Geskiedenis Podcasts

United Artists geskep

United Artists geskep

Op 5 Februarie 1919 het die Hollywood -swaargewigte Charlie Chaplin, Mary Pickford, Douglas Fairbanks en D.W. Griffith het kragte saamgesnoer om hul eie filmstudio te skep, wat hulle die United Artists Corporation genoem het.

United Artists het vinnig aansien in Hollywood gekry danksy die sukses van die films van sy sterre, veral Chaplin's Die Gold Rush (1925), sowel as die werk van akteurs soos Buster Keaton, Rudolph Valentino en Gloria Swanson. Chaplin regisseer UA -films sowel as speel daarin, en Pickford konsentreer op produksie nadat sy in die 1930's uit die spel tree. Met die toename in klank gedurende daardie dekade, is UA gehelp deur die talente (en bankstate) van veteraanprodusente soos Joseph Schenck, Samuel Goldwyn, Howard Hughes en Alexander Korda. Die korporasie het egter in die veertigerjare finansieel begin sukkel, en in 1951 is die produksie -ateljee verkoop en UA het slegs 'n finansierings- en verspreidingsfasiliteit geword.

Teen die middel van die vyftigerjare het al die oorspronklike vennote hul aandele van die onderneming verkoop, maar UA het weer begin floreer en films uitgereik soos Die Afrikaanse koningin (1951), Hoogmiddag (1952), Getuie vir die vervolging (1957), Party hou van dit warm (1959), Die woonstel en Die Pragtige Sewe (beide 1960) en westekant storie (1961). Boonop was die onderneming verantwoordelik vir die franchises van James Bond en Pink Panther. UA het in 1957 openbaar geword en 'n dekade later 'n filiaal van die TransAmerica Corporation geword.

UA -films het in die loop van die sewentigerjare 'n rits Beste Picture Academy Awards gewen Middernag Cowboy (1969), Een het oor die Koekoek se nes gevlieg (1975), Klipperig (1976) en Annie Hall (1977). Kort daarna het vyf topbestuurders egter die onderneming in 'n meningsverskil verlaat en die Warion Brothers-gesteunde Orion Pictures gevorm. UA het 'n nog meer verwoestende slag in 1980 gekry toe hy die groot begroting-flop vrygestel het Heaven's Gate, geregisseer deur Michael Cimino. Twee jaar in die maak en oor die begroting, verdien die film minder as $ 4 miljoen by die Amerikaanse loket. Na die debakel het UA gedurende die 1980's gesukkel. In 1981 het MGM die onderneming gekoop en in 1983 saamgesmelt om MGM/UA Entertainment te word. In 'n hoogtepunt van die relatief donker jare het UA nog 'n wenner van die beste prent vrygestel, Reën man, in 1988.

In 1992 het die Franse bank Credit Lyonnais die korporasie verkry en sy naam na Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Inc. verander en die naam United Artists heeltemal laat vaar. Die franchises van James Bond en Pink Panther is herleef, met verskillende mate van sukses. MGM het van hande verander en is herhaaldelik herorganiseer gedurende die volgende anderhalf dekade, waartydens UA herposisioneer is as 'n boetiekprodusent van kleiner, sogenaamde 'art house' films soos Boul vir Columbine (2002), Hotel Rwanda (2005) en Capote (2006). In November 2006 gee MGM die akteur/vervaardiger Tom Cruise (ster van Reën man) en sy produksievennoot, Paula Wagner, beheer oor die produksielei van United Artists, en kondig die besluit aan as 'n "herintroduksie" van die UA -handelsmerk in die gees van sy stigters. Cruise en Wagner, wie se vorige ooreenkoms met Paramount Pictures geëindig het te midde van berig wat vroeër in 2006 berig is, het hul eerste koproduksie met UA vrygestel, Leeus vir lammers, in 2007. Daarna is die UA -handelsmerk opgeneem in MGM en in 2018 herleef as United Artists Digital Studios.


United Artists geskep - GESKIEDENIS

Die vroeë geskiedenis van die UA -ateljeerot: Mary Pickford en Douglas Fairbanks op die hoek van Santa Monica Boulevard en Formose Avenue in 1922.

"Die lot"

The History of the United Artists Lot (ook bekend as die Samuel Goldwyn Studio)

1041 North Formosa Avenue
Hollywood, Kalifornië

Toe United Artists in 1919 gestig is deur Charlie Chaplin, Mary Pickford, Douglas Fairbanks en D. W. Griffith, het die stigters nooit bedoel dat die onderneming soos 'n gewone Hollywood -ateljee sou wees nie. Dit het slegs as 'n verspreidingsonderneming begin. Die missie was om films wat deur onafhanklike vervaardigers gemaak is, vry te stel, daarom het dit geen ateljee -perseel nie. Baie van die onafhanklike produsente het egter hul eie eiendom besit, soos die Charlie Chaplin Studio op Sunset Boulevard.

Die naaste aan 'n ateljee-perseel was die eiendom van 18 hektaar wat besit word deur Pickford en Fairbanks op die hoek van Santa Monica Boulevard en Formosa-laan in Hollywood. Dit was oorspronklik in besit van Jesse Durham Hampton, en het toe bekend gestaan ​​as die Pickford-Fairbanks Studio. Terwyl United Artists onafhanklike produsente van die groot ateljees begin lok het, het baie van die vervaardigers, soos Samuel Goldwyn en Joseph Schenck, kantore en verhale op die eiendom gehuur. In die vroeë 1920's is die perseel hernoem tot die United Artists Studio, hoewel dit as 'n aparte entiteit van United Artists die verspreidingsonderneming bedryf is.

Goldwyn en Schecnk finansier die uitbreiding van die ateljee, wat 'n ongemaklike eienaarskapstruktuur skep. Pickford en Fairbanks het die akte op die grond beheer, maar Goldwyn en Scheck was die eienaar van die werklike geriewe op die erf. In 1935, toe Scheck United Artists verlaat, het Goldwyn sy aandeel oorgeneem. En toe Fairbanks in 1939 sterf, het Pickford sy deel teruggeëis. Mary Pickford en Samuel Goldwyn het dus mede-eienaars van die grond gebly, wat oor die jare heen bitter argumente veroorsaak het, aangesien albei onafhanklike hoofde was, maar nie een van hulle het 'n duidelike meerderheidsbeheer nie.

Toe Goldwyn in 1940 onder moeilike omstandighede United Artist verlaat, het hy die perseel herdoop tot die Samuel Goldwyn Studio, oor die protes van Mary Pickford, wat nog die helfte van die eiendom besit het. Goldwyn en Pickford kibbel oor die ateljee totdat hulle onenigheid 'n dooiepunt veroorsaak het wat hulle in die hof laat beland het, en die kavel in 1955 op 'n veiling verkoop het. Goldwyn, bygestaan ​​deur James Mulvey, oortref Pickford en word alleen eienaar van die eiendom.

Die kavel het oor die jare heen 'n tuiste gebied vir baie onafhanklike produksiemaatskappye, en het tot 1980 as die Samuel Goldwyn Studio bekend gestaan. Onder die beroemde films wat opgeneem is, was daar Wuthering Heights (1939), Party hou van dit warm (1959), en westekant storie (1959). Televisievervaardigers het die ateljee ook tuis genoem, waaronder Sid & amp; Marty Krofft. In 1977, toe George Lucas die basiese fotografie toegedraai het Star Wars in die Elstree Studio in Engeland, het hy 'n paar van die Cantina-tonele in die Samuel Goldwyn Studio weer geskiet.

Die UA-Samuel Goldwyn Studio, nou bekend as The Lot (1998).

In 1980 het Warner Bros. die perseel gekoop as 'n hulp in die Burbank -hoofkwartier, en dit hernoem tot die Warner Hollywood Studio. Nadat Warner die eiendom in 1999 aan 'n privaat filmonderneming verkoop het, bly dit in werking met 'n nuwe identiteit genaamd The Lot.

KLIK HIER vir meer inligting oor die UA-Samuel Goldwyn Studio, nou bekend as The Lot.


Historiese Detroit

Die tweede mark vir die United Artists Theatre

Foto uit die Burton Historical Collection.

Die ou markiestent van die United Artists Theatre

Foto uit die Burton Historical Collection.

Die latere United Artists -markiestentadvertensies & quot; The Snows of Kilimanjaro & quot; met Gregory Peck en Ava Gardner in die hoofrol

Foto uit die Burton Historical Collection.

Die ou tent van die United Artists Theatre

Foto uit die Burton Historical Collection.

Die ou tent van die United Artists Theatre

Foto uit die Burton Historical Collection.

