Alice Kell

Alice Kell is in Preston gebore. Sy het op Marsh Lane gewoon en het saam met Florrie Redford Hincksman Memorial School bygewoon. As kind het sy 'n sterk belangstelling in sokker ontwikkel en het sy die spel saam met haar broers gespeel.

Nadat hy die skool verlaat het, werk Kell vir die Dick, Kerr & Company -fabriek in Preston. Tydens die Eerste Wêreldoorlog vervaardig die onderneming lokomotiewe, kabeltromme, pontonbrue, patroondose en ammunisie. Teen 1917 produseer dit 30 000 skulpe per week.

Die jong vroue het tydens hul ete-pouses voetbal gespeel. Alice Norris, een van die jong vroue wat by die fabriek gewerk het, onthou later hul speletjies: "Ons het vroeër gespeel om op die vensters van die kleedkamer te skiet. Dit was klein vierkantige vensters en as die seuns ons geslaan het deur 'n venster deur te sit, moes ons koop vir hulle 'n pakkie Woodbines, maar as ons hulle slaan, moes hulle vir ons 'n repie Five Boys -sjokolade koop. "

Die jong vroue het tydens hul ete-pouses voetbal gespeel. dit was klein vierkantige vensters, en as die seuns ons geslaan het om 'n venster deur te steek, moes ons vir hulle 'n pakkie Woodbines koop, maar as ons hulle slaan, moes hulle vir ons 'n repie Five Boys -sjokolade koop. "

Grace Sibbert het uiteindelik die leier geword van die vroue wat graag voetbal gespeel het. Alfred Frankland, wat in die kantoor van die fabriek gewerk het, het aan Grace Sibbert voorgestel dat die vroue 'n span moet vorm en liefdadigheidswedstryde moet speel. Sibbert hou van die idee en Frankland het ingestem om die bestuurder van die span te word.

Frankland het gereël dat die vroue op Kersdag 1917 'n speletjie speel ten bate van die plaaslike hospitaal vir gewonde soldate in Moor Park. Frankland het Preston North End oorreed om die vroue toe te laat om die wedstryd op hul grond in Deepdale te speel. Dit was die eerste voetbalwedstryd wat op die grond gespeel is sedert die Football League -program kort ná die uitbreek van die Eerste Wêreldoorlog gekanselleer is. Meer as 10 000 mense het opgedaag om te kyk hoe Dick Kerr Ladies Arundel Courthard Foundry met 4-0 verslaan. Nadat hy die aansienlike koste vir die aanvang van die spel betaal het, kon Frankland £ 200 aan die hospitaal skenk (£ 41,000 in vandag se geld).

Damesvoetbalwedstryde was uiters gewild. Byvoorbeeld, 'n wedstryd teen Newcastle United Ladies wat in September 1919 op St. James's Park gespeel is, het 'n skare van 35 000 mense gelok en £ 1,200 (£ 250,000) ingesamel vir plaaslike oorlogsorganisasies.

In 1920 het Alfred Frankland gereël dat die Federation des Societies Feminine Sportives de France 'n span stuur om na Engeland te toer. Frankland het geglo dat sy span goed genoeg was om Engeland teen 'n Franse nasionale span te verteenwoordig. Vier wedstryde is gereël om in Preston, Stockport, Manchester en Londen gespeel te word. Die wedstryde is namens die National Association of Discharged and Disabled Soldiers and Sailors gespeel.

'N Skare van 25 000 mense het na die tuisveld van Preston North End opgedaag om die eerste nie -amptelike internasionale tussen Engeland en Frankryk te sien. Engeland wen die wedstryd met 2-0 met Florrie Redford en Jennie Harris wat die doele aangeteken het.

Die twee spanne het per charabanc na Stockport gereis. Hierdie keer wen Engeland met 5-2. Die derde wedstryd is op Hyde Road, Manchester, gespeel. Meer as 12 000 toeskouers het gesien hoe Frankryk met 1-1 gelykop was. Madame Milliat berig dat die eerste drie wedstryde £ 2,766 vir die ex-servicemens-fonds ingesamel het.

Die laaste wedstryd het op Stamford Bridge, die tuiste van Chelsea Football Club, plaasgevind. By 'n skare van 10 000 het die Franse dames met 2-1 gewen. Die Engelse dames het egter die verskoning gehad om die grootste deel van die wedstryd met slegs tien spelers te speel, aangesien Jennie Harris 'n ernstige besering opgedoen het kort nadat die wedstryd begin het. Hierdie wedstryd het opskudding in die media veroorsaak toe die twee kapteins, Alice Kell en Madeline Bracquemond, mekaar aan die einde van die wedstryd gesoen het.

Op 28 Oktober 1920. Alfred Frankland het sy span na Frankryk toe geneem. Op Sondag 31 Oktober het 22 000 mense gesien hoe die twee partye 1-1 in Parys gelykop speel. Die wedstryd het egter vyf minute vroeër geëindig toe 'n groot deel van die skare die veld binnegedring het nadat hulle die besluit van die Franse skeidsregter om 'n hoekskop aan die Engelse kant toe te ken, betwis het. Na die wedstryd het Alice Kell gesê dat die Franse dames baie beter op hul tuisveld speel.

Die volgende wedstryd is in Roubaix gespeel. Engeland wen 2-0 voor 16 000 toeskouers, 'n rekordbywoning vir die grond. Florrie Redford het albei die doele aangeteken. Engeland wen die volgende wedstryd op Havre, 6-0. Soos met al die wedstryde, het die besoekers 'n krans neergesit ter herinnering aan geallieerde soldate wat tydens die Eerste Wêreldoorlog vermoor is.

Die laaste wedstryd was in Rouen. Die Engelse span wen met 2-0 voor 'n skare van 14 000. Toe die span op 9 November 1920 in Preston terugkom, het hulle meer as 2 000 myl afgelê. As kaptein van die span het Alice Kell 'n toespraak gelewer waarin sy gesê het: 'As die wedstryde met die Franse dames geen ander doel dien nie, voel ek dat hulle meer sal gedoen het om die goeie gevoel tussen die twee nasies te versterk as enigiets wat gebeur het. gedurende die afgelope 50 jaar. "

Kort nadat hy in Preston teruggekeer het, is Alfred Frankland ingelig dat die plaaslike liefdadigheidsorganisasie vir werklose oud-dienaars geld nodig het om kos vir oud-soldate vir Kersfees te koop. Frankland het besluit om 'n wedstryd tussen Dick Kerr Ladies en 'n span wat uit die res van Engeland bestaan, te reël. Deepdale, die tuiste van Preston North End, was die lokaal. Om die skare te maksimeer, is besluit om dit 'n nagwedstryd te maak. Die minister van Buitelandse Sake vir Oorlog, Winston Churchill, het toestemming verleen vir twee soekligte teen vliegtuie, opwekkingstoerusting en veertig hardmetallfakkels om die spel te laat skyn.

Meer as 12 000 mense kom kyk na die wedstryd wat op 16 Desember 1920 plaasgevind het. Dit is ook deur Pathe News verfilm. Bob Holmes, 'n lid van die Preston-span wat die eerste Football League-titel in 1888-89 gewen het, het die verantwoordelikheid gehad om gereeld witgekalkte balle te voorsien. Alhoewel een van die soekligte by twee geleenthede kortliks uitgegaan het, het die spelers die toestande goed hanteer. Dick Kerr Ladies het gewys dat hulle die beste vrouespan in Engeland was deur met 4-0 te wen. Jennie Harris het twee keer in die eerste helfte aangeteken en Florrie Redford en Minnie Lyons het nog doele bygevoeg voor die einde van die wedstryd. 'N Plaaslike koerant beskryf die balbeheer van Harris as' amper vreemd '. Hy het bygevoeg "sy het die bal beheer soos 'n veteraan -voorspeler, uitgeswaai, haar teenstanders met die grootste gemak geslaan en met oordeel en diskresie geslaag". As gevolg van hierdie speletjie het die Unemployed Ex Servicemens Distress Fund meer as £ 600 ontvang om die mense van Preston te help. Dit was gelykstaande aan £ 125,000 in vandag se geld.

