Geskiedenis Podcasts

Chales Tyler Stanton

Chales Tyler Stanton


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Chales Tyler Stanton is gebore in Pompey, Onondaga County, op 11 Maart 1811. Hy het as winkelbediende gewerk, maar was baie geïnteresseerd in plantkunde en geologie. Stanton verhuis in 1835 na Chicago waar hy sy eie onderneming stig.

In 1846 sluit hy aan by die Donner Party -wa -trein op sy reis van Independence, Missouri, na Sutter's Fort in Kalifornië. Die partytjie het die Oregon -roete gevolg totdat hulle op 28 Julie Fort Bridger bereik het.

By die fort ontmoet die partytjie Lansford Hastings. Hy was besig om die Oregon-gebonde emigrante te probeer oorreed om na Kalifornië te gaan deur die sogenaamde Hastings Cutoff. Hastings beweer dat sy roete 300 myl van die afstand na Sutter's Fort sou verwyder. Sy afsnyding behels die kruising van die Wasatchberge, om die Great Salt Lake in die suide, dan weswaarts na die Humboldtrivier in Nevada, voordat hy terugkeer na die hoofroete van Fort Hall.

Hastings het aan mense gesê dat die woestyn slegs 40 myl oor is en dat hulle na 24 uur water sal vind. Dit was eintlik 82 myl breed en water was eers na 48 uur se reis te vinde. Hastings het aan George Donner en James Reed gesê dat drie treintreine reeds vir hierdie roete gekies het.

Die Donner -party het tot dusver swak tyd gemaak en was reeds 'n entjie agter die meeste ander waentreine wat van Independence na Sutter's Fort reis. Hulle het geweet dat hulle die Sierra Nevada moet oorsteek voor die sneeuval wat na Sutter's Fort sou lei. Dit gebeur gewoonlik vroeg in November. Alhoewel hulle teen die laat somer die berge sou bereik, was hulle bekommerd oor ander vertragings wat moontlik deur die winterweer geblokkeer kan word. Hulle het dus die besluit geneem om die advies van Lansford Hastings in te neem en die voorgestelde kortpad te volg.

Op 31 Julie het die Donner -party Fort Bridger verlaat. Hulle het eers op 6 Augustus uit die Echo Canyon gekom. Wat hulle verwag het om hulle vier dae te neem, het dit eintlik sewe dae geneem. Hulle kry 'n brief van Lansford Hastings waarin hulle aangeraai word om by die Weberrivier te kampeer en 'n man vooruit te stuur om hom te vind sodat hy vir hulle 'n nuwe roete na Kalifornië kan wys. Stanton en James Reed is op pad na Hastings. Toe hulle hom kry, weier hy die aanbod om die persoonlike gids vir die Donner -waentrein te word. In plaas daarvan het hy 'n rowwe kaart van die nuwe roete geteken.

Die Donner -party het die Wasatchberge op 12 Augustus binnegekom. Hulle het gou ontdek dat hulle deur asp, katoenhout en verstrengelde ondergroei moes kap om 'n roete vir die waens te maak. In die volgende paar dae moes hulle rotsblokke losmaak en paaie oor moerasse bou om die vallei van die Great Salt Lake te bereik. Die Graves-gesin en hul drie waens het nou by die drie-en-twintig waens van die Donner Party aangesluit. Soos Virginia Reed later opgeneem het, bestaan ​​die nuwe groep "uit W.F. Graves, sy vrou en agt kinders, sy skoonseun Jay Fosdick en 'n jong man met die naam John Snyder."

Dit was nou die 27ste Augustus en hulle moes nog die Soutwoestyn oorsteek. Lede van die party het nou besef dat hulle in die moeilikheid is en het nou net 'n klein kans om die Sierra Nevada -berge oor te steek voordat die winter sneeu hul roete blokkeer. Die vinniger waens ry vorentoe en die stadige, swaar gelaaide waens van die Riet en Donners sak nou al hoe langer agter.

Die Donner Party bereik Pilot Peak op 8 September. Om hulle in staat te stel om tred te hou, moes die Riet en Donners van die swaar goedere wat hulle vervoer het, laat vaar. Hulle het ook drie waens laat vaar en die aantal osse wat die oorblywende waens trek, vergroot. Lede van die party het ook getwyfel of hulle genoeg kos het om te eet voordat hulle Kalifornië bereik. Daarom is besluit om twee mans, Stanton en William McCutcheon, vooruit te stuur na Sutter's Fort om voorraad vir die wa te koop.

Die Donner Party begin nou na die Humboldtrivier. Op 30 September bereik hulle die hoofroete van Fort Hall na Sutter's Fort. Teen hierdie tyd was die res van die 1818 waentreine egter al lankal weg en was hulle reeds in Kalifornië. Die Donner -party het nou probleme ondervind met die Paiute. Hulle het twee osse en twee perde gesteel. Hulle het ook verskeie pyle op die wa afgevuur en van die diere gewond.

Op 5 Oktober 1846 het die Donner Party weer 'n ramp getref. James Reed en John Snyder het gestry oor een van die waens. Snyder het sy humeur verloor en hom met 'n bullwhip oor die kop geslaan. Reed trek sy mes en steek dit in Snyder se liggaam vas. Snyder mompel: "Oom Patrick, ek is dood." Sy voorspelling was korrek en Lewis Keseberg het dadelik 'n waentong begin oprig as 'n tydelike galg. William Eddy het sy geweer gebruik om aan te dring dat Reed nie 'n lynch sou word nie. Die ander was dit eens en na baie bespreking is besluit dat Reed uit die wa moet verdryf word. Hy is gedwing om sonder wapens te perd na Sutter's Fort te gaan. Vir baie in die party was dit gelykstaande aan die vonnis van Reed tot die dood.

Kort daarna gooi Lewis Keseberg een van sy werknemers, Hardkoop, uit sy wa. Hy is nooit weer gesien nie en dit is nie bekend of hy aan hongersnood gesterf het of deur plaaslike inheemse Amerikaanse stamme vermoor is nie. Dit is gevolg deur die verdwyning van 'n ander Duitser met die naam Wolfinger. Joseph Reinhardt en Augustus Spitzer het later erken dat hulle Wolfinger beroof en vermoor het.

Die Donner Party moes nou 'n woestyn van 40 myl oorsteek. Gedurende die volgende drie dae het die wa -trein herhaaldelike aanvalle van groepe krygers opgedoen. Gedurende hierdie tyd het hulle 18 osse gesteel, nog 21 doodgemaak en talle ander gewond. Aangesien die meeste van hul diere nou dood of gesteel was, moes die party hul waens laat vaar. Die partytjie het einde Oktober die Truckee -meer bereik.

Op 19 Oktober kom Stanton terug van Sutter's Fort met sewe muile wat vol kos was. William McCutcheon is siek en is gedwing om by die fort te bly. Stanton het egter twee Indiese gidse saamgebring om hulle te help om na Kalifornië te kom. Stanton het ook nuus gebring dat James Reed Kalifornië suksesvol bereik het. Op 20 Oktober vermoor William Foster sy swaer in 'n skietongeluk.

Die Donner Party begin nou met sy poging om die Sierra Nevada -berge oor te steek. 'N Paar sneeustorme het hulle laat besef dat hulle in 'n desperate wedloop vir tyd was. In die verte kon hulle sien dat die pieke bedek was met sneeu. Op 25 Oktober het 'n Paiute -vegter losgebrand op wat van die diere oorgebly het. Hy het negentien osse geslaan voordat hy deur William Eddy vermoor is.

Die migrante het geploeg, maar toe hulle binne drie myl van die beraad kom, het hulle hul weg geblokkeer deur sneeustortings van vyf voet. Hulle is nou gedwing om terug te draai en dekking te soek in 'n kajuit wat hulle by die voet van die berg verbygesteek het. Intussen het James Reed en William McCutcheon vertrek met genoeg kos om die Donner -party vir die winter lewendig te hou. Hulle het egter hul pad geblokkeer gevind en moes met hul pak muile terugkeer na Sutter's Fort.

Die oorlewende lede van die wa het nou begin om 'n kamp op te rig langs wat later bekend gestaan ​​het as Donner Lake. Patrick Dolan, Patrick Breen en sy gesin het in die verlate hut ingetrek, terwyl Lewis Keseberg 'n leun teen een van die mure gebou het. William Eddy en William Foster het 'n houthuis gebou. So ook Stanton. Sy hut sou die Graves -gesin en Margaret Reed en haar kinders huisves. George Donner het daarin geslaag om 'n primitiewe skuiling vir sy gesin te bou.