Die binnekant van die UA het 'n Spaanse Gotiese atmosfeer.

Foto uit die Walbridge-Aldinger-argief

Die United Artists -tent in 1982.

Die UA, eens een van die voorste rolprentteaters in Detroit, het sagtecore -pornografie gewys in 'n poging om oop te bly, soos hier in 1970 gesien.

Foto uit die Detroit Free Press -argief.

Met sy stoele en meubels uitverkoop, wag die UA in 1977 op sy lang, stadige afsterwe.

Foto uit die Detroit Free Press -argief.

Kate McCarthy sit in 'n sierlike, uitgesnyde okkerneutstoel uit die UA wat in 1976 opgeveil word

Foto uit die Detroit Free Press -argief.

Een van die inheemse Amerikaanse meisies wat die voorportaalmure van die UA versier

Foto uit die Detroit Free Press -argief.

Foto uit die Detroit Free Press -argief.

Die United Artists Theatre op Bagley

Foto uit die Detroit Free Press -argief.

Die Detroit Symphony Orchestra -opnames in die UA in 1979. Die UA se akoestiek was ideaal vir die opnamesessie van die simfonie.

Foto uit die Detroit Free Press -argief.

Nathaniel Gurin oefen in 1981 sy bas trompet in die voorportaal van die afskilferende, UA. Die Detroit Symphony Orchestra het daar opgeneem vanweë sy uitstekende akoestiek.

Foto uit die Detroit Free Press -argief.

Meer as 100 seuns van die Ford Republic in Farmington, Mich., Was die gaste van die United Artists Theatre in September 1938 vir 'n vertoning van & quotBoys Town. & Quot

Foto uit die Detroit Free Press -argief.

Die verligte markies van die United Artists en sy mededinger die Michigan Theatre.


Tom Cruise en The Failed United Artists Experiment

Aan die einde van 2006, met groot fanfare, is Tom Cruise aangekondig as opskrif van 'n herleefde United Artists. Maar wat het skeefgeloop?

Hierdie artikel verskyn oorspronklik op Den of Geek UK.

Op die loer in die uithoeke van Netflix UK is 'n nie-wydverspreide Tom Cruise-fliek, wat 'n dekade gelede 'n nuwe dagbreek sou wees. Regie deur Robert Redford, en met 'n rolverdeling wat insluit Redford, Cruise, Meryl Streep en 'n toe relatief onbekende Andrew Garfield, Leeus Vir Lammers het op papier 'n swaargewig politieke drama gesien. Die fokus is op drie verhale: 'n ambisieuse politikus wat 'n onderhoud voer aan 'n harde verslaggewer, 'n weermag -peloton wat deur die genoemde politikus beveel word om op 'n geheimsinnige missie te gaan, en 'n professor wat probeer om 'n belowende student te laat verander in sy lewe.

Dit het soos 'n Oscar-aas gelyk. Dit was 'n voetnoot in die mislukking om United Artists op te wek.

United Artists is oorspronklik in 1919 gestig deur Charlie Chaplin, Mary Pickford, D W Griffith en Douglas Fairbanks, met die ambisie om toe te laat dat toneelspel en kreatiewe talent beheer oor hul werk het, in teenstelling met ateljee. In die daaropvolgende dekades het die onderneming 'n hobbelige lewe gehad, maar nie sonder suksesse nie. Veral in die 1950's en 1960's het United Artists baie suksesse behaal en ook Oscars gewen. Dit het ook die regte op die James Bond -romans gekry. Nie 'n slegte sakebeweeg nie.

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Maar die dramatiese val het werklik gekom aan die einde van die sewentigerjare, met nuwe eienaars Transamerica, en die besluit om die berugte duur bom van Michael Cimino te ondersteun, Heaven's Gate. Heaven's Gate het geld uit die onderneming gebloei, en 'n samesmelting met MGM het gevolg. Ook MGM sou binnekort sy eie finansieringstryd ondervind.

Maar vinnig vorentoe na 2006, en 'n belowende toekoms het op die horison gekyk. Tom Cruise en sy vervaardigingsvennoot, Paula Wagner, was sedert die vroeë 1990's onder 'n eksklusiewe produksiekontrak met Paramount Pictures, wat gelei het tot die Onmoontlike missie film -franchise, onder andere projekte - maar toe die ooreenkoms tot 'n einde gekom het, het hulle ander geleenthede gesoek. Dit was omtrent die tyd toe Paramount se destydse baas, Sumner Redstone, minder as komplimentêre opmerkings gemaak het oor die dalende lokettrekking van Cruise. Missie: Onmoontlik III loket groen.

'N Onderbreking was onvermydelik en 'n geleentheid het ontstaan. MGM was op soek na wat om te doen met sy United Artists -etiket, en onderhandelinge het begin oor 'n ongewone ooreenkoms. As sodanig is 'n ooreenkoms in November 2006 aangekondig. Paula Wagner en Tom Cruise sou 'n minderheidsaandeel inneem in die nuutste weergawe van United Artists. Die plan was dat Wagner as uitvoerende hoof sou optree, terwyl Cruise na verwagting in sy films sou verskyn, maar nie uitsluitlik vir UA -produksies toegesluit sou wees nie (dit sou ietwat teen die oorspronklike beginsels van United Artists gewees het). Cruise en Wagner sou dan outonomie hê oor 'n plak van tot vier films per jaar, op voorwaarde dat die begrotings op 'n beskeie grootte was.

Destyds sou Jeff Pryor, woordvoerder van MGM, nie daarop gemik wees of Cruise en Wagner vir die aandelebelang betaal het nie, of dat dit in ruil daarvoor was dat die sterrekrag van Cruise by UA -produksies betrokke was. 'Ek wens Tom en sy medewerkers die grootste geluk toe met hul nuwe onderneming', het Sumner Redstone in 'n verklaring gesê, terwyl hy moeilik gesukkel het om hom op die Paramount -lot te hou.

Selfs van die begin af was die reaksie op die nuwe United Artists egter gemeng. Sommige het bevraagteken of Cruise die loketkrag het om dit steeds te laat werk. Ander het gewonder of dit 'n toneelstuk van Cruise was om aan te toon dat hy nog steeds die krag in Hollywood het. Sommige, minder sinies, het voorgestel dat hy net meer wil maak van die films wat hy wil sien.

Op watter teorie ook al ingeskryf is, sou alle oë noodwendig op die eerste prentjie van die nuwe UA gerig wees.

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Terwyl dit gebeur het, was 'n film reeds diep in ontwikkeling. Gebaseer op 'n draaiboek deur Matthew Michael Carnahan, Leeus Vir Lammers het Robert Redford reeds as sy volgende regieonderneming in die film geïnteresseerd. Hy het sedert 2000 nie 'n foto gemaak nie Die legende van Bagger Vance was in daardie stadium geïnteresseerd in 'n projek wat die Hollywood -neiging vir suiwer vermaaklikheidsprojekte teenstrydig was. Hy teken op die stippellyn en die verfilming begin einde Januarie 2007 - minder as drie maande nadat die nuwe UA -ooreenkoms aangekondig is. Dit sou die eerste prentjie onder die sambreel daarvan wees.

Redford het daarna opgemerk dat dit die strengste skedule was waaraan hy ooit gewerk het, met minder as 'n jaar tussen die aankondiging en vrystelling van die film. Maar die groter probleem was hoe om dit te verkoop. MGM het uiteindelik daarop aangedring dat dit 'n Robert Redford-projek was, eerder as 'n Tom Cruise-film, maar 'n blik op die plakkaat het getoon dat dit Cruis se relatief beskeie betrokkenheid op die skerm ook min maak.

Daarbenewens het die drie verhale van die film - hoewel dit onafhanklik interessant was - nie regtig 'n samehangende rolprent in 'n samehangende rol gespeel nie. As sodanig was kritici nie opgewonde oor die film nie, en pogings deur MGM om dit as 'n blockbuster-film half te verkoop, het ook nie gewerk nie. Die film kos ongeveer $ 35 miljoen vir die negatiewe, en verdien wêreldwyd $ 63,2 miljoen. Dit sou eers met sy huisvrystelling wins maak, en alhoewel dit nie 'n kuriose is wat te veel soek nie.

Tog het Cruise 'n groter projek vir United Artists gehad, en hierdie keer sou hy 'n hoofrol speel. In 2002 begin die draaiboekskrywer en regisseur Christopher McQuarrie 'n film saamstel wat gebaseer is op 'n komplot om Adolf Hitler in 1944 deur Duitse soldate te vermoor. Hy sou dit daarna omskep in 'n draaiboek vir wat die film sou word Valkyrie.

