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Verkenning en vestiging van Delaware

Verkenning en vestiging van Delaware

Die vroeë geskiedenis van Delaware is 'n konflik van die Nederlandse en Engelse magte, en die Swede speel 'n mindere rol. Die Nederlandse aanspraak op die gebied is in 1609 deur Henry Hudson gestig toe hy Delawarebaai binnegevaar het in sy soeke na 'n noordwestelike deur. Argall het een van die landtakke genoem vir die goewerneur van Virginia, De La Warr, 'n naam wat later opgedoen is en toegepas word op 'n rivier, 'n baai, 'n inheemse Amerikaanse stam en die kolonie as geheel.In 1623 begin die Nederlandse Wes -Indiese Kompanjie sy betrokkenheid by die Nuwe Wêreld en toon duidelik 'n voorkeur vir handelsondernemings bo nedersettings. Voormalige goewerneur van New Amsterdam, Peter Minuit, het in 1638 Sweedse steun ontvang om Fort Christina in New Sweden, 'n jong kolonie (naby Wilmington), te vestig.

Nederlandse belange in die gebied is in 1651 bevorder toe Peter Stuyvesant van New Amsterdam Fort Casimir (naby New Castle) gebou het. Drie jaar later het die Sweedse magte 'n verrassingsaanval uitgevoer en die fort ingeneem, net om dit in 1655 aan die Nederlanders terug te verloor toe Stuyvesant die hele Nuwe Swede verower het.

Die Nederlandse beheer in Delaware het slegs ongeveer 10 jaar geduur. Die hertog van York (later Jakobus II) neem die hele gebied, insluitend die Nieu -Nederland, in 1664 in. 'N Kort Nederlandse terugkeer aan bewind in 1673 was veral belangrik omdat die' drie laer graafskappe ', vandag New Castle, Kent en Sussex, begin het. beskou moet word as 'n gebied wat verskil van die buurlande.

In 1682 gee die hertog die drie graafskappe aan William Penn, wat sy kolonie van die Atlantiese Oseaan voorsien het. Baie inwoners was ontevrede oor die verandering omdat hulle Pennsylvania as 'n bedding van radikalisme beskou het, maar hulle is versag deur Penn se besluit om die drie provinsies gelyke verteenwoordiging in die vergadering te gee. Namate Pennsylvania gegroei het, was die provinsies bang vir verlies aan invloed. Penn reageer in 1701 deur hulle 'n nuwe handves toe te staan ​​wat die instelling van 'n aparte vergadering toestaan. Die eerste vergadering het in 1704 vergader, maar die gebied het tot 1776 onder die goewerneur van Pennsylvania gebly.

Penn en Lord Baltimore van Maryland het jare lank oor Delaware se grense getwis. In die 1760's is die grense deur die Engelse wetenskaplikes, Charles Mason en Jeremiah Dixon, ondersoek.


Sien ook die vroeë geskiedenis van Pennsylvania.


Die kolonie Delaware

Die Nederlanders stig die eerste Europese nedersetting in Delaware in Lewes (destyds Zwaanendael genoem) in 1631. Hulle het vinnig 'n handel in beverpelse begin met die inheemse Amerikaners, wat binne 'n kort tyd toegeslaan en die nedersetting vernietig het na 'n meningsverskil tussen die twee groepe . 'N Permanente nedersetting is eers in 1638 gestig - deur Swede in Fort Christina (nou Wilmington) as deel van hul kolonie Nieu -Swede, het hulle na bewering Amerika se eerste houthutte daar opgerig. Die Nederlanders uit New Amsterdam (New York) verslaan die Swede in 1655, en die Engelse neem die kolonie van die Nederlanders in 1664. Daarna, behalwe vir 'n kort Nederlandse herowering in 1673, is Delaware as deel van New York toegedien tot 1682, toe die hertog van York (die toekomstige James II) het dit afgestaan ​​aan William Penn, wat dit wou hê sodat sy kolonie Pennsylvania toegang tot die see kon hê. Alhoewel Penn probeer het om die provinsies van Delaware met Pennsylvania te verenig, het beide partye 'n afkeer gehad van die vakbond. In 1704 het hy Delaware toegelaat om 'n eie vergadering te maak. Pennsylvania en Delaware het 'n aangestelde goewerneur gedeel tot en met die Amerikaanse Revolusie. Eers in 1776 word die naam Delaware - afkomstig van Thomas West, 12de baron de la Warr, 'n goewerneur van Virginia - amptelik, hoewel dit in 1610 op die baai toegepas is en geleidelik daarna op die aangrensende land.

Tydens die eienaarskap van die Penn -familie het lede van die Society of Friends (Quakers) na die noordelike deel van Delaware gekom omdat dit naby Philadelphia was en goeie landbougrond gebied het. Kwaker-handelaars het die stad Wilmington in 1739 gestig. 'N Ander groep nuwelinge was die Skots-Iere, wat hul Presbiteriaanse godsdiens en die klem op opvoeding saamgebring het. In 1743 stig Francis Alison, 'n presbiteriaanse predikant, 'n skool wat die grondslag vir die latere Universiteit van Delaware geword het. Suid -Delaware is grootliks bevolk deur Engelse, baie afkomstig uit die nabygeleë Maryland, en deur Afrikane, wat as slawe voorgestel is om die land skoon te maak en die plase te bewerk. Teen die einde van die 18de eeu het omstrede Metodiste -predikers baie bekeerlinge gevind onder beide swart en wit inwoners van die suide van Delaware.


Inhoud

Teen die middel van die 17de eeu het die koninkryk van Swede sy grootste territoriale omvang bereik en was dit een van die groot moondhede van Europa. Swede het toe Finland en Estland ingesluit, asook dele van die moderne Rusland, Pole, Duitsland en Letland onder koning Gustavus Adolphus en later Christina. Die Swede het probeer om hul invloed uit te brei deur 'n plantasie (tabak) en kolonie vir bonthandel te skep om Franse en Engelse handelaars te omseil. [ aanhaling nodig ]

Die Sweedse Suid -Kompanjie is in 1626 gestig met 'n mandaat om kolonies tussen Florida en Newfoundland te vestig met die oog op handel, veral langs die Delaware -rivier. Die handves bevat Sweedse, Nederlandse en Duitse aandeelhouers onder leiding van direkteure van die New Sweden Company, waaronder Samuel Blommaert. [3] [4] Die onderneming het 11 ekspedisies in 14 afsonderlike reise na Delaware geborg tussen 1638 en 1655, twee het nie oorleef nie.

Die eerste Sweedse ekspedisie na Amerika vaar einde 1637 uit die hawe van Göteborg, georganiseer en onder toesig van Clas Fleming, 'n Sweedse admiraal uit Finland. Die Vlaamse Nederlander Samuel Blommaert het die inrigting bygestaan ​​en Peter Minuit (die voormalige goewerneur van New Amsterdam) aangestel om die ekspedisie te lei. Die ekspedisie het aan boord van die Fogel greep en Kalmar Nyckel, wat op die gebied lê wat deur die Nederlanders geëis is. Hulle is einde Maart 1638 [5] verby Kaap Mei en Kaap Henlopen [5] en anker op 29 Maart by 'n rotsagtige punt op die Minquas Kill wat vandag bekend staan ​​as Swedes 'Landing. Hulle bou 'n fort in Wilmington wat hulle Fort Christina genoem het na koningin Christina. [6]

In die daaropvolgende jare is die gebied bewoon deur 600 Swede en Finne, 'n aantal Nederlanders, 'n paar Duitsers, 'n Deen en ten minste een Estse, [7] en Minuit word die eerste goewerneur van die kolonie Nieu -Swede. Hy was die derde direkteur van New Amsterdam, en hy het geweet dat die Nederlanders die gebied suid tot by die Delaware -rivier en sy baai geëis het. Die Nederlanders het hul koloniste egter na 'n paar jaar uit die gebied teruggetrek om op die nedersetting op Manhattan Island te konsentreer. [8]

Goewerneur Minuit land op die westelike oewer van die rivier en versamel die sakke van die Delawares en Susquehannocks. Hulle het 'n konklaaf gehou in Minuit se kajuit op die Kalmar Nyckel, en hy het hulle oorreed om aktes te onderteken wat hy voorberei het om enige probleem met die Nederlanders op te los. Die Swede beweer dat die gekoopte grond grond aan die westekant van die Suidrivier insluit, net onder die Schuylkillrivier in Philadelphia, in die suidooste van Pennsylvania, Delaware en aan die kus Maryland. Sachem Mattahoon van Delaware het later beweer dat die aankoop slegs soveel grond ingesluit het as in 'n gebied wat met 'ses bome' gekenmerk is, en dat die res van die grond wat deur die Swede beset is, gesteel is. [9]