Die Donner -partytjie het desperaat gebrek aan kos gehad. Die oorblywende diere is doodgemaak en geëet. Pogings om vis in die rivier te vang was onsuksesvol. Sommige van die mans het gaan jag, maar gedurende die volgende twee weke kon hulle net een beer, 'n coyote, 'n uil en 'n grys eekhoring doodmaak. Dit was duidelik dat as hulle in die kamp bly, almal van die honger sou sterf en op 12 November het dertien mans en twee vroue nog 'n poging aangewend om by Sutter's Fort te kom. Hulle het egter hul weg geblokkeer deur 'n sneeu van 10 voet gevind en teruggekeer na die kamp.

Die partytjie het 'n paar dae gerus en toe het 'n partytjie onder leiding van Stanton en William Eddy nog 'n poging aangewend om die veiligheid te bereik. Op 21 November keer hulle terug na die kamp verslaan. Kort daarna sterf Baylis Williams. Dit het die sterker lede van die party gemotiveer om 'n laaste poging te doen om die berge oor te steek.

Op 16 Desember het vyftien lede van die party die kamp verlaat en na die beraad gegaan. Dit het bekend geword as die Forlorn Hope -groep. Gesteun deur beter weer, kon hulle hierdie keer die bergpas oorsteek. Op 20 Desember het hulle 'n plek bereik met die naam Yuba Bottoms. Die volgende oggend was Stanton nie sterk genoeg om die kamp te verlaat nie. Die res is gedwing om hom te laat sterf.

Wel, wat u miskien sal verbaas, is dat ek môre na Kalifornië begin, en ek het 'n goeie geleentheid teëgekom en as ek twyfel of ek iets om te doen in hierdie land sou vind, het ek besluit om te gaan .... As u nog nooit gelees het nie Hastings (boek) Oregon en Kalifornië kry dit en lees dit. U sal 'n paar aansporings sien wat my tot hierdie stap gelei het, en ek hoop om veilig te kom, waarvan ek dink dat daar min gevaar is as ons in sulke groot menigtes gaan, dat ons die wet vir onsself sal wees en vir mekaar 'n beskerming sal wees.

In ons kamp het ons verskeie Oregon -gesinne gehad, wat twintig waens uitmaak. 'N Geringe onrus het ontstaan ​​en besluit om hulle aan ons party te onttrek en op hul eie haak te gaan, 'n eie geselskap te stig en 'n mag van twintig vegtende manne bymekaar te maak. Hulle het etlike dae lank voortgegaan en een of twee kilometer van ons af opgeslaan. In hul partytjie was daar baie jong dames-by ons meestal jong mans. Vriendskappe en verbintenisse is gevorm wat moeilik was om te verbreek; Vir ewig is ons geselskap byna verlate, omdat die jongmanne elke dag te perd uitry en voorgee dat hulle jag, maar in plaas van die takbokke of vlootbokke na te jaag, word hulle gewoonlik onder die pragtige Oregon -meisies aangetref! So gaan hulle elke dag en maak liefde langs die pad, te midde van die wildste en mooiste natuurskoon, en bewonder nou die kronkels van 'n heerlike stroom of loop van 'n edele rivier!

Nadat ons een of twee dae gereis het, het ons laer opgeslaan op die Kleinblou wat oorvloedig is in visse, en my vaardigheid as visser is hier op die proef gestel; maar ek het daarin geslaag om een ​​van die mooiste wat jy ooit gesien het, te vang, wat ons die volgende oggend vir ontbyt gehad het ... Ons het 'n paar dae in hierdie heerlike stroom opgetrek en elke aand 'n romantiese kampterrein gekry. Die natuurskoon was die mooiste - die oog dwaal oor goeie vooruitsigte van heuwel en dal.

Een was angstig om die Platte te bereik ... Ons het nou vier dae op die Blou gereis, en 'n dag se optog sou ons na die groot rivier neem. Hierdie dag se optog is dus met skerpheid hervat. Ons moes 'n hoë vlakte oorsteek, die skeidsrug tussen die waters van die Kansas en die Platte. Ongeveer elfuur kon ons sien, toe ons die hoogste hoogte oorsteek, dat die land geleidelik na beide kante daal en ver in die verte die klein heuwels of heuwels kon sien, wat die rant of blapse van die edelrivier gevorm het ... Dit was omstreeks twaalfuur, toe ons op die hoogte van 'n hoogtepunt die dal van die edele Platte voor ons sien uitsprei. Ons het almal met vreugde en verbasing gehaal. Die vallei van die Platte! daar is niemand anders soos dit nie. Die bluf is tien tot vyftien myl van mekaar af, die rivier, van meer as 'n kilometer breed, vloei deur die middel. Die blaps val skielik van 50 tot 100 voet, as daar 'n geleidelike helling na die waterkant is. Daar is nie 'n enkele houtstok aan weerskante van die rivier nie - dit is 'n eindelose prairie so ver as wat die oog kan strek; tog is daar verligting op die talle eilande van die rivier wat oor die algemeen met hout bedek is.

Omstreeks 10:00 is die skoorsteenrots ontdek, ongeveer veertig myl ver. Ek het dit gesien. Dit het gelyk soos 'n klein toring, in vet verligting teen die lug. Nog twee dae bereik ons ​​hierdie gevierde rots en kom ongeveer 12 uur daarheen. Die hoogte daarvan is deur ons raai -onderneming uiteenlopend beraam, van twee tot agthonderd voet. Ek veronderstel dit is driehonderd voet hoog. Dit is rond, skuins skuins, en kom tot 'n punt aan die voet van die skoorsteen, 250 voet; dan begin die skoorsteen opstaan ​​in 'n langwerpige vierkant, 10 by 20 voet, 100 voet meer. Gister het ons 'n groter nuuskierigheid na my mening oorgedra as dit; sommige het dit die Hofhuis genoem, ander die Vesting en ander die Kasteltoring. .... Op reis met die rivier na Fort Laramie, het ek opgemerk dat hulle knoppe, heuwels of blaas, of wat hulle ook al genoem kan word, slegs op 'n tyd aan die een kant van die rivier is. ... Dit was die geval voordat ons die 'hofhuis' bereik het, maar hier het hulle skielik oor die stroom gespring, en die eerste gebou wat ons gesien het, was die geweldige massa op die top van die bluf, 200 meter bo die rivier. Daar staan ​​dit, alleen en alleen, in plegtige grootsheid.

Ons het Sondag ons kamp by die Fort verlaat en die Laramie Fork twee myl opgeklim en laer opgeslaan ... Ek het die ander helfte van my brief aan u geskryf. Maar ek het dit eers die volgende oggend klaargemaak, en toe nog nie, toe ons onderneming vertrek het. Ek wag meer as 'n uur om dit klaar te maak ... Die laaste waens het lankal agter die heuwels verdwyn ... en ek alleen loop te voet om die waens in te haal. Ek het gou die hoofweg bereik, waar ek te sien was hoe dit met Indiërs te perd bekyk is, terugkom uit die waens wat hulle 'n aansienlike afstand op hul reis vergesel het, om die geskenke te bekom en perde te ruil ... was gou omring deur tien of 'n dosyn Souix ... Hulle ry almal op en skud my aan die hand en wou iets hê wat ek nie kon verstaan ​​nie. Een of twee trek hul messe oor hul kele. Dit was vir my 'n baie aangename vermaaklikheid, veral as hulle hulself op hierdie manier met my wou vermaak. Uiteindelik het ek 'n paar stukke tabak aan hulle oorhandig, wat hulle met graagte aanvaar het, en skynbaar tevrede weggery ... Met die waens kom ek agter dat die Oregon -onderneming by ons aangesluit het. Sedert hulle ons verlaat het, het drie huwelike plaasgevind, en nog een of twee op die tapis. Ons was almal bly om mekaar te sien na ons lang skeiding, en 'n goeie gevoel heers deurgaans. Ons het nie ver gereis voordat ons met die klim van die Black Hills begin het nie, en ons het 'n pragtige uitsig oor Laramie's Peak - die hoogste in die reeks.

Gister vier ons die 4de Julie. Die breek van een of twee bottels goeie drank, wat weggesteek is om te verhoed dat 'n paar ou tapsters steel, (so dors word hulle op hierdie manier vir drank, van watter aard ook al, dat dit nie as 'n misdaad gesteel word nie), 'n toespraak of toespraak van kolonel Russell, 'n paar liedjies van mnr. Bryant en verskeie ander menere, met musiek, bestaande uit 'n viool, fluit, 'n hondtrommel - die hond waaruit die vel verwyder is, is doodgemaak en die trommel gemaak die vorige aand - met die aflaai van al die gewere van die kamp, ​​het aan die einde van die toespraak, sang en roosterbrood een van die aangenaamste opgewondenhede wat ons op die pad gehad het, geskep.

