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Manchester Observer

Manchester Observer


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Die Manchester Observer is in Januarie 1818 gestig deur 'n groep radikale wat John Knight, James Wroe en John Saxton insluit. Binne twaalf maande verkoop die koerant 4000 eksemplare per week. Daar word aangevoer dat die koerant 'n pionier was in populêre joernalistiek met sy stylvolle styl wat gerig is op 'n geletterde werkersklas.

Alhoewel die koerant as 'n plaaslike koerant begin het, is dit teen 1819 in die meeste groot dorpe en stede in Brittanje verkoop. Henry Hunt het die Manchester Observer "die enigste koerant in Engeland wat ek ken, eerlik en eerlik gewy aan sulke hervormings wat die mense hul hele regte sou gee."

Ten spyte van sy verkoopsyfers, het die Manchester Observer was altyd in finansiële moeilikheid. Die eienaars het probleme ondervind om plaaslike besighede te oorreed om hul goedere in die koerant te adverteer. Die meeste weke bestaan ​​advertensies slegs uit een van die vier-en-twintig kolomme.

Joernaliste wat by die koerant werk, word voortdurend aangekla vir laster. Verskeie van hul joernaliste, waaronder John Wroe, John Saxton en T. J. Evans, is tronk toe gestuur vir artikels wat hulle geskryf het om die regering te kritiseer.

In Maart 1819 het drie van die mans wat by die Manchester Observer, Joseph Johnson, John Knight en James Wroe het die Patriotic Union Society gestig. Al die leidende radikale in Manchester het by die organisasie aangesluit. Johnson is aangestel as sekretaris van die Genootskap en Wroe word penningmeester. Die hoofdoel van die Patriotic Union Society was om parlementêre hervorming te bewerkstellig en gedurende die somer van 1819 besluit hy om Henry Orator Hunt uit te nooi om tydens 'n openbare vergadering in Manchester te spreek. Die mans is meegedeel dat dit ''n vergadering van die graafskap Lancashire sou wees as van Manchester alleen. Ek dink deur goeie bestuur kan die grootste vergadering wat ooit in hierdie land gesien is, verkry word.

James Wroe, die redakteur van die Manchester Observer, was in die St. Peter's Field en beskryf die aanval op die skare in die volgende uitgawe van die koerant en word vermoedelik die eerste persoon wat die voorval as die Peterloo -bloedbad beskryf het. Wroe het ook 'n reeks pamflette getiteld vervaardig Die Peterloo -bloedbad: 'n getroue vertelling van die gebeure. Die pamflette, wat vanaf 28 Augustus vir veertien agtereenvolgende weke verskyn het, het twee keer 'n groot oplaag gehad en het 'n belangrike rol gespeel in die propaganda -oorlog teen die owerhede. Die regering wou wraak neem en James Wroe is gearresteer en aangekla van die vervaardiging van 'n oproerige publikasie. Hy is skuldig bevind en gevonnis tot twaalf maande gevangenisstraf, plus 'n boete van £ 100.

Met die aankoms van die Manchester Guardian in 1821 die Manchester Observer besluit om die publikasie te staak. In sy laaste uitgawe het die redakteur geskryf: 'Ek stel met respek voor dat die Manchester GuardianDie kombinasie van beginsels van volkome onafhanklikheid en ywerige gehegtheid aan die oorsaak van hervorming met aktiewe en geesdriftige bestuur is 'n tydskrif wat u vertroue en ondersteuning waardig is. "

Die oggend van die 16de is met vreugde begroet deur die duisende, wie se gevoelens by die geleentheid baie opgewonde was. Op 'n vroeë tydperk het daar getalle uit verskillende en verre dele van die land gekom om die grootste en aangenaamste samekoms van Britte te sien wat ooit in die jaarblaaie van ons geskiedenis aangeteken is. Van Bolton, Oldham, Stockport, Middleton en die omliggende land; uit die verre dorpe Leeds, Sheffield, ens., kom duisende gewillige kiesers na die heiligdom van heilige vryheid; en in die tydperk toe die patriotiese mnr. Hunt en sy vriende hul stasie ingeneem het, word vermoed dat nie minder nie as 150 000 mense in die gebied naby die Sint -Petruskerk vergader het.

Mnr. Hunt bestyg die hustings om half-een, en na 'n paar voorlopige reëlings, gaan die enorme menigte aan en beveel vrede en orde vir hul regering aan. Terwyl ons so besig was, en sonder dat die skaduwee van wanorde sou voorkom of waarskynlik sou plaasvind, was ons verbaas, alhoewel nie ontsteld nie, toe ons sien dat 'n kolom infanterie 'n opening in die vergadering besit.

Ons vrese is tot afgryse opgewek deur die verskyning van die Manchester- en Salford Yeomanry -kavallerie, wat galopend in die gebied gekom het en in 'n ry begin gereed is vir aksie; Hulle is ook nie lank uitgestel van hul helse doel nie - die spesiale konstabels is van hul vorige stasies ontbied - die bugel het die klag laat klink - en 'n toneel van moord en bloedbad het gevolg wat die nageslag sal aarsel om te glo, en wat die skrywers en ondersteuners van hierdie vuil en bloedige tragedie vir die verbaasde wêreld. Mans, vroue en kinders, sonder die onderskeid tussen ouderdom of geslag, het die slagoffers van hierdie monsters geword.

Die mense in die skare was so kompak en staan ​​vas dat hulle nie die haltes kon bereik sonder om te stop nie. Min, indien enige van die vergadering, het nog nie veronderstel dat hierdie krygsvertoning meer bedoel was as om Hunt, Johnson, Knight en Moorhouse te beveilig vir wie hulle lasbriewe het nie. Hunt word versoek om homself oor te gee, wat hy aangebied het om aan 'n landdros te doen, maar nie aan die Manchester Yeomanry Cavalry nie. 'N Meneer in die kommissie het homself voorgestel, en mnr. Hunt erken sy gesag en vertrek na die byeenkoms van die landdroste; waar meneer Johnson en meneer Saxton geneem is, en vandaar saam met mnr Hunt na die New Bayley -gevangenis geneem is; Meneer Knight het ontsnap, maar is later in sy eie huis gearresteer en Moorhouse is kort daarna in die Flying Horse Inn in hegtenis geneem.

Dit is vir ons onmoontlik om die omvang van die verlies aan lewens en ledemate vas te stel wat op so 'n willekeurige en onmenslike wyse ontstaan ​​het - mense het in alle rigtings gevlieg om hierdie moordenaars met hare brein te vermy, wat ondersteun is deur afdelings van die 15de Huzaren. Laasgenoemde het egter nie die dood en wonde met dieselfde liberale hand as ons stedelinge uitgedeel nie.


Biblioteke Historiese koerante

Ons hou 'n wye verskeidenheid Manchester -koerante op mikrofilm op die grondvloer van die Central Library, insluitend die Manchester Evening News. Hierdie lys toon watter titels in elk van die kaste gevind kan word. Vir die meeste hiervan is geen vooraf bespreking nodig nie, maar let op dat sommige titels in die sterk kamers gehou word en dus vooraf bespreek moet word.

Koerante Kabinet 1 tensy anders vermeld:

Adverteerder (dek Prestwich, Whitefield, Radcliffe, Crumpsall en Cheetham Hill), 1992 tot 1997
The Alliance Weekly News, 1854 tot 1870 (bespreek vooraf)
Anderton's Universal Advertiser 1762 tot 1789 (diverse MF 689: kaste 8-9)
Omsendbrief teen koring, 1839 tot 1841
Areanuus, 1995, 1997 tot 1999
Ashton Reporter, 1855 tot 1997 (bespreek vooraf)
Aston's Exchange Herald, 1809 tot 1826
Bolton News, 2007 tot hede (beskikbaar op NewsBank)
Britannia, 1834 tot 1836
Britannia Advertiser vir Liverpool of Manchester, 11 Jan 1837, Des 1838
Britse werker, 5 tot 17 Mei 1926
Bury Times, 2007 tot hede (beskikbaar op NewsBank)
City Life, 1984 tot 1990's (bespreek vooraf)
Comus of Momus, 1877 tot 1882 (bespreek vooraf vir 1877 tot Maart 1880)
Cotton Factory Times, 1885 tot 1937 (bespreek vooraf)
Cowdroy's Manchester Gazette, 1796 tot 1829
Daily War Telegraph and General Advertiser, 21 Okt tot Des 1854, 2 April 1855
Didsbury en Withington Observer, 21 Mei 1914
Droylsden Journal, 1854 tot 1855
East Manchester Reporter, 1976 tot 1980, 1991 tot 1997
Free Lance, 1866 tot 1880
Gorton Reporter, 1873 tot 1970
Hulme Advertiser, Chorlton-on-Medlock en Stretford Observer, 21 Mei 1870 tot 6 Mei 1871
Lancashire Journal met die geskiedenis van die Heilige Bybel, Oktober 1735 tot 16 Maart 1740
Levenshulme Echoes, 1893
Jongste nuus, 1882
Manchester en Salford Gazette, 1873 tot 1874
Manchester en Salford Advertiser, 1825 tot 1848
Manchester Chronicle, 30 November 1917 tot Des 1950
Manchester City News, 1864 tot 1958 (koerantkaste 1-2)