Regisseur Bryan Singer, wat deur McQuarrie geïnteresseerd was, het met sy fliek teen die onderwerp gekyk Apt Leerling. Hy het ingestem om te regisseer, en McQuarrie het voorgestel dat die film 'n projek sou wees waarin die nuwe United Artists sou belangstel. Hy was reg.

Paula Wagner hou onmiddellik van die toonhoogte, en in Maart 2007 is 'n ooreenkoms aangegaan om die film te finansier. Cruise is gevra om die hoofrol te speel, en het ingestem om dit te doen. Die verfilming het behoorlik begin in Julie 2007. Maar in die nadraai van Leeus Vir Lammers'Teleurstellende loket, het die aandeel baie hoër geword Valkyrie. Vir $ 75 miljoen was dit 'n duurder film om mee te begin. Maar dit sou ook 'n meer ingrypende oudit wees van waar Tom Cruise se loketkrag eintlik in hierdie stadium was.

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Die film was egter binnekort in die rol van die rolprentpersoneel, terwyl 'n hele rits minagtende verhale na vore kom terwyl die film gemaak word. Nie dat die konstante verskuiwing van vrystellingsdatums gehelp het nie. Valkyrie Dit was oorspronklik vir vrystelling in Augustus 2008. Daarna het dit na Junie 2008 oorgedra. Daarna na Oktober 2008. Daarna na Februarie 2009. Daarna is dit terug na Desember 2008. Ten minste een van die datumveranderings was om die verfilming moontlik te maak. van 'n ekstra reeks, maar die ander verraai die lekkende vertroue wat MGM in die film gehad het. Sodra 'n film wat hy as 'n Oscar -aanspraakmaker wou teiken, het dit uiteindelik gedink dat toekennings nie beskikbaar sou wees nie, het dit eerder die loket probeer maksimeer. Verder het dit sy bemarking herkonfigureer om die betrokkenheid van Tom Cruise en die konstante ontslag van die film as Cruise se “eye-patch-film te verminder. ”

In teenstelling met 'n algemene mening, Valkyrie was ook 'n ordentlike kommersiële sukses. Die film het beslis probleme, maar resensies was goed, en die wêreldwye kassie van $ 200,3 miljoen was nie 'n slegte opbrengs nie, gegewe die probleme wat die produksie ondervind het.

Selfs voor die rolprent in sy bioskope, het die nuwe United Artists egter verbrokkel. Op 14 Augustus 2008, maande voor die vrystelling van die film, is aangekondig dat Paula Wagner United Artists verlaat het, en eerder films as onafhanklike vervaardiger sou ontwikkel. Sy het haar eienaarskap in die fliek behou, maar volgens a Verskeidenheid het sy destyds berig dat sy 'gereeld met MGM koppe geslaan het' terwyl sy eintlik probeer het om films groen te maak. MGM self het intussen 'n verandering in die ateljeehoof ondergaan, en sy nuwe baas was meer geïnteresseerd daarin om self 'n plaatjie te ontwikkel, eerder as om hulpbronne na United Artists te plaas. Vir MGM se argument was dat Wagner "nie aggressief genoeg ontwikkel het nie."

Wagner is op dieselfde tyd deur die staking van die Writers 'Guild of America belemmer, wat gelei het tot die ineenstorting van 'n verdere UA -produksie, Pinkville. Bruce Willis het geteken om die hoofrol in die film te speel, wat Oliver Stone sou behartig het. Maar toe scriptprobleme opduik, kon UA ​​nie skrywers aanstel om dit reg te stel nie. Die talent het aanbeweeg. Dit het ook 'n dansfilm met die naam van Beweeg, van Camp Rock regisseur Matthew Diamond, naby die wegspringblokke. Dit val ook uitmekaar.

Die plan met die vertrek van Wagner was dat Cruise groter betrokkenheid by die bestuur van die ateljee sou neem. Maar daar is geen teken wat ooit gebeur het nie. Valkyrie was Cruise se laaste projek tot nog toe met 'n United Artists -logo daarop, en hy sou hom eerder weer toespits op projekte, soos Knight & Dag, Mission: Impossible - Ghost Protocol (wat die franchise weer by Paramount laat herleef het) en Rock Of Ages.

Die UA -naam sou voortspruit. Die logo daarvan verskyn op twee verdere MGM -films: Warmbad tydmasjien en die remake van roem. Teen 2011 het MGM die volle beheer oor die banier van United Artists teruggekoop, maar 'n jaarverslagverklaring wat verklaar dat dit "moontlik weer die United Artists -vaandel kan gebruik om nuwe films te ontwikkel en te vervaardig", het nooit gebeur nie.


Historiese Detroit

Die United Artists Theatre was een van die vele in Detroit wat gehelp het om die term 'filmpaleis' te definieer. ' van die verplettering van Oldsmobiles.

Teen die tyd dat die legendariese teaterargitek C. Howard Crane gaan sit het om die UA op sy tekenbord te skets, was die Verenigde State reeds verlief op rolprente. In die twintigerjare was die gebied rondom Grand Circus Park bekoor met skitterende plekke om vertonings te sien, en elke teater wou sy mededingers oortref in weelde en flair. Die UA het hoofsaaklik meegeding met sy nabygeleë bure, die Michigan en die Fox-, State- en Capitol-teaters wat deur Crane ontwerp is. Maar daar was baie ander naby, soos die Oosterse en Adams. Die ingewikkelde ontwerpe en die weelderige interieurs van hierdie sogenaamde filmpaleise het gewone Detroiters in staat gestel om die prag van die rykes te geniet. Die teaters was net so gelykop soos die films self en was deel van die vertoning. En United Artists van Detroit was geen uitsondering nie.

Werk by die teater

Crane het die teater en aangrensende kantoorgebou in die Spaanse Gotiese en Art Deco -style in 1927 ontwerp, alhoewel die kantoorgebou op 28 Januarie 1928 geopen het, en die teater 'n paar dae later gevolg het.

Die 18-verdieping, 200 000 vierkante meter groot toring is gebou vir ingeval die teater nie winsgewend sou word nie en oorspronklik huisvestings, kleermakers, skoonheidsalonne en selfs reisagente huisves. Die Peoples ' State Bank het die hoek in Bagley en Cliffordstraat beset. Die prys op die gebou was ongeveer $ 5 miljoen (ongeveer $ 63 miljoen vandag, as dit vir inflasie aangepas word), en dit was die derde stuk in 'n ambisieuse bouprogram wat vir Bagleylaan beplan is en geborg word deur die Stormfeltz-Loveley-eiendomsmaatskappy. Die ander twee belangrike stukke was die Michigan Theatre en die Detroit-Leland Hotel van 22 verdiepings.

Voordat die Michigan Theatre in 1926 opgestaan ​​het, was die oostelike punt van Bagley 'n kwota wye, onversorgde deurgang met onbeskryflike geboue wat die grootste deel van sy lengte was, 'het die Detroit Free Press in Januarie 1928 geskryf. is aangeraak deur die magie van die onderneming-wat die leidende hande van hierdie verreikende groep, hierdie publieke gees, gevoel het-is een van die kommersiële wonderwerke van Detroit. ... Die gemiddelde inheemse Detroiter glo dat dit baie normaal is dat ongewone dinge in Detroit die gewone is, maar hierdie groot belegging in so 'n onontwikkelde distrik het hom laat wonder. & Quot

Die United Artists Building is 'n pragtige gebou en 'n mooi gebou en 'n deurdagte, pragtig uitgevoerde, goed ingerigte gebou wat ontwerp is om aan die veeleisende vereistes van kreatiewe werkers sowel as aan die gewone besigheidsvereistes te voldoen. ... die gebou word van alle moderne geriewe voorsien ... en blykbaar is alles denkbaar gedoen vir die gemak en welstand van die huurder en om sy besigheid te vergemaklik. " . & quot

Drie van die soort

Die teater was die belangrikste trekpleister van die gebou. Die UA was die baba van Detroit se filmpaleise, aangesien dit die kleinste van die reuse was. Die UA is uitsluitlik gebou vir films - destyds 'n rariteit - en het meestal films van United Artists vertoon. Die filmstudio is in 1919 gestig deur akteurs Charlie Chaplin, Mary Pickford, Douglas Fairbanks en regisseur D.W. Griffith - vier van die grootste name in showbiz aan die bokant. Detroit's UA was een van drie wat Howard ontwerp het in die Spaanse Gotiese styl vir die United Artists Theatre Circuit, en het teaters in Chicago en Los Angeles gevolg. Die Detroit -teater word beskou as die suster van die plek in Los Angeles. Crane, wat tot op hierdie stadium meestal klassieke teaterontwerpe gedoen het, is gevra om 'n eksotiese, gotiese styl te kies, want Pickford was mal oor die voorkoms van Europese kastele, volgens die Los Angeles Theaters -webwerf. Daar word gesê dat Pickford en Fairbanks die ontwerp daarvan persoonlik goedgekeur het.

