Hatti

Die Hatti was 'n inheemse volk in Sentraal-Anatolië (die huidige Turkye) wat die eerste keer in die gebied rondom die Kizil Irmak-rivier verskyn het. Die algemene begrip is dat hulle inheems was in die land, alhoewel daar voorgestel is dat hulle voor 2400 vC na die gebied getrek het. Die streek was bekend as 'Land of the Hatti' vanaf ongeveer. 2350 BCE tot 630 BCE, wat die invloed van die Hattiese kultuur daar getuig. Hulle het 'n taal genaamd Hatties gepraat en het skynbaar nie 'n eie skryftaal gehad nie, met spykerskrif vir handel. Aangesien die gebied baie beboste was, het die Hatti hul huise van hout gebou en hul bestaan ​​uit hout, keramiek en ander hulpbronne gemaak. Hulle godsdiens was gefokus op die aanbidding van 'n Moedergodin wat verseker het dat hul gewasse groei en hul vee gesond bly. Hulle het mak diere gehou en klere en komberse van skaapwol gemaak. As 'n agrariese samelewing het hulle ook die landerye makgemaak en graan geplant waarop hulle hoofsaaklik geleef het, maar ook hul dieet aangevul deur jag. Aangesien hulle godsdiens gebaseer was op die idee dat alles in die natuur heilig was en 'n goddelike gees gehad het, blyk dit egter nie dat jag op vleis 'n algemene gebruik was nie en moontlik slegs betrokke was by spesifieke feeste waar koninklikes betrokke was.

Deur 'n aansienlike aantal stadstate en klein koninkryke te beheer, het hulle teen 2700 vC winsgewende handel met die streek Sumer (suidelike Mesopotamië) gevestig. Die historikus Erdal Yavuz skryf:

Anatolië bied 'n sagte klimaat met betroubare en gereelde reënval wat nodig is vir 'n gereelde landbouproduksie. Behalwe die hout en klip wat noodsaaklik is vir die bou, maar 'n gebrek aan Mesopotamië het Anatolië ryk myne wat koper, silwer, yster en goud verskaf het (1).

Hulle handel met die stede Mesopotamië het die streek verryk en gehelp om hul koninkryk te ontwikkel. Die historikus Marc Van De Mieroop sluit die Hatti in onder die nasies en nasiestate in die diplomatieke en handelskonsortium waarna hy verwys as The Club of the Great Powers. Hierdie 'klub', soos Van De Mieroop dit aandui, het Mitanni, Babylonië, Assirië, Hatti en Egipte ingesluit, maar teen die tyd dat Kingdom of the Hatti betrokke was by internasionale betrekkinge (ongeveer 1500-1200 v.G.J.), was hulle onder beheer van die Hetiete en het reeds hul taal en kultuur verloor.

In 2500 vC vestig die Hatti hul hoofstad hoog op 'n heuwel in die stad Hattusa.

In 2500 vC vestig die Hatti hul hoofstad hoog op 'n heuwel in die stad Hattusa en hou hulle land veilig in die omliggende gebiede, wette toe te pas en handel in 'n aantal buurstate te reguleer. Tussen c. 2334-2279 VC het die groot Sargon van Akkad die streek binnegeval nadat hy die stad Ur in 2330 VC ontneem het. Daarna het hy sy aandag op Hattusa gevestig, maar kon hy geen voordeel trek uit die stad se verdediging nie, veral omdat dit hoog op 'n goed verdedigde en versterkte plato geleë was. Na die veldtogte van Sargon in die streek, het sy kleinseun Naram-Sin (2261-2224 v.C.) sy beleid voortgesit en teen die Hattic King Pamba laat in die 23ste eeu vC geveg met so min sukses as wat sy oupa gehad het. Ten spyte van die konstante teistering van die Akkadiërs, het Hattiese kuns omstreeks 2200 v.C. floreer, en teen 2000 v.G. was hul beskawing op sy hoogtepunt met welvarende handelskolonies tussen Hattusa en hul ander stad Kanesh, en natuurlik voortgesette handelsbetrekkinge met Mesopotamië.