Koerante Kabinet 3 tensy anders vermeld:

Manchester Courier, 1825 tot 1916 (koerantkaste 2-3)
Adverteerder van Manchester Daily Telegraph en Northern Counties, Mei tot Aug, Sep tot November 1855
Advertiser van Manchester, Liverpool en Northern Counties, Mei tot Oktober 1873
Manchester Election Chronicle, 23 tot 28 Maart 1857
Manchester Evening Chronicle, 1897 tot 1963 (koerante kaste 3-4)

Koerante Kabinet 4 tensy anders vermeld:

Manchester Evening Mail, 1876 tot 1915
Manchester Evening News, 1868 aan Current (koerantkabinet 8-16)
Manchester Evening News Sports Pinks, Julie 1971 tot Aug 1998 plus spesiale uitgawes (kabinet 15)
Manchester Examiner, 1846 tot 1894
Manchester Express, Jan tot Junie 1847
Manchester Free Gazette, 1913 tot 1932 (bespreek vooraf)
Manchester Free Press en Northern Counties Advertiser, 6 Oktober 1894
Manchester Gazette and General Advertiser, 1881
Manchester Halfpenny Express, 13 Junie 1855

Koerante Kabinet 5 tensy anders vermeld:


Manchester Herald, 1792 tot 1793, 1834, 1836, 1843 (bespreek vooraf vir 1792 tot 1793)
Manchester Iris, 1822 tot 1823
Manchester Magazine, 1737 tot 1760
Manchester Mercury, 1752 tot 1830 (ander jare beskikbaar op die British Newspapers Archive)
Manchester Metro News, 1991 tot 2000
Manchester Observer, 1818 tot 1821
Manchester -program, 1872
Manchester Shipping Telegraph en Daily Commercial Advertiser, 13 Julie tot Des 1897
Manchester Stock Exchange List, 1921 tot 1935, 1963 tot 1974
Manchester Telegraph and Weekly Universal Advertiser, 19 Julie tot 16 Aug 1803
Manchester Times, 1828 tot 1848 (onvolledig)
Manchester Times en Stretford Chronicle, 27 Desember 1825
Manchester Weekly Advertiser, 1854 tot 1860
Manchester Weekly Express and Guardian, 1860 tot 1861 (bespreek vooraf)
Manchester Weekly Journal, 1724 tot 1725 (diverse MF 146: kaste 8-9)
Manchester Weekly and General Advertiser, 8 Mei tot 12 Junie 1880
Manchester Weekly Post, 1875 tot 1887
Manchester Weekly Times, 1861 tot 1922
Manchester Weekly Times Supplement, 1862 tot 1900
Middleton en North Manchester Guardian, 1992 tot 1999

Koerante Kabinet 6 tensy anders vermeld:

Morning Chronicle 1823 tot 1845 (bespreek vooraf)
Morning News, 14 Sep tot Des 1882
Moss Side District News Mei 1895, 17, 24 Apr, 1,15 Mei, 18 Sept 1897
Moss Side Weekly Review en District Advertiser 8 Julie, 9 Sept, 4 Nov 1904
Moston, Middleton en Blackley Guardian 1977 tot 1980 (koerantkas 5-6)
Moston, Middleton, Blackley en Crumpsall Express 1992 tot 1999
Noord -atleet, 5 April 1882
Northern Express, 1901 tot 1902
Northern Express en Lancashire Daily Post, 1 Desember 1821
Northenden News, Mei tot September 1902
Prescott's Manchester Journal, 1772 tot 1781
Prestwich en Whitefield Guide, 30 Julie 2007 tot hede (beskikbaar op NewsBank)
South Manchester Chronicle, 1889 tot 1894
South Manchester Express/Advertiser, 1992 tot 2000
South Manchester Gazette, 1885 tot 1888
South Manchester Reporter, 1993, 1997 tot 2011
War Express en Daily Advertiser - Manchester Express en Daily Adv, 24 Okt 1854, 8 Jan 1855
Wardle's Manchester Observer, 5 Junie tot 3 Jul 1819
Wardle's Manchester Observer of Literary and Political Register 10, 17 Julie 1819
Weeklikse versending 1804 tot 1928 (bespreek vooraf vir 1839 tot 1928)
Wheelers Manchester Chronicle, 1781 tot 1842
Whitworth's Manchester Magazine, 20 Desember 1737 tot 1760
Wythenshawe Recorder Express, 1946 tot 1979
Wythenshawe World, 1980 tot 1999 (bespreek vooraf)

Plaaslike tydskrifte

Ons het ook 'n wye verskeidenheid plaaslike tydskrifte en tydskrifte wat in ons biblioteekkatalogus verskyn.


Manchester Times

Sirkuleer deur Manchester, Salford, Rochdale, Bolton, Bury, Stockport, Congleton, Macclesfield, Ashton-under-Lyne, Oldham, Wigan, Warrington, Preston, Chorley, Blackburn, Burnley, Halifax, ens. Beveel hervorming, aflegging, vrede, vryhandel aan, meen die koringwette is skadelik vir die handel, sonder om enige voordeel te hê: beywer hom vir die gelykmaking van suiker en koffie. Is nie die orgaan van enige sekte nie, maar is voorstander van godsdiensvryheid en is gekant teen alle skenkings vir godsdienstige doeleindes. Pleit vir die afskaffing van slawerny, Rooms -Katolieke emansipasie, swak wette vir Ierland, meer liberale armwette vir Skotland, die instelling van vrywillige beginsels van verklarende skole en skole vir babas, hervorming van ou onderwysinstellings, sanitêre verbeterings, ens. Die Anti-Corn Law League het nog altyd 'n vaste en konsekwente ondersteuner in hierdie tydskrif, en die waarde daarvan vir die liggaam kan nie oorskat word nie. Die politieke redakteur, die heer A. Prentice, is een van die uitgesoekte orkes van wie die groot beweging ontstaan ​​het (Mitchell, 1846).

'N Bylae uitgereik met die titel Manchester Literary Times (q.v.), nrs. 1-36 (12 Februarie 1848-28 Okt 1848).

Die koerant het 'selfsugtige aristokratiese regerings gekritiseer oor die nood van die land:' ... wanneer wette van krag is om die prys van hul voedsel te verdubbel, hul lone te verlaag deur die opbrengs van hul arbeid van buitelandse markte uit te sluit en hul harde werk te doen. -om byna elke lewensnoodsaaklike belastingbesparing te verdien, is dit nie minder onmenslik om, indien nodig, 'n deel van die oorvloed wat deur hulle arbeid voortgebring is, te ontken nie "(Barker bl. 199).

"Sluit aan by die oorsaak" van parlementêre hervorming en was konsekwent gekant teen die koringwet (Barker, p.207, 219). Prentice was teen Chartisme. Sy program, wat in 1839 uiteengesit is, was "vrye handel (en veral die herroeping van die koringwette) driejaarlikse parlemente, met een derde van die lede wat jaarliks ​​in 'n geheime stemming verkies moet word, 'n herverdeling van setels en 'n stemreg op grond van 'n opvoedingstoets" (Cranfield, p.197).

"In 1835 skryf die jong Richard Cobden 'n reeks briewe aan die Manchester Times waarin hy aandring dat die stad 'n versoek vir plaaslike selfregering versoek. Die mate waarin die pers toenemend deur belangrike politieke en ekonomiese groepe gebruik word, was 'n bewys van hul besef het 'n effektiewe manier aangebied om 'n boodskap oor te dra. Prentice's Manchester Times het nooit voorspoedig gebly nie omdat hy te pedagogies was om te probeer lei "(Black, p.173).

"Die politiek van die Manchester Times was te gevorderd om die gereelde leserspubliek van baie van die Manchester-vervaardigers te lok. Hulle verkies die versigtiger benadering van die Manchester Guardian. Prentice se manier was ook te pedagogies om by baie lesers 'n beroep te doen. Op die twintig-en-twintig vyfde herdenking van sy toetrede tot die plaaslike joernalistiek, het hy die hoop uitgespreek dat die lesers wat hom gevolg het 'met iets van die persoonlike gehegtheid van 'n gemeente aan hul liefdevolle predikant'. By die toespraak op die werkersklasse raak Prentice se toon dikwels beswaard: 'Ons het met betrekking tot vele onderwerpe getoon', het hy in 1825 in die Manchester Gazette geskryf, 'dat ons die welsyn van die werkersklasse op die hart dra. die handhawing van die sabbatswette, vertrou ons dat hulle sal sien dat ons dieselfde vriendelike ywer vir hul beswil bewerkstellig. Donald Read, Press and People).