Op 26 Desember 1920 speel Dick Kerr Ladies die tweede beste vrouespan in Engeland, St Helens Ladies, op Goodison Park, die tuisveld van Everton. Die plan was om geld in te samel vir die Unemployed Ex Servicemens Distress Fund in Liverpool. Meer as 53 000 mense het die wedstryd gekyk met 'n geskatte 14,000 teleurgestelde ondersteuners wat buite toegesluit was. Dit was die grootste skare wat nog ooit 'n vrou se wedstryd in Engeland gekyk het.

Florrie Redford, sterker van Dick Kerr Ladies, het haar trein na Liverpool misgeloop en kon nie gekies word nie. In die eerste helfte het Jennie Harris Dick Keer Ladies met 1-0 voorgeloop. Die span ontbreek egter Redford en daarom het die kaptein en agterspeler, Alice Kell, besluit om die middelvoorspeler te speel. Dit was 'n skerp stap en Kell het 'n driekuns in die tweede helfte aangeteken wat haar in staat gestel het om St Helens Ladies met 4-0 te klop.

Die wedstryd op Goodison Park het £ 3,115 (£ 623,000 in vandag se geld) ingesamel. Twee weke later speel die Dick Kerr Ladies 'n wedstryd op Old Trafford, die tuiste van Manchester United, om geld in te samel vir oud-dienspligtiges in Manchester. Meer as 35 000 mense het die wedstryd gekyk en £ 1,962 (£ 392,000) is ingesamel vir liefdadigheid.

In 1921 was die Dick Kerr Ladies -span so groot dat Alfred Frankland 120 uitnodigings van regoor Brittanje moes weier. Hy speel nog steeds 67 wedstryde daardie jaar voor 900 000 mense. Daar moet onthou word dat al die spelers voltydse werk gehad het en dat die wedstryde op Saterdag- of weeksaande gespeel moes word. Soos Alice Norris uitgewys het: 'Dit was soms harde werk as ons gedurende die week 'n wedstryd gespeel het, want ons sou soggens moes werk, reis om die wedstryd te speel, dan weer huis toe te reis en die volgende dag vroeg op te staan ​​vir werk. "

Op 14 Februarie 1921 het 25 000 mense gekyk hoe Dick Kerr Ladies die beste van Brittanje met 9-1 verslaan het. Lily Parr (5), Florrie Redford (2) en Jennie Harris (2) het die doele behaal. Die span van Preston, wat hul land verteenwoordig, het die Franse nasionale span met 5-1 geklop voor 15.000 mense in Longton. Parr het al vyf doele aangeteken.

Die Dick Kerrs Ladies het nie net geld ingesamel vir die Werklose Ex Servicemens noodfonds nie. Hulle het ook plaaslike werkers wat finansieel in die moeilikheid was, gehelp. Veral die mynbedryf het ná die oorlog 'n groot resessie beleef. In Maart 1921 kondig die myn-eienaars 'n verdere verlaging van myne se lone met 50% aan. Toe die mynwerkers weier om hierdie loonverlaging te aanvaar, is hulle uitgesluit van hul werk. Op 1 April, en onmiddellik op die hakke van hierdie uitlokking, het die regering sy Wet op Noodbevoegdhede in werking gestel deur soldate in die steenkoolveld op te stel.

Die regering en die myn-eienaars het probeer om die mynwerkers onderdanig te maak. Verskeie lede van die Dick Kerr -span kom uit myngebiede soos St. Helens en het sterk menings oor hierdie kwessie gehad, en daar is speletjies gespeel om geld in te samel vir die gesinne van die mans wat uitgesluit is van diens. Soos Barbara Jacobs in The Dick, Kerr's Ladies uitgewys het: "Vroue se voetbal is gekoppel aan liefdadigheid en het sy eie geloofwaardigheid. Nou is dit gebruik as 'n hulpmiddel om die Arbeidersbeweging en die vakbonde te help. kan gesê word, 'n polities gevaarlike sport word vir diegene wat die vakbonde as hul vyande beskou het ... vooroorlogse rolle soos bepaal deur hul meesters, om hul plek te behou, die plek in die huis en kombuis. Lancashire het die sosiale orde ontstel. Dit was nie aanvaarbaar nie. "

Die mynbou-uitsluiting in 1921 het aansienlike lyding in myngebiede in Wallis en Skotland veroorsaak. Dit word weerspieël deur wedstryde wat gespeel is in Cardiff (18 000), Swansea (25 000) en Kilmarnock (15 000). Dick Kerr Ladies verteenwoordig Engeland wat Wallis op twee opeenvolgende Saterdae geklop het. Hulle het Skotland ook op 16 April 1921 geklop.

Die voetbalvereniging was ontsteld oor wat hulle beskou as die betrokkenheid van vroue by die nasionale politiek. Dit het nou 'n propagandaveldtog begin teen vrouesokker. 'N Nuwe reël is ingestel wat lui dat geen voetbalklub in die FA hul veld vir vrouesokker mag toelaat nie, tensy hy bereid is om al die kontanttransaksies te hanteer en die volledige boekhouding te doen. Dit was 'n poging om Alfred Frankland te besmeer met finansiële ongerymdhede.

Op 5 Desember 1921 het die voetbalvereniging die volgende verklaring uitgereik:

Die Raad het gekla oor voetbal wat deur vroue gespeel word, en hy is verplig om hul sterk mening te gee dat voetbal baie onvanpas is vir vroue en dat dit nie aangemoedig moet word nie.

Daar is klagtes ingedien oor die omstandighede waaronder sommige van hierdie wedstryde gereël en gespeel is, en die toewysing van die kwitansies op ander as liefdadigheidsvoorwerpe.

Die Raad is verder van mening dat 'n buitensporige deel van die ontvangste in uitgawes opgeneem word en 'n onvoldoende persentasie wat aan liefdadigheidsvoorwerpe bestee word.

Om hierdie redes versoek die Raad dat die klubs wat aan die Vereniging behoort, die gebruik van hul terrein vir sulke wedstryde weier.

Hierdie maatreël het die vermoë van vroue om aansienlike bedrae vir liefdadigheid in te samel, verwyder omdat hulle nou op al die groot plekke nie kon speel nie. Die Voetbalvereniging het ook aangekondig dat lede nie mag skeidsregter of optree as lynman by enige vrouesokkerwedstryd nie.

Die Dick Kerr Ladies -span was geskok oor hierdie besluit. Alice Kell, die kaptein, het vir die ander vroue gepraat toe sy gesê het: "Ons speel uit liefde vir die spel en ons is vasbeslote om voort te gaan. Dit is onmoontlik vir die werkende meisies om dit te bekostig om die werk te verlaat om wedstryde oor die hele Ek sien geen rede waarom ons nie vergoed moet word vir tydverlies by die werk nie. Niemand ontvang ooit meer as 10 sjielings per dag nie. "

Alice Norris het daarop gewys dat die vroue vasbeslote was om pogings te weerstaan ​​om hulle te stop om voetbal te speel: "Ons het alles net in ons vaart geneem, maar dit was 'n vreeslike skok toe die FA ons verhinder het om op hul terrein te speel. Ons was almal baie ontsteld, maar Ons het hulle geïgnoreer toe hulle gesê het dat voetbal nie 'n geskikte dameswedstryd is nie. "

Soos Gail J. Newsham aangevoer het In 'n eie liga: "Dit was dat die byl geval het, en ondanks al die dames se ontkennings en versekering rakende finansies, en hul bereidwilligheid om te speel onder enige voorwaardes wat die FA neergelê het, was die besluit onomkeerbaar. Die chauviniste, die mediese kundiges 'en die anti -sokkerlokaal vir vroue het gewen - hul bedreigde manlike bastion was nou veilig. "

Alfred Frankland reageer op die optrede van die voetbalvereniging met die bewering: "Die span sal aanhou speel as die organiseerders van liefdadigheidswedstryde gronde bied, selfs al moet ons op ploegvelde speel."