In 1700 vC is die koninkryk van die Hatti weer binnegedring, hierdie keer deur die Hetiete, en die groot stad Hattusa is bestorm en vernietig deur 'n koning genaamd Anitta uit die naburige Koninkryk Kussara. Opgrawings op die terrein toon dat die stad tot op die grond afgebrand is. Koning Anitta het so 'n minagting vir die stad wat hy oorwin het, dat hy die grond vervloek en verder vervloek wie Hattusa sou herbou en daar wou regeer. Tog, nie lank daarna nie, is die stad herbou en herbevolk deur 'n latere koning van Kussara wat homself Hattusili genoem het. Van De Mieroop beskryf dit en skryf:

'N Heerser genaamd Hattusili het die Hetitiese staat in die vroeë of middel van die sewentiende eeu geskep. Hy is die erfgenaam van die troon van Kussara en het vinnig sy mededingers in Sentraal -Anatolië verslaan. Onder sy verowerings was die stad Hattusa, geleë in die middel van die streek op 'n strategiese en goed beskermde terrein danksy sy ligging op 'n heuwel. Hy het Hattusa sy hoofstad gemaak en moontlik sy naam verander om saam te val met die van die stad (121).

Die naam Hattusili beteken 'Een uit Hattusa', maar dit is nie duidelik of die koning die naam na die heropbou van die stad gekry het nie, of dat hy alreeds bekend was onder die naam. Deur die beroemde dokument, The Edict of Telepinu (16de eeu v.G.J.), wat 'n bepaling was van wette en verordeninge gebaseer op vorige presedente, het moderne geleerdes baie geleer van die geskiedenis van die heersers van die Ou Koninkryk van die Hetiete (soos Hatti is verwys) en weet dat Hattusili I ook bekend was as 'Man of Kussara'. Dit is dus waarskynlik dat hy sy nuwe naam aangeneem het nadat hy Hattusa beset het. Aangesien daar 'n tekort aan rekords uit hierdie tydperk is, verskil geleerdes oor wanneer Hattusili I sy naam aangeneem het of waarom. Dit is ook nie bekend of die stad herbou is na die verowering van Anitta nie (en daarom moes Hattusili dit met geweld inneem) of Hattusili bloot die terrein beset en op die ruïnes van die ou stad gebou het.

Die lande van die Hatti is stelselmatig deur die Hetiete verower en die mense het saamgesmelt in die kultuur van hul veroweraars. Die Hetiete was bekend as die Nesili vir hulself en hul tydgenote en die naam 'Hetiet' kom van die Hebreeuse skrifgeleerdes wat die Bybelse vertellings van die Ou Testament geskryf het. Hulle het moontlik na die streek gemigreer of, waarskynlik, baie jare langs die Hatti gewoon voordat vyandighede tussen die twee mense begin het. Teen 1650 vC het die Hetiete, onder Hattusili I, die laaste van die Hatti -verset verslaan en tot die heerskappy van die gebied gekom. Die Hatti -streek van Anatolië was egter tot 630 vC nog steeds bekend as die 'Land van die Hatti', soos bekend is uit verwysings in die geskrifte van beide die Egiptenare en die Assiriërs. Die belangrikheid van die land van die Hatti in internasionale betrekkinge word getuig van The Amarna Letters, spykerskrifttablette wat aan die einde van die 19de eeu gevind is in Amarna, Egipte, wat korrespondensie is tussen die Egiptiese farao en die konings van Mitanni, Babilonië, Assirië, en Hatti. Van De Mieroop skryf:

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Die konings beskou hulleself as gelykes en spreek mekaar as broers aan. Hulle het diplomatieke aangeleenthede bespreek, veral die uitruil van kosbare goedere en koninklike vroue, wat die bande tussen hulle versterk het. Terwyl die meeste briewe in Babilonies geskryf was, was daar twee in Hetities en een elk in Hurrian en Assirië. Hierdie Amarna -briewe beslaan 'n kort tydperk van hoogstens dertig jaar vanaf ca. 1365 tot 1335, maar dit is seker dat hierdie tipe korrespondensie gedurende die tydperk op verskeie plekke gehandhaaf is (135).