Bron: The Waterloo Directory of English Newspapers and Periodicals: 1800-1900.

Vir hierdie koerant het ons die volgende titels in of beplan vir ons digitale argief:

  • 1828–29 The Manchester Times
  • 1831–48 The Manchester Times en Gazette
  • 1849–55 Manchester Examiner and Times
  • 1856–57 Manchester Weekly Examiner & Times
  • 1857–1900 Manchester Weekly Times en eksaminator

Hierdie koerant word uitgegee deur 'n onbekende uitgewer in Manchester, Lancashire, Engeland. Dit is gedigitaliseer en die eerste keer beskikbaar gestel op die British Newspaper Archive in 8 November 2011 . Die nuutste uitgawes is bygevoeg 30 Sep 2020 .


Die waarnemer

Ons redakteurs gaan na wat u ingedien het, en bepaal of hulle die artikel moet hersien.

Die waarnemer, Sondagkoerant wat in 1791 gestig is, die eerste Sondagkoerant wat in Brittanje gepubliseer is. Dit is een van Engeland se kwaliteitskoerante, wat lank bekend is vir die klem op buitelandse dekking. Die koerant bestee groot ruimte aan kunste, regering, onderwys en politiek, en dit het 'n wêreldwye reputasie as verantwoordelike joernalistiek. Die waarnemer word deur ander redakteurs beskou as een van die beste koerante ter wêreld. Vir baie jare onderhou hy 'n groot aantal buitelandse korrespondente wat nuus en agtergrondstukke verskaf vir die algemeen goed opgeleide lesers van die koerant, waaronder 'n groot internasionale gehoor. Die waarnemer in 1976 kortliks uit die Britse besit oorgegaan toe dit aan 'n Amerikaanse konglomeraat, die Atlantic Richfield Company, verkoop is. In 1981 is dit aan Britse hande teruggegee toe 'n nyweraar, Roland Rowland, beheer gekoop het. Die waarnemer is in 1993 deur die Guardian Media Group gekoop, waarvan Die voog koerant is ook 'n deel.

Hierdie artikel is onlangs hersien en bygewerk deur Adam Augustyn, besturende redakteur, verwysingsinhoud.


The Manchester Observer: Biography of a Radical Newspaper



Hierdie webwerf gebruik koekies en Google Analytics (sien ons bepalings en voorwaardes vir meer inligting oor die implikasies van privaatheid).

Die gebruik van hierdie webwerf is onderhewig aan die bepalings en voorwaardes.
Alle regte voorbehou deur The PhilPapers Foundation

Bladsy gegenereer Di 29 Junie 14:28:34 2021 op philatures-web-b76fb567b-jxzfk Ontfoutinligting

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Transkripsie

Manchester Observer -rekening van Peterloo, 21 Augustus 1819

Vier dae het verloop sedert die tragiese gebeurtenis; ons vind die tyd te kort om die transaksies in die algemeen met korrektheid aan te teken, 'n maand sou nie voldoende wees om al die individuele en werklik betreurenswaardige sake wat aan ons kantoor meegedeel is in detail te beskryf nie.

Ter inligting van diegene wat nie die waarnemer gereeld lees nie, kan dit nodig wees om te sê dat die vergadering, wat selfs die landdroste self nie kon ag nie, 'n volkome wettige vergadering was, wat die vorige Maandag plaasgevind het, is prysgegee, en 'n ander een wat verlede Maandag aangekondig is, vry van die beswaar wat in die eerste kennisgewing moes bestaan.

Die oggend was uiters fyn en goed bereken om 'n groot byeenkoms by te woon. So vroeg as tienuur was alles aan die gang, en almal met die verwagting van 'n vreedsame vergadering en dink ons ​​ook nie dat een persoon uit tienduisend die minste skade van die Hervormers verwag het vir min, indien enige winkels, gesluit was .

Die byeenkoms was ongetwyfeld baie indrukwekkend, maar toe stilte beveel word, terwyl die besluit geneem is om mnr Hunt as voorsitter aan te stel, is die bevolking beantwoord deur die uitstalling van die stedelinge se sabel. Selfs hierdie demonstrasie van vyandigheid het geen alarm gemaak nie, die toeskouers het besef dat hulle slegs bereid was om te onderdruk en oproer te bring mag gebeur, en nooit gedroom dat die wettige beskermers van die openbare vrede die eerste onwettig sou wees wat dit kon verbreek nie. >

Voordat ons die mees lafhartige, lafhartige en bloedige aanval van die Manchester en Salford Yeomanry Cavalry en ander vertel, vra ons om weg te gaan om 'n paar transaksies wat in die huis van mnr Buxton plaasgevind het, te noem.

Die Landdroste, met 'n aantal meneer van die stad, was hier in oorleg, en die mening van die Landdroste was verdeeld oor die regte manier van werk. Hierdie moeilikheid is egter gou deur 30 burgerlikes, inwonende here van Manchester, ontslae geraak, wat vrywillig aangebied het om 'n eed af te lê, dat hulle die vrede van die stad bedink het.

Die landdroste sou nie, en durf blykbaar nie opgetree het nie, sonder hierdie wettige spinnerak om hul naaktheid te bedek.

Hierdie dertig het nie gou gesweer nie en die onderteken Manchester Magna Charta, as die Boroughreeve versoek is om sy laaier te monteer en op die spesiale konstabels te lei.

Min, indien enige van die vergadering, het nog nie veronderstel dat hierdie krygsvertoning meer bedoel was as om die heer Hunt te beveilig nie.

Mnr. Hunt word versoek om homself oor te gee, wat hy aangebied het om aan 'n landdros te doen. Sodra Mr Hunt beveilig is, volg 'n toneel wat so bloedig en afgryslik was, dat geen pen of tong in sy ware kleure kon skilder nie.

Sonder om die Riot Act te lees, wat die veragtelike sikofant, die heer Aston, die onblusbare onbeskaamdheid het om te beweer dat dit gelees is sonder dat die gewone kennisgewing om te versprei, het hulle op hierdie vreedsame en weerlose menigte ingeloop. 'N Skrikwekkende gil huur nou die lug.

As die weermag slegs robuuste mans aangeval het, net diegene wat hulle beledig het gewond het, sou veel minder berugtheid hul lot gewees het. Maar dit is berug dat sommige van ons here nie net die vinnigste nie, maar ook die swaarste getref het op diegene wat die weerloosste was. Dit lyk asof die vroue die spesiale voorwerpe was van die woede van hierdie baas soldate.

Dit blyk dat daar vyf of ses dooies is en#8211 soveel dodelike gewondes, en nie minder nie as 300 gewondes. Die tragiese verhouding word aansienlik verhoog deur die universele oortuiging dat al die bloed wat gestort is, die meeste onnodig en onnodig gestort is.

Moet die mense vertel word as hulle brood vra, dat hulle net 'n koeël of sabel moet hê? Of as hulle grondwetlike vryheid vra, moet hulle dan in die tronk opgesluit bly? Ja, dit alles as sommige mans moet regeer.


Algehele liga -analise

In my gedagtes benodig elke soort inligting oor hoe ons bestuurders dit gedoen het die perspektief van hoe sterk of swak die liga daardie seisoen was. Sonder die nuanse is 'n algehele prentjie nie baie nuttig nie.

Hier is 'n paar basiese statistieke van die afgelope 8 seisoene:-

  1. Interessant (of miskien oninteressant) was die gemiddelde punte van die liga redelik konsekwent. Hulle help dus nie soveel as die ander getalle nie. Wat opmerklik is, is die seisoene 15-16 en 18-19. Dit is duidelik dat die kwaliteit van die liga in die jaar waarin Leicester die titel gewen het, swak was. Op dieselfde manier skeef City en Liverpool se skitterende titelwedloop van 18-19 die gemiddelde na die hoogste punt in ons data.
  2. By die eerste kyk, dui die gemiddelde aan dat daar nie veel verskil was tussen hierdie seisoene wat die sterkte van die liga betref nie. Miskien vertel standaardafwyking ons wat die gemiddelde nie kan doen nie. Die SD beklemtoon hoe wisselvallig die punte wat verkry is. Ek laat dit egter oop vir interpretasie, maar in my gedagtes behoort 'n lae SD waarskynlik in ooreenstemming te wees met 'n meer mededingende liga. Let wel, 'n liga kan ook swak en mededingend wees (15-16 kom na vore).
  3. Die span van die 10de plek word hier gebruik as 'n surrogaat vir die mediaan. 'N Mediaan in statistiek is sterker in die hantering van uiterste waardes in vergelyking met die gemiddelde. City's Centurions skeef die gemiddelde aansienlik

Manchester City se aanloop einde van die seisoen is soos volg:

Datum Opposisie Kompetisie
Saterdag 8 Mei Chelsea (H) PL
Vr 14 Mei Newcastle (A) PL
Di 18 Mei Brighton (A) PL
Son 23 Mei Everton (H) PL
Saterdag 29 Mei Chelsea (N) CL

Chelsea het die volgende:

Datum Opposisie Kompetisie
Saterdag 8 Mei Manchester City (A) PL
Wo 12 Mei Arsenal (H) PL
Saterdag 15 Mei Leicester (N) FA Cup
Di 18 Mei Leicester (H) PL
Son 23 Mei Aston Villa (A) PL
Saterdag 29 Mei Manchester City (N) CL

Manchester City moet ten minste een van hul komende vier wedstryde wen (of sien hoe Manchester United 3 punte in die komende vier wedstryde laat val) om die PL -titel te behaal.

