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Thomas Edison patenteer die Kinetograph

Thomas Edison patenteer die Kinetograph

Thomas Edison ontvang 'n patent vir sy filmkamera, die Kinetograph. Edison het die kamera en sy kyker in die vroeë 1890's ontwikkel en verskeie demonstrasies gehou.

Die kamera was gebaseer op fotografiese beginsels wat ontdek is deur pioniers van stilfotografie, Joseph Nicephone Niepce en Louis Daguerre van Frankryk. In 1877 het uitvinder Edward Muybridge 'n primitiewe vorm van rolprente ontwikkel toe Leland Stanford, goewerneur van Kalifornië, hom uitgenooi het om fotostudies van diere in beweging te ontwikkel. Muybridge het 'n vindingryke stelsel ontwikkel om opeenvolgende bewegings te fotografeer en 24 kameras op te sit wat aan draaddrade gespan is wat oor 'n renbaan gespan is. Toe die perd elke draad struikel, ruk die luike. Die gevolglike reeks foto's kan geprojekteer word as iets wat soos 'n rolprent lyk. Hierdie deurbraak in die vroeë 1870's het 'n ander student van dierebeweging, Etienne Jules Marey van Frankryk, geïnspireer om in 1882 'n roterende kamera te ontwikkel, net soos 'n geweer, waar verskillende foto's in 'n vinnige volgorde deur 'n roterende patroon geneem is.

Anders as hierdie vroeëre kameras, het Edison se Kinetoscope en Kinetograph selluloidfilm gebruik, uitgevind deur George Eastman in 1889. In Februarie 1893 het Edison 'n klein filmstudio gebou wat gedraai kan word om die beste sonlig op te vang. Hy wys die eerste demonstrasie van sy films - met drie van sy werkers wat hulself as smede voorgee - in Mei 1893.

LEES MEER: 6 sleuteluitvindings deur Thomas Edison

Die uitvinding het die Franse uitvinders Louis en August Lumiere geïnspireer om 'n filmkamera en projektor, die Cinematographe, te ontwikkel waarmee 'n groot gehoor 'n film kon sien. Verskeie ander kameras en projektors is ook in die laat 1800's ontwikkel.

In 1898 het Edison American Mutoscope and Biograph Pictures aangekla en beweer dat die ateljee inbreuk gemaak het op sy patent vir die Kinetograph. Hy het die ontwikkeling van die masjien aan sy assistent, W.L.K. Dickson, wat in 1895 die onderneming van Edison verlaat het en gehelp het om Biograph te stig. In 1902 het die Amerikaanse appèlhof egter beslis dat hoewel Thomas Edison die Kinetograph gepatenteer het, hy slegs die regte het op die tandwielstelsel wat geperforeerde film deur die kamera beweeg het, nie die hele konsep van die filmkamera nie.

In 1909 het Edison en Biograph kragte saamgesnoer met ander filmmakers om die Motion Pictures Patents Company te stig, 'n organisasie wat hom toelê om patente te beskerm en ander spelers te verhinder om die filmbedryf te betree. In 1917 ontbind die Hooggeregshof die trust, en die Edison Company verlaat dieselfde jaar die filmbedryf.


Oor hierdie versameling

Hierdie webwerf bevat 341 rolprente, 81 skyfklankopnames en ander verwante materiaal, soos foto's en oorspronklike tydskrifartikels. Silinderopnames word binnekort by hierdie webwerf gevoeg. Boonop word 'n geskiedenis gegee van Edison se betrokkenheid by rolprente en klankopnames, asook 'n spesiale bladsy wat fokus op die lewe van die groot uitvinder. Die uitnemende uitvinder Thomas Alva Edison (1847-1931) het 'n groot invloed op die moderne lewe. Gedurende sy leeftyd het die "Wizard of Menlo Park" 1,093 uitvindings gepatenteer, insluitend die fonograaf, die kinetograaf ('n filmkamera) en die kinetoskoop ('n film -kyker). Edison het daarin geslaag om nie net 'n bekende uitvinder te word nie, maar ook 'n prominente vervaardiger en sakeman deur die uitruil van sy uitvindings. Die versamelings in die Library of Congress se afdeling Film, Broadcasting and Recorded Sound bevat 'n buitengewone reeks van die oorblywende produkte van Edison se vermaaklikheidsuitvindings en nywerhede.


Die eerste filmopname in die Verenigde State

Blad met beelde van een van die drie Ape films (ongeveer 1889 en ndash90) vervaardig as toetse van 'n vroeë weergawe van die Kinetoskoop.

In 1894 het Thomas Edison van Menlo Park (nou Edison), New Jersey, formeel die Kinetograph, die eerste praktiese bewegende fotokamera, bekendgestel en die Kinetoscope, 'n handvatsel, enkel-kyker, verligte boks om die resulterende films te vertoon. Hierdie groep uitvindings is meestal ontwikkel deur die werknemer van Edison, William Kennedy Laurie Dickson.

Die eerste eksperimentele films wat die groep van Edison oorleef het, was Monkeyshines, nommer 1 geskiet deur Dickson en William Heise al in 1889 of 1890:

"Geleerdes het verskillende menings oor die vraag of die eerste in Junie 1889 geskiet is, met John Ott in die hoofrol, of tussen 21 en 27 November 1890, met G. Sacco Albanese. Beide mans was mede-laboratoriumwerkers by die onderneming. Daar is teenstrydige bewyse vir elke leemte. Monkeyshines, nommer 2 en Ape, nr. 3 vinnig gevolg om verdere voorwaardes te toets "(Wikipedia-artikel oor Monkeyshines, besoek 19-19-2014).

"In 1888 het die Amerikaanse uitvinder en entrepreneur Thomas Alva Edison 'n toestel bedink wat 'vir die oog sou doen wat die fonograaf vir die oor doen'. In Oktober het Edison 'n voorlopige eis ingedien, bekend as 'n voorbehoud, by die Amerikaanse patentekantoor wat sy planne vir die toestel uiteensit. In Maart 1889 is 'n tweede voorbehoud ingedien waarin die voorgestelde filmapparaat 'n naam gekry het, die Kinetoscope. .

"Dickson het die eerste praktiese selluloidfilm vir hierdie toepassing uitgevind en besluit op 35 mm vir die grootte, 'n standaard wat nog steeds gebruik word.

"Dickson en sy span by die Edison -laboratorium het daarna etlike jare gewerk aan die ontwikkeling van die Kinetoskoop. Die eerste werkende prototipe is in Mei 1891 onthul en die ontwerp van die stelsel is in die herfs van 1892 afgehandel. Die voltooide weergawe van die Kinetoskoop Dit is amptelik onthul by die Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences op 9 Mei 1893. Nie tegnies 'n projektorsisteem nie, dit was 'n kykmasjien met 'n deurlopende lus van die film wat Dickson uitgevind het, aangesteek deur 'n Edison -ligbron, individueel deur die venster bekyk Die Kinetoskoop het die basiese benadering bekendgestel wat die standaard sou wees vir alle filmprojeksies voor die koms van video. Dit skep 'n illusie van beweging deur 'n strook geperforeerde film met opeenvolgende beelde oor 'n ligbron met 'n hoëspoed-sluiter. Dickson en sy span het ook die Kinetograph, 'n innoverende filmkamera met vinnig onderbroke of stop-and-go, fi bedink lm beweging, om films te fotografeer vir interne eksperimente en uiteindelik kommersiële Kinetoscope-aanbiedings "(Wikipedia-artikel oor William Kennedy Dickson, verkry op 02-15-2013).