Aan die oostekant van die gebou klou 'n agt verdiepende, kakebladende lamtent vas met die naam "United Artists" in 80 voet veelkleurige bolle. Die tent was 7,5 voet breed en het 'n sonligontwerp aan die voet.

Die Detroit-teater met 2,070 sitplekke het op 3 Februarie 1928 geopen met die vertoning van "Sadie Thompson." By die vertoning het die filmster Gloria Swanson telefonies die gehoor toegespreek, die skakelaar met die afstandsbediening getrek en die gordyn op die teater oopgemaak. #39s skerm van 18 voet by 22 voet vir die eerste keer. Die prys in die tempelstyl was ongeveer $ 1,2 miljoen (ongeveer $ 15 miljoen).

Die UA het 'n groot, sirkelvormige voorportaal, kompleet met spieëls en groot Indiese meisies op die mure wat op die gehoor kyk. Die United Artists ' -ouditorium was soos 'n bioskoopkatedraal en was akoesties perfek en versier met gotiese gips en interessante koperligte. Vir hierdie UA -teater het Crane gekleurde ligte wat uit perforasies in die koepelvormige plafon van die ouditorium gefiltreer het, sodat die ingewikkelde besonderhede in 'n pragtige beligting gebad kon word. Die teater het 'n koniese waaiergewel, 'n uitgebreide vergulde koepel en uitstekende afdakke oor proscenium en orrelroosters, 'het die historikus Andrew Craig Morrison in' Opera House, Nickel Show en Palace 'geskryf.

Beskermers betaal 35 sent vir matines en 65 sent vir aandvertonings. Rokers het 'n ekstra sent gekry om op die houthuis te sit, wat bedek was met sygordyne en tapisserieë en versierde gips en ligte.

Alhoewel die United Artists uitsluitlik vir films gebou is, het hierdie & quotShrine to the Motion Picture & quot; ook 'n orkes onder leiding van Hugo Riesenfield wat gedurende die beginjare die klankbane van stille films verskaf het. Die teater is ook gebou met 'n driehandige, 15-rangse Wurlitzer-orrel.

Die United Artists het baie keer gereserveerde sitplekke aangebied, soos tydens die Detroit-première van 'Gone With the Wind' in 1940 (dit was 'n mede-première in die Wilson Theatre, nou Music Hall). Onder die United Artists se lang termyn van ander grootskaalse premiers: "Hell's Angels", "Cleopatra", "Snow White", "Wizard of Oz", "Pinocchio", "Anatomie van 'n moord", "South Pacific", "quot" in die wêreld in 80 dae om 'n paar te noem. Die feit dat dit kleiner was, het 'n meer intieme ervaring moontlik gemaak as by die groter teaters. Om die rede was dit soms die "Jewelbox" van die eerste teaters in Detroit. Benewens première, was die United Artists die eerste teater in Detroit wat CinemaScope in 1953 en 70-milimeter in 1956 geïnstalleer het.

In 1950 het 'n opknappingswerk van $ 200 000 ($ 1,8 miljoen vandag) die teater gemoderniseer, met 'n plafon en 'n groot konsessie in die voorportaal en nuwe projektors, skerm en klankstelsel in die ouditorium. Aan die buitekant van die gebou was 'n paar van sy versierde besonderhede bedek met donker marmer, en die groot tent van 10 verdiepings is vervang met 'n moderne tent wat nog in plek was tot 2005. In 1956 word die UA die eerste teater in die staat om films in die 70 mm-formaat te wys met "Oklahoma!"

Op 31 Julie 1957 verkoop die Bagley Building Corp. die United Artists Building vir $ 3,2 miljoen (vandag sowat $ 24 miljoen) aan die Detroit Automobile Inter-Insurance Exchange by die Automobile Club van Michigan. Die beurs het die gebou gekoop om permanente kantoorruimte vir die beurs en die motorklub te bied. Die twee groepe het ongeveer 65% van die kantoorruimte van die gebou beset. Die banklokasie op die hoek van Clifford is op die oomblik deur die National Bank of Detroit beset.

Pornografie, winskopies en bakstene wat val

Teen 1969, toe die stad inwoners en besighede gebloei het ná die oproer in 1967, het die United Artists -onderneming dramaties gedaal. 'N Roadshow -produksie van "Totsiens, meneer Chips" het op 9 November 1969 geopen vir 'n lang vakansiedag, maar het vroeg gesluit weens swak bywoning. Sonder die geld of die beste films wat die eerste keer uitgevoer is, was die skrif aan die muur. Nadat die “mnr. Chips "-ramp, het die UA in Januarie 1970 kortliks vir 'n week gesluit voordat hy dieselfde maand weer met porno -opnames heropen het. Onder die stomende vertonings in die luukse UA daardie maand: "The Notorious Concubines" en "The Secret Sex Lives of Romeo and Juliet." Die X-gegradeerde eksperiment is in Februarie 1970 gestaak toe die UA terugkeer na 'n meer ordentlike tarief, soos 'The Only Game in Town', met Elizabeth Taylor en Warren Beatty, en 'It's a Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World' ”Saam met Spencer Tracy.

Maar die teater sukkel nog steeds, en in Maart 1971 keer die UA terug na die naaktshowe met 'n eksklusiewe reeks "Tuck Me In" en "Infrasexum." Benewens porno, het die UA ook as 'n maalhuis gedien, met gore- en gruwelfilms. Maar die projek sou nie lank duur nie, en die teater het op 14 September 1971 gesluit, met die blaxploitation -film 'Sweet Sweetback's Badass Song' as sy swanesang. Selfs erotiese films in 'n eksotiese teater kon die UA nie red nie.

"Die rolprente vir volwassenes het destyds gewoonlik tussen $ 2,000 en $ 3,000 per week verdien, maar dit was nog steeds nie genoeg om werklik wins te maak nie," het teaterhistorikus Michael Hauser aan HistoricDetroit.org gesê: "Die lokaal moes 'n minimum van $ 2,500 per week verdien om net gelyk te wees . Boonop was Detroit teen hierdie tyd te versadig met teaters wat volwassenes kos. In die middestad, behalwe die UA, het u die Gem, the National, the Roxy, the Summit (voorheen Cass), die Bijou en die Globe gespeel. ”

Die UA het in Desember 1971 weer 'n kans gegee, heropen op 22 Desember 1971, met 'n dubbele kenmerk van "She Freaks" en "Dr. Jeckyl en suster Hyde. ” Dit het gebombardeer, en die deure het ongeveer 'n week later goed gesluit.

In 1974 verhuis die American Automobile Club na Dearborn, Mich., En laat die kantoortoring en teater leeg en help om die afsterwe van die Grand Circus -sakegebied aansienlik te versnel. Met niemand om oor die gebou te waak nie, sou dit begin verval. Op hierdie stadium is die weelderige kompleks meestal gebruik as 'n verheerlikte pakhuis. Op 15 Februarie 1975 het die Automobile Club, wat steeds die United Artists Building besit het, al die meubels, toebehore en kunswerke van die teater opgeveil deur die DuMochelle Art Galleries in die sentrum van Detroit. Die dekor van die teater se lobby's, gange, sitkamers en trappe is stuk -stuk verkoop. Kaste, tafels met marmer, en beelde van gode, nimfe en satiere en met die hand gesnyde stoele en banke, het almal onder die hamer gegaan voor 'n beraamde skare van 400 bieërs. Stoele en banke kos $ 125, en sommige van die kunswerke het $ 1,000 tot $ 2,000 elk behaal. Toe die laaste stoel opgeveil is, het baie van die skare na die ou teater op Bagley gestap, waar 'n dosyn kandelare, waaronder die sierlike 15 voet hoë paar oor die hoofkantoor van die teater, verkoop is, 'het Detroit News berig. die volgende dag.

Die UA's Wurlitzer was nie deel van die DuMochelle -veiling nie en is per verseëlde bod verkoop aan Henry Hunt van Detroit, wat destyds die plaaslike orrelhandelaar van Rodgers in Royal Oak bedryf het. Hunt het die UA se orrel gekoop vir sy Pied Piper Pizza Peddler and Pipes -restaurant wat 'n paar jaar later in die Universal Mall in Warren geopen het. Die restaurant het omstreeks 1983 gesluit, en die orrel het by die Long Center for the Performing arts in Lafayette, Ind., Geloop, waar dit vandag nog is.