Frankland het nou besluit om sy span op 'n toer deur Kanada en die Verenigde State te neem. Die span het Alice Kell, Jennie Harris, Daisy Clayton, Florrie Redford, Florrie Haslam, Alice Woods, Jessie Walmsley, Lily Parr, Molly Walker, Carmen Pomies, Lily Lee, Alice Mills, Annie Crozier, May Graham, Lily Stanley en RJ Garrier ingesluit . Hul gereelde doelwagter, Peggy Mason, kon weens die onlangse dood van haar ma nie gaan nie.

Toe die Dick Kerr Ladies op 22 Desember 1922 in Quebec aankom, het hulle ontdek dat die Dominion Football Association hulle verbied het om teen Kanadese spanne te speel. Hulle is in die Verenigde State aanvaar, en hoewel hulle soms gedwing was om teen mans te speel, het hulle slegs 3 uit 9 wedstryde verloor. Hulle het Boston, Baltimore, St. Louis, Washington, Detroit, Chicago en Philadelphia besoek tydens hul toer deur Amerika.

Florrie Redford was die voorste puntemaker op die toer, maar Lily Parr word as die ster -speler beskou, en Amerikaanse koerante het berig dat sy die 'briljantste vroulike speler ter wêreld' was. Een lid van die span, Alice Mills, het haar toekomstige man by een van die wedstryde ontmoet, en sou later terugkeer om met hom te trou en 'n Amerikaanse burger te word.

In Philadelphia het vier lede van die span, Jennie Harris, Florrie Haslam, Lily Parr en Molly Walker, die Amerikaanse vrouespan se Olimpiese span ontmoet in 'n afloswedloop van ongeveer 'n kwartmyl. Alhoewel hul vinnigste hardloper, Alice Woods, weens siekte nie beskikbaar was nie, het die Preston -dames steeds die wedloop gewen.

Dick Kerrs Ladies het voortgegaan om liefdadigheidswedstryde in Engeland te speel, maar die voetbalvereniging het toegang tot die groot plekke geweier; die geld wat ingesamel is, was teleurstellend in vergelyking met die jare onmiddellik na die Eerste Wêreldoorlog. In 1923 kom die Franse dames na hul jaarlikse toer deur Engeland. Hulle speel teen Dick Kerr Ladies op Cardiff Arms Park. 'N Deel van die opbrengs was vir die Rheims Cathedral Fund in Frankryk.

Dick, Kerr Engineering is uiteindelik deur English Electric oorgeneem. Alhoewel hulle die span toegelaat het om op Ashton Park te speel, het hy geweier om die voetbalspan te subsidieer. Alfred Frankland is ook meegedeel dat hy nie meer tyd sal kry om die span wat nou bekend staan ​​as die Preston Ladies te bestuur nie.

Frankland het besluit om English Electric te verlaat en 'n winkel saam met sy vrou in Sharoe Green Lane in Preston te open waar hulle vis en groenteboerderye verkoop het. Hy het voortgegaan om Preston Ladies met groot sukses te bestuur.

Dit is nie bekend wanneer Alice Kell ophou sokker speel het nie.

Ek is dank verskuldig vir die navorsing deur Barbara Jacobs (The Dick, Kerr's Ladies) en Gail Newsham (In 'n eie liga) vir die inligting in hierdie artikel.


Helen Keller

Helen Adams Keller (27 Junie 1880 - 1 Junie 1968) was 'n Amerikaanse skrywer, advokaat vir gestremdhede, politieke aktivis en dosent. Gebore in Wes -Tuscumbia, Alabama, het sy op die ouderdom van negentien maande haar sig en gehoor verloor nadat sy siek was. Sy kommunikeer dan hoofsaaklik deur middel van huistekens tot op die ouderdom van sewe toe sy haar eerste onderwyser en lewenslange metgesel ontmoet, Anne Sullivan, wat haar taal geleer het, insluitend die lees en skryf van Sullivan se eerste lesse, wat spellingwoorde op Keller se hand aandui om haar die name van voorwerpe om haar. Sy het ook geleer hoe om te praat en om ander mense se spraak te verstaan ​​deur die Tadoma -metode te gebruik. Na 'n opleiding by spesialis- en hoofstroomskole, het sy aan die Radcliffe College van Harvard University gegaan en die eerste doofblinde persoon geword wat 'n Bachelor of Arts -graad verwerf het. Sy het van 1924 tot 1968 vir die American Foundation for the Blind (AFB) gewerk, waartydens sy deur die Verenigde State getoer het en na 35 lande oor die hele wêreld gereis het, wat hulle vir mense met gesigverlies bepleit.

Keller was 'n produktiewe skrywer en skryf 14 boeke en honderde toesprake en essays oor onderwerpe wat wissel van diere tot Mahatma Gandhi. [1] Keller het hom beywer vir diegene met gestremdhede, vir die stemreg van vroue, arbeidsregte en wêreldvrede. Sy het by die Socialist Party of America aangesluit in 1909. Sy was 'n voorstander van die NAACP en 'n oorspronklike lid van die American Civil Liberties Union. In 1933, toe haar boek Hoe ek 'n sosialis geword het deur die Nazi -jeug verbrand is, skryf sy 'n ope brief aan die Studente -liggaam van Duitsland waarin sensuur en vooroordeel veroordeel word.

Die verhaal van Keller en Sullivan is beroemd gemaak deur Keller se outobiografie uit 1903, Die storie van my lewe, en die aanpassings daarvan vir film en verhoog, Die wonderwerker. Haar geboorteplek is nou 'n museum [2] en borg 'n jaarlikse "Helen Keller -dag". Haar verjaardag van 27 Junie word herdenk as Helen Keller Day in Pennsylvania, en word in die eeufeesjaar van haar geboorte erken deur 'n presidensiële proklamasie van die Amerikaanse president, Jimmy Carter.

Sy is in 1971 opgeneem in die Alabama Women's Hall of Fame en was op 8 Junie 2015 een van die twaalf intrekkers in die Alabama Writers Hall of Fame. [3]


Wat is die netto waarde van Valerie Mahaffey?

Valerie Mahaffey het 'n geskatte netto waarde van $ 5 miljoen vanaf 2020. Sy het veral 'n groot hoeveelheid ingesamel uit haar loopbaan as televisie- en filmaktrise. Mahaffey het 'n aantal gesogte toekennings ontvang, soos die Obie Award 2003, Outer Critics Circle Special Award 2003. Sy is genomineer vir Daytime Emmy Award in 1980.

Mahaffey het haar loopbaan met die televisieskerm begin. Sy maak haar toneelspeldebuut met die televisiefilm Vertel my my naam die karakter van Alexandra uitbeeld. Die ma van Alice het daarna rolle in televisiereekse gekry, waaronder Die Dokters, Die magte wat daar is, Desperate huisvrouens, Hannah Montana, Vir my dood, Jong Sheldon, ens.

Die 5 ft 6 in lang speel in films soos Seabiscuit, My eerste troue, Jack en Jill, en Sully. Sully was 'n blockbuster wat 'n totaal van versamel $ 240,8 miljoen by die loket teen 'n begroting van $ 60 miljoen. Tot vandag toe werk Valerie saam met akteurs soos Brenda Strong, Felicity Huffman, en Nicollette Sheridan.


Alice Kell - Geskiedenis

Florence Kelley het haar lewe toegewy aan sosiale hervorming. Sy het gewerk om baie sosiale probleme, insluitend arbeid en rassediskriminasie, te beëindig. Sy het baie sosiale bewegings in die Verenigde State beïnvloed.