Die artistieke weergawes van Hatti in hierdie tyd beeld die gewone mense met 'n langer neus en aansienlik ander gelaatstrekke uit as dié van hul leiers, wat die Hetitiese here en hul Hattiese vasale duidelik toon. Wie die Hatti ook al oorspronklik was, of waar hulle vandaan kom, bly 'n raaisel in die moderne tyd as gevolg van die uiteindelike samesmelting van die twee kulture en die gebrek aan aantekeninge. Teen die tyd van Telepinu, die laaste koning van die Hetitiese ou koninkryk (regeer ongeveer 1525-1500 v.C.), is die Hatti bloot as 'n lastige faksie van die bevolking voorgestel, nie as 'n aparte etniese groep nie. Die beskawing wat hulle gestig het, het moontlik aan die Hetiete 'n gevestigde kultuur, handelsooreenkomste en landbouvooruitgang verskaf, saam met godsdiens, maar dit is net so moontlik dat die Hetitiese kultuur reeds sulke dinge in plek gehad het toe hulle die eerste keer op Hattusa opgeruk het. Die werklike aard van die verhouding tussen die Hatti en die Hetiete bly 'n raaisel in die moderne tyd en wag op die ontdekking van antieke dokumentasie om opgelos te word.


Geskiedenis van Haïti

Verskeie verwysings

Die volgende bespreking fokus op gebeure uit die tyd van Europese vestiging. Vir die behandeling van die vroeëre geskiedenis en die land in sy plaaslike konteks, kyk Wes-Indies.

... het die onafhanklike nasie Haïti gesmee. Slawe in Venezuela, gedeeltelik geïnspireer deur die Karibiese gebeure, het hul eie opstande in die 1790's uitgevoer. Net soos dit 'n baken van hoop vir die slawe was, was Haïti 'n waarskuwing vir alles wat verkeerd kan gaan vir elite in die kakao-groei ...

... het hulle in 1804 bevry, het die Haïtianers in die vroeë 1820's Santo Domingo binnegeval en die voormalige, byna vergete Spaanse kolonie opgeneem in 'n Haïti-Hispaniola. In 1844 verwerp Dominikane die Haïtiaanse hegemonie en verklaar hulle soewereiniteit. Later keer hulle kortliks terug na die Spaanse kroon, en bereik hulle hul finale onafhanklikheid in ...

... bevolking in Saint-Domingue, later Haïti genoem, wat die rykste van al die wêreld se kolonies was en voor 1791 die grootste verskaffer van suiker. Die slawe het 'n paar van hul kulturele waardes saamgedra en probeer om hul gemeenskappe te herkonstrueer onder die skaduwee van die groot plantasiehuise. Bantoe…

In Oktober 2010, in die maande na 'n verwoestende aardbewing in Haïti, het die El Tor -biotipe na vore gekom in die Artibonite -provinsie van Haïti, waar fekale materiaal die Artibonite -rivier besmet het, wat 'n groot bron van drinkwater was. Teen Januarie 2011…

... Hispaniola, bestaande uit die lande Haïti en die Dominikaanse Republiek. Die ergste geraak was Haïti, wat die westelike derde van die eiland beset het. 'N Presiese dodetal was ontwykend in die daaropvolgende chaos. Die amptelike telling van die Haïtiaanse regering was meer as 300,000, maar ander skattings was aansienlik kleiner. Honderde duisende…

... dat die nasionale vlag van Haïti dieselfde blou-rooi patroon gehad het. Om verwarring in die toekoms te voorkom, is die volgende jaar 'n geel kroon bygevoeg naby die takel van die blou streep in die Liechtenstein -vlag. Die kroon staan ​​vir die eenheid van die mense en hul prins, blou simboliseer ...

& gtHaiti)-die rykste van alle nie-blanke 18de-eeuse kolonies ter wêreld-was Frans. In Saint-Domingue het 30 000 blankes ongemaklik gestaan ​​oor 'n swart slawe-bevolking wat teen 1789 tot meer as 400,000 gegroei het. Op die eilande produseer die slawe suikerriet en koffie, wat verfyn is in ...

Die eiland Hispaniola, waarvan die Dominikaanse Republiek nou die oostelike tweederdes vorm en die Republiek Haïti die res beslaan, het 'n onstuimige geskiedenis wat weerspieël word in die kulture van die 21ste eeu. Christopher Columbus land in 1492 op Hispaniola. Die Taino wat gestig is ...

... wat die naam Saint-Domingue (later Haïti) gekry het, het 'n welvarende suikerproduserende kolonie gegrond op Swart slawerny daar grootgeword. Die Spaanse kolonie beleef ook 'n beskeie ekonomiese oplewing in die 18de eeu as 'n byproduk van die welvaart van Saint-Domingue, maar die bevolking bereik slegs ongeveer 100,000-ongeveer 'n vyfde van die van die Franse kolonie.