Willem Kieft maak beswaar daarteen dat die Swede beland het, maar Minuit het hom geïgnoreer omdat hy geweet het dat die Nederlanders op die oomblik militêr swak was. Minuit voltooi Fort Christina in 1638 en vaar daarna na Stockholm om die tweede groep setlaars te bring. Hy het 'n draai gemaak in die Karibiese Eilande om 'n pakkie tabak op te tel om in Europa te verkoop om die reis winsgewend te maak. Hy sterf egter tydens hierdie reis tydens 'n orkaan by St. Christopher in die Karibiese Eilande. Die amptelike pligte van die goewerneur van Nieu -Swede is uitgevoer deur kaptein Måns Nilsson Kling, totdat 'n nuwe goewerneur gekies is en twee jaar later uit Swede aankom. [10]

Die onderneming het langs die rivier uitgebrei vanaf Fort Christina onder leiding van Johan Björnsson Printz, goewerneur van 1643 tot 1653. Hulle vestig Fort Nya Elfsborg op die oostelike oewer van die Delaware naby Salem, New Jersey en Fort Nya Gothenborg op Tinicum Island tot onmiddellik suidwes van Philadelphia. Hy het ook sy herehuis The Printzhof by Fort Nya Gothenborg gebou, en die Sweedse kolonie het 'n tyd lank floreer. In 1644 ondersteun Nieu -Swede die Susquehannocks in hul oorlog teen koloniste in Maryland. [11] In Mei 1654 verower soldate uit Nieu -Swede onder leiding van goewerneur Johan Risingh Fort Casimir en hernoem dit Fort Trinity (Trefaldigheten in Sweeds). [ aanhaling nodig ]

Swede het die Tweede Noordelike Oorlog in die Oossee geopen deur die Pools-Litause Gemenebest aan te val, en die Nederlanders het 'n gewapende eskader van skepe onder die direkteur-generaal Peter Stuyvesant gestuur om Nieu-Swede in beslag te neem. In die somer van 1655 het die Nederlanders 'n leër opgeruk na die Delaware -rivier om Fort Trinity en Fort Christina maklik te verower. Die Sweedse nedersetting is formeel op 15 September 1655 in die Nederlandse Nieu -Nederland opgeneem, hoewel die Sweedse en Finse setlaars plaaslike outonomie toegelaat is. Hulle het hul eie milisie, godsdiens, hof en grond behou. [12] Dit duur tot die Engelse verowering van New Netherland, wat op 24 Junie 1664 van stapel gestuur is. Die hertog van York verkoop New Jersey aan John Berkeley en George Carteret om 'n eie kolonie te word, los van die geprojekteerde kolonie New York. Die inval begin op 29 Augustus 1664 met die verowering van New Amsterdam en eindig met die verowering van Fort Casimir (New Castle, Delaware) in Oktober. Dit het plaasgevind aan die begin van die Tweede Anglo-Nederlandse Oorlog. [13]

Nuwe Swede het nie -amptelik bestaan, en 'n mate van immigrasie en uitbreiding het voortgegaan. Die eerste nedersetting in Wicaco het begin met 'n Sweedse houthuis op Society Hill in Philadelphia in 1669. Dit is later as 'n kerk gebruik tot ongeveer 1700, toe die Gloria Dei (Old Swedes ') Kerk van Philadelphia op die terrein gebou is. [14] Nieu -Swede het uiteindelik tot 'n einde gekom toe sy grond in die handves van William Penn vir Pennsylvania op 24 Augustus 1682 opgeneem is. [ aanhaling nodig ]

Hoarkill, New Amstel en Upland Edit

Die begin van die Derde Anglo-Nederlandse Oorlog het daartoe gelei dat die Nederlande in Augustus 1673 herower is. Hulle het die status herstel wat die Engelse gevangenskap voorafgegaan het, en dit gekodifiseer in die oprigting van drie provinsies: Hoarkill County, [15] New Amstel County , [15] en Upland County, wat later verdeel is tussen New Castle County, Delaware, en die kolonie Pennsylvania. [15] Die drie provinsies is op 12 September 1673 gestig, die eerste twee aan die westelike oewer van die Delaware -rivier en die derde aan weerskante van die rivier. [ aanhaling nodig ]

Die Verdrag van Westminster van 1674 beëindig die tweede periode van Nederlandse beheer en vereis dat hulle op 29 Junie die hele Nieu -Nederland aan die Engelse moet teruggee, insluitend die drie provinsies wat hulle gestig het. [16] Nadat hulle ingelig het, verklaar die Engelse op 11 November dat nedersettings aan die westekant van die Delaware -rivier en Delaware -baai afhanklik sou wees van die provinsie New York, insluitend die drie graafskappe. [17] Hierdie verklaring is gevolg deur 'n verklaring wat New Amstel herdoop het tot New Castle. Die ander provinsies het hul Nederlandse name behou. [17]

Die volgende stap in die assimilasie van Nieu -Swede in New York was die uitbreiding van die hertog se wette na die streek op 22 September 1676. [18] Dit is gevolg deur die verdeling van sommige Hoogland -lande om aan die grense van Pennsylvania en Delaware te voldoen , met die grootste deel van die Delaware -gedeelte na New Castle County op 12 November 1678. [19] Die res van die Upland het onder dieselfde naam voortgegaan. Op 21 Junie 1680 is New Castle en Hoarkill Counties verdeel om St. Jones County te produseer. [20]

Op 4 Maart 1681 is die kolonie Nieu -Swede formeel verdeel in die kolonies Delaware en Pennsylvania. Die grens is 12 myl noord van New Castle gevestig, en die noordelike grens van Pennsylvania was 42 grade noordbreedte. Die oostelike grens was die grens met New Jersey aan die Delaware -rivier, terwyl die westelike grens onbepaald was. [21] In Junie 1681 het Upland opgehou bestaan ​​as gevolg van die herorganisasie van die Kolonie Pennsylvania, terwyl die Upland -regering die regering van Chester County, Pennsylvania, geword het. [ aanhaling nodig ]

Op 24 Augustus 1682 het die hertog van York die westelike Delaware -rivierstreek na William Penn, insluitend Delaware, oorgeplaas en sodoende Deale County en St. Jones County van New York na Delaware oorgeplaas. St Jones County is herdoop tot Kent County, Deale County is herdoop tot Sussex County, en New Castle County het sy naam behou. [22]

Historikus H. Arnold Barton het voorgestel dat die grootste betekenis van Nieu -Swede die sterk en blywende belangstelling in Amerika was wat die kolonie in Swede gegenereer het, [23] hoewel groot Sweedse immigrasie eers in die laat 19de eeu plaasgevind het. Van 1870 tot 1910 het meer as een miljoen Swede in Amerika aangekom, veral in Minnesota en ander state van die Bo -Midweste. Spore van Nieu -Swede bestaan ​​steeds in die onderste Delaware -vallei, waaronder Holy Trinity Church in Wilmington, Delaware, Gloria Dei Church en St. James Kingsessing Church in Philadelphia, Trinity Episcopal Church in Swedesboro, New Jersey, en Christ Church in Swedesburg, Pennsylvania. Al die kerke staan ​​algemeen bekend as die "Ou -Swede -kerk". [24] Christiana, Delaware, is een van die min nedersettings in die omgewing met 'n Sweedse naam, en Upland oorleef as Upland, Pennsylvania. Swedesford Road word steeds in die provinsies Chester en Montgomery, Pennsylvania, aangetref, hoewel Swedesford lankal Norristown geword het. Die American Swedish Historical Museum in Suid -Philadelphia huisves baie uitstallings, dokumente en artefakte uit die kolonie New Sweden. [25]

Miskien is die tradisionele Finse bosbou -tegniek die grootste bydrae van New Sweden tot die ontwikkeling van die New World. Die koloniste van Nieu -Swede het die houthuis saamgebring, wat so 'n ikoon van die Amerikaanse grens geword het dat dit algemeen as 'n Amerikaanse struktuur beskou word. [26] [27] Die C. A. Nothnagle Log House op Swedesboro-Paulsboro Road in Gibbstown, New Jersey, is een van die oudste oorblywende houthuise in die Verenigde State. [28] [29]