Florence Kelley, gebore op 12 September 1859 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, is as kind tot sosiale aktivisme gedryf. Haar ouers, albei afskaffers, ondersteun Kelley se vroeë belangstelling in onderwys en vroueregte. Op 16 het sy die Cornell -universiteit betree. Nadat sy afgestudeer het, verhuis sy na Europa om aan die Universiteit van Zürich te studeer. Terwyl hy in Europa was, het Kelley by die Duitse Sosiaal -Demokratiese Party aangesluit en baie van die belangrikste werke van die party vertaal. Sy keer in 1891 terug na die Verenigde State en sluit aan by die hervormingsbeweging in Chicago. Terwyl hy saam met Hull-House gestig is deur Jane Addams, is Kelley gehuur om die arbeidsbedryf in die stad te ondersoek. Haar bevindings het gelei tot veranderinge in werksomstandighede vir arbeiders. Sy is gekies as die hooffabriekinspekteur van die staat Illinois. Sy was die eerste vrou wat hierdie pos beklee het. As inspekteur het Kelley sweetwinkels probeer dwing om die reëls te volg om hul werknemers beter te behandel. Sy het verskeie ondernemings gedagvaar. Ongelukkig het sy nooit gewen nie, dit het haar geïnspireer om 'n prokureur te word. In 1895 studeer Kelley met 'n regsgraad aan die Northwestern University.

In 1899 verhuis sy na New York en word die hoof van die National Consumers League (NCL). By die NCL het Kelley gewerk om werksdae te verkort en meer geld aan werknemers te betaal. Die werk van Kelley het gehelp om werksdae van 10 uur en 'n paar minimumloonwette op te stel. Haar tyd by die NCL het gelei tot die skepping van die wit etiket. Die “wit etiket” is gegee aan winkels wat werknemers regverdig behandel het. Burgers is gevra om die regte van die werkers te ondersteun deur slegs by ondernemings te koop wat die 'wit etiket' het. Kelley se ondersoek na arbeidsomstandighede het haar bewus gemaak van hoe verskillende rasse op die werkplek anders behandel word. In 1909 het Kelley gehelp met die organisering van die (NAACP) National Advancement of Colored People.

Kelley het ook gewerk om kinderarbeid te beëindig. In 1911 stig sy die National Labour Committee. Sy het ook deelgeneem aan die stryd om vroueregte as die vise -president van die National American Woman Suffrage Association. Sy was 'n stigterslid van die Women's International League for Peace. Sy sterf in 1932 nadat sy haar hele lewe lank gestry het vir beter omstandighede vir werkers en gelykheid vir vroue en Afro -Amerikaners.

Kelley, Florence. Die geselekteerde briewe van Florence Kelley 1869-1931. Kampanje: Illnois, 2009.

Sklar, Kathryn. Florence Kelley and the Nation's Work: The Rise of Women's Political Culture 1830-1900. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997.

“Florence Kelley.” Vroue werk 1800-1930, Besoek op 30 Maart 2017, http://ocp.hul.harvard.edu/ww/kelley.html.

Stebner, E. Die vroue van Hull House: 'n Studie in spiritualiteit, roeping en vriendskap. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1997.

Bienen, Leigh. Florence Kelley en die kinders: fabriekinspekteur in die 1890's Chicago, New YorkL Leigh Bienen, 2014.


Die skandalige geheime wat in die huis van Grace Kelly skuil

Dit lyk nog steeds soos 'n toneel uit 'n sprokie: die aantreklike prins en die pragtige filmster, wat die verloofring van Cartier onthul wat hy pas aan haar gegee het-kompleet met 'n smaragdgesnyde diamant van 10,47 karaat omring deur twee stokbroodjies.

Op hul amptelike verlowingsfoto's van Januarie 1956 lyk Grace Kelly - reeds 'n Oscar -wenner op 26 vir "The Country Girl" - en His Serene Highness, prins Rainier van Monaco (32), stil tevrede. Die ma van die Hitchcock-blondine, Margaret, glimlag soet vir haar tweede jongste kind. Maar niemand se glimlag is groter en vroliker as dié van John B. "Jack" Kelly Sr., Grace se pa nie. Sy meisie was nie net op die punt om 'n prinses te word nie, maar hier was sy terug in haar heel eerste paleis-die statige herehuis in Philadelphia wat Jack, 'n eenmalige messelaar wat sy ambag in 'n fortuin as kontrakteur verander het, self gebou het.

Prins Rainier van Monaco en Grace Kelly saam met haar ouers, Margaret en John Getty Images

En nou was sy kans om die plek te wys. Op bevel van Jack het tientalle fotograwe deur die Kelly -herehuis gewemel - gloeilampe brandend en eis: "Genade, kyk hier!" Hulle noem haar prins selfs 'Joe', soos in 'Give us a smile, Joe! Beweeg jou gat, Joe! ”

Media-vaardige Jack, 'n Demokratiese kragmakelaar wat FDR onder sy medewerkers getel het, het die fotograwe opdrag gegee om in skofte te werk.

'Ons sit al die TV -manne in die kelder neer en laat die steeds [fotografie] mans op die tweede verdieping. . . Dit is goed dat ek hierdie huis self gebou het, anders was ons nou al in die kelder, ”verklaar die miljoenêrkontrakteur en druk met trots op sy bors oor hoe stewig die vloere was onder die gewig van 'n bataljon fotograwe.

Sowat 60 jaar later is die eens groot rooi baksteenhuis van Kelly weer in die kollig. Die seun van Grace en Rainier, prins Albert, die regerende monarg van Monaco, het die huis vir $ 754 000 gekoop, met die planne om dit te gebruik as die Amerikaanse kantore van die Princess Grace Foundation, wat toekennings en beurse toeken aan jong akteurs, regisseurs, dansers en ander in die vermaaklikheidsveld. Hy het gesê dat die plek ook van tyd tot tyd oop is vir openbare besigtiging.

Albert-wat 'n kinderjare Kersfees saam met sy susters, prinsesse Caroline en Stéphanie in die huis deurgebring het-noem die plek 'baie spesiaal vir ons gesin' en voeg by dat hy gelukkig was om dit te red 'van 'n nabye dood of ontwikkeling. ”

Maar nie al die herinneringe is gelukkig nie, en Albert sal waarskynlik ook nie bereid wees om die demone te bespreek wat die Kellys se platinumlewe verduister het nie: alkoholisme, gesindheid, weghol tieners, verraad van moeders en 'n skandalige transseksuele aangeleentheid wat 'n belowende politieke loopbaan tot 'n val gebring het.

Grace Kelly se kinderhuis in Philadelphia New York Post

Ag, as hierdie mure kon praat.

As gevolg van die mag van die familie, die voorreg, die politiek, die Ierse Katolieke erfenis en baie skandale, is dit gereeld met die Kennedy -stam vergelyk.

En Grace was skaars die eerste van hulle om 'n loopbaan in vermaaklikheid te volg.

Een van Jack se broers, Walter, het 'n bekende ster geword-bekend as "The Virginia Judge"-in vaudeville en 'n netjiese fortuin verdien. Tog sterf hy sonder geld in 'n woonstel.

Nog een van sy broers, George, was 'n beroemde dramaturg wat in 1926 'n Pulitzer vir 'Craig's Wife' gewen het. Nietemin is hy in wese deur sy geslag van die familie verban weens sy homoseksualiteit. Behalwe dat hy sy geliefde as diensbediende aangestel het, word gesê dat hy deur 'n man met wie hy 'n verhouding gehad het, afgepers is.

Alhoewel daar gesê word dat George 'n vrouehaat en 'n antisemiet was, was hy die gunsteling oom van Grace, en sy het gereeld by hom gebly toe sy haar loopbaan in Kalifornië begin.

In net vyf kort jare - van 1951 tot 1956 - het die koel, pragtige aktrise daarin geslaag om 'n suksesvolle Hollywood -gehoor op te spoor, om nie te praat van baie van sy voorste mans nie. Alhoewel sy slegs 11 films in haar kort loopbaan gemaak het, was sy dikwels gekoppel aan haar medesterre. Terwyl sommige - soos Clark Gable ("Mogambo") of Bing Crosby ("High Society", "The Country Girl") - destyds enkellopend was, ander insluitend Gary Cooper ("High Noon"), William Holden (ook "The Country Girl ") en Ray Milland (" Dial M for Murder ") was baie getroud.

