americas. In 1731, Robert Jenkins claimed his ear was amputated by coast guard officers after they discovered contraband aboard his ship Rebecca. Such incidents were seen as the cost of doing business and were forgotten after the easing of restrictions in 1732. [15] Although an earless Jenkins was exhibited in the House of Commons, and war declared in 1739, [16] the legend that his severed ear was shown to the House of Commons has no basis in fact. [17]

Tensions increased after the founding of the British colony of Georgia in 1732, which Spain considered a threat to Spanish Florida, vital to protect shipping routes with mainland Spain. [18] For their part, the British viewed the 1733 Pacte de Famille between Louis XV and his uncle Philip V as the first step in being replaced by France as Spain's largest trading partner. [19]

A second round of "depredations" in 1738 led to demands for compensation, British newsletters and pamphlets presenting them as inspired by France. [20] Linking these allowed the Tory opposition to imply failure to act was due to George II's concerns over exposing Hanover to French attack. Resistance to European 'entanglements' was an ongoing theme in English politics, going back to the 17th century. [21]

The January 1739 Convention of Pardo set up a Commission to resolve the Georgia-Florida boundary dispute and agreed Spain would pay damages of £95,000 for ships seized. In return, the South Sea Company would pay £68,000 to Philip V as his share of profits on the asiento. Despite being controlled by the government, the company refused and Walpole reluctantly accepted his political opponents wanted war. [22]

On 10 July 1739, the Admiralty was authorised to begin naval operations against Spain and on 20th, a force under Admiral Vernon sailed for the West Indies. [23] He reached Antigua in early October on 22 October, British ships attacked La Guaira and Puerto Cabello, principal ports of the Province of Venezuela and Britain formally declared war on 23 October 1739. [24]

The incident that gave its name to the war had occurred in 1731, off the coast of Florida, when the British brig Rebecca was boarded by the Spanish patrol boat La Isabela, commanded by the guarda costa (effectively privateer) Juan de León Fandiño. After boarding, Fandiño cut off the left ear of the Rebecca's captain, Robert Jenkins, whom he accused of smuggling (although Franklin's Pennsylvania Gazette for 7 October 1731, says it was Lieutenant Dorce). [4] Fandiño told Jenkins, "Go, and tell your King that I will do the same, if he dares to do the same." In March 1738, Jenkins was ordered to testify before Parliament, presumably to repeat his story before a committee of the House of Commons. According to some accounts, he produced the severed ear as part of his presentation, although no detailed record of the hearing exists. [25] The incident was considered alongside various other cases of "Spanish Depredations upon the British Subjects", [26] and was perceived as an insult to Britain's honour and a clear casus belli. [27]

The conflict was named by essayist and historian Thomas Carlyle, in 1858, one hundred and ten years after hostilities ended. Carlyle mentioned the ear in several passages of his History of Friedrich II (1858), most notably in Book XI, chapter VI, where he refers specifically to "the War of Jenkins's Ear".

First attack on La Guaira (22 October 1739) Edit

Vernon sent three ships commanded by Captain Thomas Waterhouse to intercept Spanish ships between La Guaira and Porto Bello. He decided to attack a number of vessels that he observed at La Guaira, which was controlled by the Royal Guipuzcoan Company of Caracas. [28] The governor of the Province of Venezuela, Brigadier Don Gabriel de Zuloaga had prepared the port defences, and Spanish troops were well-commanded by Captain Don Francisco Saucedo. On 22 October, Waterhouse entered the port of La Guaira flying the Spanish flag. Expecting attack, the port gunners were not deceived by his ruse they waited until the British squadron was within range and then simultaneously opened fire. After three hours of heavy shelling, Waterhouse ordered a withdrawal. The battered British squadron sailed to Jamaica to undertake emergency repairs. Trying later to explain his actions, Waterhouse argued that the capture of a few small Spanish vessels would not have justified the loss of his men.