Die setlaars kom van regoor die Sweedse koninkryk. Die persentasie Finne in Nieu -Swede het veral gegroei teen die einde van die kolonisasieperiode. [30] Finne bestaan ​​uit 22 persent van die bevolking tydens die Sweedse bewind, en styg tot ongeveer 50 persent nadat die kolonie onder die Nederlandse bewind gekom het. [31] 'n Kontingent van 140 Finne arriveer in 1664. Die skip Mercurius het in 1665 na die kolonie gevaar, en 92 van die 106 passasiers is as Finne gelys. Die geheue van die vroeë Finse nedersetting leef voort in plekname naby die Delaware -rivier, soos Finland (Marcus Hook), Torne, Lapland, Finns Point, Mullica Hill en Mullica River. [32]

'N Gedeelte van hierdie Finne was bekend as Bosvinne, mense van Finse afkoms wat in die bosgebiede van Sentraal -Swede gewoon het. Die Bosvinne het gedurende die laat 16de tot middel 17de eeu van Savonia in Oos-Finland na Dalarna, Bergslagen en ander provinsies in Sentraal-Swede verhuis. Hulle verhuising het begin as deel van 'n poging van die Sweedse koning Gustav Vasa om die landbou na hierdie onbewoonde dele van die land uit te brei. Die Finne in Savonia het tradisioneel geboer met 'n sny-en-brand metode wat beter geskik was vir baanbrekerslandbou in groot bosgebiede. Dit was ook die boerderymetode wat deur die Amerikaanse Indiane van Delaware gebruik is. [33]


Verkenning en vestiging van Delaware - Geskiedenis

Small Planet Communications, Inc. + Union Street 15, Lawrence, MA 01840 + (978) 794-2201 + Kontak

Delaware (voorheen Nieu -Swede), wat uit slegs drie klein graafskappe bestaan, het in die 17de en 18de eeu baie aandag, hebsug en twis getrek. Delaware sit op 'n wenslike en strategiese plek aan die monding van die Delaware -rivier aan die westelike oewer van Chesapeake Bay.

Delaware het gesukkel om sy plek op die koloniale kaart, maar dit was 'n kolonie wat bestem was vir magtige dade. Toe die tyd aangebreek het om te veg vir die onafhanklikheid van die dertien kolonies, het Delaware die oproep moedig beantwoord.

Kom meer te wete oor die deelstaat Delaware.

Voor die aankoms van die eerste Europese setlaars, is die Delaware River Valley bewoon deur 'n groep Amerikaanse Indiane genaamd die Lenni Lenape, wat 'oorspronklike mense' beteken. Die Lenni Lenape -stam, wat deur Europese setlaars hernoem is tot 'Delaware', bestaan ​​uit drie groot groepe wat tussen die suide van New York en die noorde van Delaware gevestig is. Die mees suidelike groep het langs die noordelike deel van die huidige Delaware gewoon. Die Nanticoke -mense het in die suidwestelike Delaware langs die Nanticoke -rivier gewoon. Die Minqua het van Pennsylvania gekom om pelse langs die Delaware -rivier te verhandel.

Leer meer oor die inheemse inwoners
van Delaware, die Lenape -Indiane.

HET JY GEWEET?
Op 7 Desember 1787, Delaware
was die eerste staat wat die
Amerikaanse grondwet en sluit aan by die vakbond.
Klik hier om meer te lees oor Delaware.

Daar word vermoed dat die Spaanse en Portugese in die vroeë 16de eeu die Delaware -kuslyn verken het. Henry Hudson, 'n Engelse ontdekkingsreisiger wat deur die Nederlandse Oos -Indiese Kompanjie gehuur is, het ontdek wat in 1609 bekend sou staan ​​as die Delaware -rivier en die Delaware -baai. Hy het die gebied egter nie verken nie. 'N Jaar later is kaptein Samuel Argall - dieselfde Engelsman wat Pocahontas ontvoer het - van koers geblaas en die Delaware -baai ingevaar. Hy noem 'n land aan die westelike oewer Kaap De la Warr, ter ere van Thomas West, Lord De la Warr, die eerste goewerneur van die Engelse kolonie Virginia. Die Delaware -rivier en -baai is eers in diepte deur kaptein Cornelius Hendricksen ondersoek. In sy joernaal skryf Hendricksen handel met Amerikaanse Indiane vir verskillende soorte pelse en velle, waaronder swartwortel, otter, mink en beer.

In 1631 is die eerste Europese skikking gepoog toe die Nederlandse Wes-Indiese Kompanjie, in vennootskap met 'n Nederlandse handelskaptein David Pietersen de Vries, 'n tabak- en walvisbedryf by Zwaanendael naby die huidige stad Lewes gestig het. Binne die eerste jaar is die nedersetting vernietig en die inwoners daarvan vermoor in wat vermoedelik die gevolg is van 'n geskil wat begin het oor diefstal van 'n blik met die Nederlandse wapen.

Die Kalmar Nyckel, die Tall Ship van
Delaware, vaar uit Swede
in 1637 met 24 passasiers na
vestig die eerste permanente
nedersetting in die Delaware -vallei,
Nuwe Swede.

Anders as die meeste Engelse maatskappye, het die Nederlandse Wes -Indiese Kompanjie gehoop om handel uit te brei eerder as om kolonies op te rig. Daarteenoor het Sweedse, Nederlandse en Duitse aandeelhouers in 1637 die New Sweden Company gestig om 'n kolonie te stig. Verskeie van die lede van die Nederlandse Wes -Indiese Kompanjie het hul dienste aan die New Sweden Company aangebied. Een van hulle, Peter Minuit, die voormalige direkteur-generaal van Nieu-Nederland, het 'n ekspedisie van setlaars uit Swede gelei en laat in 1637 die vaart gevat Kalmar Nyckel en Fogel greep.

Hulle het in Maart 1638 aangekom en die ekspedisie het 'n versterkte handelspos op die terrein van die huidige Wilmington gebou. Dit is Fort Christina genoem ter ere van die 12-jarige koningin van Swede. Minuit het 'n akte van die Amerikaanse Indiane bekom vir die land wat noord strek van Bombay Hook tot by die Schuylkill -rivier, wat uitloop in die Delaware -rivier in die huidige Philadelphia. Die gebied het die naam New Sweden gekry.

Meer as 'n dosyn ekspedisies het in die volgende 17 jaar in Nieu -Swede aangekom, met Sweedse, Finse en Nederlandse emigrante, sowel as voorraad. Bykomende grond is aangekoop, en die kolonie het na beide kante van die Delaware -rivier versprei.

Nuwe Swede het floreer tydens die goewerneurskap van Johan Björnsson Printz (1643–1653). Die setlaars het forte, meulens en huise op en af ​​langs die Delaware -rivier gebou. Handel met plaaslike Amerikaanse Indiese groepe het floreer, en baie koloniste het tabak geplant.

HET JY GEWEET?

Houthutte is die eerste keer bekendgestel
Amerika deur die Swede in Delaware.

In 1651 het die Nederlandse Wes -Indiese Kompanjie probeer om beheer oor Nieu -Swede te verkry, met die oortuiging dat die maatskappy steeds die regte op die gebied het. Peter Stuyvesant, goewerneur van Nieu-Nederland, het Nederlandse troepe gelei by die bou van Fort Casimir by die huidige New Castle. Onder die administrasie van die laaste goewerneur van die kolonie, Johan Rising, verower Nieu -Swede die fort in 1654. Stuyvesant keer die volgende jaar in groter getalle terug en neem die hele gebied terug, insluitend die fort. Hierdie daad het effektief die Sweedse invloed en deelname aan die kolonisering van Noord -Amerika beëindig.

Die Engelse en die Nederlanders was in konstante kompetisie met mekaar oor handel en kolonies in Noord -Amerika. Hierdie spanning het uiteindelik gelei tot 'n reeks oorloë tussen hulle, wat tussen 1652 en 1674 gevoer is. In 1664 het Engeland die hele Nieu -Nederland en die besittings van die Nederlande in die Delaware -vallei oorgeneem. Dit het gelei tot die Tweede Engels-Hollandse Oorlog, wat gelei het tot die besit van Engeland in 1667 in Engeland. Die hertog van York het Delaware geannekseer, en vir 18 jaar lank is dit deur Engeland beheer as deel van die kolonie New York (voorheen Nieu-Nederland). . Sweedse en Finse inwoners is toegelaat om hul grond te behou, hul eie godsdiens te beoefen en te word beheer deur hul eie hofstelsel. Setlaars uit Engeland en uit omliggende Engelse kolonies verhuis na Delaware, wat die bevolking vinnig laat toeneem.

Lees meer oor William Penn
stigter van Pennsylvania en
eienaar van Delaware vir 'n
kort tydperk.