Die oggend van 6 Julie, na ons twee dae se rus, het ons aan die gang gekom en twintig kilometer na Deer Creek gereis. Laramie's Peak was amper die hele dag sigbaar, na die suidooste. Omstreeks die middag kom ons by die noordelike vurk van die Platte, nadat ons dit meer as 'n week lank afwesig was. Waar ons die rivier getref het, is daar 'n fyn bedding van steenkool; maar die groot Platte, waarop ons so lank en ver gereis het, hoe dit afgeneem het, of liewer op, na 'n stroompie. Die water was helder, maar ek het dit nie so goed gehou as wat ek met sand en leem vermeng het toe ons die rivier die eerste keer tref nie.

Ons het die volgende dag die Platte op gereis en kamp opgeslaan naby 'n klein bos aan die oewer van die rivier. Woensdag het ons die middag die Platte oorgesteek en ses kilometer ver gery. Die buffels en ander wild word volop. Elke dag word een of meer doodgemaak, en ons geniet weer vars vleis. Ek dink daar is geen beesvleis ter wêreld wat gelyk is aan 'n fyn buffelkoei nie - so 'n geur, so ryk, so sappig dat dit die mond laat water om daaraan te dink.

Donderdagoggend verlaat ons die Platte en die lang reeks swart heuwels aan ons linkerkant en slaan af na die soet water. Teen die middag het kolonel Boon opgewonde geraak en gesê dat hy saam met ander was en agt buffels doodgemaak het, waaronder verskeie vet koeie en kalwers, en almal wat buffelvleis wou hê, versoek om te kry wat hulle wil hê. In die middag het ons 'n paar kilometer gery en 'n mooi fontein opgeslaan.

Die hele landstreek, van Fort Laramie tot by hierdie plek, is byna heeltemal onvrugbaar. Daar is geen gras nie, behalwe in die valleie, wat slegs op enkele plekke weelderig voorkom. Dit lyk asof 'n mens verlore is hoe om te verduidelik hoe die buffels kan lewe op die heuwels waaroor hulle strek. Oor die hele streek groei die wilde salie of artemisia in oorvloed. ... die salie is nie soos die salie van die tuin nie. Dit ruik meer na laventel ... Die eerste week nadat ons die fort verlaat het, het ons in die middel van die somer gevoel dat die koel wind briesend is, dat ons in die nag nodig was om ons in ons jasse te sit, en dikwels die hele dag. Die afgelope week was dit egter anders. Dit was dag en nag onoortreflik warm - termometer wat wissel van 95 tot 100 grade.

Gistermiddag kom ons by die "hoogtepunt", of die skeidsrug tussen die Atlantiese Oseaan en die Stille Oseaan. Ons sit vanaand op die Little Sandy, een van die vurke van die Green River, 'n sytak van die groot Colorado, wat in die Golf van Kalifornië vloei. So word die groot dagdrome van my jeug en van my ryp jare bereik. Ek het die Rotsgebergte gesien - ek het die Rubicon oorgesteek, nou is ek op die waters wat na die Stille Oseaan vloei! Dit lyk asof ek die ou wêreld agtergelaat het en dat 'n nuwe een vir my opdring. In elke stap tot dusver was daar iets nuuts, iets om aan te trek. As die res van my reis so interessant sou wees, word ek in oorvloed vergoed vir die moeite en swaarkry van hierdie moeisame reis.

Ek het moontlik nie 'n ander geleentheid om vir u briewe te stuur voordat ek Kalifornië bereik nie. Ons neem 'n nuwe roete na Kalifornië, wat nog nooit hierdie seisoen gereis het nie; gevolglik is ons roete oor 'n nuwe, interessante streek. Ons is nou in die Bear -riviervallei, te midde van die Bearrivierberge, waarvan die kruine met sneeu bedek is. Terwyl ek nou skryf, word ons aangemoedig deur 'n warm somerson, terwyl die berge met 'n paar kilometer ver skitter in sy balke.

Ons vertrek van Fort Bridger af en het ongelukkig die nuwe roete gevolg, sonder om 'n voorval te ry, totdat ons by die kop van Webber -canyon aangekom het. 'N Entjie voor ons hierdie plek bereik het, het ons 'n brief in die bokant van 'n saliebos gevind. Dit was van Hastings. Hy het gesê dat as ons 'n boodskapper na hom sou stuur, hy sou terugkeer en ons deur 'n roete baie korter en beter as die canyon sou stuur. 'N Vergadering van die maatskappy is gehou toe besluit is om mnre McCutchen, Stanton en myself na mnr. Hastings te stuur; ook moes ons die canyon ondersoek en op kort kennisgewing rapporteer.

Die volgende oggend klim ons op na die top van die berg, waar ons 'n deel van die land kan sien wat tussen ons en die kop van die canyon lê, waar die Donner -partytjie opgeslaan is. Nadat hy my die leiding gegee het, het ek en meneer Hastings geskei. Hy keer terug na die maatskappye wat hy die vorige oggend verlaat het, en ek ry verder na die ooste. Nadat ek afgeklim het na wat die tafelland genoem kan word, het ek 'n Indiese roete geneem en die roete verbygesteek waar dit nodig was dat die pad gemaak moes word, as die maatskappy dit sou rig toe hulle die berig hoor. Toe McCutchen, Stanton en ek deur die Webber -canyon kom om Mnr Hastings in te haal, was ons gevolgtrekkings dat baie van die waens vernietig sou word in 'n poging om deur die canyon te kom. Mnr. Stanton en McCutchen sou so vinnig as wat hulle perde sou verdra, na ons geselskap terugkeer, want hulle het byna opgegee. Ek het die onderneming die aand bereik en die gevolgtrekkings rakende die Weber -canyon aan hulle gerapporteer, terwyl ek terselfdertyd gesê het dat die roete wat ek daardie dag afgelê het, regverdig is, maar dat dit baie werk sal verg om skoon te maak en te grawe. Hulle het met eenparige stem saamgestem om die roete te volg as ek hulle in die pad sou lei; hulle werk getrou totdat dit voltooi is.

Op 19 Oktober, terwyl ons langs die Truckee reis, was ons harte bly oor die terugkeer van Stanton, met sewe muile wat vol voedsel was. McCutchen was siek en kon nie reis nie, maar kaptein Sutter het twee van sy Indiese vaqueros, Luis en Salvador, saam met Stanton gestuur. Honger soos ons was, het Stanton vir ons iets beters gebring as kos - nuus dat my pa lewe. Stanton het hom nog nie ver van Sutter's Fort ontmoet nie; hy was drie dae sonder kos, en sy perd kon hom nie dra nie. Stanton het vir hom 'n perd en 'n paar eetgoed gegee, en hy het verder gegaan. Ons het nou die bietjie wat ons oorgehad het op een muil ingepak en met Stanton begin. My ma het op 'n muil gery en Tommy in haar skoot gedra; Patty en Jim ry agter die twee Indiërs aan, en ek agter die heer Stanton, en op hierdie manier reis ons deur die reën.

William Eddy, C.T. Stanton, William Graves, Jay Fosdick, James Smith, Charles Burger, William Foster, Antoine ('n Spanjaard), John Baptiste, Lewis, Salvadore, Augustus Spitzer, Mary Graves, Sarah Fosdick en Milton Elliot, synde die sterkste van die partytjie, te voet die berge begin oorsteek. Eddy het in die vertelling van die treffende verhaal vir my gesê dat hy nooit die skeidingstoneel tussen hom en sy gesin kon vergeet nie; maar hy het gehoop om in te kom en verligting te kry, en terug te keer met die middele om hulle te red. Hulle het begin met 'n klein stukkie beesvleis elk; maar hulle het skaars binne drie myl van die top van die pas gegaan, toe die sneeu, wat sag en ongeveer tien voet diep was, hulle weer dwing om terug te keer na die hutte, wat hulle ongeveer middernag bereik het.

Die volgende dag, baie flou van gebrek aan voedsel, hervat hy sy jag, en eindelik kom hy op 'n ontsaglike groot maalbeer-baan. Onder ander omstandighede sou hy verkies het om die spore van een te sien as om die dier self te sien. Maar nou, swak en flou soos hy, was hy gretig om dit uit te vind ... Hy was nie lank om die voorwerp van sy soektog te vind nie. Op 'n afstand van ongeveer negentig meter sien hy die beer met sy kop op die grond besig om wortels te grawe. Die dier was in 'n klein rompie prairie, en meneer Eddy, wat voordeel trek uit 'n groot sipres naby wat hy op die oomblik was, het homself verborge gehou. Nadat hy die enigste koeël wat nie in sy geweer was nie, in sy mond gesteek het, sodat hy vinnig in 'n noodgeval kon herlaai, het hy doelbewus afgevuur. Die beer het dadelik op sy agtervoete opgestaan ​​en die rook van meneer Eddy se geweer sien hardloop hard na hom, met oop kake. Teen die tyd dat die geweer herlaai is, bereik die beer die boom en met 'n hewige gegrom agtervolg Eddy dit, wat vinniger as die dier hardloop, agterop kom en dit met 'n skoot afskakel. in die skouer, sodat dit hom nie meer kon agtervolg nie. Hy stuur toe die beer deur dit met 'n kolf op die kop te slaan. By ondersoek het hy gevind dat die eerste skoot sy hart deurboor het. Daarna keer hy terug na Mountain Camp vir hulp om sy prys in te bring. Graves en Eddy het agter die beer uitgegaan. Hulle het egter uiteindelik besluit om na donker in die beer te klim. Eddy het meneer Foster die helfte gegee vir die gebruik van die geweer. 'N Gedeelte daarvan is eweneens aan meneer Graves en mev Reed gegee. Die beer het ongeveer 800 kg geweeg.