Kinetescope-salonne is voorsien van stukke van 50 voet film wat deur Dickson geskiet is, in Edison se "Black Maria" -ateljee. Die uitvinding was 'n wyd nageboots, internasionale sukses.

In Junie 1894 publiseer Dickson en sy suster Antonia "Edison's Invention Of The Kineto-Phonograph" in Century Magazine, en die volgende jaar het hulle gepubliseer Geskiedenis van die Kinetograph, Kinetoscope en Kinetophonograph. In 2001 publiseer die Museum of Modern Art 'n faksimilee-uitgawe van Dickson se eie geannoteerde kopie van hierdie pamflet van 55 bladsye.


24 Augustus 1891: Thomas Edison ontvang 'n patent vir sy filmkamera, die Kinetograph

24 Augustus 2015

'N Kinetoskoopkamer in San Francisco, ongeveer 1894, soortgelyk aan 'n bioskoop. (Wikimedia Commons/National Park Service)

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Op hierdie datum in 1891 het Thomas Edison die Kinetograph gepatenteer, sy eerste weergawe van 'n bewegende beeldkamera. Die Nasiehet egter eers in 1913 kennis geneem van die nuwe tegnologie, in die volgende kort opmerking oor mense uit die samelewing wat hulself op die skerm sien. 'Ondanks die wonderlike toon van die paragraaf', skryf Carl Bromley, redakteur van die Cinema Nation bloemlesing van die tydskrif se artikels oor film, waarin hierdie artikel verskyn het, "en die feit dat die voorgestelde idees min, indien enige, mense gevind het, kan beslis 'n gevoel van verwondering in sy stem bespeur." dit is Die NasieSe eerste opmerking oor film. ("Serbon" verwys na 'n Egiptiese meer, Serbonis, waarin sand gereeld waai, wat die indruk gee van droë grond in plaas van bloot 'n moeras. Die term dui op 'n situasie waaruit dit moeilik is om jouself te verwyder.)

Lede van die samelewing het hulself gisteraand in rolprente gesien en die nuwigheid geweldig geniet. Die beroemde gebed van Robert Burns is verhoor. Die gawe is aan ons gegee om onsself te sien soos ander ons sien. As die samelewing die openbaring geniet het, moet dit gelukgewens word. Dit is nie altyd moontlik dat die aanskouing van u eie onbekende profiel of die geluid van u onbekende stem bevredigend is nie. Die rolprent, tesame met die fonograaf, wat dus op selfstudie gerig is, kan van enorme opvoedkundige waarde gemaak word en 'n faktor wees vir die toename van menslike geluk. Neem die spreker na die ete. 'N Kinematografiese voorstelling van homself, regop bo die rye koppe wat gebuig is, versterk deur 'n fonografiese weergawe van homself wat dwarrel deur 'n Serboniese moeras van platitudes en onbeweeglikhede, sou 'n buitengewone indruk maak in die koue lig van die oggend daarna. Die swelende gety van oratorium sal 'n merkwaardige insinking ondervind wanneer 'n spreker begin wonder of hy regtig so 'n groot idioot kon gewees het soos hy lyk en klink.

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Richard Kreitner Twitter Richard Kreitner is 'n bydraende skrywer en die skrywer van Break It Up: Session, Division en die geheime geskiedenis van Amerika se onvolmaakte unie. Sy geskrifte is by www.richardkreitner.com.

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Thomas Edison, ook bekend as The Movie Mogul Who Started LOLcats

Toe uitvinder Thomas Edison vir die eerste keer begin speel het met die idee om te verbeter met bewegende beeldtegnologie, het hy in 1888 'n nota by die patentkantoor ingedien waarin hy sy bedoeling uitspreek. Hy het geskryf dat hy hoop om 'n toestel uit te vind wat vir die oog sou doen wat die fonograaf vir die oor gedoen het. vandag, 31 Augustus 1897, met 'n enkelkamera-toestel, was Edison goed op pad om die Amerikaanse filmbedryf te begin en selfs die fassinasie van Amerika te voorspel dat katte dinge op film doen.

Edison ondersoek een van sy kinetoskope in 1912 (met vergunning van die American History Museum)

Alhoewel Edison 'n besoek van een van die vroeë pioniers van bewegende foto's, Eadweard Muybridge, ontvang het, het hy die geleentheid van die hand gewys om saam met hom,   volgens die Library of Congress en navorsing van  historians   Charles Musser, David Robinson en Eileen Bowser. Sekerlik, Muybridge het 'n manier ontwikkel om veelvuldige kameras te gebruik om 'n reeks bewegings op te neem, en dan is die projek 'n onstuimige, maar herkenbare beweging. Maar Edison het nie gedink daar is baie potensiaal in die multi-kamera-benadering nie. In plaas daarvan het hy drie jaar lank gewerk (goed onder toesig van ander mense) om 'n enkele kamera, die Kinetograph en 'n enkele gebruiker-toestel, die Kinetoscope, uit te vind om bewegende beelde in 1892 op te neem en te sien.

Behalwe dat hy 'n talentvolle uitvinder was, het Edison ook die hulpbronne om ander groot talent aan te trek, waaronder Dickson, wat sy hele gesin uit Frankryk na die Edison ’s -navorsingslaboratorium in Menlo Park, New Jersey, verhuis het. Smithsonian -kurator Ryan Lintelman   verduidelik   in 'n podcast van 2010, “ Teen die 1880's het Edison bekend gestaan ​​as “ The Wizard of Menlo Park ” omdat hierdie uitvindings waarmee hy vorendag gekom het, so transformerend was dat dit asof magie betrokke was . ”

Dit was nie lank na die uitvinding van die kinetoskoop dat hy onder sy eie ateljee films begin vervaardig het nie, die bynaam die Black Maria, omdat die struktuur wat dit gehuisves het, soos 'n polisiemotor lyk. Sedert die sakeman, het Edison toesig gehou oor die produksie van 'n kortbroek en '160' om sy uitvinding te help populariseer, insluitend films met Annie Oakley, optredes van Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show en die Spaanse danser Carmencita. Sy onderdane was geneig tot die sexy of die sterk, en bewys die gesegde wat seks verkoop. Maar een kort getiteld  The Boxing Cats   (Professor Welton ’s) toon ook die vermoë van Edison om die onversadigbare mark te voorspel om te sien hoe katte dinge doen, soos om in 'n klein boks teen mekaar te veg.

Hierdie eerste films wat hulle vir gehore gemaak het, was net kort, eenvoudige onderwerpe soos vroue wat dans of liggaamsbouers buig of 'n man nies of 'n beroemde paartjie wat soen, en hierdie vroeë rolprente is al genoem die bioskoop van aantreklikhede, want hulle was getoon as 'n soort van hierdie wonderlike blikke van nuwe tegnologie, eerder as narratiewe toneelstukke op film, ”   verduidelik  Lintelman.

Ongelukkig is die vroegste rolprent uit sy ateljee 'n bietjie minder tergend as die laat 19de eeuse ekwivalent van Brangelina -soen. Getiteld  Edison Kinetoskopiese rekord van 'n nies, 7 Januarie 1894, of  Fred Ott ’s Sneeze,  die film wys bloot hoe 'n werknemer dit met 'n gedramatiseerde nies vir die kamera vasdruk.