Die enigste wedstryd in die middel van die week wat City het, is weg by Brighton.

'n week tussen wedstryde vir die eerste keer sedert einde Desember (die internasionale pouses uitgesluit), toe die wegwedstryd van Everton uitgestel is weens 'n Covid -uitbraak.

Chelsea het nog geen midweke tot die week voor die CL -eindstryd nie.

Chelsea het nog 'n wedstryd te speel (die FA Cup -eindstryd) en moet nog steeds die Top 4 as versekering beklink as hulle nie die CL -eindstryd wen nie.

Chelsea is tans 4de, 2 punte agter Leicester met dieselfde GD, en 3 punte voor West Ham met +11 GD -voordeel.

Al die oorblywende wedstryde van Chelsea is teen spanne in die boonste helfte van die tabel.

Rugbyrugbywedstryde van Chelsea teen Leicester kan hul binnelandse veldtog moontlik definieer, en dit kan tot 'n minimale rotasie van die span lei, anderhalf week voor die eindstryd van die CL.

Beide spanne het minder as 'n week tussen die laaste PL -wedstryd en die CL -eindstryd, wat ongeveer 'n week of twee minder is as gewoonlik.

Hier is 'n uiteensetting van die verkoop volgens Amerikaanse winkelpryse.

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[Voorvaders: The Humankind Odyssey] (https://platprices.com/en-u
. bly lees op reddit ➡

https://www.marxists.org/history/etol/writers/rees-j/1997/xx/newlabour.htm (beter opmaak)

Die Arbeidersparty se oorwinningsoorwinning op 1 Mei 1997 het reeds die rekordboeke behaal: die grootste meerderheid ooit in die Arbeid, die laagste stemme van die Tories sedert 1832, die meeste kabinetsministers wat ongesetel was in 'n verkiesing, die meeste vroulike parlementslede wat ooit verkies is, ensovoorts . Die oorwinning het 'n nog groter impak gehad as wat die blote syfers toon, omdat dit in baie oorde so onverwags was. Tony Blair was die belangrikste onder diegene wat dit nie self kon vind om die konsekwente verslae van die meningspeilings voor die verkiesing te glo nie. Sy nou berugte opmerking enkele dae voor die stemming dat 'dit is nie 'n land van aard nie' pas op die oorwinningsaand self toe hy weier om die voorspellings van die uitgangspeilings te glo tot lank nadat die eerste uitslae bekend gemaak is.

Maar die Labour -leier twyfel nie daaraan dat sy party goed sou wen of dat dit enigsins sou wen nie. Baie kiesers en aktiviste van die Arbeid, en baie links van die Arbeid, het die ervaring van die verkiesing in 1992 geknou toe die oorwinning op die laaste oomblik sou wegglip, tot verwarring van die meningspeilers. Hulle het geweier om die noodsaaklike verskille tussen die twee opeenvolgende verkiesings te erken, veral die feit dat Arbeid met die veldtog van 1992 ongeveer 5 persent vorentoe in die stembusse begin het, eerder as die voorsprong van 20 persent wat hulle maande lank bereik het voordat die verkiesing in 1997 aangekondig is. Vir sommige het die twyfel dieper geword namate die beleid en leierskap van die Arbeidersparty meer regs geword het onder Blair. Die argument het beslis geloop, Blair is so soos die Tories dat mense gedemoraliseer word en weier om vir hom te stem. Die spook van hierdie argument het sy beslissende weerlegging deur die verkiesingsuitslag oorleef. Sommige, die leiers van Labour onder hulle, beweer nou dat Blair gewen het omdat hy so regs was. Aan die linkerkant lei hierdie argument tot die pessimistiese gevolgtrekking dat die sosialistiese projek onder Blair net so moeilik is om te realiseer as onder die Tories. 'Mense is net regs,' word gesê, en die feit dat hulle slegs Labour sou stem as die party onder leiding van sy mees regse leier in die naoorlogse tydperk was, bewys die punt.

Die oorsake van Labour se verkiesingsoorwinning is dus 'n belangrike deel van die argument oor die gevolge daarvan. As die Labour -leiers en hul pessimistiese neefs aan die linkerkant reg is, was die Arbeidsstem slegs moontlik as gevolg van die deel

U verslag van 18 minute Saterdag tot Maandag in 4451 woorde.

## Armenië en GOS -republieke was die WW2 -oorwinningsdag

Poetin het Pashinyan en die Armeense volk gelukgewens met die 76ste herdenking van die oorwinningsdag. Ons onthou die prestasies van ons vaders en grootvaders met 'n spesiale gevoel van trots en dankbaarheid.

Pashinyan het Poetin en Russe gelukgewens. Die groot erfenis van oorwinning is 'n lewensbelangrike waarde, 'n morele riglyn vir toekomstige geslagte om 'n regverdige en veilige wêreld te bou. & quot

Die jaarlikse & quotImmortal Regiment & mars -optog, waarin mense die foto's van hul familielede van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog deel, word vanjaar aanlyn gehou. Die deelnemers het die foto's op sosiale media gedeel onder hashtags #ԱնմահԳունդ 2021 #Бессмертныйполк2021

Armeense en Russiese troepe het 'n geleentheid in die Gyumri -militêre basis gereël.

https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1051721.html https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1051778.html https://armenpress.am/arm/news/1051722.html https: // armenpress .am/arm/nuus/1051796.html

## openbare amptenare het hulde gebring en boodskappe gedeel

[Vandag is ook Shushi se bevrydingsdag tydens die eerste Artsakh -oorlog]

Die parlement pres. Mirzoyan: Ondanks die feit dat Shushi onder Azerbeidzjaanse beheer is, behoort dit een van die belangrikste simbole van die Armeense herlewing te wees. Armenië moet die onderhandelinge onder die OVSE Minsk-groep voortsit om die Artsakh se reg op selfbeskikking en die herstel van territoriale integriteit te bereik. //

Pashinyan het die pantheon van Yerablur besoek voordat hy saam met ander deelgeneem het aan 'n openbare geleentheid in Hakhtanak Park. Hulle het 'n groep WW2 -veterane ontmoet.

Pashinyan se boodskap: Baie geluk met die 76ste herdenking van die oorwinning in die Groot Patriotiese Oorlog. Dit is 'n wonderlike vakansie waarop ons tereg trots is. Die bydrae van die Armeense volk was groot. 500K Armeniërs van die USSR het aan die oorlog deelgeneem en 300K het gesterf vir die oorwinning. 107 van hulle het titels van Hero ontvang.

Baie van hulle sou offisiere in die Sowjet -leër word en nuwe hoogtes bereik. Dit was die ruggraat van die toekomstige onafhanklike Armeense en Artsakh leërs. Dit was hulle wat by die vrywilligers aangesluit het en met die moderne gees van hooibokke Shushi bevry het.

Ongelukkig is Shushi nie vandag by ons nie. Ons treur oor die gevangenskap, maar besef dat ons, ongeag die lot en huidige realiteite, die dag van sy bevryding moet vier. Dit is een van die glorieryke bladsye van ons moderne geskiedenis, dit was van groot belang vir ons mense.

Ons moet die herinnering aan diegene wat in die oorlog gesterf het, lewendig hou, en ons moet c

Min mense het verwag dat die hoof van ontwikkeling van die klub die pos sou kry, maar hy het sedert 2013 'n sleutelrol gespeel in die verbetering van die akademie van die klub

'N Eenvoudige Google -soektog na' Manchester United 'en' Director of Football 'sal 'n lang lys van bekende name oplewer.

Edwin van der Sar, Ralf Rangnick, Rio Ferdinand, Patrice Evra-die aantal gerugte wat gegroei het, het oor die jare gegroei en gegroei, aangesien spelers omgedraai het dat die klub dringend 'n sleutel aan iemand met 'n agtergrond in die spel moes gee rol in oordragonderhandelinge.