In 1682 het William Penn, 'n Quaker wat die naburige Pennsylvania -kolonie gestig het, lande van Engeland aangevra vir 'n seeroete na Pennsylvania. Die hertog van York het Penn die hele grond tussen New Castle en Kaap Henlopen toegestaan ​​en toegestaan, wat die meeste van die huidige Delaware bevat. Delaware het toe onder die eienaarskap van Penn gekom, maar dit is afsonderlik van Pennsylvania toegedien as 'n afsonderlike entiteit genaamd die "drie graafskappe van Delaware" of die "onderste graafskappe". Charles Calvert, of lord Baltimore, het die kolonie Maryland gestig en teen William Penn aangevoer en die land langs die Delaware -rivier vir homself opgeëis. Sy eis is deur Engeland ontken, wat 'n langdurige geskil tussen Penn en Baltimore (en later geslagte invloedryke mense in Maryland en Pennsylvania) veroorsaak het oor grenskwessies. Die argument oor die Maryland-Delaware-grens is uiteindelik in 1769 tot stilstand gebring met die afbakening van die Mason-Dixon-lyn.

Penn het in 1682 'n vredesverdrag met die Lenni Lenape onderteken, en daar was geen verdere konflik tussen Amerikaanse Indiane en die Delaware -setlaars tot die Franse en Indiese oorlog in 1754. Baie van die Delaware -Indiane het weswaarts getrek in 'n poging om voor wit nedersetting te bly , en die meeste van hulle het reeds in Ohio gewoon teen die tyd dat die Franse en Indiese oorlog langs die kus uitgebreek het.

Die inwoners van Delaware wou onafhanklikheid hê van die sterk invloed van die groot bevolking van Quakers in Pennsylvania. The Quakers, of Society of Friends, was 'n godsdienstige liggaam wat Philadelphia oorheers het, en die inwoners van Delaware was bang vir die vinnige ekonomiese groei van die kolonie Pennsylvania. Hulle was ewe onwillig om die eiendom van Lord Baltimore en Maryland te word.

Uiteindelik is die instelling van 'n aparte vergadering toegestaan ​​aan die inwoners van Delaware. Die stad New Castle het die eerste byeenkomsvergadering in 1704 aangebied, wat dien as die hoofstad van Delaware. Terwyl die vergadering wette aangeneem en besluite geneem het oor die ekonomie en die regering in die drie provinsies van Delaware, was die kolonie tegnies steeds onder die gesag van die goewerneur van Pennsylvania.

Lees meer oor die 1999
herdenking Delaware
staatskwartier.

Ontdek feite en simbole
van Delaware.

Delaware was die beslissende staat om onafhanklikheid van Groot -Brittanje te verklaar al dan nie. Geskiedenis is gemaak toe 'n afgevaardigde genaamd Caesar Rodney met sy perd van Delaware na Philadelphia gery het om Delaware se stem ten gunste van onafhanklikheid van Groot -Brittanje te stem. Deur donderslae, weerlig en 'n hittegolf ry Rodney se dapperheid op die herdenkings in die staatskwartier van Delaware wat in 1999 deur die Amerikaanse munt uitgereik is.


Pennsylvania en Delaware

William Penn stig die Pennsylvania Kolonie in 1681 en bring Quaker -dissidente uit Engeland, Wallis, Nederland en Frankryk oor.

Leerdoelwitte

Ondersoek die godsdienstige en sosiale faktore wat die totstandkoming van die kolonie Pennsylvania en Delaware gevorm het

Belangrike wegneemetes

Kern punte

  • William Penn stig die provinsie Pennsylvania, ook bekend as Pennsylvania Colony, in Britse Amerika in 1681 by koninklike handves.
  • Die land wat Delaware bevat, is eers deur die Sweedse, daarna die Nederlanders en uiteindelik die Britte in Pennsylvania beheer.
  • Die Lenape en Susquehanna het die grond beset voor kolonisasie.
  • Die Charter of Privileges het regverdige omgang met Amerikaanse Indiane opgelê. Kwakers het aanvanklik met respek met die Lenape en Susquehanna omgegaan, maar toekomstige soeke na grond deur die Britse regering het tot geweld en vyandigheid gelei.
  • Kwakers was die primêre setlaars van Pennsylvania. Die handves van voorregte het godsdiensvryheid tot alle monoteïste uitgebrei, en die regering was aanvanklik oop vir alle Christene.

Sleutel terme

  • Kwakers: Lede van die Religious Society of Friends, ook die Friends ’ Church genoem.
  • William Penn: 'N Engelse eiendomsondernemer, filosoof en stigter van die provinsie Pennsylvania, die Engelse Noord -Amerikaanse kolonie en die toekomstige Statebond van Pennsylvania.
  • Laer graafskappe: 'N Ander term vir Delaware Colony in die Noord -Amerikaanse middelkolonies van 1682 tot 1776.

Die stigting van Pennsylvania en Delaware

In 1681 stig William Penn die provinsie Pennsylvania, ook bekend as Pennsylvania Colony, in Britse Amerika by koninklike handves. Penn het die charter vir Pennsylvania van Charles II ontvang en Quaker -dissidente uit Engeland, Wallis, Nederland en Frankryk gebring. Die koloniale regering, wat in 1682 deur die regering van Penn ’ gestig is, het bestaan ​​uit 'n aangestelde goewerneur, die eienaar, 'n provinsiale raad en 'n groter algemene vergadering.

Die geboorte van Pennsylvania, 1680: William Penn, met papier vasgehou, staande en kyk na koning Charles II, in die ontbytkamer van King ’s in Whitehall.

Tussen 1669 en 1672 was Delaware 'n ingelyfde provinsie onder die provinsie Maryland. Daar word gesê dat die Mason-Dixon-lyn vae buitelyne tussen Maryland en Pennsylvania wettig opgelos het en Delaware aan Pennsylvania toegeken het. Delaware Colony het 'n streek van die provinsie Pennsylvania geword, hoewel dit nooit wettig 'n aparte kolonie was nie. Van 1682 tot 1776 was dit deel van die Penn -eienaarskap en het dit as die onderste graafskappe bekend gestaan. In 1701 kry dit 'n aparte vergadering van die drie boonste graafskappe, maar het steeds dieselfde goewerneur as die res van Pennsylvania gehad. Delaware sou egter uiteindelik te onafhanklik wees, wat sou lei tot die uiteindelike skeiding van Pennsylvania en 'n unieke pionierstatus as die eerste staat van Amerika, wat nie aan die lot van die provinsies gekoppel was nie.

William Penn het die lande van Delaware gevra en later van die hertog van York ontvang. Penn het dit moeilik gehad om Delaware te beheer, omdat die ekonomie en geologie grootliks dieselfde was as dié van die Chesapeake, eerder as dié van sy Pennsylvania -gebied. Hy het probeer om die regerings van Pennsylvania en Delaware saam te smelt. Verteenwoordigers van albei gebiede het gebots en in 1701 stem Penn in tot twee afsonderlike vergaderings. Delawareërs sou in New Castle ontmoet en Pennsylvanians sou in Philadelphia bymekaarkom. Delaware was steeds 'n smeltkroes en was die tuiste van Swede, Finne, Nederlanders en Franse, benewens die Engelse, wat die dominante kultuur was.


Sussex County, Delaware - Geskiedenis - Europese nedersetting

Sussex County was die tuiste van die eerste Europese nedersetting in Delaware, met die naam van 'n handelspos Zwaanendael op die huidige terrein van Lewes. Op 3 Junie 1631 land die Nederlandse kaptein David Pietersen de Vries langs die oewer van die Delaware om 'n walvisjagkolonie in die middel van die Atlantiese Oseaan van die Nuwe Wêreld te vestig. Die kolonie duur net tot 1632, toe De Vries vertrek. Toe hy daardie Desember terugkeer na Zwaanendael, vind hy dat die Indiese stamme sy mans doodgemaak het en die kolonie verbrand het. Die Nederlanders het toe weer die gebied gaan vestig.

Alhoewel die Nederlanders en Swede reeds in 1638 teruggekeer het om die Delaware -rivier te hervestig, het 'n groot deel van die Delawarebaai -gebied suid van die huidige stad Newcastle onrustig gebly tot 1662, toe 'n toekenning van grond aan die Hoernkills (die gebied rondom Kaapstad) Henlopen, naby die huidige stad Lewes) is deur die stad Amsterdam gemaak vir 'n partytjie Mennoniete. Altesaam 35 man sou by die nedersetting ingesluit word, onder leiding van 'n Pieter Cornelisz Plockhoy van Zierikzee en befonds deur 'n aansienlike lening van die stad om hulle te vestig. Hierdie nedersetting, wat in 1663 gestig is, is deels georganiseer deur dreigemente van die Engelse kolonie Maryland in die weste wat begin om sy eie regte oor die gebied te laat geld. Die tydsberekening van die nedersetting was verskriklik, aangesien die Engelse in 1664 Nieu -Nederland van die Nederlanders afgestoot het, en hulle het die nedersetting dieselfde jaar vernietig met Britse verslae wat daarop dui dat "nie eens 'n spyker" daar gelaat is nie.