Stills uit die vroegste oorlewende film uit die ateljee van Edison ’s wys Fred Ott nies (met vergunning van die Library of Congress)

Maar as 'n man nies en niemand dit hoor nie, is dit dan regtig 'n nies? Dit was die dilemma wat Edison probeer oplos het toe mededingers in sy winste begin eet het. In 'n poging om klank en beeld te sinchroniseer, het Edison musiek bygevoeg deur 'n fonograaf om die film te vergesel. Maar die klank en beeld bly apart en dikwels uit pas, wat dit 'n minder aanloklike oplossing maak. Intussen het die aantrekkingskrag van geprojekteerde films wat uiteindelik meer as een persoon op 'n slag kon vermaak, na sakelui in die bedryf geroep. 'N Ander uitvinder, Thomas Armat, het Edison met die vuis geslaan. Maar Edison het onderhandel en die uitvinding gekoop en sy naam verander van die Phantoscope in die Vitascope.

'N Advertensie vir Edison ’s “ grootste wonder, ” die Vitascope, wat toegelaat het dat films deur groot gehore geniet kan word (met vergunning van die Library of Congress)

Die opnames van nuusgebeurtenisse, optredes en toerismevideo's was 'n winsgewende mengsel. Maar toe die publiek moeg raak vir die nuwigheid, het Edison hom tot die fiksie-filmmaker Edwin S. Porter gewend om vermaaklike flieks te maak wat in die nuwe teaters bekend as Nickelodeons verskyn.

Namate die gewildheid van hierdie afleidingsfilms begin toeneem het, het Edison 'n groot deel van die mark probeer besit en sy vele verwante patente beskerm. Nadat hy met 'n weerstandige mededinger afgesluit het, het Edison uiteindelik in 1908 'n ooreenkoms aangegaan, volgens die Library of Congress, wat hom by Biograph aangesluit het en 'n monopolie gevestig het. Sy opkoms na die top was egter van korte duur. Beter tegnologie en meer interessante verhale kom uit mededingende ateljees, en hoewel Edison steeds probeer om klank en beeld te sinchroniseer, was sy oplossings steeds onvolmaak. In 1918 verkoop Edison die ateljee en tree uit sy filmloopbaan.

Edison ’s Black Maria -filmstudio in West Orange omstreeks 1893 (met vergunning van die American History Museum)

Alhoewel Hollywood nou sinoniem is met rolprentsterre en grootprodusente, was dit eintlik Edison Black Maria in West Orange en die eerste filmstudio van die wêreld, wat die Amerikaanse filmbedryf begin het. Lintelman het in sy onderhoud in 2010 geskerts, en die meeste mense kan nie dink aan 'n plek verder van Hollywood as New Jersey nie, nie waar nie? gebied van die 1890's tot die 1920's. Dit was toe Hollywood die filmhoofstad van die wêreld geword het. Voor die tyd was die belangrikste faktore naby die vervaardigingsentrums en beleggers in die markte. ”

In 'n e-pos skryf Lintelman egter dat hy meer ooreenkomste tussen aanlynvideokultuur vind as met Hollywood-rolprente. Dit was 'n direkte en demokratiese vorm van visuele uitdrukking. ” Kykers moes eenvoudig hul nikkel aanbied om 'n kort afleiding te geniet. Sonder klank of dialoog kon die stille films almal bereik, ongeag die taal. Alhoewel die onderwerp skouspelagtige nuusgebeurtenisse of reisfoto's kan insluit, het die meeste oor die daaglikse ervarings van die mens gehandel. Die rolprentmakers het humor gevind in tegnologiese veranderings, vervoerinnovasie, verskuiwende demografie en sosiale gewoontes en die ervaring van die stadslewe, ” skryf Lintelman.

En kykers kyk gretig. Nadat hulle 'n kinetoskoopfilm geniet het, het mense in die salon gepraat en hul gunstelinge bespreek. Met 'n verskeidenheid vinnige opsies op een plek, kan kykers hul eie reeks films en ervarings skep. As u daaroor nadink, voeg Lintelman by: "Dit is hoe ons die internet gebruik om vandag visuele inhoud te sien!"

Oor Leah Binkovitz

Leah Binkovitz is 'n Stone & Holt Weeks -genoot by Washington Post en NPR. Voorheen was sy 'n bydraende skrywer en redaksionele intern vir die At the Smithsonian -afdeling van Smithsonian tydskrif.


Thomas Edison, The Mutoscope, en die Syracuse -verbinding

In 1898 dagvaar Thomas Edison die American Mutoscope and Biograph Company, beweer dat hulle inbreuk gemaak het op sy patent vir die Kinetograph -filmkamera. Volgens die boek Ons filmhuise: 'n geskiedenis van film en filmiese innovasie in Sentraal -New York deur Norman O. Keim, W.L.K. Dickson, wat saam met Edison gewerk het aan die ontwerp van die Kinetograph en Kinetoscope, verlaat die winkel van Edison toe hy kwaad was dat Edison hom nie genoeg krediet gegee het vir sy werk nie. Kort daarna het Dickson Edison help mededingers ontwikkel 'n ander rolprentapparaat: die Mutoskoop. Dickson is gou deur Edison afgedank nadat hy van die situasie geleer het. Die onderneming wat Dickson gaan doen, werk vir die American Mutoscope and Biograph Company, het wortels in Syracuse sowel as die Mutoscopes self, wat deur Dickson vervolmaak is en gebou is deur Herman Casler, die neef van Charles E. Lipe, by die C.E. Lipe Machine Shop in Geddesstraat [foto hieronder]. Casler was 'n pionier in New York in die vroeë filmtoerusting en die uitvinder van die Mutoscope, Biograph Camera en projektor.

Thomas Edison sou die regsgeding verloor ná byna tien jaar van regsgevegte. Interessant genoeg is The American Mutoscope and Biograph Company uiteindelik kragte saamgesnoer met Edison ’s Motion Picture Patents Company in 1909, 'n trust van al die groot Amerikaanse filmondernemings. Die trust is egter deur die Amerikaanse hooggeregshof ontbind nadat dit geag is dat die onderneming 'n monopolie is.

Meer oor Herman Casler, via victorian-cinema.net:

Casler is grootgemaak in Fort Plain, New York, en dien as leerling by sy neef, masjinis en uitvinder Charles E. Lipe, stigter van die CE Lipe Machine Shop in Syracuse, New York van 1889 tot 1893. Gedurende 1893-1895 het Casler werk as tekenaar vir die General Electric Co., in Schenectady, New York, en ontwerp elektriese gesteentes. Hy was in 1895-1896 opsigter van die Marvin Electric Drill Co. van Canastota, New York, met Harry Marvin as sy werkgewer.

Casler was die medestigter van Elias Koopman, Harry Marvin en W.K-L. Dickson van die KMCD -groep, wat uiteindelik die American Mutoscope and Biograph Company geword het. Na 'n aanvanklike voorstel van Dickson, ontwikkel Casler die Mutoscope – 'n kykapparaat wat radiaal gemonteerde foto's gebruik wat in 'n vinnige volgorde omgedraai word om 'n illusie van beweging te gee. Hierdie instrument wat teen die herfs van 1894 gereed was, was oorspronklik bedoel om 'n mededinger van die Edison Kinetoscope te wees.