... kernwapenontwikkeling daar, met Haïti om 'n vreedsame magsoordrag te bewerkstellig, en met Bosniese Serwiërs en Moslems om 'n kortstondige skietstilstand te bewerkstellig. Sy pogings namens internasionale vrede en sy hoogs sigbare deelname aan die bou van huise vir armes deur Habitat for Humanity wat in die publiek gevestig is ...

... toe 'n skare gewapende Haïtiane in Port-au-Prince die terugtrekking van Amerikaanse en Kanadese troepe dwing om die terugkeer van die afgedankte president, Jean-Bertrand Aristide, voor te berei. Die geskil dateer uit 30 September 1991, toe 'n militêre staatsgreep onder leiding van brigadier -generaal Raoul Cédras Aristide in ballingskap geneem het en ...

Leierskap deur

8, 1820, Milot, Haïti), 'n leier in die oorlog van Haïtiaanse onafhanklikheid (1791-1804) en later president (1807-11) en selfverklaarde koning Henry I (1811–20) van Noord-Haïti.

... Jean-Jacques Dessalines was keiser van Haïti van 1804 tot 1806 prinses van die huis van Bragança was keisers van Brasilië van 1822 tot 1889 Agustín de Iturbide en die Oostenrykse aartshertog Maximilian was onderskeidelik keisers van Mexiko van 1822 tot 1823 en 1864 tot 1867 . Die titel keiser ook ...

… Haïti — oorlede 29 Maart 1818, Port-au-Prince), Haïtiaanse onafhanklikheidsleier en president, onthou deur die Haïtiaanse bevolking vir sy liberale bewind en deur Suid-Amerikaners vir sy ondersteuning van Simón Bolívar tydens die stryd om onafhanklikheid van Spanje.

… Fort-de-Joux, Frankryk), leier van die Haïtiaanse onafhanklikheidsbeweging tydens die Franse Revolusie (1787–99). Hy het die slawe vrygemaak en onderhandel vir die Franse kolonie op Hispaniola, Saint-Domingue (later Haïti), wat kortliks deur swart voormalige slawe as 'n Franse protektoraat bestuur sou word.


Bekende verjaarsdae

John James Audubon

1785-04-26 John James Audubon, Amerikaanse ornitoloog en skilder (The Birds of America), gebore in Les Cayes, Haïti († 1851)

François Duvalier

1907-04-14 François Duvalier & quotPapa Doc & quot, diktator en president van Haïti (1957-71), gebore te Port-au-Prince, Haïti († 1971)

    Jacques Roumain, Haïtiaanse skrywer (Gouverneurs de la Rosée), gebore in Port-au-Prince, Haïti († 1944) Bernard Haitink, Nederlandse dirigent (Concertgebouw, 1961-88 London Philharmonic, 1967-79 Royal Opera Covent Garden, 1987- 2002), gebore in Amsterdam, Nethetlands Henri Namphy, president van Haïti (1986-88), gebore in Cap-Haïtien, Haïti Max Beauvoir, Haïti se hoof Voodoo-priester, gebore in Haïti (omstreeks 2015) Smarck Michel, premier van Haïti ( 1994-95), gebore in Saint-Marc, Haïti (omstreeks 2012)

René Préval

1943-01-17 René Préval, president van Haïti (1996-2001, 2006-2011), gebore te Port-au-Prince († 2017)

Jean-Claude Duvalier

1951-07-03 Jean-Claude Duvalier & quotBaby Doc & quot, Haïtiaanse diktator en afgesette Haïtiaanse president-vir-die-lewe (1971-86) berug vir sy brutaliteit, gebore in Port-au-Prince, Haïti (d. 2014)

    Jean-Bertrand Aristide, president van Haïti (1991, 1994-) Jean-Michel Basquiat, Amerikaanse kunstenaar (Gray, SAMO), gebore in Brooklyn, NYC, New York († 1988) Garcelle Beauvais, Haïtiaanse modemodel en aktrise (The Jamie Foxx Show), gebore in Saint-Marc, Haïti Bruny Surin, Cap Haitien Haiti, Kanadese 4X100m naelloper (Olimpiese goud 1996) Edwidge Danticat, Haïtiaans-Amerikaanse skrywer, gebore in Port-au-Prince, Haïti Wyclef Jean, Haïtiaans-Amerikaans rapper en sanger-liedjieskrywer, gebore in Croix-des-Bouquets, Haïti