Die vestiging in die gebied nadat die Engelse die Nederlanders uitgeskop het, was stadig. Die Swede en Finne wat hulle sedert die dae van Nieu -Swede in die gebied gevestig het, het die Engelse oor die algemeen verwelkom en toegelaat om te bly, maar die paar Nederlanders wat in die gebied gevind is, is as gevangenes afgerond en as slawe na Virginia gestuur. Lord Baltimore het Marylanders ook aangemoedig om oos te trek om die gebied te vestig. Maar die grond was ver verwyderd van ander, meer gevestigde nedersettings en het baie nuwe intrekkers nie aangemoedig nie. Dit het ook 'n aanloklike wildernis geword vir seerowers om weg te kruip vir die owerhede en gereeld die setlaars vir voorrade te plunder.

Die Nederlanders herwin die gebied in 1673 kortliks as deel van die Derde Anglo-Nederlandse Oorlog. Op daardie stadium het hulle howe in die stad New Castle en by die Hoerkill aan die suidekant van die gebied opgerig, wat effektief twee provinsies uit die gebied geskep het. Nadat die oorlog in 1674 geëindig het, is die gebied van Delaware weer aan die Engelse teruggegee, op watter stadium dit onder die beheer van James Stuart, hertog van York, geplaas is. In 1680 herorganiseer die hertog die gebied suid van die Mispillion-rivier as Deale County met die setel in New Deale (hedendaagse Lewes) en skep hy 'n derde graafskap, St. Jones, uit die Delaware-gebied tussen die Mispillion River en Duck Creek. In 1682 het die Engelse koning Charles II die gebiede van Delaware toegeken aan William Penn ter vereffening van gesinsskuld, en Penn herorganiseer al drie die provinsies van Delaware: Deale County word Sussex County, en St. Jones County word Kent County, ter erkenning van Penn se tuislande in Sussex County, Engeland. Hy het tweehonderd mense as koloniste uit Sussex, Engeland, gebring. Die stad New Deale is ook herdoop tot Lewistown (vandag bekend as Lewes). Op hierdie tydstip beweer Penn ook dat die Delaware -gebied tot in die suide tot by Fenwick -eiland strek. Die 'Three Lower Counties' (Delaware) langs Delaware Bay het in die woonbuurt van Penn ingetrek en die Delaware Colony geword, 'n satelliet van Pennsylvania.

Maar die grensgeskille het tussen Pennsylvania en Maryland voortgeduur. Charles Calvert, 5de baron Baltimore en William Penn het albei die land geëis tussen die 39ste en 40ste parallelle volgens die handveste wat aan elke kolonie toegestaan ​​is. Terwyl Penn beweer het dat die Delaware -gebiede tot by Fenwick -eiland uitgebrei het, beweer Calvert dat die kolonie by Lewes geëindig het met al die grond suid van die nedersetting wat aan Somerset County behoort.

In 1732 onderteken Charles Calvert 'n territoriale ooreenkoms met William Penn se seuns wat 'n grens tussen die twee kolonies trek en ook Calvert se aanspraak op Delaware verloën. Maar Lord Baltimore beweer later dat die dokument wat hy onderteken het, nie die bepalings bevat waarop hy ingestem het nie, en weier om die ooreenkoms in werking te stel. Vanaf die middel van die 1730's het geweld ontstaan ​​tussen setlaars wat verskillende lojaliteit aan Maryland en Pennsylvania opgeëis het. Die grenskonflik tussen Pennsylvania en Maryland sou bekend staan ​​as Cresap's War.

Die probleem was onopgelos totdat die Kroon in 1760 ingegryp het, en beveel Frederick Calvert, 6de Baron Baltimore, om die ooreenkoms van 1732 te aanvaar. As deel van die skikking het die Penns en Calverts die Engelse span van Charles Mason en Jeremiah Dixon die opdrag gegee om die nuut gevestigde grense tussen die provinsie Pennsylvania, die provinsie Maryland, Delaware Colony en dele van Colony en Old Dominion of Virginia te ondersoek.

Tussen 1763 en 1767 het Charles Mason en Jeremiah Dixon die Mason-Dixon-lyn ondersoek wat die westelike en suidelike grense van Sussex County gevestig het. Nadat Pennsylvania slawerny in 1781 afgeskaf het, het die westelike deel van hierdie lyn en die Ohio -rivier 'n grens geword tussen vrye en slawestate, hoewel Delaware 'n slawestaat gebly het.

In 1769 het 'n beweging begin om die setel van Lewes te verskuif na die gebied wat destyds bekend was as Cross Roads, die huidige plek van Milton. Die huidige landstoel van Georgetown is op 27 Januarie 1791 afgehandel nadat inwoners in die weste van Sussex County die Algemene Vergadering van Delaware suksesvol versoek het om die setel na 'n sentrale plek te skuif, aangesien paaie destyds te moeilik gemaak het om die landstoel te bereik Lewes. Georgetown was not a previously established town and on May 9, 1791, the 10 commissioners headed by President of the State Senate George Mitchell negotiated the purchase of 76 acres (310,000 m2) and Commissioner Rhodes Shankland began the survey by laying out "a spacious square of 100 yards (91 m) each way." Eventually the Town was laid out in a circle one mile (1.6 km) across, centered on the original square surveyed by Shankland and now listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Georgetown was named after Senate President George Mitchell.

Sussex County has been known by several names over the years including Susan County, Hoorenkill or Whorekill County as named by the Dutch prior to 1680 when Kent County broke off, Deale County from 1680 to 1682 after being taken over by the British under James Stuart, Duke of York prior to signing over to William Penn, and Durham County when claimed by the Lords Baltimore during the boundary dispute with the Penn family.

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Delaware County NY Genealogy and History Site

THE only part of the present county which is claimed to have been occupied by white settlers at a date prior to the Fort Stanwix treaty is a small settlement on the East branch of the Delaware river in the present town of Middletown. In the year 1762 or 1763 a small band* of adventurers of Dutch extraction set out from Hurley in Ulster county to explore the lands on the East branch of the Delaware.

(* I am indebted to a communication from Dr. 0. M. Allaben, in Gould's History of Delaware County, for this account of the Middletown pioneers.)

They ascended Shandaken creek, crossed over the mountains forming the divide between the tributaries of the Hudson river and the Delaware, and found themselves in the beautiful valley of the East branch. To their great surprise they found here evidences of a deserted Indian village, which they afterwards learned was called Pakatakan and even traces of European settlements at several places. These latter were doubtless left by the hardy trappers and traders who had forced their way hither in search of beaver skins, and had found at least two homes of the beaver near this place.

The hardy adventurers from Hurley took up farms along this valley, and having made some hasty preparations went back for their families. They obtained warranty deeds for the land from Chancellor Livingston one of the heirs of Johannes Hardenbergh the owner of this tract. The price paid was twenty shillings an acre and the deeds bear the date of 1763. The names of these first settlers, so far as they have come down to us, were the brothers Harmanus and Peter Dumond, Johannes Van Waggoner, Peter Hendricks, Peter Brugher, and Messrs. Kittle, Yaple, Sloughter (now named Sliter), Hinebagh, Green and Bierch. Their farms were chosen along the banks of the East branch, and the vicinity. The settlers were driven off* by the Indians in the Revolutionary war (1778), and the buildings and improvements were destroyed. But soon after the war they returned and resumed their abandoned farms.

The first settlements in both Sidney and Harpersfield took place about the year 1770 and both in like manner were interrupted by the disturbances of the Revolutionary war, which shortly followed. The pioneer of the former of these settlements was Rev. William Johnston a Presbyterian clergyman born in Ireland, and who had resided several years previous to his removal to the Susquehanna valley in the neighborhood of Albany. Mr. Johnston and his son Witter Johnston journeyed by Otsego lake and thence down the Susquehanna, stopping finally at the beautiful flats which are now called Sidney. Here they found a few scattered but friendly Indians, belonging to the Housatonick tribe, which at this time were subject and tributary to the Six Nations. They selected a farm of 520 acres bordering on the river, which was a part of a land patent belonging to Banyar and Wallace, of which they bought the fee simple. In the Revolutionary troubles which soon came on Wallace took the tory side, and his property which the Johnstons had bought, but had not paid for, was confiscated and became the property of the State. On the recommendation of the governor, however, the Johnstons on payment of the balance still due were confirmed in the title to the land they had bought.