Nie moedeloos en aangedryf deur die toenemende skaarste aan voorraad by die hutte nie, probeer hulle dit weer op die twintigste (November 1846) en slaag hulle daarin om die kloof oor te steek; maar dit was vir hulle onmoontlik om voort te gaan op grond van 'n loods, want mnr. Stanton het geweier dat die Indiërs hulle vergesel omdat hulle nie die muile kon saambring nie, wat mnr. Stanton daarheen geneem het. voorsienings van JA Sutter, voor die sneeu val. Hier was hulle warmste hoop weer in die wiele gery; en hulle draai weer met swaar harte na hul ellendige hutte. Mev. Murphy, dogter en twee seuns was van hierdie partytjie.

Op die twintigste (Desember) het die son helder en mooi opgekom, en deur sy sprankelende strale gejuig, het hulle hul vermoeide weg gevolg. Vanaf die eerste dag kon mnr. Stanton dit nie byhou nie, maar het hulle kamp altyd bereik teen die tyd dat hulle hul vuur laat bou het, en voorbereidings getref om die nag deur te bring. Hierdie dag het hulle agt myl afgelê en vroeg kamp opgeslaan; en toe die skakerings van die aand om hulle kom, word menige angstige blik deur die verdiepende somberheid vir Stanton teruggegooi; maar hy het nie gekom nie.

Voor die oggend het die weer onstuimig geword, en met daglig begin hulle ongeveer vier myl, toe hulle kamp opslaan, en stem saam om te wag of Stanton opkom; maar daardie nag was sy plek weer leeg deur hul vurige vuur, terwyl hy, vermoedelik, van alle verdere lyding ontsnap het en in sy kronkelende sneeuvel toegedraai lê.

Die wind het die volgende dag verander na suidwes, en die sneeu het die hele dag geval. Hulle het teen sononder kamp opgeslaan, en omtrent donker kom meneer Stanton op. Hulle hervat hul reis op die 22ste. Stanton het soos gewoonlik binne ongeveer 'n uur in die kamp gekom. Daardie aand het hulle die laaste van hul klein voorraad voorraad verbruik. Hulle het hulself beperk tot een gram by elke maaltyd, sedert hulle die bergkamp verlaat het, en nou was die laaste weg. Hulle het een geweer gehad, maar hulle het nie 'n lewende wese gesien nie.

Gedurende hierdie dag (23 Desember) het mnr. Eddy 'n klein sakkie ondersoek om iets weg te gooi, met die doel om makliker oor die weg te kom. Hierdeur het hy ongeveer 'n half pond beervleis gevind, waarop 'n papier waarop sy vrou potlood geskryf het, 'n briefie met 'Your own dear Eleanor' aangeheg was waarin sy hom versoek het om dit tot die laaste uiterste te bewaar , en het die mening uitgespreek dat dit die middel sou wees om sy lewe te red. Op die oggend van hierdie dag het mnr. Stanton by die kampvuur gebly en sy pyp gerook. Hy het hulle versoek om voort te gaan en gesê dat hy hulle sou inhaal. Die sneeu was ongeveer vyftien voet diep. Stanton het nie met hulle vorendag gekom nie.

Hulle hervat hul weemoedige reis, en nadat hulle ongeveer 'n kilometer gery het, het hulle kamp opgeslaan om op hul metgesel te wag. Hulle het gedurende die dag niks gehad om te eet nie. Stanton kom nie op nie. Die sneeu het die hele nag geval en 'n meter diep geword. Hulle het nou die arme Stanton prysgegee vir die dood.


Charles E. Stanton

Charles Egbert Stanton (22 November 1858 - 8 Mei 1933) was 'n offisier in die Amerikaanse weermag en het die rang van kolonel bereik. 'N Veteraan van die Spaans -Amerikaanse oorlog, en was die hoof -uitbetalingsbeampte en assistent van generaal John J. Pershing tydens die Eerste Wêreldoorlog. Stanton was die neef van Abraham Lincoln se oorlogsekretaris, Edwin M. Stanton. [1] Hy is veral bekend daarvoor dat hy die onvergeetlike uitdrukking "Lafayette, ons is hier!" in 'n toespraak wat hy tydens die Eerste Wêreldoorlog in Parys gehou het.


Beelde met hoë resolusie is beskikbaar vir skole en biblioteke via 'n inskrywing op American History, 1493-1943. Kyk of u skool of biblioteek reeds 'n intekening het. Of klik hier vir meer inligting. U kan ook 'n pdf van die prentjie hier by ons bestel.

Gilder Lehrman -versameling #: GLC02382.018 Skrywer/skepper: Stanton, Robert A. (geb. 1839) Plek Geskryf: s.l. Tipe: Brief onderteken Datum: 17 Mei 1864 Paginasie: 1 bl. 24,7 x 20,2 cm.

Ordonnansieverslag tydens die Spotsylvania -veldtog. Met Hunt 's -notas andersom. Geskryf uit die Ordnance Office Artillery Reserve. Charles H. Whittelsey (1832-1871) studeer aan Yale in 1853. Hy dien in die Burgeroorlog as luitenant in die 1ste Connecticut Heavy Artillery in1862, en daarna in die personeel van generaal Robert O. Tyler en generaal Horatio G. Wright. Hy het promosie gekry om majoor te wees vir sy dienste in die veldtog van 1864 voor Richmond en die veldtog van Shenandoah Valley in 1864 vir luitenant -kolonel vir dapperheid in die gevegte van Petersburg en kolonel vir dapperheid in die Appomatox -veldtog. Hy is aangewys as brevet -brigadier -generaal vir sy ywerige burgeroorlogdiens.

Charles H. Whittelsey (1832-1871) studeer aan Yale in 1853. Hy dien eers in die Burgeroorlog as luitenant in die 1ste Connecticut Heavy Artillery in1862, en daarna dien hy later in die personeel van generaal Robert O. Tyler en generaal Horatio G. Wright. Hy het promosie gekry om majoor te wees vir sy dienste in die veldtog van 1864 voor Richmond en die veldtog van Shenandoah Valley in 1864 vir luitenant -kolonel vir dapperheid in die gevegte van Petersburg en kolonel vir dapperheid in die Appomatox -veldtog. Hy is aangewys as brevet -brigadier -generaal vir sy ywerige burgeroorlogdiens.


Charles P. Stanton -versameling

Die Charles P. Stanton -versameling bevat die resultate van vyftig jaar se genealogiese navorsing. Die grootste deel van die versameling, reeks V, bestaan ​​uit meer as 2 000 stambome, korrespondensie en verwante materiaal aan meer as 300 Joodse gesinne uit die gebiede Neurenberg, Fuerth, Bamberg, Ansbach en Dinkelsbuehl. Sommige gesinne het ook takke by Ichenhausen en Laupheim in Swabië gehad. Baie van die gidse in hierdie reeks bevat 'n 'Master Family Tree' wat deur Stanton saamgestel is. Hy stuur gereeld afskrifte van hierdie meesterstambome aan belangstellende navorsers. Dit verteenwoordig die finale weergawe van sy navorsing oor 'n spesifieke gesin. Die vouers, wat nie 'n hoofstamboom het nie, bevat gewoonlik kleiner weergawes van stambome, óf saamgestel deur die families self óf deur Stanton. Byna alle vouers bevat ook navorsingsmateriaal en korrespondensie, wat addisionele genealogiese inligting bevat. Aantekeninge en konsepte vir die meesterstambome kan in reeks IV gevind word. Hierdie versameling bevat ook aantekeninge oor verskeie dorpe en stede in Franconia, geleë in reeks III.

Meer algemene navorsingsnotas en materiaal soos kaarte, ou indekse, adresse, sterfkennisse en goed bewaarde banknote van Theresienstadt, kan in reeks II gevind word.

Die versameling bevat slegs 'n paar persoonlike items wat verband hou met Charles P. Stanton. Reeks I bevat dokumente oor sy militêre diens, sy aktiwiteite as lid van die Grace Church en die Cornell University Alumni -vereniging. Gebruikers kan ook algemene korrespondensie vind wat hoofsaaklik uit die 1990's dateer in hierdie reeks.