Die Redford Theatre, 'n lieflike, intieme omgewingsteater in die atmosferiese styl wat nog ou films vertoon, het die UA se Genarco carbon arc follow -kollig gekoop. Die kollig, onafhanklik van die veiling, is nog steeds in die Redford -stand en werk soos 'n sjarme.

Teaterhistorikus en orrelkunstenaar John Lauter was in Januarie 1975 in die UA en beskryf aan HistoricDetroit.org wat hy gesien het: 'Die mure in die openbare ruimtes van die teater was almal wit geverf, amper 'n afwaswerk. Die proscenium-boog is oopgekou om grootskermpresentasies te akkommodeer. 'N Staalraamwerk is opgerig om goue veselglasgordyne op te hang om die nuwe wye, geboë skerm te raam, wat 'n meer' moderne bioskoop 'aan die voorkant van die ouditorium gee. Ek dink die spierwit wasverf was om die sierdetail te verduister. When I was there, everything was still in place from opening night all of the light fixtures, lobby furniture, projection equipment, the organ, minus two brass ranks, was there and fantastically intact.”

Starting in 1979, the Detroit Symphony Orchestra used the acoustically perfect United Artists as a recording studio until 1983, when they said they couldn't take the lack of heat, rain falling through the ceiling or lack of electricity in the building. The series of recordings for London Records, led by DSO conductor laureate Antal Dorati, included the music of Aaron Copeland, Bartok, Strauss, Tchaikovsky, Gershwin and Stravinsky.

In February 1983, the United Artists joined the National Register of Historic Places as part of the Grand Circus Park Historic District. But as time has shown in Detroit, such a designation does not always bring protection. On Nov. 2, 1987, a shower of hundreds of bricks fell from the 13th floor of the UA's tower onto Clifford between Bagley and Middle Street, crushing Detroiter Barbara Simons' 1984 Oldsmobile Cutlass Ciera. "At first the police were telling me they couldn't make an accident report because this was an act of God," she told the Detroit News at the time. While no one was injured, it was at least the second time a car had been destroyed by bricks falling off the UA Kevin Moloney of Detroit said his 1972 Cutlass Supreme was hit in the same spot in August 1984. Apparently, the United Artists Building had a thing against Oldsmobiles. The UA's owner at the time, Whitney Management Co. of Montreal, said it would shore up the wayward bricks and continued to try to sell the crumbling landmark.

A brush with death

The UA hit the auction block in New York on Sept. 22, 1989, fetching a mere $460,000 it was expected to go for up to $1 million. The winning bidder was New York investor David Grossman bought the United Artists complex with the intent of restoring it and developing the office tower into lofts. He began restoring the lobby and turned the old National Bank of Detroit branch office into a club called the Vault. His plans were never fully realized.

On Oct. 27, 1995, Mayor Dennis Archer and Detroit Tigers owner Mike Ilitch announced that they would jointly build a new baseball stadium on 25 acres on the west side of Grand Circus Park. It was to straddle Cass Avenue and knock out a significant number of buildings over the 13-block area, including the United Artists. In its place was to be the main entrance to the stadium. The ballpark was ultimately built on the east side of Woodward instead, taking out the old YMCA, Detroit College of Law, Hotel Wolverine and YWCA instead.

Businessman and cable television tycoon Don Barden secured a development option on the UA in the mid-1990s, and when that option expired Dec. 31, 1996, he bought the building for an undisclosed amount the following month. He was speculating on using either the building -- or the site -- for one of the city's three casinos that had been approved by voters. At the time he bought the UA on Jan. 13, 1997, some in the casino industry said the property was too small and couldn't be developed into a Las Vegas-style gaming hall.

Barden was soon approached by city officials who said they wanted the property for the baseball stadium project. Barden gave them an option to buy the property, and the city flipped that option to Ilitch's Olympia Development in mid-March. "I was left with the impression that it could not be used for a casino site, so that inspired me to assign my interest to the city," Barden told the Free Press at the time, adding that he wanted to be cooperative. The amount of money Barden got for the UA was not made public. He later lost out on his bid to land one of the casino licenses.

A spokeswoman for Olympia Development told the Free Press in late March that the Ilitches planned to tear down either the theater, the building or both, and use the site for parking. Ilitch has bought many historic structures surrounding his Comerica Park and theater district and done just that.

Changing hands, unchanging condition

Today, the theater still stands, and Ilitch's companies have not made public any plans to redevelop the property. Perhaps because he planned to have the building meet the wrecking ball, the UA was left to sit and rot, demolished by neglect and at times left wide open to trespass. The interior has been stripped of most of its decor and has been exposed to the elements. The Detroit City Council ordered the building to be demolished in 2001, but an Ilitch lawyer asked for a reprieve and said it would be refurbished. In May 2003, the building went back on the city's hit list.

"Our history in the City of Detroit is one of restoration," an Olympia spokesman told the Free Press in 2004. "However, it is not possible to save every building in the city because it's not economically feasible for every structure."

The buildings leveled by the Ilitch family include the historic Madison-Lenox Hotel, the Adams Theatre and Fine Arts Building, the Chin Tiki, the Hotel Vermont, the Ancient Egyptian Arabic Order of Noble Mythic Shrine and others. Ilitch has a fortune of about $1.5 billion and is in the top 250 wealthiest people in the country, according to Forbes magazine. His family owns or controls more than 160 properties in downtown Detroit.

Starting in the late 1990s, the building's windows became a blank canvas for the region's graffiti artists. Like the Lafayette Building before it fell to the wrecker's ball in late 2009, hundreds of the UA's windows were filled with artwork, including many inspired by Mayan hieroglyphics in gold, reds and blues. Riders on the Detroit People Mover got a close-up look at the art as the trains slowly wound around western Grand Circus Park. The Free Press even backed the illegal art project in an editorial in August 2004, writing the tags "show how enlivening art can spring from a blighted canvas" and that "even those who don't like urban art would be hard pressed to argue that it makes the façade of a rotting building any worse." The artwork graced the front cover of the National Trust for Historic Preservation's September-October 2005 issue of Preservation magazine. Free Press columnist Bill McGraw noted that December that "the United Artists tableau has caught the attention of artists and urban experts across the country because of its massive scale, originality and skilled execution." Still, critics and many metro Detroiters deemed it nothing but vandalism.

In February 2005, the bottom of the 1950s theater marquee collapsed onto the sidewalk below. The city of Detroit placed multiple tickets and barricades. After a few months, the site was cleaned of the debris showing hidden detailing of the former exterior. In December 2005, with the Super Bowl fast approaching, the Ilitches cleaned up the building, possibly to avoid negative media attention. The UA's rusty marquee was dismantled and the graffiti was removed from every window. The Free Press decried the scrub-down in an editorial that December as "a misguided attempt to clean up for the Super Bowl, as if the urban art is more offensive than the empty building" and added: "Out-of-towners would have found it fascinating, the kind of cool government planners can't possibly manufacture."

Kevin Joy was one of the main artists ("I am not a vandal," he says) behind the Mayan art in the windows. "The idea came to me in a dream," Joy told the Free Press in August 2006. "I saw a building covered in Mayan hieroglyphics." As for the removal of his masterpieces, Joy said: "What's more preposterous: a giant Mayan temple in Detroit or spending money to have it all removed and let it continue to sit empty?"

Since 2005, the UA also has received new doors and a new roof, and a yellow garbage chute for debris dangles from the top floor. Video surveillance cameras have been mounted near the building's entrances, and a fence was erected around its perimeter in late 2006. The building is significantly cleaner and more secure, but is still vacant. However, such work has led to hope that the building could be saved.

The property had banners hung in January 2006, advertising a "premier development opportunity." The property has been jointly marketed since with the sites of the Hotel Tuller and Statler Hotel by Olympia Development and the Downtown Development Authority.

On May 26, 2017, the Ilitch family announced that the UA's tower into 148 new residential units and first-floor retail as part of its District Detroit development around the new hockey arena.


Inhoud

The early years [ edit | wysig bron]

The first United Artists logo, used until the 1967 sale to Transamerica

UA was incorporated as a joint venture on Februaryم, 1919, by four of the leading figures in early Hollywood: Mary Pickford, Charlie Chaplin, Douglas Fairbanks, and D. W. Griffith. Each held a 20% stake, with the remaining 20% held by lawyer William Gibbs McAdoo. Ώ] The idea for the venture originated with Fairbanks, Chaplin, Pickford, and cowboy star William S. Hart a year earlier as they were traveling around the U.S. selling Liberty bonds to help the World War I effort. Already veterans of Hollywood, the four film stars began to talk of forming their own company to better control their own work as well as their futures.