The Johnston family occupied their now home in the year 1773, and were followed by other families who soon made a thriving and attractive neighborhood. They were named Sliter, Carr, Woodcock and Dingman. The Sliters intermarried with the Johnstons and in the troubles of the Revolutionary war took with them the patriotic side. But the others became tories and are lost sight of, except that Carr afterward is said to have erected the first gristmill in this vicinity, upon Carr's brook which empties into the Susquehanna a few miles above the Johnston settlement.

In 1777 during the Revolutionary war the Johnston settlement received a visit from Brant and a band of Iroquois Indians. The Susquehanna valley was a frequent resort of these fierce warriors and all the scattered Indians of other tribes which wandered through the region between the Susquehanna and the Hudson were tributary to the Iroquois. Brant and all the Six Nations had made a treaty with the British through Sir William Johnson and had embraced the tory side in the pending controversy. He came with a band of about eighty men. The white settlers held a conference with the redoubtable chief, who announced to them his ultimatum. He gave them eight days in which to leave their homes after which everything would be at the mercy of his followers. If any of the families chose to declare themselves British partisans, he promised them protection and permission to remain in their homes. Under this urgent alternative Mr. Johnston and the other whig families took leave of their little possessions and hurried to Cherry Valley. They were there when the little village was burnt by the Indians in 1778 but the family escaped in time from the massacre, and one of the sons was in the fort which withstood the efforts of the savages to burn or take it.

After the war was over the fugitive families returned in 1784 to their homes at Sidney, and resumed the peaceful and prosperous life which has made Sidney one of the most attractive of all the towns in the county.

It remains to say something about Harpersfield, which is the only other part of the county which was settled by white people before the Revolutionary war. The founders of Harpersfield were a family of Harpers, whose ancestor James Harper migrated from Ireland to Maine in 1720. After successive migrations of the family John, a grandson of the Irish emigrant, settled in 1754 at Cherry Valley in New York. A son of this John named John Jr., was the founder of Harpersfield, and his son, also named John, and was the noted Colonel Harper who was so conspicuous in the border ways of the revolution.

In 1767 the Harpers obtained from the Colonial government permission to obtain from the Indiana a tract of land containing 100,000 acres not before purchased, situated near the headwaters of the Delaware river. After this transaction was complete the Harpers received from the government a deed of the land in 1769. Two years after this, in 1771, Colonel Harper established his family upon this tract and proceeded to divide it into suitable farms for settlement. A considerable number of families from Cherry Valley and old friends from Now England soon after joined them, and the place took on an appearance of prosperity. The first settlers however were subject to some severe trials from the want of food for themselves and their cattle. Their nearest neighbors were thirty miles off at Schoharie, and for gristmills they were compelled to go down the Schoharie creek to the Mohawk. In 1775, however, Colonel Harper erected a gristmill for the convenience of his neighbors. The whole tract was heavily timbered, mostly with maple and beech, and the making of maple sugar was one of the chief early industries. The lands covered by hardwood are always more easily cleared than those covered by pine or other evergreens. The rich and varied farms of Harpersfield came rapidly into conditions of fertility and were soon able to support a widespread and prosperous population.

But before the settlement could attain this condition of prosperity, it was compelled to go through a period of trial during the Revolutionary war, which left its impress for a long time upon its inhabitants and its growth and progress. It was in the summer of 1777 that the approach of Brant and Butler with a band of Indiana and tories made the Harpersfield settlers realize the danger of their position. Some fled to Schoharie and some went back to New England. So that from that time to the close of the war Harpersfield was almost deserted. Occasionally some of the fugitives came back from Schoharie to look after their possessions. Thus in the spring of 1780 Captain Alexander Harper and a number of others went to Harpersfield at the usual sugar making season. Brant and his party of Indians surprised and captured them. Some were killed and scalped, while Harper and several others were carried by a long and tedious march to the British fort at Niagara. There they remained as prisoners in circumstances of fearful misery until the close of the war. Others were taken as prisoners to Quebec where they were kept until under the treaty of peace they were set at liberty.

After the establishment of peace most of the families returned to their homes, which however had been in many cases desolated by the Indians and tories. Other settlers rapidly joined these pioneers, attracted by the sturdy character of the founders, and by the liberal terms on which they could secure farms on which they might settle. From that time down to the present Harpersfield has continued to be one of the most thriving and prosperous of the towns in the county.

The period following the war was everywhere active in emigration. The soldiers who had spent many years in fighting for their country had lost that attachment to their homes which made abandonment difficult. They had learned of hundreds of places where they could find farms to be taken up and homes to be established. Many of the officers of the army received in lieu of pay which was due to them grants of land from which they expected to realize abundant profits. They did not foresee the times when the fertile Genesee country, and the rich valleys of Ohio would be speedily in demand. But they eagerly accepted the proffered lands still unoccupied in the eastern portions of New York. Poor old General Steuben who had performed such noble service for his American friends, was rewarded with a township named after him in the rough regions of Oneida county. Baron DeKalb was in like manner rewarded with an equally fertile tract of land in St. Lawrence county.

Much of the land in Delaware county had been granted in various tracts before the breaking out of the war. The year 1770 seems to have been amazingly prolific in Delaware county patents. In the note* appended will be found the patents granted in Delaware county by the English Colonial government.

(* List of patents granted by the English Colonial Government, in Delaware county. Hough's Gazeteer, p. 48:
Babington's Patent, 1770, 2,000 acres, Charles Babington.
Bedlington Patent, 1770, 27,000 acres, John Leake and others.
Clarke's Patent, 1770, 2,000 acres, James Clarke.
DeBernier's Patent, 1770, 2,000 acres, John DeBernier.
Franklin Township, 1770, 30,000 acres, Thomas Wharton and others.
Goldsborough Patent, 1770, 6,000 acres, Edward Tudor and others.
Hardenbergh Patent, 1708, --, Johannes Hardenbergh and others.
Harper's Patent, 1769, 22,000 acres, John Harper, Jr.
Kortright Patent, 1770, 22,000 acres, Lawrence Kortright.
Leake's Patent, 1770, 5,000 acres, Robert Leake. Forfeited by attainder.
McKee's Patent, 1770, 40,000 acres, Alexander McKee and others.
McKee's Patent, 1770, 18,000 acres, additional, Alexander McKee and others.
Prevost Patent, 1770, --, James Prevost.
Strasburgh Township, 1170, 37,000 acres, John Butler and others. Forfeited by attainder. Walton's Patent, 1770, 20,000 acres, William Walton and others.
Whiteboro Township, 38,000 acres, Henry White and others. Forfeited by attainder.)

Subsequent to the formation of the State government many tracts were purchased from the State, by land speculators who generally sold but sometimes rented to settlers the farms which they undertook to clear and cultivate. The largest of these tracts was in the western angle of the State, and occupying a region owned by the State of Massachusetts. The two states settled the question of jurisdiction by an agreement that the price of the lands when sold should go to Massachusetts, but that the whole tract should belong politically to the State of New York. The land was in 1791 sold by the State of Massachusetts to Phelps and Gorham but on account of their failure to fulfill the contract, it was resold subsequently to them together with a number of other purchases. Almost all the contents of the counties of the State west of Cayuga lake were included in this territory. Another large tract is usually called the Macomb purchase, situated in Franklin, St. Lawrence, Jefferson, Lewis, Oswego and Herkimer counties. The lands included in these later purchases were usually sold in fee simple to the settlers while much of that in Delaware county, such as the Hardenbergh patent, the Kortright patent, the Livingston patent, the Verplanck tract, etc., were granted on lease.

The settlements formed in the various towns will be detailed in the town histories given below. The pioneers were of varied nationality, and in this respect were a fair sample of the mixed population throughout the State. From Kingston came the Dutch and Palatine Germans and a few of the Walloons, who settled in Middletown along the East branch of the Delaware. The same classes of emigrants had settled the Schoharie valley and thus formed a continuous belt of low Dutch pioneers from Albany up the Mohawk river, thence up the Schoharie creek to its headwaters and. then down the East branch of the Delaware, meeting the little body of Dutch pioneers who had broken through the mountain barriers from Kingston. It is needless to say that these emigrants were industrious, intelligent, and conservative. Like their European ancestry they sought as places of settlement low lying lands, bordering the picturesque streams which abounded in the new continent. There were no considerable number of these Holland emigrants who came into Delaware county. The lands were opened up to settlement too late to take advantage of the Holland period of New York history. This period ended in 1664 when the Dutch possessions in. America were by treaty transferred to England. After that time a few emigrants came from Holland to New York, and the only Dutch pioneers into Delaware county came from the older settlements of the same nationality in other parts of the colony.