Datums

Skepper

Taal van materiaal

Toegangsbeperkings

Gebruik beperkings

Daar kan beperkings wees op die gebruik van die versameling. Vir meer inligting, kontak:

Leo Baeck Institute, Center for Jewish History, 15 West 16th Street 15, New York, NY, 10011

Biografiese noot

Charles Perry Stanton's parents, Fritz and Hella Steinlein (née Kaufmann) were en route from Nuremberg to the United States when Charles was born in Zurich in December 1935. His older brother Peter was born in Nuremberg in August 1930. The family settled in Great Neck, NY and converted to Christianity. Charles Stanton was baptized and brought up as an Episcopalian. On November 9, 1938 the family changed the last name from Steinlein to Stanton.

Charles Stanton studied law at Cornell University and graduated in 1957. Following his graduation, he served as Lieutenant in the US Army until 1965. He then worked for J.P. Morgan for over twenty-five years. Later, he joined the financial services office of the Pratt family, which founded the Pratt Institute. He was also active in the local Episcopal church, and served as treasurer, clerk and member of the choir.

In 1969, Charles Stanton married Julia (Judy) Duke Henning. They had two daughters: Julie and Charlotte

Since the age of fourteen, Charles Stanton had been involved with genealogy and researched the Jewish families of Franconia, where his family had lived for many generations before the Holocaust. In the 1990s, he worked extensively with Gisela Blume from Zirndorf , Germany and Dan Barlev from Jerusalem.


Historic Site Sign

Antelope Station prospered with the mining industry, which by 1871 was flourishing along Weaver Gulch on the east and Antelope Creek on the west. During that year Charles C. Genung started construction of a road through town to accommodate the stage lines. Yaqui Wilson opened a store in partnership with John Timmerman, and a man named William Partridge started a hotel and station in prepa ration for the arrival of overland passengers. Barney Martin and his wife owned a neat red-brick store in the center of town. Thus Chuck Stanton had three competitors and he had a consuming determination to dispatch them all and be come the town's absolute ruler.

He hadn't long to wait for his chance to act, as prosperity soon brought the least desirable element to town with the advent of the notorious Venezuela gang, as bloodthirsty crew as ever roamed the Southwest. Stanton immediately be came an intimate of the Venezuelas and in mere weeks was their recognized leader. So began the bloody extermination of his competitors, one by one, and a rapid rise to power by methods as devious and ruthless as the man himself.

The road was completed by Genung in 1872, and Ante lope Station became a regular stop for two stage lines: the Pierson and the Jim Grant. Passengers from both lines in variably went to the Wilson-Timmerman store for rest and refreshments, a fact that infuriated Partridge and at the same time afforded Stanton a method of disposing of two hated rivals with one stone. His chance had arrived sooner than he'd expected.

In addition to running his store and stage stop, Wilson raised pigs and prickly pears at his home. One day when he was on a trip to Prescott , the pigs got out and caused considerable damage at Partridge's. Before Wilson 's return Stanton instructed his Mexican ruffians to pass the word along to Partridge that Wilson was out to get him. Receipt of this message, together with the existent ill feeling concerning the stage passengers, stirred Partridge to a white-hot fury, and immediately upon Wilson 's return, Partridge sent word for him to come and get his pigs forthwith. Wilson started to retrieve his pigs, carrying a sack of prickly pears with which to entice them home. A stage driver who witnessed the entire affair testified at the resulting trial that Wilson was unarmed when he started from his home. As he approached Partridge's place Partridge shot him dead without warning, then ran away and hid in the hills above town. The next day he proceeded to Prescott , where he gave himself up and was subsequently sentenced to the Territorial Prison at Yuma .


HistoryLink.org

During August and September 1841, the United States Exploring Expedition, commanded by Lieutenant Charles Wilkes (1798-1877), carries out a hydrographic survey of the Columbia River from its mouth to the Cascades. The expedition's appearance at Fort Vancouver alarms the British Hudson's Bay Company officials.

British and American Interests

Hydrographic investigations of the Columbia River course were not new when the United States Exploring Expedition began its survey of the river in 1841. Lieutenant William Broughton (1762-1821) of HMS Chatham had crossed the Columbia River bar in 1792 and used his ship's boats to survey upriver for about 120 miles to support British claims of territorial possession. In 1839, Royal Navy captain Edward Belcher (1799-1897) took HMS Starling en HMS Swael upriver to Fort Vancouver.

The United States Exploring Expedition began charting the Columbia River in September 1841. Lieutenant Wilkes had made a preliminary visit to the Columbia in May of that year. He traveled overland from Nisqually and then by canoe down the Cowlitz River to the Columbia. From there, he descended to Fort George at the mouth of the river. Along the way, the view of Mount St. Helens inspired him to name the stretch of the Columbia near its confluence with the Cowlitz as St. Helen's Reach.

Charles Wilkes

Wilkes had received command of the Exploring Expedition only after several more senior officers refused it. He was junior for the responsibility but stood out among naval officers for his training in mathematics and triangulation. When first a candidate to go along on the expedition in 1828, he had been a lieutenant for only two years. In the following years he served as Superintendent of the Depot of Charts and Instruments at Washington, D.C. When the venture actually got underway in 1838, he moved into the commanding officer's slot despite having considerably less sea-going experience than some of his subordinates.

In July 1841, Wilkes sailed in his flagship Vincennes from Puget Sound to the mouth of the Columbia. He sent Vincennes on to California, taking command of USS Bruinvis, another expedition vessel more suited to river exploration. Die Oregon, a 250-ton merchant brig Wilkes purchased at Fort George, accompanied Bruinvis on her upriver journey. Bruinvis was a 224-ton, 10-gun brigantine (a two-masted ship rigged with square sails and a fore-and-aft mainsail) 88 feet in length, a 25-foot beam, and a depth in hold of 11 feet. The Boston Navy Yard built her in 1836.

On the Columbia

The ships served as home bases. Crews dispatched in the ships' boats did most of the hydrographic work. Fear of malaria dictated the working schedule. "Falling damps," or night dew was the suspected source of the disease. (We now know that malaria is caused by a parasite carried by infected mosquitoes.) Survey boats did not leave the ships before 9 a.m. Before departing, surveyors put on clean and dry clothing, breakfasted, and took time to smoke. Wilkes required that the boats return at least an hour before sunset. Then the ships spread awnings fore and aft as shelters from nighttime moisture.

Wilkes led the way as the expedition moved upriver. His gig was constantly ahead of the other boats. When sailors left a campfire unattended at the foot of Mount Coffin, near the mouth of the Cowlitz, it set fire to trees where Indians had placed their dead in canoes. He attempted to placate the Chinooks with presents, explaining that the conflagration was an accident. Later Wilkes said that there probably would have been trouble, were the Indians not so weakened by malaria and smallpox.

Smoke on the River

Bruinvis en Oregon followed the boats upriver, occasionally running aground. On one occasion, they became stuck on opposite sides of the river. Assistant Surgeon Silas Holmes, an acerbic wit, commented that the ships "formed excellent buoys, pointing out the dangers on either side" (Stanton).

The surveyors also suffered from smoke generated by fires burning along the river. The Indians set them to clear ground and drive game. On at least one day, smoke lay so thickly over the river that the surveyors could not work. Wilkes, a stern disciplinarian, reprimanded Lieutenant William M. Walker (1813-1866) for taking three bottles of brandy as a reward for his boat's crew, who "sweated and choked in the smoke that lay low on the river" (Stanton).

The Hudson's Bay Company

At the end of August, Bruinvis en Oregon reached Fort Vancouver, about 100 miles from the sea. Wilkes sent Lieutenant Walker with four boats to continue charting as far as the falls at the Cascades, about 160 to 165 miles from the river mouth. Lieutenant Oliver Hazard Perry took four more boats to survey the Willamette up to its falls. The hydrographers concluded that sea-going vessels should go no farther than Fort Vancouver, where the Columbia was at least 14 feet deep at all seasons.

Coincidentally, the American explorers reached Fort Vancouver when Sir George Simpson (1792-1860), North American Governor for the Hudson's Bay Company, was visiting. Wilkes dined with Simpson and Dr. John McLoughlin (1784-1857), the official in charge of Fort Vancouver. While at Fort Vancouver, Wilkes made a side trip to the Willamette Valley. He told American settlers there that the time had not yet come to try to establish a civil government under the American flag. At this time, there were about 40 Americans in the Willamette Valley. None were known to be living north of the Columbia River.