Die rol sal waarskynlik altyd vervul word, maar daar sou nie baie belangstellende waarnemers gewees het wat verwag het dat John Murtough, hoof van United -ontwikkeling, die pos sou kry nie.

Trouens, nadat dit Woensdag bekend gemaak is dat Murtough aangewys is as die klub se eerste 'Football Director', wonder baie buitestaanders bloot wie hy is - laat staan ​​waarom hy gekies is om so 'n belangrike pos te beklee.

Murtough word egter al lank as 'n sleutelfiguur op Old Trafford beskou.

Hy is in 2013 deur David Moyes na United gebring nadat hy voorheen vir die Premier League gewerk het. Murtough, wat gereeld as 'n 'fixer' beskryf word, is aangekla van die verbetering van die akademie.

Hy het in hierdie opsig uitgeblink en 'n deurslaggewende rol gespeel in 'n beleidsverandering, waardeur United 'n meer uitgebreide, globale benadering tot werwing van spelers aangeneem het, wat gelei het tot die aankoms van mense soos Hannibal Mejbri en Alvaro Fernandez.

Murtough, wat by Ed Woodward gaan verslag doen, was ook 'n integrale deel van die stigting van die vrouespan in 2018.

Terwyl United 'n aantal eksterne kandidate beoordeel het, beskou hulle Murtough as die beste opsie vir die 'Football Director' -rol vanweë sy reeds uitgebreide kennis van die klub en sy talle suksesverhale die afgelope agt jaar en hy word beskou as 'n beter opsie as die eksterne kandidate wat as onvanpas geag is omdat hulle slegs in werwing belangstel.

Natuurlik sal sy werk nou meer onder die loep kom as ooit tevore.

One of the principal external criticisms of United's management structure has long been that the signing of players is overseen by people "not from the football world", as Evra

The success currently being enjoyed by Joel Glazer is in no way down to him

For fans of the Tampa Bay Buccaneers, things are looking up. After near two decades of muddling mediocrity, their team has reached the Superbowl for the first time since 2002. Not only that, they will be playing against the Kansas City Chiefs next month in their own home, albeit that the pandemic has restricted the crowd in the Raymond James Stadium to 22,000.

What’s more they have within their ranks the greatest Superbowl winner in history, the recently signed 43 year old quarterback Tom Brady, who will be throwing for his seventh Superbowl winner's ring. In Florida, the stars seem to be aligning.

No wonder Joel Glazer, scion of the family that owns the franchise, was cooing with delight when interviewed after his team’s play-off victory last weekend.

“We’re so happy,” he said. “Tampa we’re coming home.”

At the same time, across the Atlantic, the Glazers’ other sporting entity also appears to be awakening after a lengthy slumber. Manchester United are back in a title race, the place that their fans believe is the minimal requirement for an operation of their prestige.

This joint upward trajectory has made some observers wonder whether we have got the Glazers wrong. Far from the leeches of wider conception, are the family in fact model owners, careful stewards determined to bring playing success to their clubs? Maybe we should give them some credit.

To which the only answer is: yeah, right, just like Newcastle fans should all bow down in gratitude to Mike Ashley.

Malcolm Glazer bought the Buccs in 1996. No expert in sports management, and not even that much of a gridiron fan, he largely left the day-to-day running of the business alone, his main concern drawing down the dividends. In 2002 the family hired John Gruden as coach and he won the Superbowl in his first year in charge. It was a high point that could not be maintained.

The Glazers had no clever system, no revolutionary management technique, no moneyball equivalent to keep the franchise potent. Their one piece of methodology was to change coaches as often as Chelsea. 12 they have hired in the 25 years they have owned the Buccs, none coming close to matching Gruden until Bruce Arians arrived in 2019 and broug


The Case for Manchester United

I am the proud owner of a nephew who is 15 years old, 6 feet 2, and 85 pounds after a week in a typhoon. I&rsquove seen veggie burgers with more meat on them. Great kid, too, and a huge Manchester United fan &ndash he recently did some school exam after one hour&rsquos sleep, having trekked with his dad the night before to Barcelona and back to watch United in a European game. (Don&rsquot tell his teacher). But despite the fact I like him a lot, and share his obsession with all things Man U, being just 15 he&rsquos badly in need of a history lesson, so Sam Dempsey of Tamworth, England? Take the iPod buds out of your huge ears, and listen up.

Lesson number one: United weren&rsquot always this good.

In a couple of weeks, amidst the swirling fogs of the Grand Sports Arena of the Luzhniki Olympic Complex in Moscow, the Champions League final will be played, and one team will be crowned best side in Europe. The Champions League (not to be confused with the European Championship, a tournament for national teams which begins in June 2008) is the premier competition for European club teams. What began with 32 teams in groups is now whittled down to a couple in a single, winner-takes-all game, and this year is the first time in the competition&rsquos history that the final features two British clubs: Chelsea (or Chelski as they&rsquore nicknamed given their Russian owner, the richer-than-God Roman Abramovich), and Manchester United. And if you started watching soccer fervently around the year 2001, as Sam Dempsey did, then it&rsquos a surprise to you that United don&rsquot make the final every year. In fact, the last time they made it was 1999 &ndash Sam was 6 years old — before that, 1968, when his dad was 4. And before that, never, and that&rsquos because of 1958.

Lesson number two: When Liverpool boss Bill Shankly famously said &lsquoSome people think football is a matter of life and death. I assure you, it’s much more serious than that,&rsquo it just proved what a twat he was.

Soccer fans around the world know that on February 6, 1958, an airplane carrying the Manchester United team back from a European game in Belgrade stopped to refuel in a snow-blasted Munich. In attempting to take off (for a third time), the plane crashed through a fence at the edge of the airport, into both a house and a hut used to store fuel, where it finally, and devastatingly, burst into flames. At the time, the team on board was nicknamed the Busby Babes, a combination of the name of the manager, Matt Busby, and the average age of the players, which wasn&rsquot much more than Sam Dempsey&rsquos age now. Ask a Man United fan to name the players who died, and many will forlornly say, &lsquoBent, Byrne, Colman, Edwards [pause], Jones, Pegg, Taylor, Whelan.&rsquo We pause not just for the rhythm of it, but for the fact that Duncan Edwards has, since his death, become a talisman of the shock the soccer world felt. He was 16 years old when he first played for United, 18 when for England, and by all accounts he was a phenomenon: hard-tackling, swift of mind, with a shot like a Howitzer. He was probably going to be the greatest player of his generation. But on that snowy night in Germany, it all came to an end: his legs were shattered, and his kidneys beyond repair. Amazingly, he lived long enough to reportedly ask a United official, &ldquoWhat time is kick off against Wolves? I mustn&rsquot miss that match.&rdquo Just over two weeks after the crash, he was gone, along with three backroom staff members, six journalists, and four other passengers.

The heart of a soccer club, ripped out and thrown in the slush of a German airport. What to make of such an event? For weeks, England held its breath, hardly able to think about soccer, about sports, about much of anything. It&rsquos a homogenous place still, small with poor weather, and national tragedies are just that: national. Matt Busby, the manager, had been very badly injured himself (he got the Catholic sacrament of last rites twice) there are chilling black-and-white movies of his disembodied voice coming over the loudspeakers at Man United&rsquos ground, Old Trafford, messages he read to a packed stadium as he lay near death in a Munich hospital. Though the great Turin team of 1949 had similarly perished in a terrible air crash, this accident still seems to stand alone in sporting history. Maybe it was the ages of the players maybe it was Duncan Edwards maybe it was what Busby&rsquos battle to live maybe it was because of what came next: Busby&rsquos return to full health, and the most glittering prize of all.

Lesson number three: When Man United wins, conception can follow.

By 1960s, Manchester United were back playing regularly in Europe, and on a warm May night in 1968 they beat a great Benfica team &ndash a team that featured Eusebio, at the time the best player in the world &ndash to become the first English team to win the European Cup (the forerunner to today&rsquos Champions League). Finally, United had reached their full potential, a footballing potential so cruelly taken from them ten years earlier. Bobby Charlton, a Busby Babe who survived the Munich crash, opened the scoring in 1968, glancing a header past Henrique in the Benfica net when the game went into extra time at 1-1, the great George Best rounded the keeper to put United ahead, and a minute later Brian Kidd echoed his own name by heading in on his 19th birthday.