Hatti - Geskiedenis

BASIESE GEGEVENS EN GEOGRAFIE

Haïti is 'n land op die eiland Hispaniola in die Karibiese See. Hispaniola het twee lande. Haïti maak ongeveer die westelike 1/3 van die eiland uit. Die Dominikaanse Republiek vorm die oostelike 2/3 van die eiland. Die twee lande is nie op baie vriendelike voet nie en was nog nooit. Hulle wortels is baie anders. Haïti word hoofsaaklik bevolk deur Afrika-Karibiese mense met 'n geskiedenis van die Franse kolonialisme. Die Dominikaanse Republiek bestaan ​​uit Afro-Europese gemengde mense en hul wortels word sterk beïnvloed deur die Spaanse kolonialisme.

Boonop het die twee lande 'n lang geskiedenis van wantroue, selfs haat. Haïti het die Dominikaanse Republiek twee keer in die 19de eeu beset, en in 1937 het die Dominikaanse Republiek 'n vreeslike slagting op Haïtiërs gedoen wat in of naby die grense van die Dominikaanse Republiek woon.

Haïti is ongeveer die grootte van die Amerikaanse deelstaat Maryland, net meer as 10 000 vierkante kilometer. Die huidige bevolking is ongeveer 7,500,000 in Haïti. Nog 'n miljoen Haïtiërs woon in die buiteland in die VSA, Kanada en Frankryk. Dit is moeilik om te weet hoeveel van hierdie mense net wag vir toestande om in Haïti te verbeter, of in watter mate hierdie Haïtiërs wat in die buiteland woon nou inwoners en burgers word in hierdie gasheernasies.

Van 1957 tot 1986 is Haïti regeer deur die Duvalier-familie in die persone van Francois Duvalier (Papa Doc-1957-1971) en sy seun, Jean-Claude Duvalier (Baby Doc-1971-1986). Dit was 'n tydperk van wrede diktatuur, die onderdrukking van die meeste normale vryhede in Haïti, veral politieke onenigheid van die 'Duvalier -revolusie'. Dit was ook in die latere jare 'n tydperk van 'n taamlik stabiele wet en orde samelewing wat 'n mens geneig is om met diktatorskap te kry.

In 1986 was daar 'n opstand onder die mense van Haïti en president Jean-Claude Duvalier het uit Haïti gevlug. Op hierdie tydstip het Haïti 'n baie moeilike tydperk beleef wat nog steeds aan die gang is. Dit is 'n tydperk van stryd om beheer oor die land, en dit het tot gevolg gehad baie politieke en sosiale onstabiliteit. Dit lyk asof daar 'n aantal faksies is, waaronder:

  • Ou Duvalieriste probeer om te keer dat verandering na Haïti kom.
  • Nuwe populiste, meestal verbonde aan oudpresident, Jean-Bertrand Aristide en die huidige president, Rene Preval.
  • Dit lyk asof daar nog 'n krag is wat nie in die Duvalierist -kamp is nie, maar ook gekant is teen die meeste hervormings wat die populiste beoog het. Dit is die dwelmbase en jonger weermagoffisiere, wat nie ten volle geïntegreer is in die ou wag Duvalierists -wêreld nie.

Vandag is Haïti 'n volk in wanorde en wanorde, onveilig, ekonomies wanhopig sonder veel duidelike hoop op beduidende verbetering in die nabye toekoms. Dit is 'n land wat sukkel.

Die oorgrote meerderheid van die mense van Haïti leef in desperate armoede en persoonlike onveiligheid. Hulle is werkloos, honger, onveilig en moedeloos. Desondanks sukkel baie om populistiese hervorming. Hierdie massas is sonder veel mag behalwe hul blote getalle. Die opposisie het mag, geld en die belangrikste, wapens.

Die internasionale gemeenskap, veral die Verenigde State, wat 'n groot mag in Haïti het, lyk sonder ernstige belangstelling in die lot van die massas van die Haïtiese armes.

DIE PRE-COLUMBIANSE TYDPERK.