The great mass of the early settlers in Delaware county were from New England. They had already learned that the bleak hills where they had at first made their homes were by no means the fertile and productive regions they had anticipated. From the earliest times there was a continuous stream of emigration from the colonies and states of New England, first into eastern New York, then into western New York, and still later into Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and farther west. There was a time, just subsequent to the Revolutionary war, when many of these restless and adventurous New Englanders sought homes near the headwaters of the Susquehanna and the Delaware rivers. The immense town of Franklin which at its organization contained thirty thousand acres of land was largely settled by New Englanders. Sluman Wattles the first settler came thither from Connecticut in 1785 accompanied by his brothers and sisters, and followed by numerous friends who rapidly built up a thriving and intelligent community. The town of Walton was a part of Franklin until 1797, and it too was largely settled by families of New England origin. Dr. Platt Townsend came hither from Dutchess county and brought with him a number of friends from Long Island who like himself had first migrated from Connecticut. This auspicious beginning led many other New England families who were seeking new homes to come into the valleys of the Delaware and the Susquehanna.

Another notable company of colonists came in 1789 consisting of twenty heads of families and two single men from Fairfield county, Connecticut. They were exploring the wilderness in search of a suitable place in which to settle. They came from Catskill and after a long journey reached the head waters of the West branch of the Delaware. Here they found a friend in an old settler named Inman, who aided them to find lands on which they could settle. Part of them located in the present town of Roxbury, which then was the town of Stamford the others found homes in what still bears the name of Stamford in Rome's brook. This has continued to be a most thrifty and prosperous settlement,* and to this day bears the marks of the pioneers who founded it.

(*The names of this company are given in Gould's History of Delaware County as follows: Josiah Patchin, Captain Abraham Gould, Colonel John Hubble, Aaron Rollins, Isaac Hubble, Talcott Gould, Isaac Gould, George Squires, Walter and Seth Lyon, John Polly, Stephen Adams, Peter and Ebon Jennings, Joseph Hill, and one by the name of Gibson. The two unmarried men were David Gould and David Squires. See p. 197.)

The Scotch immigration into Delaware county was principally of a later date. A few came to the region about the time of the Revolution. John More was a Scotchman who came into the country and founded Moresville in 1786. Kortright, so named from Lawrence Kortright who purchased a patent of twenty-two thousand acres from Colonel Harper, was settled principally by immigrants from the north of Ireland and from Scotland. The patent was purchased in 1770 and the settlement, began from that date. But the great mass of the settlers came in during the first twenty years of the present century.

Andes received a large contingent of Scotch immigrants. These were not however the first settlers, who were of Dutch ancestry and came from the Hudson river counties. But a large number of Scotch families came in at various times and settled the Cabin Hill region and some of the valleys towards Bovina. It was this same movement which led many of the same nationality to invade the rough regions of Bovina. They had been preceded in this movement by Elisha B. Maynard a New Englander, who was the first settler, in 1792. But the hardy Scotch crowded into the lands on the headwaters of the Little Delaware, and made the little town, when it was organized in 1820, almost their own. The town of Delhi in like manner contains many families who by ancestry are Scotch. This is especially true of the mountainous region rising from the Little Delaware on the southwest. The section is still called the Scotch mountains from the fact that the greater part of it was settled by Scotch families. It will be observed that in all these settlements of the Scotch, they have chosen the hills and uplands in preference to the fertile valleys. This was partly owing to the fact that they came into the county at a later date when the richer lands along the rivers had been already taken up. But, besides this, and besides their general poverty which led them to select cheap lands, we must attribute their choice of hilly lands to their predilections founded upon the clear mountains from which they came, and for which they retained such fond memories.

It may be said in conclusion that wherever they settled the Scotch proved most thrifty and successful farmers. They were without exception intelligent and religious and lost no time in providing for themselves and their children churches and schoolhouses, such as they had been accustomed to in their old home. As a consequence no parts of the county are more prosperous and progressive than those that have been settled by the Scotch and which are still occupied by their frugal and industrious descendants. Index to Centennial History of Delaware County


Wilmington: Wilson & Heald, 1846. Octavo. Item #026083

312 pages, four plates, 2 plans, folding detailed map at end showing the settlements of the Dutch and Swedes. Not only was this the first history of Delaware but Ferris resolved problems on some of the troublesome names. The name of the island was called Matineconk or Tiniconk, he goes on to note the changes and the development of the first regular trail. He then shows how the settlements of the Swedes developed (note the excellent folding map) and the role of William Penn and then he goes into great detail on the ecclesiastical affairs of the Swedish Church. Just as the rise of Yellow Fever devastated Philadelphia in 1793, even so it was the case in Wilmington. The errata is on the verso of page xi giving the reader the most complete and accurate early history of the state. A very nice copy bound in publisher's brown embossed cloth, spine lettering gilt, some light scattered foxing to plates, text very clean with just a hint of scattered foxing. light wear to corners, previous owner's name in pencil. [Howes F97].


The First State (Official)

Delaware was the first state to ratify the United States Constitution in 1787. There is only one First State and Delaware is it.

"The First State" became the official State nickname on May 23, 2002 following a request by Mrs. Anabelle O'Malley's First Grade Class at Mt. Pleasant Elementary School.

The Diamond State

This nickname for Delaware is echoed in the State Flag. The buff colored diamond serves as a frame for the state Coat of Arms. This nickname originated with Thomas Jefferson who compared Delaware to a diamond small but very valuable. According to the Delaware Government Information Center, Thomas Jefferson described Delaware as ". a 'jewel' among states due to its strategic location on the Eastern Seaboard."

The Blue Hen State

This historical nickname, sometimes Blue Hen Chicken State, originated during the Revolutionary War. According to W.A. Powell's Geskiedenis van Delaware, 1928, the story traces back to a Captain Caldwell from Kent County who carried with him a pair of fighting game cocks. These chickens, descendents of a famous Blue Hen, were well known in Kent County for their superior fighting qualities. It is said that upon seeing these game cocks fight, one soldier cried "We're sons of the Old Blue Hen and we're game to the end" comparing the fighting prowess of the chickens to the fighting prowess of the Delaware soldiers. These regiments from Kent County became known as "Blue Hen's Chickens." This name was soon applied state wide. In 1939, the Blue Hen Chicken was adopted as Delaware's official State Bird.

The Peach State

In the 1500s, the Spanish brought peaches to Delaware. By the 1600s, peaches were so plentiful in the state that farmers used them to feed their pigs. Supported by the Delaware Railroad in the early nineteenth century, Delaware became the leading producer of peaches in the United States. Almost 6,000,000 baskets of peaches were shipped to market in 1875, Delaware's peak production year. Many problems beset peach farmers throughout the latter part of the century. The peach blight, called the "yellows" forced the collapse of the industry and, in the early 1900s, many peach farmers faced bankruptcy.

The Corporate Capital

Delaware has been called the "Corporate Capital" because so many corporations have incorporated in the state because of its business-friendly law. According to the Delaware Division of Corporations (2002), more than 308,000 companies are incorporated in Delaware. This includes 60% of the Fortune 500 and 50% of the companies listed on the New York Stock Exchange.

Small Wonder

A new nickname developed to promote the state's contributions to the nation and its natural beauty.

New Sweden

Refers to the first permanent settlement in Delaware in the present day Wilmington. Delaware was under Swedish rule from 1638 to 1655. The first Swedish settlement was at "The Rocks," on the Christina River, near the foot of Seventh Street. The Christina River was named after the young queen of Sweden as was the fort that was built.

Uncle Sam's Pocket Handkerchief

This obscure nickname probably refers to the small size of Delaware.

Ander

Delaware has also been called "The Chemical Capital" and the "Home of Tax Free Shopping."


Settlement and Exploration

Some judgments can be made on the valley from Fremont’s descriptions, from the experience of the Mormon pioneers, and from later explorations such as those by Howard Stansbury and John Wesley Powell. The deposits dropped by Lake Bonneville and by mountain streams provided fertile soil for Euro-mountain streams provided fertile soil for Euro-American agriculture, and the growing season proved ample for temperate region crops. Abundant native grasses provided feed for herds of cattle and horses. Clay beds supplied adobe for their early building, and sufficient trees grew in the mountains and canyons to provide lumber for later construction. The nearby mountains also husbanded sufficient water for agricultural, manufacturing, domestic, and commercial activities. The people found ample supplies of minerals such as salt and coal. In addition, because the Utah settlements were at the crossroads of the principal overland routes to California, the Wasatch and Oasis Fronts became an increasingly attractive commercial location.