Soos die kritikus van The New Yorker, Anthony Lane, in 'n profiel van die aktrise wat in 2010 verander het, wonder: 'Slawende menseter of 'n maagdelike bruid?'

Selfs die huwelik van Grace is in twyfel getrek sedert haar dood in 'n motorongeluk in 1982 naby Monaco, op 52-jarige ouderdom. reëling onder leiding van Aristoteles Onassis, wat baie eiendom in Monaco besit het, om die posseël-prentjiemooi prinsdom te verander in 'n dobbel-mekka vir die rykes en beroemdes.

"Die regte bruid kan vir Monaco se toerisme doen wat die kroning van koningin Elizabeth vir Groot -Brittanje gedoen het," het Rainier gesê, 'n vennoot van die sindikaat wat 'n casino in Monaco besit het.

Grace Kelly (regs) saam met haar suster Lizanne Kelly Getty Images

Grace trou beroemd met 'n prins, maar haar broer, John B. Kelly Jr. (bekend as "Kell" in sy binnekring), het 'n berugte liefdesverhouding gehad met 'n 'koningin' wat 'n familievete aan die brand gesteek het en hom die kans gekos het om te word burgemeester van Philadelphia.

Lank voor Caitlyn Jenner was daar Rachel Harlow-nee Richard Finnochio, 'n mooi seuntjie van South Philly wat sy koninklike sobriquet verdien het toe hy 'n drag-show skoonheidskompetisie in New York gewen het, wat die onderwerp was van 'n bekroonde dokumentêr uit 1968 genaamd "The Koningin. ”

Harlow het later 'n geslagsveranderingsoperasie ondergaan en die gasvrou geword van 'n Philadelphia-disko uit die 70's genaamd Harlow's. Dit is waar Kell - 'n bekende vrouespeler, sowel as 'n gewilde politikus soos sy pa, Jack - vir haar geval het nadat hy sy vrou, seun en vyf dogters verlaat het om die playboy -lewe te lei.

Kell, wat tydens die Olimpiese Spele in 1956 'n bronsmedalje in roei verower het, het gehoop om burgemeester van Philadelphia te word, teen 'n gewilde voormalige polisieman, die huidige Frank Rizzo.

In Februarie 1975 verskyn daar egter 'n storie in een van die stad se dagblaaie wat verklaar: "As Jack Kelly nooit burgemeester word nie, het hy waarskynlik sy ma die skuld."

Die matriarg van die Kelly -familie, Margaret, was op haar eie oor haar seun se verhouding - soveel so dat sy met twee invloedryke lede van die Demokratiese Party in aanraking gekom het en gevra het dat Kell nie die party se goedkeuring vir burgemeester sou ontvang nie. In die openbaar het sy gesê dat sy dit gedoen het omdat politiek die gesinslewe ontwrig.

Sy het privaat verneem van 'n veldtogplakkaat wat deur die administrasie van Rizzo voorberei is: "Sal die presidentsvrou Harlow wees?"

Margaret wou nie hê dat haar dogter, die prinses, skaam sou wees oor Kell se verhouding met 'n transseksuele blonde nie.

'N Vriend van Kell het aan 'n joernalis gesê dat die Kelly -matriarg "haar seun vernietig [het] en hom soos 'n dwalende seuntjie behandel het. Hy het haar uitgedaag en sy gaan hom regmaak. . . Kell was totaal verwoes. ”

Harlow en Kell se verhouding het verbrokkel, net soos sy politieke loopbaan. In Maart 1985, toe hy uitdraf, stort Kell inmekaar en sterf aan 'n hartaanval. Hy was 57.

Ondanks Grace se roem, was Jack Sr. ’ se gunstelingkind sy en Margaret se eersgeborene, Peggy, wat twee onstuimige huwelike verduur het wat met egskeiding geëindig het, waaronder een met 'n swaar drinker wat byna dood is in 'n dronk motorongeluk.

Een van Peggy se tweelingdogters, Mary Lee, het opslae gemaak toe sy op 15 weghardloop, maar 'n maand later werk sy as 'n kelnerin in 'n Des Moines, Iowa, koffiewinkel en woon saam met haar 18-jarige kêrel .

Toe die jong paartjie 'n maand later trou, weier Peggy om dit by te woon. Sy sterf in 1991 aan alkoholisme.

Grace Kelly wys haar verloofring aan haar ma, Margaret, langs prins Rainier en haar pa, John. AP

Die baba van die Kelly -gesin, Elizabeth (meestal bekend as Lizanne), was die naaste aan Grace. Hulle het saam opgetree in plaaslike teaterproduksies, en later het sy haar sterster -suster na fliekstelle vergesel. Toe Grace vermoor is, was dit Lizanne, 'n aandelemakelaarsvrou, wat die telefoon opneem en 'n tranerige prinses Caroline hoor sê: "Mamma is dood." Lizanne is in 2009 aan kanker oorlede.

When Prince Albert visited the family abode last fall, it was the first time a Kelly family member had been “home” in decades. An official city plaque stands on the property, honoring the Kelly family’s accomplishments. The house itself, though, has a long road ahead of it before it can return to its glory days.

After the Kellys sold the place in 1973, things went downhill. For years, the Pennsylvania Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals received complaints about a possible animal-hoarding situation. When investigators finally entered the manse — where her Serene Highness, Princess Grace of Monaco, had grown up with servants and a chauffeur — in 2013, they discovered a flea-infested, feces-covered horror house.

Grace Kelly and Prince Rainier III of Monaco Bettmann Archive

Agents seized 14 live cats, one dog and one dead cat, and owner Marjorie Bamont was involuntarily committed for psychiatric evaluation and subsequently convicted on 16 counts of animal cruelty. She pleaded no contest to the charges, but soon filed a $1 million civil suit against the SPCA, alleging illegal seizure of her menagerie.

It was after Bamont passed away last year that Albert purchased the toxic six-bedroom, 2½-story Colonial homestead custom-built by his maternal grandfather.

“The first thing is to get it back in shape,” a Kelly cousin told a TV reporter, as the wallpaper and paint in the front hall date back to 1925.

Prince Albert is ready for the challenge, and the chance to honor the happy memories of his heritage.

“The house is filled with little moments,” he said. “Moments of being a family.”

Jerry Oppenheimer is a bestselling author whose latest book, “The Kardashians: An American Drama,” will be published in September.


Helen Keller

Helen Keller was an author, lecturer, and crusader for the handicapped.਋orn in Tuscumbia, Alabama, She lost her sight and hearing at the age of nineteen months to an illness now believed to have been scarlet fever. Five years later, on the advice of Alexander Graham Bell, her parents applied to the Perkins Institute for the Blind in Boston for a teacher, and from that school hired Anne Mansfield Sullivan. Through Sullivan’s extraordinary instruction, the little girl learned to understand and communicate with the world around her. She went on to acquire an excellent education and to become an important influence on the treatment of the blind and deaf.

Keller learned from Sullivan to read and write in Braille and to use the hand signals of the deaf-mute, which she could understand only by touch. Her later efforts to learn to speak were less successful, and in her public appearances she required the assistance of an interpreter to make herself understood. Nevertheless, her impact as educator, organizer, and fund-raiser was enormous, and she was responsible for many advances in public services to the handicapped.

With Sullivan repeating the lectures into her hand, Keller studied at schools for the deaf in Boston and New York City and graduated cum laude from Radcliffe College in 1904. Her unprecedented accomplishments in overcoming her disabilities made her a celebrity at an early age at twelve she published an autobiographical sketch in the Youth’s Companion, and during her junior year at Radcliffe she produced her first book, The Story of My Life, still in print in over fifty languages. Keller published four other books of her personal experiences as well as a volume on religion, one on contemporary social problems, and a biography of Anne Sullivan. She also wrote numerous articles for national magazines on the prevention of blindness and the education and special problems of the blind.