Casler werk daarna aan die ontwikkeling van 'n kamera, die Mutagraph, om onderwerpe daarvoor te voorsien, en teen Junie 1895 is 'n prototipe suksesvol met film getoets. Intussen het dit duidelik geword dat dit eerder geprojekteerde film was as die Kinetoskoop wat die meeste potensiaal bied vir 'n langtermynonderneming, en Casler het daarom die Biograph -projektor ontwerp. Dit was bedoel om, net soos die kamera, elektries aangedryf te wees, en met 'n wydlose tandwiellose film Edison. Die kennis van Dickson oor die ontwikkelingswerk wat by West Orange gedoen is, maak dit baie waarskynlik dat hy by Casler betrokke was, ten minste in die ontwerpfase, maar amptelik was dit Casler wat in beide patentspesifikasies en teateraankondigings as die uitvinder aangekondig is. Die meganiese werk van beide Casler en Marvin van hoë gehalte het die grondslag gelê vir die latere sukses van die Biograph -groep. Beide kamera en projektor het uiters goeie resultate gelewer, waardeur die onderneming vinnig 'n reputasie van hoë gehalte kon verwerf en dit help om sy produkte te onderskei van die vele mededingers waarmee dit te doen gekry het. Deur die gebruik van patente van Casler ’s as sekuriteit vir lenings, kon die groep die aansienlike hoeveelheid kapitaal insamel wat nodig was om met internasionale uitbreiding gedurende die 1890's te begin.

Casler het in 1900 gehelp om 'n draagbare handkruk-kamera te ontwikkel om die lywige, motorbediende kamera wat tot dan toe gebruik is, te vervang. Saam met Harry Marvin het Herman Casler vroeër die Marvin & amp; Casler Co gestig. Hul Canastota -masjienwinkel het 'n reeks produkte vervaardig, waaronder motorenjins, naamplaatmasjiene en outomatiese patentlesers sowel as filmtoerusting. Hy word later die enigste eienaar van Marvin & amp; Casler, wat hy in 1919 verkoop het. Casler was tot 1921 verbonde aan Biograph in die ontwerp en vervaardiging van filmkamera's, projektors, outomatiese drukmasjiene en ander spesiale masjiene wat verband hou met die vervaardiging van rolprente . Hy tree in 1926 terug uit die vervaardiging, maar dien as raadgewende ingenieur by 'n aantal korporasies en dien sy laaste patent in 1937, twee jaar voor sy dood.


Danksy die Kinetoskoop het ons geleidelik die kinematografiese heelal ontdek

Die Kinetoskoop is op 20 Mei 1891 vir die eerste keer aan die publiek en aan die pers voorgelê, voor 'n vergadering van 150 aktiviste van die Federasie van Vroueklubs. Die Kinetoskoop kom in die vorm van 'n groot dennebos met 'n meganisme wat 'n buigsame film van 35 mm aaneenlopend op 'n fotosensitiewe oppervlak draai. Hierdie toestel gee dus die illusie om 'n aangetekende beweging weer te gee en die toeskouers het 'n film van minder as tien sekondes waargeneem Groete Dickson deur 'n oogskerm deur die film met behulp van 'n kruk te draai. Die sukses was onmiddellik.

In 1893 maak Edison 'n eerste openbare uitstalling van films wat op die Kin & eacutetographe opgeneem is. Die uitvinder het toe Kinetoscope Parlors in verskeie stede van die Verenigde State geïnstalleer, waarin die toeskouers verskillende films kon sien, wat wissel van 30 tot 60 sekondes, met die betaling van 'n vaste prys by die ingang of via 'n muntmeganisme wat op die toestelle geïnstalleer is.


Edison en die Lumière -broers

Thomas Edison het die fonograaf in 1877 uitgevind, en dit het vinnig die gewildste toestel vir tuisvermaak van die eeu geword. Op soek na 'n visuele begeleiding van die fonograaf, het Edison Dickson, 'n jong laboratoriumassistent, die opdrag gegee om 'n filmkamera in 1888 uit te vind. kyk tegnologie. Dit was 'n toestel wat aangepas is volgens die ontsnappingsmeganisme van 'n horlosie, om die onderbroke maar gereelde beweging van die filmstrook deur die kamera te verseker en 'n gereeld geperforeerde selluloïedfilmstrook om presiese sinchronisasie tussen die filmstrook en die sluiter te verseker. Die kamera van Dickson, die Kinetograph, het aanvanklik tot 15 voet (10 meter) selluloïedfilm ingeprent teen 'n snelheid van ongeveer 40 rame per sekonde.

Dickson was nie die enigste persoon wat die probleem met die opneem en reproduseer van bewegende beelde aangepak het nie. Uitvinders oor die hele wêreld probeer al jare om werkende rolprentmasjiene te ontwerp. In werklikheid het verskeie Europese uitvinders, waaronder die Engelsman William Friese-Greene, aansoek gedoen om patente op verskillende kameras, projektors en kamera-projektor kombinasies tegelyk of selfs voordat Edison en sy medewerkers dit gedoen het.

Omdat Edison oorspronklik bedoel was met rolprente as 'n byvoegsel tot sy fonograaf, het hy nie die uitvinding van 'n projektor opdrag gegee om die Kinetograaf te vergesel nie. Hy het eerder vir Dickson 'n tipe kyk-toestel laat kyk wat die Kinetoskoop genoem word, waarin 'n deurlopende 14-meter (14-meter) filmlus op spole loop tussen 'n gloeilamp en 'n sluiter vir individuele kyk. Vanaf 1894 word Kinetoscopes kommersieel deur die firma Raff en Gammon vir $ 250 tot $ 300 stuk bemark. Die Edison Company stig sy eie Kinetograph-ateljee ('n enkelkamergebou genaamd die "Black Maria" wat op spore gedraai het om die son te volg) in West Orange, New Jersey, om films te verskaf vir die Kinetoscopes wat Raff en Gammon in pennie installeer arcades, hotellobbies, pretparke en ander sulke halfpublieke plekke. In April daardie jaar is die eerste Kinetoscope -salon in 'n omgeboude winkel in New York geopen. Die salon het 25 sent gevra vir toegang tot 'n bank van vyf masjiene.

Die sindikaat van Maguire en Baucus het die buitelandse regte op die Kinetoskoop in 1894 verkry en die masjiene begin bemark. Edison het besluit om nie internasionale patente op sy kamera of sy kykapparaat aan te teken nie, en gevolglik is die masjiene wyd en wettig in Europa gekopieer, waar dit aangepas en verbeter is ver bo die Amerikaanse oorspronklike. Dit was eintlik 'n Kinetoscope -uitstalling in Parys wat die broers Lumière, Auguste en Louis, geïnspireer het om die eerste kommersieel lewensvatbare projektor uit te vind. Hulle cinématographe, wat as kamera en drukker sowel as 'n projektor funksioneer, het teen 'n ekonomiese spoed van 16 rame per sekonde gehardloop. Dit is op 28 Desember 1895 sy eerste kommersiële demonstrasie gehou.