Capture of Portobelo (20–22 November 1739) Edit

Prior to 1739, trade between mainland Spain and its colonies was conducted only through specific ports twice a year, outward bound ships assembled in Cadiz and the Flota escorted to Portobelo or Veracruz. One way to impact Spanish trade was by attacking or blockading these ports but as many ships carried cargoes financed by foreign merchants, the strategy also risked damaging British and neutral interests. [29]

During the 1727 to 1729 Anglo-Spanish War, the British attempted to take Portobelo but retreated after heavy losses from disease. On 22 November 1739, Vernon attacked the port with six ships of the line it fell within twenty-four hours and the British occupied the town for three weeks before withdrawing, having first destroyed its fortifications, port and warehouses. [30]

The victory was widely celebrated in Britain the song "Rule Britannia" was written in 1740 to mark the occasion and performed for the first time at a dinner in London honouring Vernon. [31] The suburb of Portobello in Edinburgh and Portobello Road in London are among the places in Britain named after this success, while more medals were awarded for its capture than any other event in the eighteenth century. [32]

However, taking a port in Spain's American empire was considered a foregone conclusion by many Patriot Whigs and opposition Tories. They now pressed a reluctant Walpole to launch larger naval expeditions to the Gulf of Mexico. In the longer term, the Spanish replaced the twice yearly Flota with a larger number of smaller convoys, calling at more ports and Portobelo's economy did not recover until the building of the Panama Canal nearly two centuries later. [ aanhaling nodig ]

First attack on Cartagena de Indias (13–20 March 1740) Edit

Following the success of Portobelo, Vernon decided to focus his efforts on the capture of Cartagena de Indias in present-day Colombia. Both Vernon and Edward Trelawny, governor of Jamaica, considered the Spanish gold shipping port to be a prime objective. Since the outbreak of the war, and Vernon's arrival in the Caribbean, the British had made a concerted effort to gain intelligence on the defences of Cartagena. In October 1739, Vernon sent First Lieutenant Percival to deliver a letter to Blas de Lezo and Don Pedro Hidalgo, governor of Cartagena. Percival was to use the opportunity to make a detailed study of the Spanish defences. This effort was thwarted when Percival was denied entry to the port.

On 7 March 1740, in a more direct approach, Vernon undertook a reconnaissance-in-force of the Spanish city. Vernon left Port Royal in command of a squadron including ships of the line, two fire ships, three bomb vessels, and transport ships. Reaching Cartagena on 13 March, Vernon immediately landed several men to map the topography and to reconnoitre the Spanish squadron anchored in Playa Grande, west of Cartagena. Having not seen any reaction from the Spanish, on 18 March Vernon ordered the three bomb vessels to open fire on the city. Vernon intended to provoke a response that might give him a better idea of the defensive capabilities of the Spanish. Understanding Vernon's motives, Lezo did not immediately respond. Instead, Lezo ordered the removal of guns from some of his ships, in order to form a temporary shore battery for the purpose of suppressive fire. Vernon next initiated an amphibious assault, but in the face of strong resistance, the attempt to land 400 soldiers was unsuccessful. The British then undertook a three-day naval bombardment of the city. In total, the campaign lasted 21 days. Vernon then withdrew his forces, leaving HMS Windsor -kasteel en HMS Greenwich in the vicinity, with a mission to intercept any Spanish ship that might approach.

Destruction of the fortress of San Lorenzo el Real Chagres (22–24 March 1740) Edit

After the destruction of Portobelo the previous November, Vernon proceeded to remove the last Spanish stronghold in the area. He attacked the fortress of San Lorenzo el Real Chagres, in present-day Panama on the banks of the Chagres River, near Portobelo. The fort was defended by Spanish patrol boats, and was armed with four guns and about thirty soldiers under Captain of Infantry Don Juan Carlos Gutiérrez Cevallos.

At 3 pm on 22 March 1740, the British squadron, composed of the ships Stafford, Norwich, Falmouth en Princess Louisa, die fregat Diamant, the bomb vessels Alderney, Verskriklik, en Cumberland, the fireships Success en Eleanor, and transports Goodly en Pompey, under command of Vernon, began to bombard the Spanish fortress. Given the overwhelming superiority of the British forces, Captain Cevallos surrendered the fort on 24 March, after resisting for two days.

Following the strategy previously applied at Porto Bello, the British destroyed the fort and seized the guns along with two Spanish patrol boats.