Wilkes told Simpson that he intended to recommend that the United States claim the Oregon Territory as far north as 54°40'N (approximately today's southern boundary of Alaska). Sir George later wrote to the British Foreign Office saying that the land south of the Columbia was not worth contesting. But Britain, he recommended, should not "consent to any boundary which would give the United States any portion of the Territory north of the Columbia River" (Walker).

Hudson's Bay officers at Fort Vancouver offered every assistance and warm hospitality to the U.S. Navy party. Nevertheless, the appearance of two U.S. warships off the fort and Wilkes's revelation probably influenced the decision Hudson's Bay Company officials would later make to remove accumulated stores at Fort Vancouver to a new post at Victoria, which they established in 1843.

On the downriver trip, Wilkes became ill but continued to work. Then a 16-mile side trip up the Cowlitz nearly ended his life. On the way back to the Columbia, his gig hit a snag. The impact knocked down two of the boat's crew while low-hanging branches ensnared and nearly strangled the expedition's commander.

Bruinvis
en Oregon reached the mouth of the Columbia on September 30. There they joined the Vliegende vis. After taking on supplies, the expedition's ships left the Columbia River to sail south on October 9, 1841.

Paul Allen Virtual Education Foundation

Charles Wilkes (1798-1877)

Fort Vancouver, 1841

Sketch by Joseph Drayton, Courtesy Fuller, A History of the Pacific Northwest

Woodcut made on U.S. Exploring Expedition of Indian baskets, 1841

Woodcut by J. H. Manning, Courtesy UW Special Collections (NA4000)

Woodcut made on the U.S. Exploring Expedition of Columbia River Indian fishing huts, The Dalles, 1841

Woodcut by J. Drayon, Courtesy UW Special Collections (NA3996)

Bronne:

Howard I. Chapelle, The History of the American Sailing Navy: The Ships and Their Development (London: Salamander Books Ltd., 1949) Barry M. Gough, The Royal Navy and the Northwest Coast of North America 1810-1914: A Study of British Maritime Ascendancy (Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 1971) William Stanton, The Great United States Exploring Expedition of 1838-1842 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1975) David B. Tyler, The Wilkes Expedition: The First United States Exploring Expedition (1838-1842) (Philadelphia: The American Philosophical Society, 1968) Dale L. Walker, Pacific Destiny: The Three Century Journey to the Oregon Country (New York: Tom Doherty Associates, 2000) Charles Wilkes, Narrative of the United States Exploring Expedition During the Years 1838, 1839, 1840, 1841, and 1842 Vols. I-V, Microfiche 20926-20929 (Chicago: Library of American Civilization, [1845] 1970).


Chales Tyler Stanton - History

Springboro Area Yesterday:

“Springboro has never had the advantages to be derived from a railroad connection with the outside world,” bemoaned Jessie Wright in his 1915, centennial address for the village. “Let us hope that Springboro may yet get on the map…the railroad map.”

Were Jesse Wright to return to his hometown today he may be surprised to find the flourishing community which exists in spite of an absence of the hoped-for railroad. The tiny village founded on the banks of Clear Creek in 1815, by his grandfather, Jonathan, now sprawls into two counties, Warren and Montgomery, in beautiful southwest Ohio. The Springboro Area Historical Society preserves Jessie’s words and spirit in its dedication to the unique heritage of its ancestors. The historical society came together in 1992, to save the 1798, Christian and Charles Null cabin located on what is now Heatherwoode Golf Course and its work continues with preservation and education efforts throughout the community.

A commemorative history, edited by Rebecca Hall, was published for the sesquicentennial in 1965, and in the 2003, Springboro Area Yesterday: A Pictorial History , a wonderful survey of the people and landscapes of the area, was produced by the City of Springboro Historic Commission in cooperation with historical society and edited by Rebecca Hall.

The museum offers a selection of local history and genealogy reference materials, maps of the city, township and county, and an large collection of artifacts and pictures.

Residents share the Society’s pride in their community since 1915, they have come together every Memorial Day, Fourth of July and Labor Day to parade through the historic streets of the old town.

Springboro’s founder, Jonathan Wright, followed his father, Joel, to the Miami Valley in 1814. The Wrights and perhaps a dozen other Quaker families came from their home in Pennsylvania, journeying along the Ohio River up the Little Miami River to Waynesville and nearby Springboro where they found clear, abundant water.

Jonathan Wright settled on the banks of Clear Creek, west of the earlier settlement, and in 1815, platted “Springborough.”

By 1840, 417 residents called Springboro home, with names such as Null, Stanton, Frey (Frye), Greggs, Crocketts and Mullins, joining the Wrights on the town roster.

Methodist Episcopal, Universalist, German Reformed and Presbyterian churches followed in short order.

The county has never been at a loss for religious sentiment with over 60 churches established by 1850, and many of the faithful soon moved on to found schools. Francis Glass is noted as the first school teacher, beginning in 1816, and by the mid 1800s, ten schools were scattered throughout the township serving 750 students. The Springboro Special School District opened in 1837, with lessons in English, mathematics, science and Latin.

Aron Wright served as president for nine years before returning to New York state unfortunately, the college did not long outlast him and its doors closed in 1883.

For more informal pursuits, residents turned to the Springboro Library Association, founded in 1832, at the corner of Market and Main Streets, where librarian and town physician Dr. Joseph Stanton presided. The Grange, Masons, Knights of Pythias, United American Mechanics and the Oddfellows offered philanthropic and social outlets for the gentlemen. Book Regular lectures and numerous book clubs informed and entertained local residents. Jessie Wright reports with some relish possessing the journals of a “mock Legislature” which met from 1841-45, for a “profitable form of amusement during the long winter evenings,” including drama and debates.

Springboro’s Quaker roots remained strong. From its founding, when Jonathan Wright parceled lots to new settlers, a deed restriction prohibited the sale of whiskey on the land for a period of ten years. However, thirsty travelers were not without respite Wright’s property ended at North and Franklin Streets and ingenuity led to all the taverns being located north of that line in “Carr’s Addition.” Jessie’s centennial address also notes “no less than fifteen distilleries” in a two mile radius of the village in its early days. The Women’s Christian Temperance Union, a force to be reckoned with throughout the county, succeeded in keeping liquor sales out of Springboro for over forty years in the late 1800s.

In 1999, Springboro erected the first municipal Underground Railroad Historic Marker and the city of Springboro participates in regular celebrations of its special place in a turbulent period of our national history.

Springboro’s population grew steadily at the turn of the twentieth century. Farmers from many of the nearly three hundred local farms moved to town in their later years looking for an easier life. By 1880, Beers’ History of Warren County listed Springboro census at 553. The next 100 years saw the town balloon to 12,380 (2000 census). The Springboro Community City School District has grown from an estimated 200 students in 1880 meeting in a single building at East and Market Streets to 5,500 students in nine buildings spread throughout the community. A new city hall and police department was inaugurated in 2009, at 320 West Central to afford local government sufficient space to meet the demands of the growing community. A Strategic Master Plan was developed in the late 1990s and another ten years later in an effort to better oversee city expansion as local officials struggle to make that dream a reality with an updated Land Use Master Plan in early 2009.

For a town the railroad left behind, Springboro has done well indeed, and the people of Springboro remain committed to recording its history – and its progress – for years to come.

“A Time to Look Back.” Bicentennial Supplement to The Western Star. 30 June 1976. (MFH)

(The) History of Warren County . Chicago, Illinois: W.H. Beers & Co., 1882.

Springboro Area Yesterday: A Pictorial History . Rebecca Easton Hall, ed.

Springboro Community City School District website .

In 2000, the City of Springboro completed their study and creation of Springboro’s Historic Design Standards (pdf). Though oriented towards preservation of our historic buildings through design standards, a good deal of the history of Springboro and the history of architecture, design and construction is included in the one hundred twenty-eight page report.

The house to left is on the northwest corner of S. Main St and Market St. and was built around 1858, by James P. Griffin, a druggist. The outlines of the house can still be seen behind the commercial facade. Later, William H. Newport, a dry goods merchant, lived there, and it was then occupied from 1892-1910, by Joseph M. Bunnell, a grocer, per Rob Strawser’s Yesterday, Historic Properties in Springboro , Historic Homes, Property Sales and Transaction in Olde Springboro and Surrounding Lands .)


The Enslaved Households of President John Tyler

Born to an affluent family in 1790, John Tyler spent most of his life in Charles City County, Virginia. He was raised on the Tyler family plantation, Greenway, and primarily lived there until his marriage to Letitia Christian in 1813. 1 His father, John Tyler Sr., served as a representative in the Virginia House of Delegates, governor of Virginia, and eventually judge of the United States District Court for the District of Virginia. Judge Tyler was also a prominent slave owner—by 1810, there were twenty-six enslaved individuals living at Greenway plantation. 2 These enslaved men, women, and children were the people maintaining the property, farming the land, and providing the means for the growing Tyler family.