Anders as die Kinetograph, wat op batterye gedryf is en meer as 453 kg weeg cinématographe was met die hand, liggewig (minder as 9 kg) en relatief draagbaar. Dit het natuurlik die soort films wat met elke masjien gemaak is, beïnvloed: Edison -films bevat aanvanklik materiaal soos sirkus- of vaudeville -optredes wat in 'n klein ateljee geneem kon word om voor 'n inerte kamera op te tree, terwyl vroeë Lumière -films hoofsaaklik dokumentêre uitsigte was, of 'Werklikheid', buite op die plek geskiet. In beide gevalle was die films self egter saamgestel uit 'n enkele ongeredigeerde opname wat die lewensgetroue beweging beklemtoon, maar min of geen narratiewe inhoud bevat nie. (Na 'n paar jaar het ontwerpveranderings in die masjiene dit vir Edison en die Lumières moontlik gemaak om dieselfde tipe onderwerpe te skiet.) Oor die algemeen het Lumière -tegnologie in die vroeë era die Europese standaard geword, en omdat die Lumières hul kameramanne almal gestuur het oor die hele wêreld op soek na eksotiese onderwerpe, die cinématographe het die stigter geword vir verre bioskope in Rusland, Australië en Japan.

In die Verenigde State het die Kinetoscope -installasiebesigheid teen die somer van 1895 die versadigingspunt bereik, hoewel dit steeds redelik winsgewend was vir Edison as filmverskaffer. Raff en Gammon het Edison oorreed om die regte op 'n moderne projektor te koop, ontwikkel deur Thomas Armat van Washington, DC, wat 'n uitstekende intermitterende bewegingsmeganisme en 'n lusvormende toestel (bekend as die Latham-lus) bevat sy vroegste promotors, Gray Latham en Otway Latham) om filmbreuk te verminder, en vroeg in 1896 begin Edison om hierdie masjien te vervaardig en te bemark as sy eie uitvinding. Gegewe die eerste openbare demonstrasie op 23 April 1896 in Koster en Bial's Music Hall in New York, het die Edison Vitascope projeksie na die Verenigde State gebring en die formaat vir die Amerikaanse filmuitstalling vir die volgende paar jaar vasgestel. Dit het ook die aktiwiteite van suksesvolle Edison-mededingers soos die American Mutoscope and Biograph Company, wat in 1896 gestig is, aangemoedig om die Mutoscope peep-show-toestel en die Amerikaanse Biograph-kamera en -projektor wat gepatenteer is deur W.K.L. Dickson in 1896. Gedurende hierdie tyd, wat gekenmerk word as die 'nuwigheidstydperk', val die klem op die projeksie-apparaat self, en films het hul gewildheid as onafhanklike vaudeville-aantreklikhede bereik. Huise in Vaudeville, wat aan die begin van die eeu in sterk mededinging toegesluit was, het die naam van die masjiene eerder as die rolprente (byvoorbeeld: "The Vitascope — Edison's Latest Marvel", "The Amazing Cinématographe"). Die vervaardiger, of vervaardiger, verskaf projektors saam met 'n operateur en 'n kortbroekprogram. Hierdie films, of dit nou 'n teater in 'n Edison-styl of 'n Lumière-styl was, word deur hul oorspronklike gehore nie as rolprente in die moderne sin van die term beskou nie, maar as "geanimeerde foto's" of "lewende foto's", wat die kontinuïteit daarvan beklemtoon. met meer bekende media van die tyd.

Gedurende die nuutheidsperiode was die filmbedryf outonoom en eenheid, met produksiemaatskappye wat 'n volledige filmdiens van projektor, operateur en kortbroek aan die vaudeville-mark verhuur as 'n enkele, selfstandige optrede. Vanaf 1897 begin vervaardigers egter om beide projektors en films te verkoop aan reisende uitstallers wat met hul programme van een tydelike plek (vaudeville -teaters, kermisgebiede, sirkustente, lyceums) na 'n ander reis, aangesien die nuwigheid van hul films op 'n gegewe tydstip verval het. werf. Hierdie nuwe manier van vertoning per kring was die eerste skeiding tussen die uitstalling en die produksie en het die uitstallers 'n groot mate van beheer oor die vroeë filmvorm gegee, aangesien hulle verantwoordelik was vir die rangskikking van die eenmalige films wat van die vervaardigers aangekoop is, in programme wat die publiek aangenaam maak. Die samestelling van hierdie programme - wat dikwels vertel, klankeffekte en musiek behels - was in werklikheid 'n primitiewe vorm van redigering, sodat dit moontlik is om die rondlopende projeksioniste wat tussen 1896 en 1904 werk, as die vroegste regisseurs van rolprente te beskou. Verskeie van hulle, veral Edwin S. Porter, is in werklikheid deur produksiemaatskappye as direkteure aangestel nadat die bedryf in die eerste dekade van die 20ste eeu gestabiliseer het.


Die Kinetoskoop

Die konsep van bewegende beelde as vermaak was in die laaste deel van die 19de eeu nie nuut nie. Magiese lanterns en ander toestelle is al generasies lank in gewilde vermaak gebruik. Magiese lanterns het glasskyfies gebruik met beelde wat geprojekteer is. Die gebruik van hefbome en ander versierings het hierdie beelde laat "beweeg". 'N Ander meganisme, 'n Phenakistiscope genoem, bestaan ​​uit 'n skyf met beelde van opeenvolgende bewegingsfases daarop wat gespin kan word om beweging te simuleer. Daarbenewens was daar die Zoopraxiscope, ontwikkel deur fotograaf Eadweard Muybridge in 1879, wat 'n reeks beelde in opeenvolgende bewegingsfases voorspel. Hierdie beelde is verkry deur die gebruik van verskeie kameras. The invention of a camera in the Edison laboratories capable of recording successive images in a single camera was a more practical, cost-effective breakthrough that influenced all subsequent motion picture devices.

While there has been speculation that Edison's interest in motion pictures began before 1888, the visit of Eadweard Muybridge to the inventor's laboratory in West Orange in February of that year certainly stimulated Edison's resolve to invent a motion picture camera. Muybridge proposed that they collaborate and combine the Zoopraxiscope with the Edison phonograph. Although apparently intrigued, Edison decided not to participate in such a partnership, perhaps realizing that the Zoopraxiscope was not a very practical or efficient way of recording motion. In an attempt to protect his future inventions, Edison filed a caveat with the Patents Office on October 17, 1888, describing his ideas for a device which would "do for the eye what the phonograph does for the ear" -- record and reproduce objects in motion. Edison called the invention a "Kinetoscope," using the Greek words "kineto" meaning "movement" and "scopos" meaning "to watch."

Edison and his Orange Laboratory staff, in The Life and Inventions of Thomas Alva Edison, by W.K.L. Dickson and Antonia Dickson, p. 285. Guide to photograph of Edison and his Orange Laboratory staff, in The Life and Inventions of Thomas Alva Edison, by W.K.L. Dickson and Antonia Dickson, p. 284.

Edison's assistant, William Kennedy Laurie Dickson, was given the task of inventing the device in June 1889, possibly because of his background as a photographer. Charles A. Brown was made Dickson's assistant. There has been some argument about how much Edison himself contributed to the invention of the motion picture camera. While Edison seems to have conceived the idea and initiated the experiments, Dickson apparently performed the bulk of the experimentation, leading most modern scholars to assign Dickson with the major credit for turning the concept into a practical reality. The Edison laboratory, though, worked as a collaborative organization. Laboratory assistants were assigned to work on many projects while Edison supervised and involved himself and participated to varying degrees. Ultimately, Edison made the important decisions, and, as the "Wizard of West Orange," took sole credit for the products of his laboratory.