Voordat Columbus op die eiland beland het (6 Desember 1492), sy tweede val in die 'Nuwe Wêreld', was daar 'n groot bevolking van Taino/Arawak-mense wat in relatiewe vrede op die eiland gewoon het. Dit is moeilik om hul getalle presies te ken, maar iewers lyk meer as 1/2 miljoen 'n redelike skatting.

Hulle het 'n baie eenvoudige lewe geleef, boerdery en visvang. Daar was min inheemse wild op die eiland om hul dieet aan te vul. Hulle het min vyande gehad, maar dit lyk asof hulle bang was vir die meer oorlogsagtige en aggressiewe Carib-mense wat gesentreer was op die nabygeleë eiland wat vandag Puerto Rico is.

Ongelukkig vir die Taino/Arawak het hulle bevriend geraak met die Spaanse en 'n paar geskenke met goue juweliersware gegee. Daar was nie veel goud op Hispaniola nie, maar die Spaanse het anders aangeneem en gedink dat Hispaniola die moederlading goud sou wees wat hulle wou vind. Dit het gelei tot terugreis na die eiland en die onderdrukking van die Taino/Arawak.

Dit het gou duidelik geword dat daar nie veel goud op Hispaniola was nie, en die Spaanse het dit in 'n broodmandjie verander, wat voedsel voorsien vir die veroweraars wat mense in die res van die Karibiese Eilande en Sentraal -Amerika verken en verower het. In die proses was die Taino/Arawak feitlik slaaf.

Hulle het nie goed gereageer op hierdie nuwe toestand van slawerny nie. Hulle sterf tydens die kraam en meer as dit sterf hulle aan Europese siektes. As 'n duidelike en herkenbare volk op die eiland Hispaniola, het hulle teen die middel van die 17de eeu verdwyn. Die Taino/Arawak het in ander dele van die Karibiese Eilande en Suid -Amerika oorleef, maar nie op Hispaniola nie.

Anders as in hierdie historiese konteks, dra dit nie veel by tot die latere ontwikkeling van die land Haïti nie. Hulle arbeid is vervang deur Afrikaanse slawe (die uiteindelike wortel van die mense wat vandag die bevolking van Haïti uitmaak). Daar moes beslis 'n paar onderlinge verhoudings tussen lede van die twee mense plaasgevind het, dus moes daar 'n paar oorblyfsels van Taino/Arawak-bloed oorgedra gewees het, en daar is 'n paar taalwoorde of 'n gewoonte hier en daar waarna Miskien teruggevoer kan word 'n Taino/Arawak -invloed. Hierdie bloed- en kultuurbydrae is egter baie klein in die vorming van die Haïtiaanse mense.

SPANSE KOLONIALISME: SUIKER EN slawe

Die Spanjaarde het vinnig agtergekom dat Hispaniola nie die bron van goud vir Spanje sou wees nie. Hispaniola is omskep in 'n boerderygebied om voedsel aan die Spaanse in ander dele van die Karibiese Eilande en Sentraal -Amerika te verskaf. Die eiland is eers deur die Taino/Arawak bewerk, maar kort voor lank is Afrikaanse slawe ingevoer. Dit het reeds in 1508 begin en die Afrikane het baie vinnig die primêre arbeidsbron geword. Suiker is bekendgestel as 'n gewas om by tabak en koffie aan te sluit as aantreklike gewasse sowel as gewone voedsel.

Kort voor lank het Hispaniola egter 'n eiland geword waar die Spaanse min belang het. Spaanse nedersettings is gestig in ander gebiede van die Karibiese Eilande en Sentraal- en Suid -Amerika, en hierdie setlaars vind dit meer ekonomies om hul eie voedsel te voorsien. Hispaniola het 'n taamlik oninteressante en nuttelose eiland geword. Daar was een stad in die verre suidooste van die eiland, die nedersetting wat vandag die hoofstad van die Dominikaanse Republiek is, Santo Domingo. Die Spanjaarde het hierdie nedersetting en die plase rondom dit behou, maar die res van die eiland was bietjie vir bietjie feitlik verlate en onbevolk (insluitend die uiters vrugbare westelike deel van die eiland wat later Haïti sou word).