There is no concrete evidence that Carroll ever experimented with mind-altering drugs

Of course, sometimes a caterpillar smoking a hookah is just that – especially when he’s flanked by a magical mushroom. Since the 1960s, drug-lovers have read Alice’s antics as one big trip. The lyrics to Jefferson Airplane’s White Rabbit did a fair bit to cement the association: “Remember what the Dormouse said / Feed your head, feed your head”. From its heat-addled opening scene, there is a psychedelic vibe – besides all those pills, time moves erratically, and the grinning Cheshire Cat is here one minute, gone the next.

In 1871, Lewis Carroll published a sequel called Through the Looking Glass, which introduced the Jabberwocky and Tweedles Dum and Dee (Credit: Alamy)

One of Dodgson’s own favourite authors was Thomas De Quincey of Confessions of an English Opium Eater fame, but though he dabbled in homeopathic cold remedies, there is no concrete evidence that he ever experimented with mind-altering drugs. Still, the druggy associations endure, as a line from The Matrix shows: “You take the blue pill, the story ends, you wake up in your bed and believe whatever you want to believe. You take the red pill, you stay in Wonderland, and I show you how deep the rabbit hole goes.”

Of cabbages and kings

But it’s not all sex and drugs. Another strand of criticism views Alice as a political allegory. When our heroine leaps after the White Rabbit, she ends up in a place that, for all its zany, disconcerting strangeness, is ruled over by a quick-tempered queen – Dodgson reputedly had mixed feelings about Queen Victoria even though she loved his book – and has a shambolic legal system, much like Victorian Britain.


Alice Kell - History

“Kelly Barnes and Alice Larson came in 1917, he from Lumberton, North Caroline, and she from Santa Rosa, California. Both of them lived with the Forrest. After their training at Toccoa Falls and at Wheaton College, they married and were associated with Toccoa Falls Institute until their deaths. Mr. Barnes was superintendent, and Mrs. Barnes was one of the teachers and later became the high school principal.” (From Achieving the Impossible with God)


Kelly and Alice Grace as a young couple.


Kelly Barnes always struck a dashing image, especially as a young man.


No one could ever accuse Evelyn Forrest of being afraid of hard work. Here she is with Alice Grace in modest but acceptable work clothes of the day.


Kelly Barnes


Alice and Kelly as a young married couple.


The college’s first radio station was located in the basement of the First Presbyterian Church of Toccoa where Dr. Forrest served as pastor. Kelly Barnes was the first “station manager.” This is the radio station that also carried Mrs. Forrest’s weekly Bible study.


Alice Grace Barnes was on of the first teachers at the Institute, which later grew to be Toccoa Falls College.


From the beginning, Dr. Forrest had a close bond with Kelly Barnes, who lived with Forrests after coming to the college in very early years of its existence. His brother Walt also attended school at TFI and later worked closely with Mrs. Forrest as she supervised the daily operations of the farm and school.


Kelly and Alice Grace met at TFI where they graduated. After they received their teaching certificiants, they married and moved back to Toccoa Falls where they spent the rest of their lives preparing others for God’s service.


This is a rare photo of four of the original students and graduates. (left to right) Sue Ralls, Ora Frost, Kelly Barnes, and Alice Grace Barnes are shown at the ground breaking for the boy’s dorm—Forrest.


Alice Kell - History

Brief notes on the Dunn, Kell, Wikle, and Page lines, and intermarried lines.

This is intended to be a very brief introduction and overview to the Dunn ancestry. As time permits, additional material on each of the lines will be put up in greater detail, as will photos and other material.

So far only one line on the Dunn side can be traced back to immigration, and this is our "Pennsylvania Dutch" (actually German) line, the Wikles. (Susan Wikle married James Dunn.) Peter Wikle came to Pennsylvania from Germany in 1770 or 1771 according to the tradition recorded in later Wikle family Bibles and there is no reason to doubt it. The intermarried Bandys may be French Huguenot in origin, but all our other lines are either English (Page most likely) or Scotch-Irish (Dunn and Kell). This is a very typical mix for the upland south, and probably almost all the descendants thought of themselves as Scotch-Irish.

Jesse Louis Dunn, James G. Dunn, Sam Dunn, William A. Dunn and Maggie Dunn McKinney (photos of all but Sam appear in the Album) were all children of Rev. John Henry Dunn (1848-1914), whose biography is included elsewhere in this package. John Henry Dunn married Trissie Ann Page (1848-1904), and the Pages are dealt with briefly below. John Henry Dunn's uncle, John Dunn, married another Page (I believe her name was Sarah Jane Page), and one of their daughters, I believe Letty, married James G. Dunn, son of John Henry Dunn, so the descendants of James Dunn have Dunn and Page ancestors each on two different lines.

John Henry Dunn was the son of James Dunn (1824 or 1827-1887), who married Susan Wikle in 1846. The Wikles are discussed below. (His tombstone gives the birth date of 1824 but appears to be a 20th century stone. Census records tend to point to a little later birthdate, around 1827.) James Dunn was probably born in Rabun County, Georgia, came with his father to Gilmer County, Georgia, in 1833, and farmed in the Cartecay, Georgia area, also for a while owning land around what is now Copperhill, Tennessee, where his father had a ferry for a time. He later lived in Pickens County, Georgia. The John Dunn who married Sarah Jane Page was a younger brother (quite a bit younger) of James Dunn.

James Dunn's father was John Dunn . He was born about 1797, apparently in South Carolina, though once North Carolina is listed. Although he appears to have been of Irish or Scotch-Irish ancestry and to have had connections with several other Dunn families in the southwestern North Carolina/Northwestern South Carolina/northeastern Georgia area, I am still not certain who his father was. This John Dunn, often called "Old Uncle John" or "Johnny" in Gilmer County, was both an early settler and a fervent Methodist. Although the Gilmer County history says he died "about 1883", his wife is shown as a widow as early as 1870. I still do not know the correct year of his death. Since he was active in Methodism during reconstruction he must have died very late in the 1860s.

The John Dunn just mentioned is the earliest ancestor on the Dunn line itself (as opposed to intermarried lines) about whom I know anything certain, but he was part of a broader extended family of in-laws who moved together in the early years. This provides most of the clues we have so far to his origins. He married Elizabeth Kell in Hall County, Georgia, in 1819 and is shown in the Hall County census for 1820. Her father, James Kell, and her brother, Alexander Kell, were living in Rabun County and Alexander at least had been there well before the Cherokee cession of 1817: he had a Cherokee wife, apparently. John Dunn appears in the 1820 Hall County, Georgia census right alongside Robert Smith Senior and Robert Smith Junior, the latter of which was his brother-in-law, having married Cynthia Kell. Comparison of known property of neighbors suggests that the 1820 Hall County census puts John Dunn somewhere east of Flowery Branch, Georgia. This is quite a bit south of Rabun County. By the 1820s, though, he seems to have been living in the western part of Rabun County. Land he sold in 1834, after moving to Gilmer, was about 12 miles west of where the Kells were living.

Just recently (in early May of 1996) I found a clue which may give us an opening towards finding John Dunn's ancestors. For some time I've been looking closely at the family surrounding one Joseph Dunn, who seems to have been living not far from the Kells in Pendleton County, South Carolina, in the early 1790s. He seems to be the same Joseph Dunn who, with a son or brother William Dunn, moved about 1797 or 1798 to the Gumlog Creek area of Franklin County, Georgia, near the present town of Livonia. Later Dunns mentioned in deeds include a James Dunn and a Thomas Dunn. Other than the fact that these Dunns were in South Carolina, seemingly, when our John Dunn was born there about 1797 and moved to a part of Georgia not far from where our John first turns up, there's another interesting connection: on Gumlog Creek in Franklin County, Georgia, the Dunns lived adjacent to and bought land from one John Stonecypher. This same John Stonecypher sold land in Rabun County to his son or other relative, James Stonecypher, and this land was only three or four miles from where our John Dunn later lived in Rabun County. This at a time when there were ony a few hundred families (I think about 325 non-Cherokee families) in all of Rabun County. And these were very close to each other. I'm increasingly convinced that we need to look closely at these Franklin County Dunns, and am collecting everything I can on them. But so far, I haven't got any proof of a relationship, just the clues just mentioned. For more material on this possible link, see the essay "The Earliest Clues Found So Far on the Origin of Our Dunns".