Appropriately, Charlton finished the scoring on 99 minutes with a fabulous chip over the keeper from a crap angle, and Manchester United were, in the words of the Pathe News announcer, &ldquosupreme soccer champions of Europe.&rdquo

Six months later, I was born. I like to think that&rsquos down to a team called Gornik Zabrze. In late February, almost exactly nine months before my first appearance for Muling and Puking FC, United had won at Old Trafford in their European Cup-winning year against the Polish champions. Brian Kidd scored that night, too, and talking of scoring, I&rsquom sure my dad&rsquos good mood. . . . By my personal second trimester we&rsquod beaten Eusebio&rsquos Benfica, but I was to grow up like Sam Dempsey, only dimly aware of United&rsquos tragic/triumphant history. The first year I really followed them fervently was 1975. By then, Manchester United was something else entirely.

Lesson number four: Some victories should not be celebrated.

After 1968 the club went into a decline, and in late 1974 a player named Denis Law, a United legend who had only missed the 1968 European Cup final through injury, ended his playing career at United&rsquos arch rivals, Manchester City.

In an end-of-season local derby, Law found himself with his back to our goal, and in perfect Law fashion (he was one of the smartest center forwards ever to play the game), he backheeled the ball into United&rsquos net, thereby relegating them to what was then Division Two. Law was devastated, not realizing then that even a draw would have sent us down. No matter — he bowed his head in shame and walked away, leaving the field almost immediately (he was substituted), and retiring a few weeks later. My earliest memories of United as a central part of my life were therefore of the team playing teams like Oxford United and Leyton Orient. Throughout the rest of the seventies and eighties &ndash or my childhood, as it&rsquos known — United continued to flatter, but weren&rsquot even deceptively bad. It was only with the ascent of Alex Ferguson to position as United manager that United started to dominate as they have done recently. We’ve won the Premiership ten times since 1992, including this year. It&rsquos still a shock to some of us. We remember 1975.

Lesson number five: Uncles always tell stories humor them.

I was watching a United game with my girlfriend the other night when she suddenly blurted out, &ldquoSo has Man United ever been relegated?&rdquo Once I&rsquod stopped headbutting her, I said, &ldquoHoney, let&rsquos go back to 1958, shall we?&rdquo She was asleep by the time I got to Brian Kidd&rsquos goal in the Benfica match, but I woke her to fill her in on the forthcoming Champions League final. As I did so, I realized there&rsquos a thread running all the way back to 1958. It&rsquos not just the coincidence of dates (&rsquo58, &rsquo68, &rsquo08), nor the fact that the remaining survivors of Munich have been invited to join the current United team in Moscow in a couple of weeks. No, it&rsquos the thread of family that makes United fans (makes most sports fans, in fact).

In my case, my uncle Mike was a journalist in Manchester in 1958, and a colleague of his died in the crash. He went on to be pals with fellow-Catholic Busby he wrote in the United programme every week you knew you could prompt him to talk about the Busby Babes, but you didn&rsquot dare. His younger brother, my dad, lived for United too, and died in 1990, before the team became good again. My kids were born the year United won the Champions League now, they&rsquore almost old enough to care, too, but only if a horse and a poodle somehow get in United&rsquos starting 11.

Lesson number six: Unlike Christiano Ronaldo, this, too, shall pass.

But this final is not for my kids they&rsquore too young. This one&rsquos for Sam Dempsey. He&rsquos been to every United game this season, home and away, accompanying his dad, my elder brother, all over England. After about 65 minutes of every game they both lustily join in the chant in which &ldquoSerbia&rdquo somehow rhymes with &ldquomurderer,&rdquo an appallingly witty reference to our tough central defender, Nmanja Vidic they call me with full reports of how we played. Sam thinks United have always been this good &ndash that Ronaldo and Rooney and Rio are business as usual &ndash that we&rsquoll always finish in the top two, and will be disappointed if we don&rsquot make the Champions League final. Well, hate to tell you son, but when I was your age . . . but no.

So what that my youth came and went with United winning nothing of note? Let&rsquos leave Denis Law and the Second Division and Leyton Orient behind. Now, in my fortieth year, United fans are packing their bags with the ghosts of the fifties and sixties and seventies and eighties, and they&rsquore flying over Munich on their way to Moscow. How could anyone root for any team but United, given what came before? It&rsquos a question I often ask myself. No one&rsquos answered yet, and for me, no one ever will.

Lesson number seven: Keep out of bars.

I was in a bar recently sitting next to a guy who follows Chelsea, the team United must beat to once again become supreme soccer champions of Europe. He was bemoaning what they&rsquove become a once-fashionable West London club, in deep blue shirts, passing and dribbling, once in a while being successful but not really. All that has gone. Now, they have devolved into a team of superstars paid for by Abramovich, but who seem to publicly hate each other. Recently, stars Didier Drogba and Michael Ballack argued during a game against United about who was to take a free kick and in their recent game against Newcastle, John Terry, their captain and presumed role model, ripped fellow defender Ricardo Carvahlo a new one when he left the field having fallen on his old one.

Then there&rsquos some of their fans. The Chelsea Headhunters are a notorious group who dole out vicious beatings on other team&rsquos supporters, then leave a snazzy calling card on their prone bodies. These same geniuses have also issued death threats against both Anders Frisk (a Swedish referee, though honestly, some of his decisions . . .) and two Reading players. Recently, a member of the groundskeeping crew at Chelsea&rsquos stadium reportedly called a black United player, Patrice Evra, &ldquoa fucking immigrant,&rdquo and a full-scale brawl ensued.

So Chelsea are not hard to loathe, though I guess if I&rsquod been born in West London I might well have supported them.

Lesson number eight: Just because you never met your granddad doesn&rsquot mean you don&rsquot look like him.

We support our teams because we like the color of their shirts, or because it&rsquos our hometown team, or because something tragic happened before we were born, or because our dads did. Sam, your dad had no choice, just like his dad before him, a man who grew up four miles from Old Trafford. Your son, should you be so blessed by same, may well be conceived after a difficult away game in Italy, United 1-0 down after the first leg, and a young center forward, name TK, just like you banging in the winner at the very end. Luckily, you don&rsquot have a brother, so your kids won&rsquot be bored by uncle stories of Ronaldo&rsquos solo goals, and Nani&rsquos headbutts, and Scholes&rsquo and Giggs&rsquo demeanor as current untouchable United legends. Count your blessings, then, and in the words of the most famous United chant of all, some time soon let&rsquos take a &ldquowalk along the Warwick Road, to see Matt Busby&rsquos aces.&rdquo


Manchester: Another senseless horror

It was Monday, May 21. We had just finished production of last week’s newspaper. Suddenly, my phone started to “blow up” with alerts from news agency after news agency. One after the other after the other, it was something like “Explosion at arena in Manchester, England.”

At first, I presumed it was some sort of football (soccer) match . Soon, we learned it was an Ariana Grande concert. The capacity at the arena — 21,000. In attendance at the concert, 20,000. Most of the attendees? Young.

Dit het uiteindelik gebeur. A major terror attack at a major arena/stadium.

We will not use the name of the murderous terrorist whose reported suicide bomb of nails, nuts, & bolts killed 22 innocent Britons, the youngest of whom was 8. Eight.

We do pause to remember the victims: John Atkinson , of Manchest er Courtney Boyle, of Gateshead Kelly Brewster, of Sheffield Georgina Callander, of Manchester Olivia Campbell, of Manchester Liam Curry and Chloe Rutherford, a young couple who reports say “loved to travel together” Wendy Fawell, of West Yorkshire Martyn Hett, of Manchester Alison Howe (unknown hometown) Nell Jones, of Cheshire Michelle Kiss, of Lancashire Marcin and Angelika Klis, both Poli sh nationals living in England.

Also, Sorrell Leczkowski, one of the younger victims at 14 Lisa Lees, the parent of a concert-goer who was waiting in the arena’s outside concourse for her daughter when the bomb exploded Eilidh MacLeod, of Scotland, also just 14 Elaine McIver, a 43-year-old off-duty Cheshire police officer Saffie Rose Roussos, 8, of Lancashire Philip Tron, 32, the step-father of victim Courtney Boyle and finally, Jane Tweddle, of Blackpool.

Of the youngest victim, teacher Chris Upton told The Sun of London:

“News of Saffie’s death in this appalling attack has come as a tremendous shock to all of us and I would like to send our deepest condolences to all of her family and friends. The thought that anyone could go out to a concert and not come home is heartbreaking. Saffie was simply a beautiful little girl in every aspect of the word.

“She was loved by everyone and her warmth and kindness will be remembered fondly. Saffie was quiet and unassuming with a creative flair. Our focus is now on helping pupils and staff cope with this shocking news and we have called in specialist support from Lancashire County Council to help us do that. We are a tight-knit school and wider community and will give each other the support that we need at this difficult time.”

Beyond all that happened in Manchester just a tad more than a week ago, I can’t help but wonder — how has something like this not happened in the United States?