They were spurred on by established Hollywood producers and distributors who were tightening their control over actor salaries and creative decisions, a process that evolved into the rigid studio system. With the addition of Griffith, planning began, but Hart bowed out before things had formalized. When he heard about their scheme, Richard A. Rowland, head of Metro Pictures, is said to have observed, "The inmates are taking over the asylum." The four partners, with advice from McAdoo (son-in-law and former Treasury Secretary of then-President Woodrow Wilson), formed their distribution company, with Hiram Abrams as its first managing director.

List of UA stockholders in 1920

The original terms called for Pickford, Fairbanks, Griffith and Chaplin to independently produce five pictures each year. But by the time the company got under way in 1920–1921, feature films were becoming more expensive and more polished, and running times had settled at around ninety minutes (or eight reels). It was believed that no one, no matter how popular, could produce and star in five quality feature films a year. By 1924, by which time Griffith had dropped out, the company was facing a crisis: either bring in others to help support a costly distribution system or concede defeat. The veteran producer Joseph Schenck was hired as president. Not only had he been producing pictures for a decade, but he brought along commitments for films starring his wife, Norma Talmadge, his sister-in-law, Constance Talmadge, and his brother-in-law, Buster Keaton. Contracts were signed with a number of independent producers, most notably Samuel Goldwyn, Alexander Korda and Howard Hughes. Schenck also formed a separate partnership with Pickford and Chaplin to buy and build theaters under the United Artists name. They also began international operations, first in Canada, then in Mexico, and by the end of the 1930s, United Artists was represented in over 40 countries.

D.W. Griffith, Mary Pickford, Charlie Chaplin (seated) and Douglas Fairbanks at the signing of the contract establishing United Artists motion picture studio in 1919. Lawyers Albert Banzhaf (left) and Dennis F. O'Brien (right) stand in the background.

Still, even with a broadening of the company, UA struggled. The coming of sound ended the careers of Pickford and Fairbanks. Chaplin, rich enough to do what he pleased, worked only occasionally. Schenck resigned in 1933 to organize a new company with Darryl F. Zanuck, Twentieth Century Pictures, which soon provided four pictures a year to UA's schedule. He was replaced as president by sales manager Al Lichtman who himself resigned after only a few months. Pickford produced a few films, and at various times Goldwyn, Korda, Walt Disney, Walter Wanger, and David O. Selznick were made "producing partners" (i.e., sharing in the profits), but ownership still rested with the founders. As the years passed and the dynamics of the business changed, these "producing partners" drifted away, Goldwyn and Disney to RKO, Wanger to Universal Pictures, Selznick to retirement. By the late 1940s, United Artists had virtually ceased to exist as either a producer or distributor. It sold off its Mexican releasing division to Crédito Cinematográfico Mexicano, a local company.

Society of Independent Motion Picture Producers (1940s and 1950s) [ edit | wysig bron]

The Society of Independent Motion Picture Producers was founded in 1941 by Mary Pickford, Charlie Chaplin, Walt Disney, Orson Welles, Samuel Goldwyn, David O. Selznick, Alexander Korda, and Walter Wanger – many of the same people who were members of United Artists. Later members included Hunt Stromberg, William Cagney, Sol Lesser, and Hal Roach.

The Society aimed to advance the interests of independent producers in an industry overwhelmingly controlled by the studio system. SIMPP also fought to end ostensibly anti-competitive practices by the seven major film studios – Loew's, Columbia Pictures, Paramount Pictures, Universal Pictures, RKO Radio Pictures, 20th Century Fox, and Warner Bros./First National – that controlled the production, distribution, and exhibition of films.

In 1942, the SIMPP filed an antitrust suit against Paramount's United Detroit Theatres. The complaint accused Paramount of conspiracy to control first-run and subsequent-run theaters in Detroit. It was the first antitrust suit brought by producers against exhibitors alleging monopoly and restraint of trade.

In 1948, the U.S. Supreme Court Paramount Decision ordered the major Hollywood movie studios – Loew's/MGM, Paramount, Warner Bros./First National, 20th Century Fox and RKO – to sell their theater chains and to eliminate certain anti-competitive practices. This effectively brought an end to the studio system.

By 1958, many of the objectives that led to the creation of the SIMPP had been obtained and SIMPP closed its offices.

The 1950s and 1960s [ edit | wysig bron]

Script error: No such module "Unsubst". On February 16, 1951, two lawyers-turned-producers Arthur Krim (of Eagle-Lion Films) and Robert Benjamin approached Pickford and Chaplin with a wild idea: let them take over United Artists for five years. If, at the end of those five years, UA was profitable, they would be given an option to buy the company. Since UA was barely alive, Pickford saw nothing to lose and agreed. Chaplin was against the deal, but changed his mind in late 1952 when the US government revoked his re-entry visa while he was in London for the UK premiere of Kollig. He sold his remaining shares of UA several years later.

In taking over UA, Krim and Benjamin created the first studio without an actual "studio". Primarily acting as bankers, they offered money to independent producers. UA leased space at the Pickford/Fairbanks Studio, but did not own a studio lot as such. Thus UA did not have the overhead, the maintenance, or the expensive production staff that ran up costs at other studios.

Among their first clients were Sam Spiegel and John Huston, whose "Horizon Productions" gave UA one major hit, The African Queen (1951) and one slightly less successful one, Moulin Rouge (1952), based on the life of Toulouse-Lautrec. Others followed, among them Stanley Kramer, Otto Preminger, Hill-Hecht-Lancaster Productions, and a number of actors, newly freed from studio contracts and anxious to produce or direct their own films.

UA production-head Arnold Picker selected the properties the company would back. With UA's new success, Pickford saw a chance to exit gracefully, though she still held out for top dollar, walking away with $1.5 million in 1955. That same year, UA won its first Best Picture Oscar, for the film Marty. It starred Ernest Borgnine, who won a Best Actor Oscar for his performance.

UA went public the following year, and as the other mainstream studios fell into decline, UA prospered, adding relationships with the Mirisch brothers, Billy Wilder, Joseph E. Levine and others. In 1961, United Artists released westekant storie, an adaptation of the Leonard Bernstein-Stephen Sondheim stage musical, which won a record ten Academy Awards (including Best Picture).

In 1958, United Artists Records was created, initially to release soundtracks from UA films, but it later diversified into many types of music. In 1968, UA Records was merged with Liberty Records, along with their many subsidiary labels such as Imperial Records and Dolton Records. In 1972, the group was consolidated into one entity as United Artists Records. It was later taken over by EMI.

Also in 1958, UA acquired Ilya Lopert's Lopert Pictures Corporation a company that released foreign films in the United States to release foreign films that may have attracted criticism or cause censorship problems. ΐ] In 1964 UA released the controversial Billy Wilder American-made film Kiss Me, Stupid under the Lopert name. Lopert later became vice-president of United Artists in Paris.

In 1959, United Artists offered its first ever television series, The Troubleshooters (after failing to sell several pilots in the previous few years), an adventure/drama on NBC, starring Keenan Wynn and Bob Mathias, as employees of an international construction company. Α] In 1960, United Artists purchased Ziv Television Programs and, using the idea of financial backing for television, UA's television division was responsible for shows such as CBS's Gilligan's Island and three ABC programs, The Fugitive with David Janssen, Outer Limits, a science fiction series, and The Patty Duke Show with Patty Duke and William Schallert. The television unit also had begun to build up a substantial – and profitable – rental library, having purchased Associated Artists Productions, owners of Warner Bros. pre-1950 Β] Γ] features, shorts and cartoons, as well as the Popeye cartoons, purchased from Paramount Pictures a few years earlier. (See note below at Film archives for more on this).

In 1963 United Artists released two Stanley Kramer films, the epic comedy It's A Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World and the drama A Child is Waiting. In 1964, UA introduced U.S. film audiences to The Beatles by releasing producer Walter Shenson's A Hard Day's Night (1964) en Help! (1965). (The group had already made wildly successful television appearances on The Ed Sullivan Show).

At the same time it backed two expatriate North Americans in Britain, who had acquired screen rights to Ian Fleming's James Bond novels. For $1 million, UA backed Harry Saltzman and Albert Broccoli's Dr. No (which was a sensation in 1962) and launched the James Bond series. The franchise has outlived UA's time as a major studio, still running half a century later. Other successful projects backed in this period included Blake Edwards's Pink Panther series, which began in 1964, and Sergio Leone's Spaghetti Westerns, which made a star of Clint Eastwood.

In 1964, the French subsidiary Les Productions Artistes Associés released its first production, That Man From Rio. On the basis of its fantastic string of film and television hits in the 1960s, the company was an attractive property, and in 1967 Krim and Benjamin sold control of UA to the San Francisco-based insurance giant, the Transamerica Corporation.