John Dunn certainly lived in Rabun County prior to moving to Gilmer in 1833, and was closely associated with his father in law, James Kell , and Kell's extended family, which included another son-in-law, Robert Smith, and James Kell's son Alexander. Later in Gilmer County the Smiths and Kells were also intermarried with a family named Ralston , and one piece of land in the Cartecay area was owned at one time or another by John Dunn, David Ralston and Robert Smith -- all in-laws of each other. I don't think the Ralstons became linked until they got to Gilmer County, however. The Smith-Kell-Dunn link goes back much farther, and they traveled together to Gilmer in or about November, 1833. John Dunn sold his last land in Rabun the following year.

Several published sources and family tradition on my side all refer to the ferry John Dunn operated at what is now Copperhill, Tennessee. Records are sparse. A historian of the Copper Basin wrote me that James Dunn (son of John Dunn) owned land at the ferry until 1856. John Dunn sold land in the Cartecay area in 1846 his grandson John Henry Dunn was born on the Tennessee side in 1848 John Dunn was still in Tennessee in the 1850 census but his son James, father of John Henry, had moved back to Cartecay by 1849. Family tradition on my side says that the Dunns lost the ferry shortly before the copper boom, which began in earnest in the 1850s had they still owned it when the copper boom started they'd have become rich. Apparently John Dunn signed a bond for a neighbor who defaulted and lost the ferry in the process. So the evidence I have points to Dunn being there in the late 1840s and early 1850s. George G. Ward's Gilmer County history says he owned the ferry when the Indians were still in the county (that is, before 1838), but I think he has confused two facts: the Dunns came when the Indians were still in the county (1833), and later John Dunn moved north to Copperhill, then returning later to their original area of settlement near Cartecay, southeast of Ellijay. The early deed books are fragmentary before about 1842, but we can definitely show a move north about 1846 and a return a few years later.

John Dunn's wife, Elizabeth Kell, was the daughter of James Kell (1760-1848), a much-traveled veteran of the American Revolution. "Captain" Kell -- as everyone called him in his old age -- was born in Pennsylvania, raised in eastern North Carolina, then lived in several counties of North Carolina (marrying his wife, Letitia Kneal or Neill , in Rowan County, NC) before moving to extreme western South Carolina. (It is Kneal on the marriage bond, but that name never appears otherwise in North Carolina records, while there are many Neills in Rowan County, and they used Letitia as a given name. A witness to the marriage was William Neill, and I believe he was her father. That line is still uncertain, however.) James Kell was the son of one of three or four brothers who moved from Pennsylvania to North Carolina, though it is still not clear which one.

James Kell served several tours of duty during the American Revolution, one of them as a captain of militia, and was addressed as Captain Kell for the rest of his life. His revolutionary service is well doucmented. James, a probable brother of his (John), and a cousin (Robert) all ended up in western South Carolina by the 1790s. Early in the 1800s James and his son Alexander, and perhaps some of the others, were in Cherokee country which later became Rabun County. An Alexander Kell married a Cherokee and there are still Cherokee Kells in Oklahoma this Alexander seems to be the same man -- James Kell's son -- who later married a white woman named Elmira or Mira and had another family in the Ellijay area, the first child of which family was born after he was 40, allowing for the earlier, half-Cherokee family as well. I have dealt with these Cherokee links in an essay on "The Dunns' Cherokee Connections".

By the 1820s or so James Kell and his sons in law John Dunn and Robert Smith, not to mention various Kells, were living in Rabun County, Georgia, where Kell had been at least since Cherokee days. In 1833 they moved to what became Gilmer County, Georgia. Kell took the first census of Gilmer County in 1834 and lived in his old age with his son Alexander along what is still called Kell Creek north of Ellijay, Georgia. He died in 1848. As noted, his daughter Elizabeth had married John Dunn in 1819, and they thereafter usually lived fairly near James Kell.

Old James Kell seems to have been a character he was active in politics, a Jacksonian Democrat, and apparently something of a story-teller. (He also belonged to no church, in an area where his in-laws were all very active.) His Kell grandsons fought for the Confederacy while the Dunns, Pages, and Wikles were pro-Union during the war. My biogfaphy of James Kell, still being revised, is even longer than the one of John Henry Dunn, enclosed. I'll try to get it ready for sending soon.

Susan Wikle, who married James Dunn in 1846, was the daughter of Henry Wikle (1785-1844) and Anna Bandy Wikle (1795-1878). Henry Wikle was born in 1785 in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, the son of Peter Wikle , a "Pennsylvania German" who came from Germany in about 1770. Family tradition claims that Peter Wikle's wife was a noblewoman or royalty, but such traditions are common among early German immigrants and I have found no proof. Peter Wikle settled in Rutherford County, North Carolina. He probably died shortly after 1800. Other Wikle descendants believe he lived in what is now Haywood or Jackson County, North Carolina, but I believe that he died in what is now Rutherford and his sons moved to Haywood, based on land records. Henry Wikle married Anna Bandy in Haywood County, North Carolina in 1815. She was most likely the daughter of one David Bandy who lived nearby and is the right age, though she may have been the daughter of one Jesse Bandy. This is still being researched.

Henry Wikle moved to Gilmer County in 1836. He had numerous children who all survived to adulthood. None of the daughters married until after Henry died in 1844. Susan, who married James Dunn, remained in Gilmer or Pickens County most of the others ended up in the Cartersville, Georgia, area or farther afield.

The Wikles, like the Dunns, were avid Methodists, and Henry Wikle and John Dunn were among the founders of the Cartecay Methodist church.

John Henry Dunn married Trissie Ann Page his uncle, John Dunn, married her sister, I believe named Sarah Jane Page. Both were daughters of Gazaway Page , born about 1817 in Union County, South Carolina, died in Gilmer County, Georgia, in late 1883. His (first) wife, their mother, was named Nancy I do not know her maiden name. Gazaway was also an ardent Methodist in the Cartecay, Georgia area, and also pro-Union (like the Dunns) during the Civil War. Another daughter married another Methodist minister, so he had two sons-in-law who were Dunns and two who were Ministers. Our ancestor, his wife, was named Nancy but we do not know her maiden name. After she died, Gazaway married Julia Sorrels and moved to Flat Mountain in remote northwestern Gilmer County, where he died on November 1, 1883.

Gazaway Page was the son of Richard Page (born about 1786 in Virginia died in Georgia after 1870) and his wife Ann . I suspect her maiden name was Gazaway, because this was a prominent Methodist family living near the Pages in Union County, South Carolina, and would explain the name Gazaway Page for the eldest son. I cannot prove her maiden name at this time, however. Richard Page was born in Charlotte County, Virginia, moved as a boy to Union County, South Carolina, and moved some time in the 1840s to Gilmer County, Georgia, perhaps after a residence in Rabun County, Georgia. His parents were Richard Page , born in the 1750s in Virginia, who served in the Revolution (we have at least two Revolutionary veterans on the Dunn side, James Kell and Richard Page), married Elizabeth Jones in 1779 in Charlotte County, Virginia, and later moved to Union County, South Carolina. He lived there until his death in 1833 she died there in 1838. The elder Richard Page was almost certainly the son of Nathaniel Page , who seems to have lived in a couple of Virginia Counties before moving to South Carolina. His wife was probably Hannah , name unknown.There is some reason to suspect his parents were Robert and Wine Page , though this is not yet proven. They're shown so on the enclosed charts but the proof is not complete.

As for Elizabeth Jones, who married Richard Page in 1779, she was a daughter of Richard Jones of Caroline County, who may have been the son of another Richard Jones. They seem to be linked to a fairly widespread Jones family of central Virginia, ut these links are not yet complete.