We live near so many targets just like the Manchester Arena. It’s a minor miracle, almost, that another madman hasn’t targeted Red Bull Arena, the Prudential Center, Barclay’s Center, Madison Square Garden, Metlife Stadium, Citi Field or Yankee Stadium.

In a sense, it’s pretty remarkable that of the 20,000 people gathered at the concert last week, only 22 people lost their lives. Still, it’s a bit disconcerting just how easy it was for a deranged, determined man to waltz right into an arena’s lobby and to do the kind of damage he did.

I don’t write all of this to create panic. It’s q uite the opposite, in fact. So many of us lived through the terror attacks of Sept. 11, 2001 — and too often, people forget what happened that day. It’s not until there’s another incident that we truly wake up to be reminded just how volatile our world is.

So a week-and-a-half after the events of Manchester, let us all take a moment to remember those who died. And let us remember how lucky we’ve been not to have been targeted in nearly 16 years.

But all the s ame, as much as we forget about history, let this Manchester attack also serve as a reminder that when we do forget the past, we’re doomed to repeat it.

May that never happen to anyone.

• As touching as it was that Her Majesty the Queen Elizabeth II went to a Manchester hospital to visit some of the surviving victims of the attack, I can’t help but wonder if perhaps it would have been better that she’d just remained at Buckingham Palace.

While visiting with two teenage girls with leg injuries, the first question the queen asked the two girls?

“ You had enjoyed the concert, didn’t you,” the queen asked.

• Happy birthday to two very special human beings — Stevie Nash (May 29) and Nicole McGuire Neubig (May 25).


Manchester Observer - History

History of Manchester Township, Dearborn County, Indiana
From: History of Dearborn County, Indiana
Her People, Industries and Institutions
Archibald Shaw, Editor
Published By: B. F. Bowen & Co., Inc.
Indianapolis, Indiana 1915

Manchester originally included considerable of Jackson township, a small portion of Kelso and the greater part of York. In 1831 twelve sections were taken off and added to Kelso township and in 1841 York township was created, and it again lost territory and with the creation of Jackson, in 1832, another loss of territory was made but with all its losses Manchester is the largest township in the county, and it is claimed that it has more square miles than any township in the state. Since York township was organized there has been but little change in its boundaries. In 1896 a small strip was taken off and added to York, which is the only change that the township has undergone since the townships were all created.

Like Sparta township, there was little done in the way of settling the territory until after the War of 1812-15, and all danger from the Indian tribes had disappeared forever. The earliest lands entered from the government were made in the parts nearest to the river and the creeks. In township 5, range 2 west, a portion of section 1 was entered in 1809, by David Blane, and in 1813 another portion of the same section by Amor Bruce. Another part of the same section was entered in 1812 by Elijah Pitts, and another portion of the same section to Ichabod Palmerton in 1814. A portion of section 2, o the same township, was entered by James Vaughn in 1813, and part of the same section by John Ferris in 1814. Henry Dils entered a part of section 12, in the same township, in 1817, and Hugh McMullen a part of section 8, in 1818.

In township 6, range 2, Abner Tibbetts entered a part of section 33 in 1814, and in 1818 parts of section 32, of the same township. were entered bye Joseph Sylvester and Elijah Rich, and in 1829 by Samuel McMullen. In 1818 portions' of section 31 were entered by David Roberts, Sr. William Barton and Thomas Alleyway. Parts of section 36 were sold to Riley Elliott, James Vaughn and Samuel Wright.

In township 7, range 3 west, John R. Rounds bought a portion of section 35 in 1819, and Joshua Given a part of the same section in 1825.

The history of Manchester township dates back to the year 1815, when Mark McCracken and his brother Robert, with their mother, located on the present site of the village of Manchester. In 1852 Robert McCracken stated over his own signature that he, in 1815, cut the road seven miles, drove the first wagon that ever was on the ridge, and put up the first cabin that ever was in that neighborhood. It is supposed that he cut the road from Cambridge, which was at that time the nearest station where there was a settlement. He also stated that his nearest neighbor was at that time some four or five miles away and that they were all living this side or nearer the river than where he was located. Two years later, in 1817, he sold out to Rev. Daniel Plummer, but his brother, Mark McCracken, retained his portion until his death, and erected the large country mansion owned for so many years by William H. Baker.

During the year 1815 David, George and Joseph Johnston, from Frederick county, Virginia, located on north Hogan, in the township. They had left Virginia in 181o, settling first in Butler county, Ohio, and in 1812 removing to Vincennes, then they came to Louisville, Kentucky, and in 1814 to where Aurora was later built, and a year later to Manchester township.

Lawrence Lozier, the progenitor of the Lozier family, settled in the township the same year, and a year later David and Abner Tibbetts, Simon Alexander and Benjamin Anderson came into the township.

It is said that about this time there was a large emigration from the state of Maine, the citizens of that state having what they called the "Ohio fever." In the fall of 1817 fifteen families, all from the same neighborhood in the state of Governor Kent, seventy eight in all, left Cumberland county, Maine. It excited much curiosity and was spoken of by the papers of the time as "the land fleet." Their route was through the cities of Portland, Albany and New York, thence to the headwaters of the Alleghany at Olean, New York, thence by boats and rafts to Pittsburgh, and on down the Ohio to Lawrenceburg. Most of this hand of emigrants settled on what was for years called Greenbrier ridge, now known as the neat little village of Manchester. They camped down close together until they had their bearings and then proceeded to secure land for themselves.

Robert McCracken, in referring to the coming of Daniel Plummer, said: "In the section where Plummer located there were no less than five families living on one hundred and ninety nine or more acres that was cleared, and on the land I sold Plummer only five acres were cleared. Some twenty families were living within a mile of Mr. Plummer after the Maine colony settled there."

STORIES OF THE EARLY SETTLERS.

In 1876 George W. Lane nad an article in the Aurora Independent which spoke of the township of Manchester as follows: "Soon after the War of 1812 one of the most important settlements for numbers and charactet was made in Manchester township. They suffered many hardships and, indeed, many privations, but they stood their ground like Christian martyrs and many lived to see tall oaks utilized for other purposes and removed to make room for houses, barns and meadows, and in less than a decade the ridge was under a high state of cultivation for miles, and in the fall rows of teams would be seen on the mad hauling off the surplus of their farms and cooper shops. The latter work was carried on for a number of years, as Manchester was studded over with heavy timber, the tallest and largest trees this side of California, and to work up these great oaks into pork barrels required the labor of Mr. Jaquith and all of his boys, and these boys were as good, jovial fellows as were ever turned loose in any big woods.

"The writer remembers well the first time he ever saw Manchester. He rode out on a horse behind Henry, or as he was better known as "Hank," Jaquith, to attend a party that was on the tapis for that night, and if the party was too large for the house they adjourned to the threshing floor in the great barn it did not in any wise mar the pleasure of the occasion.

"Joseph Baker was one of the early settlers of Manchester township, a man of fine appearance and easy address. He was the father of William H. Baker and Kirtley Baker, of Aurora, the grandfather of Kirtley Baker, of Lawrenceburg. There was also William Bennett, A. True, M. Darling and A. Oldham, near Tanners creek. Mr. Oldham was a good, honest man and as true a Christian as ever lived this side the gates of Paradise.

"John Palmer resided on the state road. He was elected a probate judge for the county, and for a number of years was a justice of the peace. He was honest and wanted to do right. Judge Palmer was a large farmer and a merchant. Charles W. Wright was the pioneer merchant of Wrights Corners and for many years did a good business. He was a sensible and industrious man. Daniel Plummer was a man worthy of remembrance and entitled to a more extended notice than the writer can indulge in. No friend of other days is called to mind with more pleasing associations. He was not only a goad man but he wanted all others to be good. His example corresponded with his precept. His daily walk was a rebuke to the evil disposed, and his kind words well calculated to encourage them to seek the paths of rectitude. Mr. Plummer took no pains to secure public favor with a view to obtaining office, though well qualified and worthy. His moral and religious training led him into channels of a higher and more useful character, yet the people, without solicitation on his part, elected him to the state Senate in 1834, which office he honored instead of the office honoring him. He discharged the duties of the position honestly, faithfully and acceptably to the people.

"Mark McCracken was a prominent man in his day, and enjoyed the confidence of his fellow citizens. They always knew just where to find him. He was a man of nerve and unyielding when he made up his mind. He seemed to have an intuitive sense of the right, and his scorn of wrong was so positive that like the balance of a watch it regulated all his actions. As an officer of the county he was economy personified. He could say 'no' to pretended or unjust claims against the county with a vim that might be learned to great advantage at the present day. His motto was that he had a right to be liberal or even extravagant with his own, but never with the people's money.