During this time of British victories along the Caribbean coast, events taking place in Spain would prove to have a significant effect on the outcome of the largest engagement of the war. Spain had decided to replace Don Pedro Hidalgo as governor of Cartagena de Indias. But, the new governor-designate, Lieutenant General of the Royal Armies Sebastián de Eslava y Lazaga had first to dodge the Royal Navy in order to get to his new post. Starting from the Galician port of Ferrol, the vessels Galicië en San Carlos set out on the journey. Hearing the news, Vernon immediately sent four ships to intercept the Spanish. They were unsuccessful in their mission. The Spanish managed to circumvent the British interceptors and entered the port of Cartagena on 21 April 1740, landing there with the new governor and several hundred veteran soldiers. [33]

Second attack on Cartagena de Indias (3 May 1740) Edit

In May, Vernon returned to Cartagena de Indias aboard the flagship HMS Princess Caroline in charge of 13 warships, with the intention of bombarding the city. Lezo reacted by deploying his six ships of the line so that the British fleet was forced into ranges where they could only make short or long shots that were of little value. Vernon withdrew, asserting that the attack was merely a manoeuver. The main consequence of this action was to help the Spanish test their defences. [34]

Third attack on Cartagena de Indias (13 March – 20 May 1741) Edit

The largest action of the war was a major amphibious attack launched by the British under Admiral Edward Vernon in March 1741 against Cartagena de Indias, one of Spain's principal gold-trading ports in their colony of New Granada (today Colombia). Vernon's expedition was hampered by inefficient organisation, his rivalry with the commander of his land forces, and the logistical problems of mounting and maintaining a major trans-Atlantic expedition. The strong fortifications in Cartagena and the able strategy of Spanish Commander Blas de Lezo were decisive in repelling the attack. Heavy losses on the British side were due in large part to virulent tropical diseases, primarily an outbreak of yellow fever, which took more lives than were lost in battle. [6]

The extreme ease with which the British destroyed Porto Bello led to a change in British plans. Instead of Vernon concentrating his next attack on Havana as expected, in order to conquer Cuba, he planned to attack Cartagena de Indias. Located in Colombia, it was the main port of the Viceroyalty and main point of the West Indian fleet for sailing to the Iberian Peninsula. In preparation the British gathered in Jamaica one of the largest fleets ever assembled. It consisted of 186 ships (60 more than the famous Spanish Armada of Philip II), bearing 2,620 artillery pieces and more than 27,000 men. Of that number, 10,000 were soldiers responsible for initiating the assault. There were also 12,600 sailors, 1,000 Jamaican slaves and macheteros, and 4,000 recruits from Virginia. The latter were led by Lawrence Washington, the older half-brother of George Washington, future President of the United States. [35]

Colonial officials assigned Admiral Blas de Lezo to defend the fortified city. He was a marine veteran hardened by numerous naval battles in Europe, beginning with the War of the Spanish Succession, and by confrontations with European pirates in the Caribbean Sea and Pacific Ocean, and Barbary pirates in the Mediterranean Sea. Assisting in that effort were Melchor de Navarrete and Carlos Desnaux, with a squadron of six ships of the line (the flagship vessel Galicië together with the San Felipe, San Carlos, África, Dragón, en Conquistador) and a force of 3,000 soldiers, 600 militia and a group of native Indian archers.

Vernon ordered his forces to clear the port of all scuttled ships. On 13 March 1741, he landed a contingent of troops under command of Major General Thomas Wentworth and artillery to take Fort de San Luis de Bocachica. In support of that action, the British ships simultaneously opened with cannon fire, at a rate of 62 shots per hour. In turn, Lezo ordered four of the Spanish ships to aid 500 of his troops defending Desnaux's position, but the Spanish eventually had to retire to the city. Civilians were already evacuating it. After leaving Fort Bocagrande, the Spanish regrouped at Fort San Felipe de Barajas, while Washington's Virginians took up positions in the nearby hill of La Popa. Vernon, believing the victory at hand, sent a message to Jamaica stating that he had taken the city. The report was subsequently forwarded to London, where there was much celebration. Commemorative medals were minted, depicting the defeated Spanish defenders kneeling before Vernon. [36] The robust image of the enemy depicted in the British medals bore little resemblance to Admiral Lezo. Maimed by years of battle, he was one-eyed and lame, with limited use of one hand.