As you can see, there is considerable information but the tree is far from complete. I am prepared to share all the details of my research with all my relatives, and hope to learn what they may know. If anyone knows that some of these facts are wrong, can add to them, or just wants to talk about them or know more (I have much more detail), please contact me.


40 Charged in Largest Federal Racketeering Conspiracy in South Carolina History

A federal grand jury has returned a 147-count superseding indictment against 40 defendants across South Carolina in the largest federal racketeering conspiracy in South Carolina history.

The indictment alleges a sprawling criminal enterprise whereby inmates with the South Carolina Department of Corrections (SCDC), often through the use of contraband cell phones, orchestrated murder, kidnapping, firearms distribution, and an international drug operation.

The grand jury returned an indictment charging the defendants with conspiracy under the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations (RICO) Act, and several charges under the Violent Crimes in Aid of Racketeering (VICAR) statute. Of the 40 defendants, 24 defendants were charged in the initial indictment in this case for conduct related to their alleged roles in the drug trafficking organization.

“The defendants allegedly operated a violent and lucrative drug enterprise on behalf of the Insane Gangster Disciples while incarcerated,” said Acting Assistant Attorney General Brian C. Rabbitt of the Justice Department’s Criminal Division. “The department is committed to investigating and prosecuting gang-related crimes no matter where they occur, including holding those accountable who engage in criminal activity while in prison.”

“To anyone who would try to harm the people of South Carolina with violence, intimidation or extortion, we are coming after you wherever you are,” said U.S. Attorney Peter M. McCoy Jr. of the District of South Carolina. “Neither pandemic nor prison walls will provide refuge from the full force of the federal government. While the U.S. Attorney’s Office in South Carolina has a long and respected history of seeking justice for victims of crime, in the past year, my office has taken an even deeper look into the violence of organized crime and drug gangs. As such, we have sought and received some of the harshest sentences of any U.S. Attorney’s Office in the country. Be it in jail or on the outside, organized crime organizations in South Carolina will be sought out as aggressively as the law allows.”

“This was a complex, multi-jurisdictional investigation aimed at taking down an alleged criminal operation of historic reach in our states,” said Special Agent in Charge Vince Pallozzi of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms (ATF) Charlotte Field Division. “The brazen criminal acts charged fueled gun violence and drug trafficking in numerous counties and cities. To shut down this alleged operation is a major win for public safety in South Carolina.”

“This alleged vast and brazen criminal enterprise only could have been dismantled by a united and dedicated team of law enforcement officers from across this state,” said Special Agent in Charge Susan Ferensic of the FBI’s Columbia Field Office. “The FBI is proud to be part of that team. We will see this investigation through and will remain vigilant to identify and arrest all those who try to destroy our communities through violence and drug trafficking.”

The case began in July 2017 as an investigation by a number of agencies, including ATF, the Lexington County Multi-Agency Narcotics Enforcement Team, and the Eleventh Circuit Solicitor’s Office, into methamphetamine trafficking and the illegal sale of firearms. As the investigation grew, the evidence led law enforcement to focus on the Insane Gangster Disciples (IGD), a branch of the nationwide gang Folk Nation.

According to the indictment, several IGD members ran a drug empire from SCDC with the use of contraband cellphones, assistance from individuals outside of prison, and other means. Further, the indictment alleges that several incarcerated IGD members ordered violent retaliatory measures against those they believed were providing information to law enforcement and against individuals they believed had stolen drug proceeds or owed money to the gang. It is alleged these violent acts, to include murder and kidnapping, were often carried out by IGD members outside the jails. Additionally, the 101-page indictment alleges that to perpetuate the enterprise and to maintain and extend its power, members and associates of the gang committed, attempted to commit, and conspired to commit, additional acts such as armed robbery, extortion, arson, assault and battery, drug trafficking, money laundering, and obstruction of justice.

The following defendants have been charged in the indictment for conduct related to their alleged roles in the RICO conspiracy and related crimes:

  • Matthew J. Ward, aka “Bones,” 36 Rebecca Martinez, 33 Cynthia Rooks, 52 Richard Ford, 62 Amber Hoffman, 26 Samuel Dexter Judy, 29 Montana Barefoot, 25 Benjamin Singleton, 46 Kayla Mattoni, 38 Alexia Youngblood, 38 Clifford Kyzer, 35 Mark Edward Slusher, 46 Aaron Michael Carrion, aka “Cap G,” 28 and Crystal Nicole Bright, 40, all of Lexington, South Carolina
  • Lisa Marie Costello, 43 Aaron Corey Sprouse, 29 James Robert Peterson, aka “Man Man,” 32 Catherine Amanda Ross, 28 Brandon Lee Phillips, aka “Lil B,” 36 Billy Wayne Ruppe, 55 and Windy Brooke George, 21, all of Gaffney, South Carolina
  • Arian Grace Jeane, 26 Heather Henderson Orrick, 33 Joshua Lee Scott Brown, 23 Alex Blake Payne, 28 Sally Williams Burgess, aka “Cricket,” 37 and Edward Gary Akridge, aka “G9,” “G9 the Don,” and “Eddie Boss,” 28, all of Greenville, South Carolina
  • John Johnson, 36, of Gaston, South Carolina
  • Kelly Still, 43, of Windsor, South Carolina
  • Kelly Jordan, 34, of Williamston, South Carolina
  • Robert Figueroa, 43, and Brian Bruce, 48, of West Columbia, South Carolina
  • Tiffanie Brooks, 36, of Columbia, South Carolina
  • Juan Rodriguez, aka “Fat Boy,” 40, of Woodruff, South Carolina
  • Jonathan Eugene Merchant, aka “Merck,” 27, of Laurens, South Carolina
  • Jennifer Sorgee, 36, of Easley, South Carolina
  • Brittney Shae Stephens, 32, of Anderson, South Carolina
  • Matthew Edward Clark, 41, of York, South Carolina
  • Virginia Ruth Ryall, 43, of Gastonia, North Carolina, and,
  • Lisa Marie Bolton, 32, of Dallas, North Carolina.

Of these defendants, Ward, Peterson, Akridge, and Rodriguez were serving sentences in SCDC at the time the alleged crimes were committed.

In connection with the investigation, agents seized more than 40 kilograms of methamphetamine, more than 130 firearms, and various quantities of heroin and fentanyl.

An indictment merely contains allegations, and the defendants are presumed innocent unless and until proven guilty beyond a reasonable doubt in a court of law.

The case was investigated by the ATF, FBI, Lexington County Sheriff’s Department, Lexington County Multi-Agency Narcotics Enforcement Team, SCDC, Greenville County Sheriff’s Office, Anderson County Sheriff’s Office, South Carolina Law Enforcement Division, Cherokee County Sheriff’s Office, Laurens County Sheriff’s Office, and Richland County Sheriff’s Department. The South Carolina Attorney General’s Office, Fifth Circuit Solicitor’s Office, Eighth Circuit Solicitor’s Office, Eleventh Circuit Solicitor’s Office, and Thirteenth Circuit Solicitor’s Office also assisted with the case.

Trial Attorney Lisa Man and Principal Deputy Kim Dammers with the Criminal Division’s Organized Crime and Gang Section, Assistant U.S. Attorneys Justin Holloway and Brandi Hinton of the District of South Carolina, and Special Assistant U.S. Attorney Casey Rankin with the Eleventh Circuit Solicitor’s Office are prosecuting the case.

This case is being prosecuted as part of the joint federal, state, and local Project Safe Neighborhoods (PSN), the centerpiece of the Department of Justice’s violent crime reduction efforts. PSN is an evidence-based program proven to be effective at reducing violent crime. Through PSN, a broad spectrum of stakeholders work together to identify the most pressing violent crime problems in the community and develop comprehensive solutions to address them. As part of this strategy, PSN focuses enforcement efforts on the most violent offenders and partners with locally based prevention and reentry programs for lasting reductions in crime.


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