"Daniel Roberts was one of those men whose character furnishes a light to memory's path, that could not be overlooked while casting about Manchester for worthy pioneers deserving special notice. It is said 'that from the overflow of the heart the mouth speaketh.' If this is true then Mr. Roberts must have had a heart as big as a lion, for it has been flowing with love to his neighbors and generous sentiments to his associates for over four score years, and yet the fountain is not exhausted and even his voice is set to the key of kindness that, like the echo from a mountain cove, rings on the ear long after he ceases to speak. Had he received a thorough education in early life with his other gifts, it would have made him more prominent and highly useful in a much larger sphere. Rev. Daniel Roberts was the father of Judge Omer F. Roberts.

"Oliver Heustis was one who would have been recognized as a man of intelligende in any society. He was a constant reader and it may be said was a student all his life. He was well posted on all political questions and familiar with history. He was a good talker and very much enjoyed pleasant and intelligent conversation, indeed, it might be said that it was his forte, for Mr. Heustis was not a gifted public speaker, but when he did take part on important occasions, what he did say was sensible and to the point. Mr. Heustis was twice elected to the Legislature, in 1832 and in 1844, and as a member was regarded as a practical man with principle that was unyielding.

EARLY TEMPERANCE ADVOCATE.

"James P. Milliken was an intellectual light that could not be hid in a forest home, but was called forth to take elevated positions of trust and honor, that his light might shine forth for the good of others. Mr: Milliken was a man of fair attainments, dignified appearance and unsullied reputation. A wish to do just right was the prominent point in his character this led him to disregard the popular breeze of the day and induced him to prefer political martyrdom to the abandonment of his honest convictions. Mr. Milliken was in the full sense of the word a temperance man by precept and example, and would that others should be the same. He also had decided opinions on the subject of human slavery, and would not yield them for the sake of friends or party. As a citizen he was industrious and enterprising, and enjoyed the confidence of all who knew him. Mr. Milliken was four times elected to the state Legislature twice to the House of Representatives, 1841 and 1842 and twice to the Senate, serving six years, 1846 to 1852.

"Luther Plummer was an unassuming man of sterling worth and strict integrity, looking to the welfare of his family and attentive to his own interests. He put on no foolish style or attempts to appear in characters other than his own, but like ornaments made of pure gold that need no varnish or gilding, so with a true hearted man, who is the same at home as abroad, today and tomorrow who acts well his part without pomp or dazzling parade. To say that Mr. Plummer was an honest man would be no compliment, for like the description we once heard of a certain person 'that he deserved no credit of being a gentleman, he was one naturally,' so with Mr. Plummer, he deserves no credit for being an honest man, he was one naturally.

"Of the early settlers the Congers should not be forgotten. David Conger was a man of influence in his day. He was the father of Edward A. Conger, who was elected sheriff of the county when quite a young man. Edward bade fair to make a man of considerable prominence had his life been spared. Lewis B. Conger was well known in the county. He was elected, in 1841, assessor of real estate for the entire county under the new law. Samuel W. Conger still resides in Upper Manchester, respected as he deserves to be by all his neighbors.

"A history of the township would be imperfect without a reference to Ben Tibbetts who, when the writer first knew him, was one of the most active thorough going, dashing business man in the county. He could haul more hay and load a boat quicker, go to New Orleans and back again sooner than anyone else. His very presence, with his usual fire and life, like a galvanic battery that emits electricity at the slightest touch, gave activity and new life to all around him. At heart Ben Tibbetts was an honest man, of generous impulses, and while he may have wronged himself, he never intentionally wronged a neighbor.

"Alfred J. Cotton found a home in Dearborn county when quite a young man. There were few better and many worse men than Judge Cotton. His moral worth and religious devotion commended him to the respect of all good citizens but his name and history are recorded in a more reliable shape than we can place them in 'Cotton's Keepsake.' Yet we will add that he served as associate judge for a number of years and probate judge for four years.

"We must not leave Manchester without calling attention to Mrs. Mary Piles, better known as 'Aunt Polly.' She came to the county during the War of 1812, and was married to Mr. Piles in 1813, at Georgetown, in Miller township, and now (1876) at over eighty years is as sprightly and active as a girl of sixteen and can walk five miles without any difficulty. Her memory being good she can narrate stories of pioneer life that are full of interest.

"The Tibbettses came from Maine. The Heustis family came from the state of New York in 1819. William Dils came from West Virginia in 1816. Joseph Baker came from New York in 1817. The Congers came from New Jersey in 1817. The McMullens came from Pennsylvania in 1817. Hugh McMullen was a native of Ireland. They built the first cabin and were the first settlers on what is called Pleasant View.

"The Givans came from Maryland, and settled in the township in 1825. Joshua, the father of Judge Givan, of Lawrenceburg, was a native of Maryland, and on coming to this county interested himself in educational matters, and the first school house erected in the neighborhood in which he settled was built on his land and mainly through his influence. His house was one of the preaching places before the erection of the Baptist church building. His object and aim in life was to benefit his fellow men, to do good in the community in which he lived, honest in all his dealings, charitable in his giving and religious in his everyday life. He died in a ripe old age, honored and respected by all who knew him.

"Judge Cotton came from the state of Maine and settled in the township in 1818. He erected a cabin and all was one vast, unbroken wilderness around him, save here and there a little cabin and a small opening, the labors of the newcomers of the previous year. These were scattered about on what was then called Greenbrier ridge, so called by hunters on account of the prevalence of a brier by that color that abounded in the forests. He says: `My cabin was far removed from any other habitation, solitary and alone at first. I had bushed out a wagon track, as we call it, and had also blazed a footpath, a nearer cut to the settlement. My mind reverts with indescribable emotion to that period of my life. Many is the time and oft, that I have entered this dismal and solitary path, when for a good part of the way it was so dark that I could not see my hand to save me was compelled to feel out the path with my feet, with my heart in my mouth, my hair well nigh erect, and my blood nearly curdled, for the prowling wolves were about my path and had often raised their hideous yells in my very door yard.'

"Rev. Daniel Roberts emigrated from the state of Maine. In 1817 he determined to seek a home in the West, Indiana being his objective point. Using an ox team as his mode of conveyance he started on this long and tedious journey. On reaching a point near the falls of the Genesee river, in the state of New York, his money being exhausted, he was compelled to stop and engage himself as a common laborer in order to replenish his scanty purse. Having obtained a small sum of money he continued his journey until he reached Pittsburgh, arriving there at the beginning of the summer of 1818. He hastily constructed a rude craft, upon which he and his family embarked and proceeded down the river to Cincinnati, where he concluded to stop for a time before continuing to Indiana, his original destination. He remained in Cincinnati nearly two years. During the year 1819, under the ministry of the Rev. I. Smead, a powerful and able preacher, lie joined the Christian church and was immersed in the Ohio river opposite the mouth of the Licking. At the age of thirteen he had joined the Methodist Episcopal church at Durham, Maine, under the preaching of Joshua Soule, afterwards a bishop of the Methodist Episcopal church, South but the forcible sermons of Smead having satisfied him that the doctrines and polity of the Christian church were more in accord with the teachings of the Bible, he concluded to join that organization. While still in Cincinnati he was ordained an elder by the minister who received him into membership, and soon after entered the itinerant ministry. In 1820 he, with his family, removed to Indiana and located near Manchester, Dearborn county. He resided for two years on Pipe creek, in Franklin county, but with that exception he made Dearborn county his home the rest of his life.

NOTED MEMBERS OF THE OLD DEBATING CLUB.

"The Pleasant View Debating Club was one of the institutions of that part of the township. It was a fixture for a number of years, its fortunes ebbing and flowing with the changes in the neighborhood. Among its members who since have had opportunity to argue questions on a broader plane are Noah S. Givan, since a member of the Legislature, both House and Senate Noah M. Givan, now deceased, but for years one of the leading attorneys of Missouri Frank R. Dorman, for two terms county sheriff and one term county auditor Joseph Ripley, judge and senator Major Slater and his brother, F. M. Slater, the poet Myron Haynes, one term county auditor Edward P. Ferris, since a state senator.

"Elias Heustis is authority for our saying that James Vaughn kept the first public house in the township, dug the first well, made the first brick kiln, and had the first peach orchard. Daniel Hummer made the first hay press used in the township, and it is also said that he built the first frame house and frame barn in the township. The house is still standing the barn was used for church purposes."



Kommentaar:

  1. Hwertun

    Sekerlik. Ek het alles hierbo vertel. Kom ons bespreek hierdie vraag. Hier of in PM.

  2. Chattan

    Daarin is iets. Dankie vir 'n verduideliking.

  3. Txanton

    Presies wat nodig is.

  4. Mikalmaran

    Daarin is iets. Ek het vroeër anders gedink, dankie vir die hulp met hierdie vraag.

  5. Kemuro

    Bravo, hierdie bewonderenswaardige frase moet presies doelbewus wees



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