UA released another Best Picture Oscar winner in 1967, In the Heat of the Night, starring Sidney Poitier and Rod Steiger, and a nominee for Best Picture, The Graduate, an Embassy production that UA distributed overseas.

The 1970s [ edit | wysig bron]

Script error: No such module "Unsubst".

United Artists opening and closing logo, 1971–1981. From 1981 to 1982, it was just Verenigde kunstenaars on a black screen with no Transamerica indicator.

For a time the flow of successful pictures continued, including the 1971 screen version of Fiddler on the Roof. (However, the 1972 film version of Man of La Mancha was a failure.) New talent was encouraged, including Woody Allen, Robert Altman, Sylvester Stallone, Saul Zaentz, Miloš Forman, and Brian De Palma. In 1973, UA took over the sales and distribution of MGM's films in Anglo-America, while Cinema International Corporation took over international distribution rights.

In 1975, Harry Saltzman sold UA his 50% stake in Danjaq, the holding-company for the Bond films. UA was to remain a silent partner, putting up money, while Albert Broccoli took producer credit. Danjaq and UA have remained the public co-copyright holders for the Bond series ever since, and the 2006 Casino Royale release shares the copyright with Columbia Pictures, part of the consortium that now owns MGM/UA.

However, Transamerica was not pleased with UA's frequent releases of films rated X by the Motion Picture Association of America, such as Middernag Cowboy en Last Tango in Paris in these instances, Transamerica demanded the byline "A Transamerica Company" be removed from the UA logo on the prints and in all advertising. At one point, the parent company expressed their desire to phase out the UA name and replace it with Transamerica Films. Finally in 1978, following a dispute over administrative expenses, UA's top executives, including Arthur B. Krim, chairman, Eric Pleskow, president and chief executive officer, Robert S. Benjamin, chairman of the finance committee, walked out. Within days they announced the formation of Orion Pictures, with backing from Warner (Orion would eventually be a part of MGM along with United Artists, while Warner retained the rights to the pre-1982 Orion library along with acquiring the rights to a few post-1982 Orion films.) The departures of Krim, Pleskow and Benjamin concerned several Hollywood figures enough that they took out an ad in a trade paper warning Transamerica that it had made a fatal mistake in letting them go.

Die Heaven's Gate fiasco [ edit | wysig bron]

The new leadership of UA agreed to back Heaven's Gate, the pet project of director Michael Cimino, who had won Academy Awards for Best Picture and Best Director for his 1978 film The Deer Hunter. A western starring Kris Kristofferson and Christopher Walken, Heaven's Gate had an unusually protracted shooting schedule (Cimino reportedly wanted 50 takes for a single scene, for instance) which generated adverse publicity about runaway costs and Cimino's autocratic style. The almost four-hour film opened to scathing reviews and alienated audiences. Cimino pulled it in favor of a 149-minute version, but the damage was done. It turned out to be a colossal box office bomb, netting only $3 million in earnings compared to a budget of $44 million. United Artists recorded a major loss for the year due almost entirely to the Heaven's Gate fiasco. To Transamerica, it was only a blip on a multi-billion dollar balance sheet, but it soured the relationship forever. To the greater Hollywood community, it also signaled that UA was a company that could no longer produce bankable pictures. Die Heaven's Gate fiasco may have saved the United Artists brand as UA's final head before the sale, Steven Bach, wrote in his book Final Cut that there was talk about renaming United Artists to Transamerica Pictures. Despite the financial ruin, UA's blockbuster franchise films (The Pink Panther, James Bond, and eventually Rocky) were emphasized more heavily than the financially unsuccessful films.

United Artists Classics [ edit | wysig bron]

In 1981, United Artists Classics, which had formerly been a division of the company that re-released library titles, was turned into a first run art film distributor by Nathaniel T. Kwit Jr. Tom Bernard was hired as the division's head of sales, and Ira Deutchman Δ] Ε] Ζ] as its head of marketing. Later the division added Michael Barker and Donna Gigliotti. Deutchman left to form Cinecom, and Barker and Bernard later went on to form Orion Classics and Sony Pictures Classics. The label mostly released foreign and independent films such as Ticket to Heaven en The Grey Fox, and occasional first-run reissues from the UA library, such as director's cuts of Joan Micklin Silver's Head Over Heels and Ivan Passer's Cutter's Way. When Barker, and Bernard left to form Orion, the label was briefly rechristened MGM/UA Classics before it was finally shut down in the late 1980s.

United Artists opening logo, 1982–1987. This logo also would replace the Transamerica "T" from most pre-1981 prints.

The 1980s and 1990s: MGM/UA [ edit | wysig bron]

Around 1980, Transamerica was retiring from the filmmaking business, and United Artists was put up for sale. Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, led by Kirk Kerkorian (the company that United Artists had a 10-year distribution deal since 1974), made a bid for UA by estimating that MGM would pay UA $350 million in distribution fees if the expiring distribution deal was renewed and used the estimated amount to offer the $350 million Η] to Transamerica to buy United Artists. Transamerica said yes and MGM absorbed UA. The studio, which was essentially bankrupt following the disaster of Heaven's Gate, cut its production schedule sharply. MGM and UA were merged into MGM/UA Entertainment Co. from 1981 to 1986. Because MGM was not able to drop out from CIC (which distributed MGM's films outside Anglo-America), which they had previously joined in 1973, UA's international operations were merged with CIC the venture eventually changed their name to United International Pictures. MGM/UA would drop out from the venture in 2000, to have their films released internationally by 20th Century Fox.

UA was essentially dormant after 1990, releasing no films for several years. In part this was due to the continuing turmoil at MGM/UA bought by Ted Turner in 1986, he could not get financial backing to complete the deal and, seventy-four days later, re-sold UA and the MGM trademark to Kerkorian, and sold the MGM studio lot to Lorimar (now the location of Sony Pictures Studios), while keeping almost all of the MGM/UA library for himself (with the exception of the United Artists library). (See below for a note on the film library.)

As a result of the MGM split from Turner, United Artists and what was left of MGM/UA (at the time called MGM/UA Entertainment Co.) was subsequently reorganized, and became MGM Entertainment Co. after Kerkorian bought back the MGM trademark. As a result, both MGM and UA became merely brands of MGM/UA Communications Co. in late 1986. In 1988, a planned $400-million split between MGM and UA was announced by Kerkorian. He hoped to end up with at least 57% of the new MGM and retain its share of UA (at the time called United Artists Pictures, Inc.). 25% of MGM would go to a company controlled by Burt Sugarman called Giant Group Ltd. and producers Jon Peters and Peter Guber, and 18% would be offered for sale to public holders of MGM/UA stock, but the plan fell through. Around this time, Viacom, Gannett, Disney, Republic Pictures, General Electric, CBS, Time Inc., Hearst, News Corporation, TCI, Globo of Brazil, Aaron Spelling's Spelling Entertainment and Sony all tried to purchase MGM/UA. Nevertheless, the studio was able to manage box-office hits such as Rain Man (winner of the 1988 Oscar for Best Picture), Baba boom, en Die Living Daylights. However, during this period, the company's fortunes languished greatly, losing money while its market share declined to 8% by the end of the 1980s. The sale of MGM/UA to an Australian company Qintex/Australian Television Network (owners of the Hal Roach library both MGM and UA distributed in the 1930s) in 1989 also fell through, due to the company's bankruptcy later that year. Eventually, in 1990, came the sale to Italian promoter Giancarlo Parretti, who attempted to purchase Pathé the previous year. Parretti had bought a smaller company and renamed it Pathé Communications anticipating a successful buy of the original French company, but failed in that attempt, so instead merged MGM/UA with his former company, resulting into MGM-Pathé Communications Co. Having bought MGM/UA by overstating his own financial condition, within a year Parretti had defaulted to his primary bank, Crédit Lyonnais, which foreclosed on the studio in 1992, also resulting in the sale or closure of MGM/UA's string of US theaters. On Julyق, 1992, MGM-Pathé Communications Co. was renamed back to Metro-Goldwyn Mayer, Inc. In an effort to make MGM/UA saleable, Credit Lyonnais ramped up production, and convinced John Calley, the well-respected and long-retired president of WB from the '70's, to run UA. Under his supervision, Calley revived two long-running franchises, the Pink Panther en James Bond films, and touched on an aspect of UA's past by giving the widest release ever to a film with an NC-17 rating, Paul Verhoeven and Joe Eszterhas's controversial Showgirls. MGM was sold by Credit Lyonnais in 1996, again to Kirk Kerkorian's Tracinda, resulting in the departure of Calley as UA president.