The initial experiments on the Kinetograph were based on Edison's conception of the phonograph cylinder. Tiny photographic images were affixed in sequence to a cylinder, with the idea that when the cylinder was rotated the illusion of motion would be reproduced via reflected light. This ultimately proved to be impractical.

The work of others in the field soon prompted Edison and his staff to move in a different direction. In Europe Edison had met French physiologist Étienne-Jules Marey who used a continuous roll of film in his Chronophotographe to produce a sequence of still images, but the lack of film rolls of sufficient length and durability for use in a motion picture device delayed the inventive process. This dilemma was aided when John Carbutt developed emulsion-coated celluloid film sheets, which began to be used in the Edison experiments. The Eastman Company later produced its own celluloid film which Dickson soon bought in large quantities. By 1890, Dickson was joined by a new assistant, William Heise, and the two began to develop a machine that exposed a strip of film in a horizontal-feed mechanism.

A prototype for the Kinetoscope was finally shown to a convention of the National Federation of Women's Clubs on May 20, 1891. The device was both a camera and a peep-hole viewer, and the film used was 18mm wide. According to David Robinson who describes the Kinetoscope in his book, From Peep Show to Palace: The Birth of American Film, the film "ran horizontally between two spools, at continuous speed. A rapidly moving shutter gave intermittent exposures when the apparatus was used as a camera, and intermittent glimpses of the positive print when it was used as a viewer--when the spectator looked through the same aperture that housed the camera lens."

A patent for the Kinetograph (the camera) and the Kinetoscope (the viewer) was filed on August 24, 1891.

Edison's Kinetoscope, open. Film was threaded on rollers as a continuo us ribbon. In this patent, the width of the film was specified as 35mm, and allowance was made for the possible use of a cylinder. Edison's Kinetoscope, closed. The viewer would look through the lens at the top of the machine to watch a film.

The Kinetoscope was apparently completed by 1892. David Robinson writes:

It consisted of an upright wooden cabinet, 18 in. x 27 in. x 4 ft. high, with a peephole with magnifying lenses in the top. Inside the box the film, in a continuous band of approximately 50 feet, was arranged around a series of spools. A large, electrically driven sprocket wheel at the top of the box engaged corresponding sprocket holes punched in the edges of the film, which was thus drawn under the lens at a continuous rate. Beneath the film was an electric lamp, and between the lamp and the film a revolving shutter with a narrow slit. As each frame passed under the lens, the shutter permitted a flash of light so brief that the frame appeared to be frozen. This rapid series of apparently still frames appeared, thanks to the persistence of vision phenomenon, as a moving image. (From Peep Show to Palace, bl. 34)

At this point, the horizontal-feed system had been changed to one in which the film was fed vertically. The viewer would look into a peep-hole at the top of the cabinet in order to see the image move. The first public demonstration of the Kinetoscope was held at the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences on May 9, 1893.


Inhoud

An encounter with the work and ideas of photographic pioneer Eadweard Muybridge appears to have spurred Edison to pursue the development of a motion picture system. On February 25, 1888, in Kaust, Kentucky, Muybridge gave a lecture that may have included a demonstration of his zoopraxiscope, a device that projected sequential images drawn around the edge of a glass disc, producing the illusion of motion. The Edison facility was very close by, and the lecture was possibly attended by both Edison and his company's official photographer, William Dickson. Two days later, Muybridge and Edison met at Edison's laboratory in West Orange Muybridge later described how he proposed a collaboration to join his device with the Edison phonograph—a combination system that would play sound and images concurrently. [3] No such collaboration was undertaken, but in October 1888, Edison filed a preliminary claim, known as a caveat, with the U.S. Patent Office announcing his plans to create a device that would do "for the Eye what the phonograph does for the Ear". It is clear that it was intended as part of a complete audiovisual system: "we may see & hear a whole Opera as perfectly as if actually present". [4] In March 1889, a second caveat was filed, in which the proposed motion picture device was given a name, Kinetoscope, derived from the Greek roots kineto- ("movement") and scopos ("to view"). [5]

Edison assigned Dickson, one of his most talented employees, to the job of making the Kinetoscope a reality. Edison would take full credit for the invention, but the historiographical consensus is that the title of creator can hardly go to one man:

While Edison seems to have conceived the idea and initiated the experiments, Dickson apparently performed the bulk of the experimentation, leading most modern scholars to assign Dickson with the major credit for turning the concept into a practical reality. The Edison laboratory, though, worked as a collaborative organization. Laboratory assistants were assigned to work on many projects while Edison supervised and involved himself and participated to varying degrees. [6]

Dickson and his then lead assistant, Charles Brown, made halting progress at first. Edison's original idea involved recording pinpoint photographs, 1/32 of an inch wide, directly on to a cylinder (also referred to as a "drum") the cylinder, made of an opaque material for positive images or of glass for negatives, was coated in collodion to provide a photographic base. [7] An audio cylinder would provide synchronized sound, while the rotating images, hardly operatic in scale, were viewed through a microscope-like tube. When tests were made with images expanded to a mere 1/8 of an inch in width, the coarseness of the silver bromide emulsion used on the cylinder became unacceptably apparent. Around June 1889, the lab began working with sensitized celluloid sheets, supplied by John Carbutt, that could be wrapped around the cylinder, providing a far superior base for the recording of photographs. [8] The first film made for the Kinetoscope, and apparently the first motion picture ever produced on photographic film in the United States, may have been shot at this time (there is an unresolved debate over whether it was made in June 1889 or November 1890) known as Monkeyshines, No. 1, it shows an employee of the lab in an apparently tongue-in-cheek display of physical dexterity. [9] Attempts at synchronizing sound were soon left behind, while Dickson would also experiment with disc-based exhibition designs. [10]

The project would soon head off in more productive directions, largely impelled by a trip of Edison's to Europe and the Exposition Universelle in Paris, for which he departed August 2 or 3, 1889. [11] During his two months abroad, Edison visited with scientist-photographer Étienne-Jules Marey, who had devised a "chronophotographic gun"—the first portable motion picture camera—which used a strip of flexible film designed to capture sequential images at twelve frames per second. [12] Upon his return to the United States, Edison filed another patent caveat, on November 2, which described a Kinetoscope based not just on a flexible filmstrip, but one in which the film was perforated to allow for its engagement by sprockets, making its mechanical conveyance much more smooth and reliable. [13] The first motion picture system to employ a perforated image band was apparently the Théâtre Optique, patented by French inventor Charles-Émile Reynaud in 1888. Reynaud's system did not use photographic film, but images painted on gelatine frames. [14] At the Exposition Universelle, Edison would have seen both the Théâtre Optique and the electrical tachyscope of German inventor Ottamar Anschütz. [15] This disc-based projection device is often referred to as an important conceptual source for the development of the Kinetoscope. Its crucial innovation was to take advantage of the persistence of vision theory by using an intermittent light source to momentarily "freeze" the projection of each image the goal was to facilitate the viewer's retention of many minutely different stages of a photographed activity, thus producing a highly effective illusion of constant motion. By late 1890, intermittent visibility would be integral to the Kinetoscope's design. [16]