On the evening of 19 April, the British mounted an assault in force upon Castillo San Felipe de Barajas. Three columns of grenadiers, supported by Jamaicans and several British companies, moved under cover of darkness, with the aid of an intense naval bombardment. The British fought their way to the base of the fort's ramparts where they discovered that the Spanish had dug deep trenches. This effectively rendered the British scaling equipment too short for the task. The British advance was stymied since the fort's walls had not been breached, and the ramparts could not be topped. Neither could the British easily withdraw in the face of intense Spanish fire and under the weight of their own equipment. The Spanish seized on this opportunity, with devastating effect.

Reversing the tide of battle, the Spanish initiated a fixed bayonet charge at first light, inflicting heavy casualties on the British. The surviving British forces retreated to the safety of their ships. The British maintained a naval bombardment, sinking what remained of the small Spanish squadron (after Lezo's decision to scuttle some of his ships in an effort to block the harbour entrance). The Spanish thwarted any British attempt to land another ground assault force. The British troops were forced to remain aboard ship for a month, without sufficient reserves. With supplies running low, and with the outbreak of disease (primarily yellow fever), which took the lives of many on the crowded ships, [37] Vernon was forced to raise the siege on 9 May and return to Jamaica. Six thousand British died while only one thousand Spanish perished.

Vernon carried on, successfully attacking the Spanish at Guantánamo Bay, Cuba. On 5 March 1742, with the help of reinforcements from Europe, he launched an assault on Panama City, Panama. In 1742, Vernon was replaced by Rear-Admiral Chaloner Ogle and returned to England, where he gave an accounting to the Admiralty. He learned that he had been elected MP for Ipswich. Vernon maintained his naval career for another four years before retiring in 1746. In an active Parliamentary career, Vernon advocated for improvements in naval procedures. He continued to hold an interest in naval affairs until his death in 1757.

News of the defeat at Cartagena was a significant factor in the downfall of the British Prime Minister Robert Walpole. [38] Walpole's anti-war views were considered by the Opposition to have contributed to his poor prosecution of the war effort. The new government under Lord Wilmington wanted to shift the focus of Britain's war effort away from the Americas and into the Mediterranean. Spanish policy, dictated by the queen Elisabeth Farnese of Parma, also shifted to a European focus, to recover lost Spanish possessions in Italy from the Austrians. In 1742, a large British fleet under Nicholas Haddock was sent to try and intercept a Spanish army being transported from Barcelona to Italy, which he failed to do having only 10 ships. [39] With the arrival of additional ships from Britain in February 1742, Haddock successfully blockaded the Spanish coast [40] failing to force the Spanish fleet into an action. Lawrence Washington survived the yellow fever outbreak, and eventually retired to Virginia. He named his estate Mount Vernon, in honour of his former commander.

Anson expedition Edit

The success of the Porto Bello operation led the British, in September 1740, to send a squadron under Commodore George Anson to attack Spain's possessions in the Pacific. Before they reached the Pacific, numerous men had died from disease, and they were in no shape to launch any sort of attack. [24] Anson reassembled his force in the Juan Fernández Islands, allowing them to recuperate before he moved up the Chilean coast, raiding the small town of Paita. He reached Acapulco too late to intercept the yearly Manila galleon, which had been one of the principal objectives of the expedition. He retreated across the Pacific, running into a storm that forced him to dock for repairs in Canton. After this he tried again the following year to intercept the Manila galleon. He accomplished this on 20 June 1743 off Cape Espiritu Santo, capturing more than a million gold coins. [39]

Anson sailed home, arriving in London more than three and a half years after he had set out, having circumnavigated the globe in the process. Less than a tenth of his forces had survived the expedition. Anson's achievements helped establish his name and wealth in Britain, leading to his appointment as First Lord of the Admiralty.