Like his father, John attended the College of William and Mary, graduating in 1807. He then prepared for a career in law, studying with his father and Edmund Randolph, former United States Attorney General. After Judge Tyler died in 1813, he left Greenway and thirteen enslaved individuals to his son John. 3 That same year, John purchased a tract of land in Charles City County and built his own plantation, Woodburn, shortly thereafter. 4 According to the 1820 census, there were twenty-four enslaved people living at Woodburn with the Tylers. 5 Ten years later, the Tyler household had grown exponentially from three to seven children, ranging in age from fifteen-year-old Mary to newborn Tazewell. The enslaved community had grown as well—twenty-nine individuals, more than half of which were under the age of ten, were counted at the Tyler property. These enslaved children helped their mothers and fathers with their various tasks, but some likely became young caretakers for the Tyler children. 6

During the 1820s and 1830s, Tyler held a series of prominent political positions at both the state and national level. While he considered himself a Democrat, he sometimes opposed President Andrew Jackson’s policies—specifically whenever the president opted to use executive power at the expense of the states. After he finished serving in the United States Senate, Tyler returned to practicing law and later ran for a seat in the Virginia House of Delegates. In 1839, the Whig Party nominated William Henry Harrison for president. Tyler, a Virginian slave owner and lifelong Democrat, was strategically added to the ticket to entice southerners to vote for Harrison. This tactic, along with the campaign’s efforts to villainize President Martin Van Buren for the country’s economic woes while casting Harrison as a military hero and commoner, delivered a decisive electoral victory for the Whig Party. “Tippecanoe and Tyler Too” became the oft-repeated slogan of their supporters, but this relationship changed dramatically after the unexpected death of President Harrison on April 4, 1841. Click here to learn more about the enslaved households of President Martin Van Buren.

This 1888 engraving depicts a messenger delivering the news of President William Henry Harrison's death to Vice President John Tyler at his Williamsburg home on April 5, 1841.

Fletcher Webster, the son of Secretary of State Daniel Webster, delivered the shocking news to Vice President John Tyler at his home in Williamsburg, Virginia. Tyler set out for Washington, D.C., and quickly asserted himself as the new President of the United States. He took a new oath of office with the members of Harrison’s Cabinet present, and three days later issued an inaugural address to the American people:

For the first time in our history the person elected to the Vice-Presidency of the United States, by the happening of a contingency provided for in the Constitution, has had devolved upon him the Presidential office…My earnest prayer shall be constantly addressed to the all-wise and all-powerful Being who made me, and by whose dispensation I am called to the high office of President of this Confederacy, understandingly to carry out the principles of that Constitution which I have sworn "to protect, preserve, and defend." 7

About a week after Harrison’s funeral, President Tyler and his family moved into the Executive Mansion. There is little surviving documentation that tells us about the household staff, but there are bits and pieces of evidence suggesting that there were both free and enslaved African Americans working at the Tyler White House. 8 Abolitionist William Still’s The Underground Rail Road detailed the lives and experiences of African Americans who made the journey from slavery to freedom. Still shared the biography of James Hambleton Christian, who was born into slavery on the plantation of Robert Christian and claimed he was the half-brother of First Lady Letitia Christian Tyler. 9 James worked for both the Christian and Tyler families, and at the Tyler White House.

The Colored American, November 20, 1841

NewsBank/ American Antiquarian Society

There was also a man named James Wilkins, who worked as a butler for the first family. While there is scant documentation about him, newspaper accounts suggest that he was a free man who worked for wages and managed the staff. An African-American newspaper in New York City, The Colored American, published an article about him on November 20, 1841, and it was picked up by multiple presses throughout the country. According to this column, Wilkins had his own office, oversaw the expenses of the house, and employed both his son and daughter to work at the President’s House. The article concluded: “President Tyler has in all 18 colored persons hired—he has but two of his slaves with him, as servants. This is the first time that any of our Presidents have made a colored man the chief butler of his household. His ‘illustrious predecessors’ have had white men. Surely we are getting up slowly.” 10 While there were certainly other possible motivations for printing this news, Wilkins does appear again during an 1842 debate in the House of Representatives. He is referred to as “Jim Wilkins, the President’s butler,” which suggests that Wilkins did have a role—and a higher one—than expected for the times. 11

There is another documented enslaved individual—President Tyler’s valet—though there is some confusion over his actual name. Contemporary accounts refer to him as either “Armistead” or “Henry” another possibility may be that his name was actually Henry Armistead. Regardless, he appears in the news as one of the six victims of the tragic explosion aboard the USS Princeton on February 28, 1844. New Jersey Congressman George Sykes, who was on board the Princeton, described him as “the president’s servant…a stout black man about 23 or 24 years old and lived about an hour after” the accident. While Sykes doesn’t give a name, he did mention that “the blackman’s” coffin was made of cherry, and “the president’s servant was buried by the coloured persons—and his relations—the next day.” 12 The Daily Madisonian noted that there were six hearses, one of which “conveyed the body of one of the President’s colored servants, to the President’s mansion.” 13 While newspaper coverage fails to shed more light on this particular individual, they do consistently state that one of the president’s servants—likely his enslaved valet—was killed on the Princeton. Writing from the White House that fall, Julia Gardiner Tyler mentioned an enslaved woman named "Aunt Fanny" in a letter to her mother Fanny was likely brought to Washington by President Tyler. These four identified individuals, a mix of free and enslaved African Americans, worked in the Tyler White House. 14

The Daily National Intelligencer, February 28, 1844

NewsBank/American Antiquarian Society

Newspaper accounts from the time also suggest that there were other enslaved individuals working at the White House. Two days before the Princeton explosion, an investigation began into an alleged robbery that took place at the President’s House. Volgens die Daily National Intelligencer, “a colored woman named Mary Murphy” was “charged with stealing silver table and teaspoons, the property of the United States.” The magistrates held a man named “Avery” on the charge of receiving stolen property, and the report also mentioned that “a colored servant belonging to the President is also implicated in this theft.” 15

According to the 1844 D.C. Criminal Court records, George Avery and Susan Goodyear were first charged with larceny in March however, the charges were reduced to receiving stolen goods in June. John Tyler, Jr., was present at their court appearances, likely as a witness on behalf of his father. According to one newspaper, “Susan Goodyear, indicted for receiving three silver spoons belonging to the President’s House, knowing them to have been stolen, was acquitted…George Avery, also indicted for the same offence, was acquitted. Mr. Hoban, counsel for the accused, submitted a number of testimonials from gentlemen in Baltimore and Alexandria, showing for the accused an excellent character.” In a great twist of irony, the public defender for Avery was James Hoban, Jr., the son of the architect who built and rebuilt the President’s House. 16

The criminal court records indicate that this theft occurred—but what of Mary Murphy and the implicated enslaved servant? Her absence from the court proceedings means she was never charged with a crime—and if she was a free woman, the city attorney certainly would have prosecuted her for stealing from the President’s House. However, if Mary Murphy was enslaved and hired out to work at the Tyler White House, her owner may have decided to sell her before she faced charges and lost her value. Many slave owners sold those that resisted enslavement, or in their minds “misbehaved” or were “troublesome” as a result, enslaved individuals lived with the constant fear that at any moment they could be sold and sent to the Deep South.

This court docket shows that George Avery and Susan Goodyear, charged with "Receiving Stolen Goods," were found 'Not Guilty' by a jury of peers on February 7, 1845.

Record Group 21, Records of the U.S. Criminal Court for the District of Columbia, National Archives and Records Administration

Mary’s owner may have been a man named Jeremiah Murphy, who ran a confectionary store on Pennsylvania Avenue between 9th and 10th streets. According to the 1840 census, Murphy owned one enslaved woman—and this woman’s experience working at this type of establishment may have made her a valuable employee in a kitchen or dining room, places where a servant would have direct access to tableware. 17 While this theory is speculative, it might explain Mary Murphy’s disappearance from the criminal court records and newspaper coverage. If the newspaper account is true and President Tyler’s enslaved servant aided Mary’s alleged theft, he or she might have faced a similar punishment, but there is no surviving documentation of this individual.

President Tyler appears seldom in these records, but when he does, it is usually an instance of nolle prosequi, a Latin phrase meaning “we shall no longer prosecute.” The President of the United States served as an executive to the country and within the District itself. Lawyers could appeal on behalf of their defendants by going directly to the president, who possessed the authority to direct the city attorney to drop criminal charges. President Tyler used this power several times in 1844—first, for John Green and Thomas Ratcliff, charged with larceny on March 6. The other instances were for two enslaved men, Samuel Gassaway and Charles Coates, charged with housebreaking and stealing. According to one newspaper account, Gassaway and Coates stole “three pairs of boots and a box of cigars” from the Georgetown store of James and Henry Thecker. They were found guilty and subject to punishment by death, but their case was “recommended to the clemency of the Executive.” 18 On June 20, 1844, President Tyler directed the city attorney to drop the charges against these enslaved men—but not much else is known about them. The president used this legal authority sparingly, which suggests that he knew of them or, upon hearing appeals from their owners, politely acquiesced to their requests. 19 Research is ongoing to learn more about Samuel Gassaway, Charles Coates, and whether they had any prior relationship to President Tyler or the Tyler family.