The question of when the Edison lab began working on a filmstrip device is a matter of historical debate. According to Dickson, in the summer of 1889, he began cutting the stiff celluloid sheets supplied by Carbutt into strips for use in such a prototype machine in August, by his description, he attended a demonstration of George Eastman's new flexible film and was given a roll by an Eastman representative, which was immediately applied to experiments with the prototype. [17] As described by historian Marta Braun, Eastman's product

was sufficiently strong, thin, and pliable to permit the intermittent movement of the film strip behind [a camera] lens at considerable speed and under great tension without tearing . stimulat[ing] the almost immediate solution of the essential problems of cinematic invention. [18]

Some scholars—in particular, Gordon Hendricks, in The Edison Motion Picture Myth (1961)—have argued that the lab began working on a filmstrip machine much later and that Dickson and Edison misrepresented the date to establish priority for reasons of both patent protection and intellectual status. In any event, though film historian David Robinson claims that "the cylinder experiments seem to have been carried on to the bitter end" (meaning the final months of 1890), as far back as September 1889—while Edison was still in Europe, but corresponding regularly with Dickson—the lab definitely placed its first order with the Eastman company for roll film. Three more orders for roll film were placed over the next five months. [19]

Only sporadic work was done on the Kinetoscope for much of 1890 as Dickson concentrated on Edison's unsuccessful venture into ore milling—between May and November, no expenses at all were billed to the lab's Kinetoscope account. [20] By early 1891, however, Dickson, his new chief assistant, William Heise, and another lab employee, Charles Kayser, had succeeded in devising a functional strip-based film viewing system. In the new design, whose mechanics were housed in a wooden cabinet, a loop of horizontally configured 19 mm (3/4 inch) film ran around a series of spindles. The film, with a single row of perforations engaged by an electrically powered sprocket wheel, was drawn continuously beneath a magnifying lens. [21] An electric lamp shone up from beneath the film, casting its circular-format images onto the lens and thence through a peephole atop the cabinet. As described by Robinson, a rapidly spinning shutter "permitted a flash of light so brief that [each] frame appeared to be frozen. This rapid series of apparently still frames appeared, thanks to the persistence of vision phenomenon, as a moving image." [22] The lab also developed a motor-powered camera, the Kinetograph, capable of shooting with the new sprocketed film. To govern the intermittent movement of the film in the camera, allowing the strip to stop long enough so each frame could be fully exposed and then advancing it quickly (in about 1/460 of a second) to the next frame, the sprocket wheel that engaged the strip was driven by an escapement disc mechanism—the first practical system for the high-speed stop-and-go film movement that would be the foundation for the next century of cinematography. [23]

On May 20, 1891, the first public demonstration of a prototype Kinetoscope was given at the laboratory for approximately 150 members of the National Federation of Women's Clubs. The New York Sun described what the club women saw in the "small pine box" they encountered:

In the top of the box was a hole perhaps an inch in diameter. As they looked through the hole they saw the picture of a man. It was a most marvelous picture. It bowed and smiled and waved its hands and took off its hat with the most perfect naturalness and grace. Every motion was perfect. [25]

The man was Dickson the little movie, approximately three seconds long, is now referred to as Dickson Greeting. On August 24, three detailed patent applications were filed: the first for a "Kinetographic Camera", [26] the second for the camera as well, and the third for an "Apparatus for Exhibiting Photographs of Moving Objects". [27] [28] In the first Kinetograph application, Edison stated, "I have been able to take with a single camera and a tape-film as many as forty-six photographs per second. but I do not wish to limit the scope of my invention to this high rate of speed. since with some subjects a speed as low as thirty pictures per second or even lower is sufficient." [29] Indeed, according to the Library of Congress archive, based on data from a study by historian Charles Musser, Dickson Greeting and at least two other films made with the Kinetograph in 1891 were shot at 30 frames per second or even slower. [30] The Kinetoscope application also included a plan for a stereoscopic film projection system that was apparently abandoned. [31]

In the spring of the following year, steps began to make coin operation, via a nickel slot, part of the mechanics of the viewing system. [32] By autumn 1892, the design of the Kinetoscope was essentially complete. The filmstrip, based on stock manufactured first by Eastman, and then, from April 1893 onward, by New York's Blair Camera Co., was 35 mm (1 3/8 inches) wide each vertically sequenced frame bore a rectangular image and four perforations on each side. [33] Within a few years, this basic format would be adopted globally as the standard for motion picture film, which it remains to this day. The publication in the October 1892 Phonogram of cinematographic sequences shot in the format demonstrates that the Kinetograph had already been reconfigured to produce movies with the new film. [34]

As for the Kinetoscope itself, there is a significant disagreement over the location of the shutter providing the crucial intermittent visibility effect. According to a report by inventor Herman Casler described as "authoritative" by Hendricks, who personally examined five of the six still-extant first-generation devices, "Just above the film. a shutter wheel having five spokes and a very small rectangular opening in the rim [rotates] directly over the film. An incandescent lamp. is placed below the film. and the light passes up through the film, shutter opening, and magnifying lens. to the eye of the observer placed at the opening in the top of the case." [35] Robinson, on the other hand, says the shutter—which he agrees has only a single slit—is positioned lower, "between the lamp and film". [22] The Casler–Hendricks description is supported by the diagrams of the Kinetoscope that accompany the 1891 patent application, in particular, diagram 2. A side view, it does not illustrate the shutter, but it shows the impossibility of it fitting between the lamp and the film without a major redesign and indicates a space that seems suitable for it between the film strip and the lens. [36] Robinson's description, however, is supported by a photograph of a Kinetoscope interior that appears in Hendricks's own book. [37]

On February 21, 1893, a patent was issued for the system that governed the intermittent movement of film in the Kinetograph. However, Robinson (1997) misleadingly stated that "patents for the Kinetograph camera and the Kinetoscope viewer were finally issued" in early 1893 (p. 38). As explained by Braun (1992), "except for the device used to stop and start the moving film, which was granted a patent in 1893, all the parts of the application describing the camera were ultimately disallowed because of previous inventors' claims" (p. 191). Also, Hendricks (1961) described the outcome of the camera patent similarly to Braun (pp. 136–137). The facts in sum are: (a) a patent solely for the intermittent movement apparatus was issued in February 1893 (b) all the other elements of the original Kinetograph patent applications were successfully challenged and (c) a patent, number 589,168, [26] for a complete Kinetograph camera, one substantially different from that described in the original applications, was issued on August 31, 1897. [38]

The escapement-based mechanism would be superseded within a few years by competing systems, in particular those based on the so-called Geneva drive or "Maltese cross" that would become the norm for both movie cameras and projectors. [39] The exhibition device itself—which, despite erroneous accounts to the contrary, never employed intermittent film movement, only intermittent lighting or viewing—was finally awarded its patent, number 493,426, on March 14. [40] The Kinetoscope was ready to be unveiled.