Florida Redigeer

In 1740, the inhabitants of Georgia launched an overland attack on the fortified city of St. Augustine in Florida, supported by a British naval blockade, but were repelled. The British forces led by James Oglethorpe, the Governor of Georgia, besieged St. Augustine for over a month before retreating, and abandoned their artillery in the process. The failure of the Royal Navy blockade to prevent supplies reaching the settlement was a crucial factor in the collapse of the siege. Oglethorpe began preparing Georgia for an expected Spanish assault. The Battle of Bloody Mose, where the Spanish and free black forces repelled Oglethorpe's forces at Fort Mose, was also a part of the War of Jenkins' Ear. [41]

French neutrality Edit

When war broke out in 1739, both Britain and Spain expected that France would join the war on the Spanish side. This played a large role in the tactical calculations of the British. If the Spanish and French were to operate together, they would have a superiority of ninety ships of the line. [42] In 1740, there was an invasion scare when it was believed that a French fleet at Brest and a Spanish fleet at Ferrol were about to combine and launch an invasion of England. [43] Although this proved not to be the case, the British kept the bulk of their naval and land forces in southern England to act as a deterrent.

Many in the British government were afraid to launch a major offensive against the Spanish, for fear that a major British victory would draw France into the war to protect the balance of power. [44]

Invasion of Georgia Edit

In 1742, the Spanish launched an attempt to seize the British colony of Georgia. Manuel de Montiano commanded 2,000 troops, who were landed on St Simons Island off the coast. General Oglethorpe rallied the local forces and defeated the Spanish regulars at Bloody Marsh and Gully Hole Creek, forcing them to withdraw. Border clashes between the colonies of Florida and Georgia continued for the next few years, but neither Spain nor Britain undertook offensive operations on the North American mainland.

Second attack on La Guaira (2 March 1743) Edit

The British attacked several locations in the Caribbean with little consequence to the geopolitical situation in the Atlantic. The weakened British forces under Vernon launched an attack against Cuba, landing in Guantánamo Bay with a plan to march the 45 miles to Santiago de Cuba and capture the city. [45] Vernon clashed with the army commander, and the expedition withdrew when faced with heavier Spanish opposition than expected. Vernon remained in the Caribbean until October 1742, before heading back to Britain he was replaced by admiral Chaloner Ogle, who took command of a sickly fleet. Less than half the sailors were fit for duty. The following year, a smaller fleet of Royal Navy led by commodore Charles Knowles raided the Venezuelan coast, on 2 March 1743 attacking newly La Guaira controlled by Royal Guipuzcoan Company of Caracas whose ships had rendered great assistance to the Spanish navy during War in carrying troops, arms, stores and ammunition from Spain to her colonies, and its destruction would be a severe blow both to the Company and the Spanish Crown.

After a fierce defence by Governor Gabriel José de Zuloaga's troops, Commodore Knowles, having suffered 97 killed and 308 wounded over three days, decided to retire west before sunrise on 6 March. He decided to attack nearby Puerto Cabello. Despite his orders to rendezvous at Borburata Keys—4 miles (6.4 km) east of Puerto Cabello—captains of the detached Burford, Norwich, Assistance, en Otter proceeded to Curaçao. The commodore angrily followed them in. On 28 March, he sent his smaller ships to cruise off Puerto Cabello, and once his main body had been refitted, went to sea again on 31 March. He struggled against contrary winds and currents for two weeks before finally diverting to the eastern tip of Santo Domingo by 19 April. [24]

Merger with wider war Edit

By mid-1742, the War of the Austrian Succession had broken out in Europe. Principally fought by Prussia and Austria over possession of Silesia, the war soon engulfed most of the major powers of Europe, who joined two competing alliances. The scale of this new war dwarfed any of the fighting in the Americas, and drew Britain and Spain's attention back to operations on the European continent. The return of Vernon's fleet in 1742 marked the end of major offensive operations in the War of Jenkins' Ear. France entered the war in 1744, emphasizing the European theatre and planning an ambitious invasion of Britain. While it ultimately failed, the threat persuaded British policymakers of the dangers of sending significant forces to the Americas which might be needed at home.