In 1999, filmmaker Francis Ford Coppola attempted to buy UA from Kerkorian. The deal was rejected, but Coppola signed a production deal with the studio instead. ⎖ ]

The 2000s [ edit | wysig bron]

During the 2000s, UA was repositioned as a specialty studio. MGM had just acquired The Samuel Goldwyn Company, which had been a leading distributor of arthouse films, and after that name was retired, UA assumed SGC's purpose. The distributorship, branding, and copyrights for UA's main franchises (James Bond, Pink Panther, en Rocky) were moved to MGM, although select MGM releases (notably the James Bond franchise co-held with Danjaq, LLC and the Amityville Horror remake) carry a United Artists copyright.

UA (re-christened United Artists Films) hired Bingham Ray, who previously founded October Films, to run the company in September 2001, and under his supervision produced and distributed many "art-house" films, among them Michael Moore's Boul vir Columbine 2002's Nicholas Nickleby and the winner of that year's Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film, Niemandsland and 2004's Undertow, directed by David Gordon Green, and Terry George's Hotel Rwanda, a co-production of UA and Lions Gate Entertainment.

On April 8, 2005, a partnership of Comcast, Sony and several merchant banks bought United Artists and its parent, MGM, for a total of $4.8 billion. Though only a minority investor, Sony closed MGM's distribution system and folded most of their staff into their own studio, and the movies UA had completed and planned for release (Capote, Art School Confidential, The Woods, en Romance and Cigarettes) were reassigned to Sony Pictures Classics.

In March 2006, MGM announced that it would return once again as a distribution company domestically. Striking distribution deals with The Weinstein Company, Lakeshore Entertainment, Bauer Martinez Entertainment and other independent studios, MGM distributed films from these companies. MGM continues funding and co-producing projects that are released in conjunction with Sony's Columbia TriStar Motion Picture Group on a limited basis and is producing "tentpoles" for their own distribution company MGM Distribution.

Sony had a minority stake in MGM but otherwise MGM and UA operated under the direction of Stephen Cooper (CEO of MGM and a minority owner himself).

The Tom Cruise era [ edit | wysig bron]

On November 2, 2006, MGM announced that actor Tom Cruise and his long-time production partner Paula Wagner were resurrecting UA ⎗] ⎘] (this announcement came after the duo were released from a fourteen-year production relationship at Viacom-owned Paramount Pictures earlier that year). Cruise, Wagner and MGM Studios created United Artists Entertainment LLC and the producer/actor and his partner owned a 30% stake in the studio, ⎙] with the approval by MGM's consortium of owners.

The deal gave them control over production and development of films. Wagner was named CEO of United Artists, which was allotted an annual slate of four films with different budget ranges, while Cruise served as a producer for the revamped studio as well as serving as the occasional star.

UA became the first motion picture studio granted a WGA waiver in January 2008 during the Writers' Strike. ⎚]

On August 14, 2008, MGM announced Paula Wagner will leave United Artists to produce films independently. ⎛] Her output as head of UA was two films, both starring Cruise, Lions for Lambs ⎜] and Valkyrie, the latter of which, despite mixed reviews, was successful at the box office thanks to $117 million in foreign revenue. ⎝] Wagner's departure led to speculation that an overhaul at United Artists was imminent. ⎛ ]

Since then, United Artists has merely served as a co-producer with MGM for two releases: the 2009 remake of Fame en Hot Tub Time Machine. Throughout 2010, continued debt and credit issues for MGM Holdings, Inc., United Artists' parent company had left the future of MGM and UA in doubt until it was resolved near the end of the year.

A 2011 financial report revealed that MGM reacquired its 100% stake in United Artists. ⎙] MGM might continue to make new films under the UA brand. ⎙]


History of Expressionism

As a movement, the term expressionism usually denotes the late-19th century, early-20th century schools of emotive or interpretive art, which emerged in Germany as a reaction to the more passive style of Impressionism. The word expressionism was first used in 1850, mostly to describe the paintings where an artist’s strong emotions were clearly depicted. The popularity of Expressionism increased when Antonin Matějček in 1910 coined the term. With this word the Czech art historian intended to denote the opposite of Impressionism and indicate one of the main currents of art that expresses highly subjective, personal, spontaneous self-expression typical of a wide range of modern artists. Whereas the Impressionists sought to express the majesty of nature and the human form through paint, the Expressionists, according to Matějček, sought to express their feelings about what they saw.

Expressionism first emerged in 1905, when a group of four German students guided by Ernst Ludwig Kirchner founded the Die Brücke (the Bridge) group in the city of Dresden. A few years later, in 1911, a like-minded group of young artists formed Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider) in Munich. Kandinsky and Franz Marc where its founders, whilst Paul Klee and August Macke were amongst its members. These two groups became the foundation of the German Expressionism movement. Since then, Expressionism became a widely recognized form of modern art.

Expressionism had its most direct impact in Germany and continued to shape the country's art for decades after the First World War. While certain artists rejected Expressionism, others continued to expand its innovative art and style. Other forms of the movement developed in France, Paris, and Austria. Die Neue Sachlichkeit (New Objectivity) movement was influenced by the highly emotional tenets of Expressionism, while the Neo-Expressionists emerged in Germany and then in the United States reprising the earlier Expressionist style.


9th Logo (1982-1987) [ edit | wysig bron]

Byname: "The Paperclip", "'80s Paperclip", "CGI Paperclip"

Logo: On a black background, we see a paperclip that reads "UA" in blue with "Verenigde kunstenaars" below, in white.

FX/SFX: Incredibly breathtaking CGI.

Music/Sounds: A low sonic tone plays in the background, and as the logo turns around, a slow, somewhat somber five-note piano tune plays. When the "UA" is revealed and the words "United Artists" appear, they are accompanied by a short, swelling progression of violins immediately leading to an uplifting, dramatic 5-note orchestral conclusion. This theme was composed by Joe Harnell.

  • On some films, it has the opening theme.
  • On some films, it is silent.
  • The closing variant is usually silent or the closing theme.

Scare Factor: Low to medium. This logo's nature and the surprising orchestra at the end may get to some, but it's mainly harmless. Same goes for the rearranged music.


There was tension between some cast members

It was revealed in the Jan. 23, 1965 edition of TV Guide that there were some tensions on set between Tina Louise and the rest of the cast. The article read, &ldquoDenver will not say why he and the glamorous Tina [Louise] do not get along, nor will any of the castaways, they just ignore her, and she ignores them.&rdquo

Image by Gladysya Productions, United Artists Television, CBS Television Network

It continued, &ldquoBetween scenes, while the other six principals chat and tell jokes together, she sits off by herself. And recently when Denver was asked to pose for pictures with her, he adamantly refused. Part of Louise&rsquos dissatisfaction with the series was that she had expected to be the star of the show.&rdquo (Apparently, that&rsquos what her agent had pitched to her.)


Nothing But Vinyl Since 1949

United Record Pressing has seen a lot over the last 70 years. From pressing the first Beatles 7” to outgrowing three facilities, United hasn’t lost what has kept it alive and thriving: our passion for also keeping music alive on vinyl records.

Founded in 1949 in Nashville, TN, the company was known for pressing one million records per month and for its astounding and unique history. United also boasts a storied collection of pressing a variety of influential musical titles, including many of the Motown hits and album covers such as Bob Dylan's “Highway 61 Revisited,” Miles Davis' "Kind of Blue," and Jay-Z's " The Black Album."

Yes, it’s an exciting time for vinyl due to its recent revival, but we’re proud to say we haven’t gone anywhere. It is our steadfast belief in the vinyl format that has now made us the largest manufacturer of vinyl records in North America, and we are grateful to be a trusted partner to both major and independent labels and artists around the world.

First Record Pressing Plant in the South

453 Chestnut Street & The Motown Suite

Southern Plastics was doing well in the early '60s, turning out one million disks a month while also securing a contract with Motown Records to press all of the company's singles. They outgrew their old facility and decided to build a new plant just south of downtown of Nashville. In the design for the plant, the aim was to have space for production, administration and hospitality. There were few accommodations available to African Americans during this time in the South, and with top clients like Vee Jay Records and Motown, United created what we now call the "Motown Suite," an apartment located above the factory to host black artists and music executives. The set of rooms - previously known as the “United Hilton” - included a living room, a bedroom with two twin beds, a full bathroom, and a fully equipped kitchen complete with a push button stove.

The interior design of the suite still remains intact today and continues to be a space for album release parties, shoots and meetings.


Kyk die video: United Artists 1982 - 35mm - HD - 1080p (Januarie 2022).