The premiere of the completed Kinetoscope was held not at the Chicago World's Fair, as originally scheduled, but at the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences on May 9, 1893. The first film publicly shown on the system was Blacksmith Scene (aka Blacksmiths) directed by Dickson and shot by Heise, it was produced at the new Edison moviemaking studio, known as the Black Maria. [42] Despite extensive promotion, a major display of the Kinetoscope, involving as many as twenty-five machines, never took place at the Chicago exposition. Kinetoscope production had been delayed in part because of Dickson's absence of more than eleven weeks early in the year with a nervous breakdown. [43] Robinson argues that "[s]peculation that a single Kinetoscope reached the Fair seems to be conclusively dismissed by an 1894 leaflet issued for the launching of the invention in London," which states, "the Kinetoscope was not perfected in time for the great Fair." [44] Hendricks, in contrast, refers to accounts in the Scientific American of July 22 and October 21, 1893, that constitute evidence no less "conclusive" that one Kinetoscope did make it to the fair. [45] [46] The weight of evidence supports Hendricks as fair historian Stanley Appelbaum states, "Doubt has been cast on the reports of [the Kinetoscope's] actual presence at the fair, but these reports are numerous and circumstantial" (Appelbaum does err in claiming that the device was "first shown at the Exposition"). [47] Anschütz's Electrotachyscopes were exhibited in the Electrical Building of the Exposition as the "Greatest Wonder of the World" and were sometimes mistaken to be the long-awaited Edison machines. [48]

Work proceeded, though slowly, on the Kinetoscope project. On October 6, a U.S. copyright was issued for a "publication" received by the Library of Congress consisting of "Edison Kinetoscopic Records." It remains unclear what film was awarded this, the first motion picture copyright in North America. [49] By the turn of the year, the Kinetoscope project would be reenergized. During the first week of January 1894, a five-second film starring an Edison technician was shot at the Black Maria Fred Ott's Sneeze, as it is now widely known, was made expressly to produce a sequence of images for an article in Harper's tydskrif. Never intended for exhibition, it would become one of the most famous Edison films and the first identifiable motion picture to receive a U.S. copyright. Three months later, the Kinetoscope's epochal moment arrived. [50]

On April 14, 1894, a public Kinetoscope parlor was opened by the Holland Bros. in New York City at 1155 Broadway, on the corner of 27th Street—the first commercial motion picture house. The venue had ten machines, set up in parallel rows of five, each showing a different movie. For 25 cents a viewer could see all the films in either row half a dollar gave access to the entire bill. [51] The machines were purchased from the new Kinetoscope Company, which had contracted with Edison for their production the firm, headed by Norman C. Raff and Frank R. Gammon, included among its investors Andrew M. Holland, one of the entrepreneurial siblings, and Edison's former business chief, Alfred O. Tate. The ten films that comprise the first commercial movie program, all shot at the Black Maria, were descriptively titled: Barber Shop, Bertoldi (mouth support) (Ena Bertoldi, a British vaudeville contortionist), Bertoldi (table contortion), Blacksmiths, Roosters (some manner of cock fight), Highland Dance, Horse Shoeing, Sandow (Eugen Sandow, a German strongman managed by Florenz Ziegfeld), Trapeze, en Stoei. [52] As historian Charles Musser describes, a "profound transformation of American life and performance culture" had begun. [50]

Twenty-five cents for no more than a few minutes of entertainment was hardly cheap diversion. For the same amount, one could purchase a ticket to a major vaudeville theater when America's first amusement park opened in Coney Island the following year, a 25-cent entrance fee covered admission to three rides, a performing sea lion show, and a dance hall. [53] The Kinetoscope was an immediate success, however, and by June 1, the Hollands were also operating venues in Chicago and San Francisco. Entrepreneurs (including Raff and Gammon, with their own International Novelty Co.) were soon running Kinetoscope parlors and temporary exhibition venues around the United States. New firms joined the Kinetoscope Company in commissioning and marketing the machines. The Kinetoscope exhibition spaces were largely, though not uniformly, profitable. After fifty weeks in operation, the Hollands' New York parlor had generated approximately $1,400 in monthly receipts against an estimated $515 in monthly operating costs receipts from the Chicago venue (located in a Masonic temple) were substantially lower, about $700 a month, though presumably operating costs were lower as well. [54] For each machine, Edison's business at first generally charged $250 to the Kinetoscope Company and other distributors, which would use them in their own exhibition parlors or resell them to independent exhibitors individual films were initially priced by Edison at $10. [55] During the Kinetoscope's first eleven months of commercialization, the sale of viewing machines, films, and auxiliary items generated a profit of more than $85,000 for Edison's company. [56]

One of the new firms to enter the field was the Kinetoscope Exhibition Company the firm's partners, brothers Otway and Grey Latham, Otway's friend Enoch Rector, and their employer, Samuel J. Tilden Jr., sought to combine the popularity of the Kinetoscope with that of prizefighting. This led to a series of significant developments in the motion picture field: The Kinetograph was then capable of shooting only a 50-foot-long negative (evidence suggests 48 feet (15 m) feet was the longest length actually used). [57] At 16 frames per foot, this meant a maximum running time of 20 seconds at 40 frames per second (fps), the speed most frequently employed with the camera. At the rate of 30 fps that had been used as far back as 1891, a film could run for almost 27 seconds. Hendricks identifies Sandow as having been shot at 16 fps, as does the Library of Congress in its online catalog, where its duration is listed as 40 seconds. [58] Even at the slowest of these rates, the running time would not have been enough to accommodate a satisfactory exchange of fisticuffs 16 fps, as well, might have been thought to give too herky-jerky a visual effect for enjoyment of the sport. The Kinetograph and Kinetoscope were modified, possibly with Rector's assistance, so they could manage filmstrips three times longer than had previously been used. [59]

On June 14, a match with abbreviated rounds was staged between boxers Michael Leonard and Jack Cushing at the Black Maria. Seven-hundred-and-fifty feet worth of images or even more were shot at the rate of 30 fps—easily the longest motion picture to date. [61] In August 1894, the film premiered at the Kinetoscope Exhibition Company's parlor at 83 Nassau Street in New York. A half-dozen expanded Kinetoscope machines each showed a different round of the fight for a dime, meaning sixty cents to see the complete bout. [62] For a planned series of follow-up fights (of which the outcome of at least the first was fixed), the Lathams signed famous heavyweight James J. Corbett, stipulating that his image could not be recorded by any other Kinetoscope company—the first movie star contract. [63]

Just three months after the commercial debut of the motion picture came the first recorded instance of motion picture censorship. The film in question showed a performance by the Spanish dancer Carmencita, a New York music hall star since the beginning of the decade. According to one description of her live act, she "communicated an intense sexuality across the footlights that led male reporters to write long, exuberant columns about her performance"—articles that would later be reproduced in the Edison film catalog. [64] The Kinetoscope movie of her dance, shot at the Black Maria in mid-March 1894, was playing in the New Jersey resort town Asbury Park by summer. The town's founder, James A. Bradley, a real estate developer and leading member of the Methodist community, had recently been elected a state senator: [65] "The Newark Evening News of 17 July 1894 reported that [Senator] Bradley. was so shocked by the glimpse of Carmencita's ankles and lace that he complained to Mayor Ten Broeck. The showman was thereupon ordered to withdraw the offending film, which he replaced with Boxing Cats." [66] The following month, a San Francisco exhibitor was arrested for a Kinetoscope operation "alleged to be indecent." [67] The group whose disgruntlement occasioned the arrest was the Pacific Society for the Suppression of Vice, whose targets included "illicit literature, obscene pictures and books, the sale of morphine, cocaine, opium, tobacco and liquors to minors, lottery tickets, etc.," and which proudly took credit for having "caused 70 arrests and obtained 48 convictions" in a recent two-month span. [68]


Kyk die video: Documental de Thomas Edison 2020 hd - Inventor de la luz (Januarie 2022).