Britain did not attempt any additional attacks on Spanish possessions. In 1745, William Pepperrell of New England led a colonial expedition, supported by a British fleet under Commodore Peter Warren, against the French fortress of Louisbourg on Cape Breton Island off Canada. Pepperrell was knighted for his achievement, but Britain returned Louisbourg to the French by the Treaty of Aix-La-Chapelle in 1748. A decade later, during the Seven Years' War (known as the French and Indian War in the North American theatre), British forces under Lord Jeffrey Amherst and General Wolfe recaptured it. [46] [ pages needed ]

Privateering Edit

The war involved privateering by both sides. Anson captured a valuable Manila galleon, but this was more than offset by the numerous Spanish privateering attacks on British shipping along the transatlantic triangular trade route. They seized hundreds of British ships, looting their goods and slaves, and operated with virtual impunity in the West Indies they were also active in European waters. The Spanish convoys proved almost unstoppable. During the Austrian phase of the war, the British fleet attacked poorly protected French merchantmen instead.

Lisbon negotiations Edit

From August 1746, negotiations began in the city of Lisbon, in neutral Portugal, to try to arrange a peace settlement. The death of Philip V of Spain had brought his son Ferdinand VI to the throne, and he was more willing to be conciliatory over the issues of trade. However, because of their commitments to their Austrian allies, the British were unable to agree to Spanish demands for territory in Italy and talks broke down. [47]

The eventual diplomatic resolution formed part of the wider settlement of the War of the Austrian Succession by the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle which restored the status quo ante. [48] British territorial and economic ambitions on the Caribbean had been repelled, [49] [50] [51] while Spain, though unprepared at the start of the war, proved successful in defending their American possessions. [52] Moreover, the war put an end to the British smuggling, and the Spanish fleet was able to dispatch three treasure convoys to Europe during the war and off-balance the British squadron at Jamaica. [53] The issue of the asiento was not mentioned in the treaty, as its importance had lessened for both nations. The issue was finally settled by the 1750 Treaty of Madrid in which Britain agreed to renounce its claim to the asiento in exchange for a payment of £100,000. The South Sea Company ceased its activity, though the treaty also allowed favourable conditions for British trade with Spanish America. [54]

George Anson's expedition to the Southeast Pacific led the Spanish authorities in Lima and Santiago to advance the position of the Spanish Empire in the area. Forts were thus built in the Juan Fernández Islands and the Chonos Archipelago in 1749 and 1750. [55]

Relations between Britain and Spain improved temporarily, in subsequent years, due to a concerted effort by the Duke of Newcastle to cultivate Spain as an ally. A succession of Anglophile ministers were appointed in Spain, including José de Carvajal and Ricardo Wall, all of whom were on good terms with British Ambassador Benjamin Keene, in an effort to avoid a repeat of hostilities. As a result, during the early part of the Seven Years' War between Britain and France, Spain remained neutral. However, it later joined the French and lost both Havana and Manila to the British in 1762, although both were returned as part of the peace settlement.

The War of Jenkins' Ear is commemorated annually on the last Saturday in May at Wormsloe Plantation in Savannah, Georgia.


Attention is also drawn to the following publications:

Emerick, Keith, Conserving and Managing Ancient Monuments: Heritage, Democracy and Inclusion (Woodbridge: The Boydell P., 2014 pp. 282. £60).

Lazarski, Christopher, Power Tends to Corrupt: Lord Acton’s Study of Liberty (De Kalb, IL: Northern Illinois U.P., 2012 pp. 324. $65).

Moran, Christopher R., and Murphy, Christopher J. (eds.), Intelligence Studies in Britain and the US: Historiography since 1945 (Edinburgh: Edinburgh U.P., 2013 pp. 316. £70).

Thomas, Suzie, and Lea, Joanne (eds.), Public Participation in Archaeology (Woodbridge: The Boydell P., 2014 pp. 205. £60).

Curry-Machado, Jonathan, Global Histories, Imperial Commodities, Local Interactions (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013 pp. 286. £60).

Della Casa, Giovanni, Galateo: The Rules of Polite Behaviour, red. and tr. M.F. Rusnak (Chicago, IL: U. of Chicago P., 2013 pp. 103. $15).

Knapp, Andrew, and Footitt, Hilary (eds.), Liberal Democracies at War: Conflict and Representation (London: Bloomsbury, 2013 pp. 245. £19.99).


Kyk die video: Колонизаторы и ростовщики ǀ Британская колонизация ǀ Как Россия стала колонией? (Julie 2022).


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