This court docket shows that "Neg. Saml Gassaway" was charged with "House breaking & Stealing" in October 1843. Further down, the entry states: "Nolle Prosequi by direction of the President of the U.S. and by order of the District Attorney. Filed June 20, 1844."

Record Group 21, Records of the U.S. Criminal Court for the District of Columbia, National Archives and Records Administration

Despite his appeal for a “lofty patriotism” over the “spirit of faction,” President Tyler quickly found himself at odds with Cabinet members and leaders in the Whig Party. His veto of legislation that would revive the Second Bank of the United States sparked a visceral reaction from both politicians and citizens alike. An angry mob descended upon the White House in the middle of the night, banging on drums and kettles while shouting obscenities at the president. They burned an effigy of Tyler, chanting “‘down with Tyler,’ ‘hurrah for Clay,’ [and] ‘give us a bank.’” 20 The Whig Party cast Tyler out, and most of his Cabinet resigned over this episode. Things became even more contentious when on July 22, 1842, Virginia Representative John Minor Botts presented a petition “requesting ‘John Tyler, the acting President of the United States,’ to resign his office and in case he do not comply with such request, they pray that he may be impeached, ‘on the grounds of his ignorance of the interest and true policy of this Government, and want of qualification for the discharge of the important duties of President of the United States.” 21 While this measure ultimately proved unsuccessful, this became the first instance of Congress attempting to impeach a president in American history.

The Daily National Intelligencer, October 26, 1843

NewsBank/American Antiquarian Society

Considering the political turmoil that engulfed his presidency, it was hardly surprising when neither party selected Tyler to be its presidential nominee in 1848. He quietly left office and returned to Sherwood Forest, his plantation estate in Charles City County, Virginia. 22 By 1850, there were forty-six enslaved individuals working at the Tyler property ten years later, that number decreased slightly to forty-four. 23 This increase also coincided with the second expansion of the Tyler family, as the president had married twenty-four-year-old Julia Gardiner in 1844. The couple went on to have seven children, and they enjoyed hosting guests for dinner and dancing at Sherwood Forest. Near the outbreak of the Civil War, Tyler served as a representative at the Peace Conference of 1861 but ultimately rejected the proposed resolutions. He would go on to serve as an elected representative for the Confederacy, but he did not live to see the end of the war.

On January 18, 1862, he died in Richmond, Virginia at age 71. While he had requested a simple burial, political leaders of the Confederacy organized a state funeral for the former president. His remains laid in state in the Hall of Congress in Richmond, covered “with the flag of his country.” 24 Memorial services were held at St. Paul’s Episcopal Church, followed by a procession to Hollywood Cemetery. 25 His death also marked a new era of uncertainty for the enslaved men, women, and children held in bondage by the Tyler family. Union soldiers descended upon Sherwood Forest in 1864, and their presence gave the enslaved community an opportunity to escape. The troops also inflicted damage on the property, stole items from the house, and confiscated or destroyed Tyler’s papers. 26 As a result, we know very little about those enslaved by the Tyler family—but hope to learn more as our research continues.

Thank you to Dr. Christopher Leahy, Professor of History at Keuka College, and Sharon Williams Leahy of History Preserve, for sharing their insights and research for this article.


Four Centuries

Algonquian-speaking Native Americans migrated here from the north at least 800 years before the first Europeans arrived, taking up land that had been occupied by other tribes as early as 10,000 years before. In 1613 Europeans planted a settlement at West and Shirley Hundred on the north side of the James River. Settlers planted six more settlements in quick succession along the same shore. The native inhabitants were scattered, but in diminished numbers they clung to the land.

From the early seeds of European settlement, great tobacco plantations grew and with them the need for labor. During the late 1600s and early 1700s, the labor of enslaved Africans quickly replaced that of English indentured servants. During the 1800s the Civil War brought emancipation to these slaves and other changes in the way residents earned their livelihood. Logging, fishing and small-scale farming became the primary way of life for Charles City residents well into the 1900s.

Today, only a small number of county residents continue to draw their livelihood from the forests, the water and the land. Yet, Charles City residents remain tied to this land, a timeless setting and the birthplace of ancestors.


Chales Tyler Stanton - History

Stanton's post office was established March 5, 1875 and was discontinued June 15, 1905. At the base of Rich Hill, Stanton had in its heyday a five stamp mill, boardinghouse, store, and at least a dozen houses. Named after Charles P. Stanton, the camp is rumored to have started as early as 1963. Stanton was killed in his own store by two Mexican bandits who were revenging Stanton's insult to one Cristo Lucero's sister. Stanton was a ruthless person who plotted to kill people for his own benefit and had the blood of many people on his conscious. He never committed the acts himself, but hired others to do them. Several buildings are still at the site today.

Originally named Antelope Station, name changed in 1875 to Stanton, with Charles P. Stanton as postma-ster, because there was another Antelope Station. - GT

Stanton (Antelope Station). To reach Stanton you shall pass Congress and drive in the north direction on SR 89. When you pass Congress keep eyes with the Frog Rock on the left side on the road. Road to Stanton is on the right hand, 2 miles after Congress. From SR 89 to Stanton is a 6 miles god dirt road. Stanton, originally named An-telope Station was a small town beside Antelope Creek. Charles P. Stanton arrived to Antelope Station in 1870 after he quit the job as in Vulture mine. The town had a stagecoach station, owned by one Englishman with the name William Par-tridge and country store wish was owned by G. H. "Yaqui" Wilson. Wilson had a pigs, and they were often on Partridge's ground and eat the things witch were stored for the travellers. Charles P. Stanton made a devils plans how to make use of arguments between Partridge and Wilson and how he can eliminate both of them, because he was thinking they will leave both business to him. So, one day when he meet Partridge, he told him that pigs owner are after him. That was a big lie, but Partridge believed him, and he shoot Wilson as soon he saw him. Partridge were arrested, questioned, convicted and sent to jail in Yuma. In Yuma he complained that the Wilsons ghost was after him all the time. But, the things were not as planet for Stanton. Wilson had a secret partner by the name Tim-merman who overtook the store, and the jailed Partridge had creditors who sold his stagecoach station to Barney Martin. Stanton, who was mad about all this, rented a group of desperado s leaded by a local gunman by the name Francisco Vega to take away both of them. Shortly after that, Vega killed first Timmer-man. In 1875 the town changed name to Stanton, with Charles P. Stanton as a postma-ster. Post office opened on mart 5, 1875. Beside Stanton, only man who had a power was Bar-ney Mar-tin. In July 1886 the remains of Martin and his family were found north of the town, killed from the ambush. On that way Charles Stan-ton become the brutally that control he was dreaming about, but not for a long time. In November that year the law was satisfied when a young member of Vega gang, Christero Lucero, shot Stanton because he bothered Luceros sister. When he was to escape from the town, he meets one of Stanton s enemies by the name Tom Pierson. When Lucero told him what he was done, story says that Pierson told him. "You don t need to escape. If you stay, it s you who shall have a reward". Nobody fall tears for Stanton and in following 4 years the town of Stanton become as dead as Stanton self even the town still has his name. Post office closed in 1890 when the miners closed but opened again in 1894. In the town lived about 200 people. Post office closed definitive on June 15, 1905 and Stanton become ghost town. Reason why the town is in good condition is because the town was closed for the public in many years. Only 3 buildings (private owners) from the original town stand today and they are good preserved and awake memories about "Old West". Stanton is turn on to be a RV park, and the area is owned by Lost Dutchman Mining Association who preserves buildings. Bobby Zlatevski

Stanton does allow the public into the gates to visit the Ghost Town. I know because I have been spending the winter there since 2002. Visitors just have to park at the flagpole and check in at the office. Lost Dutchman Mining Association is a gold prospecting organization and does not go about restoring buildings, but they have restored some of the old Stanton buildings so they can use them. Most of the buildings are used by club members. (2008)


Stanton
Courtesy Joe Grumbo


Charles Stanton and his store
Courtesy Sharlot Hall Museum, Prescott


Stanton


Stanton


Kyk die video: MLB Biggest Flirting Moments (Julie 2022).


Kommentaar:

  1. Cidro

    Ek is jammer, dat ek jou in die rede val, daar is 'n aanbod om anderpad aan te gaan.

  2. Bogdan

    Is heeltemal tevergeefs.



Skryf 'n boodskap