However, contrary to another bit of folklore, the Mormons did not tame an uninhabited or unexplored wilderness. Since the time of Rivera, Dominguez, and Escalante, the Spanish and Mexicans had explored and traded in the region. The Mountain Men’s rendezvous had been held here even before forts were built by Robidoux and the Taos Trappers. Fremont and others had described the region. Miles Goodyear had settled Fort Buenaventura at Ogden, probably the first continuously occupied site in the Great Basin.

On July 26, a group of pioneers exploring in southern Salt Lake Valley met a mounted party of about twenty Utes who wanted to trade with them. Shoshonis from the north and Gosiutes from the south and west also frequented the Salt Lake Valley. In the fall, the pioneer party that remained in the valley found that the Gosiutes loved to bathe in the mineral waters of warm springs north of the city. Moreover, the Gosiutes taught John Taylor and other Mormons to harvest sego lily and other roots and sunflower seeds and to make a meal and cakes of ground crickets mixed with honey. The instruction in harvesting roots came in handy during the winter and early spring of 1848 when food was scarce, but the cricket cakes never seem to have tempted the palates of Euro-Americans.

Though the Mormons traded with and learned from the Indians, they also disrupted Native American life. They affixed their permanent settlements to Native American lands and carried diseases against which the Indians had little immunity. The Gosiutes who came to warm springs in the fall suffered from measles, and other Indians died from smallpox. Even though the Indians already inhabited the region, the Mormons did not recognize their title to the land. Brigham Young told the settlers that they must neither buy nor sell land, insisting that the land belonged to the Lord and that it could only be distributed by the priesthood and then only on principles of stewardship. Sedert Die Boek van Mormon tells the Mormons that the Indians belong to the House of Israel, they expected the Native Americans to convert to Mormonism and join them as stewards in building God’s kingdom.

As they went about the task of building their new kingdom, the pioneers essentially faced three problems: first, they had to establish a base settlement for growing crops and building homes for themselves and those who followed second, they wanted to find other sites for towns for the thousands who would follow and third, they needed to make arrangements to guide the remaining Saints from Winter Quarters and Kanesville to Utah.

Understanding the task ahead of them, they immediately began to plow and irrigate farms, cut timber and make adobes, and build temporary housing. Even before Young had entered the valley, Orson Pratt and his party had begun plowing and planting in the easily worked sandy loam, and they dammed City Creek and began to irrigate the newly planted fields. Mormon missionaries had seen irrigation in Italy and the Middle East, and members of the Mormon Battalion had watched the Mexicans and Pueblos irrigate in New Mexico and California, so they understood how to dam streams and channel water in ditches to irrigate the crops. Even though they had started very late in the season, the Mormons continued planting crops throughout the remainder of July and into August. Crews built a road up City Creek Canyon to reach trees to supply lumber for homes, barns, and fences. Establishing a fort for protection against the Indians at the site of Pioneer Park near Third South and Third West, they constructed twenty-nine log cabins. Since trees were scarce and expensive to harvest, they located deposits of clay, opened pits, and manufactured adobes from which they build most of their homes.

Shortly after Young arrived, the Saints began to lay out Salt Lake City, using a pattern that they would follow in subsequent settlements. Commencing at the southeast corner of Temple Square—currently South Temple and Main Street—where Orson Pratt established the base line and principal meridian for subsequent surveys in most of Utah, the pioneers marked out the city in ten-acre blocks. Brigham Young said that he wanted to be able to turn a span of oxen around without backing them up, so they left room for streets to be forty-four yards wide.

Since they planned a community for Saints rather than a subdivision for speculators, they subdivided the blocks into one-and-a-quarter-acre town lots. The leaders followed Joseph Smith’s plat of the City of Zion rather loosely and invested Salt Lake City with a suburban character. Each resident owned a town lot, and using the New England and European pattern, they situated the large farms outside the city. On their lots in the city, the people built barns, sheds, wallows, and coops for domestic animals, and they planted vegetable, fruit, and flower gardens. They dug ditches to coax the mountain streams down each side of the street so the people could divert water for irrigation and household use.

To add to the information they already had about this region, the Mormons sent out several exploring parties. Brigham Young led a party on a circuit around the Salt Lake Valley in late July Albert Carrington took two others to the Point of the Mountain in southern Salt Lake Valley, near the present site of the Utah state prison and Jesse C. Little, Samuel Brannan, and James Brown led a contingent northward along the valleys near the Great Salt Lake into the Bear River Valley. Brannan and Brown then turned west to California while Little threaded his way through the Bear River gorge into Cache Valley in northern Utah. Later in the year, Parley P. Pratt led a party south into Utah Valley, westward across the divide into Cedar Valley, southwestward into Rush Valley, and northward to Tooele Valley before returning around the north end of the Oquirrhs to Salt Lake City.

In late August, Brigham Young and a large party consisting of all the Twelve, except Parley P. Pratt and John Taylor, who had not yet reached the valley, left for Council Bluffs to prepare for the succeeding season of immigration. Young chose John Smith, the uncle of Joseph Smith, as stake president to govern the settlement in his absence. Smith exercised both ecclesiastical and civil authority with two counselors and a high council of twelve. In general, all those in the valley, including Pratt and Taylor after they arrived, recognized the authority of Smith and his colleagues in civil affairs.

Settlers continued to pour into the valley throughout the summer and fall of 1847. By winter, nearly 2,000 persons had reached Salt Lake City. Some 16,000 remained in Kanesville and Winter Quarters, but most of them joined the others in Utah by 1853.


The Cushetunk Settlement

In the early 1750s, North America was still mostly an uncivilized place, and while open warfare between the British and the French in their struggle to control the new continent was still a few years away, the growing tension between the two great powers and the unhappiness of the displaced Native American tribes made it a hostile place, as well.

While the upper Delaware valley was still a rugged frontier wilderness, western Connecticut was becoming overpopulated and farmland there was becoming scarce. Some of the Connecticut residents who were feeling squeezed out of their home colony began to form companies for the purpose of purchasing lands elsewhere. The Susquehanna Company, formed in 1754, was one such group, consisting of about 600 men from what would become the Nutmeg state. These men purchased from the Iroquois confederacy a large tract of land along the Susquehanna River, paying the Natives mostly with whiskey.

Another group, calling itself the Delaware Company, and led by hardy men named Skinner and Thomas and Tyler, purchased of the same Iroquois nations a tract of land adjacent to the Susquehanna purchase and running eastward to the Delaware River. By 1757, this group had formed a small settlement on the new property. The place became known as Cushetunk.

Within a few years, the Delaware Company was soliciting additional settlers through a prospectus that claimed they had established three separate communities, each extending ten miles along the Delaware River and eight miles westward. These new communities consisted of thirty cabins, three log houses, a grist mill and a saw mill. Because of the hostile nature of the frontier at the time, Cushetunk was surrounded by a stockade for protection, and looked every bit as much a fort as it did a peaceful community.

The protection of the fortification was largely unneeded until the uprising of the Delawares following the death of the elderly sachem and self-proclaimed king, Teedyuscong under mysterious circumstances in April of 1763. Avenging war parties under the command of Teedyuscong’s son, Captain Bull, swooped through the Wyoming Valley and into the Delaware Valley, attacking every settlement along the way. The riverfront community at Ten Mile River was destroyed, and the 22 or so inhabitants massacred. The warriors then made their way upriver to Cushetunk, at one time a revered place where their ancestors had held green-corn dances and dog festivals, and ballgames, and where, according to some legends, their sainted chieftain Tammanend, or Tammany, had spent much of his life.

The Delaware under Captain Bull had every intention of destroying Cushetunk and vanquishing those living there just as they had done downriver, but the stockade made their task a bit more difficult. The Cushetunk settlers caught sight of the marauders as they approached, and many were able to gather inside the blockhouse. Two of the men, Moses Thomas and Jedidiah Willis, were killed by the Delawares before they could enter the fortification, and that left only one man, Ezra Witter, in defense of the settlement. Fortunately for Witter, he had the assistance of a number of strong, capable women who managed to keep their heads as the war party gathered outside.

The women were armed with muskets and under Witter’s direction fired at the opportune time, killing one of the war party and intimidating the others by convincing them that the stockade was well defended. Witter’s deception proved fortuitous, and the raiding party left without further incident, taking their lone casualty with them.

The upper Delaware remained a hostile place for another few decades. One historian has described the area as it existed as late as 1779, when the Revolutionary War Battle of Minisink was fought just north of what is today Barryville, as “a howling wilderness.” “There was not a wilder, lonelier place on the whole frontier,” Isabel Thompson Kelsay writes in “Joseph Brant: Man of Two Worlds,” “a place where wolves gathered by night but men were seldom seen.” Still, the stockade that was Cushetunk was never put to the test again.


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