PIRATE EN DIE FRANSE NEDERSETTING IN DIE WES

In die 17de en eeu het die grootste nasies van Europa privaat geborg. Dit was basies vrylanse seevaarders wat vir 'n Europese nasie gewerk het en die versending van mededingende nasies geteister het. Die matrose of vryryers soos hulle genoem is, het dikwels 'n deel van die buit gekry in hierdie veldslae en was die voorlopers van die latere seerowers.

Toe die nasies in Europa die gebruik van privaat persone minder beklemtoon het, was daar 'n groot vloot van hierdie moeilike mense wat nie gereed was om hul lewens te laat vaar tydens strooptogte nie. Hulle het nie-regerings vrylans rowers geword, die seerowers waarvan ons almal weet.

Een van die sterkpunte vir die seerowers was die eiland La Tortue (Turtle Island), 'n klein eiland, net 'n paar kilometer van die noordelike kus van wat vandag Haïti is, en, vandag, 'n besitting van Haïti. Die oorheersende groep seerowers wat La Tortue as basis gebruik het, was Franse seerowers.

Sedert die Spaanse dae van die gebruik van die westelike deel van die eiland, 50 tot 100 jaar tevore, was daar baie wilde diere wat oorleef het nadat die Spaanse die gebruik van die eiland laat vaar het. Dit het beeste, bokke, skape en perde ingesluit. Aangesien hierdie streek, die noordelike vlakte en die berge van Haïti, baie vrugbaar was, het die diere floreer. Die seerowers was dol daaroor om oor die smal water na die eiland Hispaniola te gaan om wilde wild te jag.

Hulle het die wild doodgemaak en dit oor 'n oop vuur gaargemaak. Dit is 'n 'boukan' in Frans, en hierdie proses en hierdie mense het bekend geword as 'boukanniers' in Frans, of buccaneers in Engels, 'n algemene term vir seerowers.

Piratery was egter nie meer wat dit was nie en sommige van hierdie Franse seerowers kies om hulle in Hispaniola te vestig en boere te word. Hulle het vroue na Frankryk teruggestuur, en Frankryk was maar te bly om sommige van die vrouegevangenisse leeg te maak en 'n verskeidenheid vroue wat hulle nie in Frankryk wou hê nie, na hierdie afgeleë Karibiese voorpos te stuur. Stadig ontwikkel 'n gemeenskap in die noord -sentrale en noordweste van Hispaniola. Teen die vroeë deel van die 17de eeu noem die Franse selfs sommige van hierdie voormalige seerowers as Franse amptenare om toesig te hou oor die gemeenskap wat daar ontstaan.

Die Spaanse protesteer teen die Franse teenwoordigheid, maar druk dit nooit regtig te veel nie. Die gemeenskap het gegroei en gewasse begin terugvloei na Frankryk. Dit was 'n aantreklike plek, vrugbaar en met 'n groot potensiaal as 'n kolonie.

Uiteindelik, in 1697 by die Verdrag van Rystwik, aan die einde van 'n Europese oorlog waarby Hispaniola glad nie betrokke was nie, het die Spanjaarde nog 'n onderhandeling nodig gehad en die westelike deel van Hispaniola aan die Franse afgestaan. So was die eiland verdeel. Die oostelike Spaanse gedeelte is Santo Domingo genoem, Spaans vir St. Dominic. Die Wes -Franse gedeelte is San Domingue genoem, Frans vir St. Dominic. Maar die eiland was nou verdeeld en 'n kenmerkende kenmerk, die geografiese een, is vasgestel vir die huidige Haïti.

DIE FRANSE KOLONIALE TYDPERK

Sedert die amptelike geboorte van die kolonie San Domingue (1697) vir net meer as 100 jaar, het die Franse kolonie gegroei en een van die rykste kolonies in die geskiedenis van die wêreld geword.

'N Landbou -ekonomie gebaseer op slawe -arbeid het suikerriet, koffie, die kleurstof indigo, katoen, tabak en baie eksotiese speserye gegroei wat in Europa en Asië baie gewild was. Die planters het die goedere geproduseer, maar is verbied om die gewasse in die kolonie self te verwerk. Al die goedere is dus na Frankryk gestuur en daar verwerk. Van die verwerkingsaanlegte versprei Franse handelaars na die hele Europa en naby Asië, wat 'n bloeiende ekonomie vir Frankryk skep. 'N Ander groot deel van hierdie ekonomie was die slawehandel self.

Die Franse koloniale slawestelsel was besonder brutaal, erger as feitlik enige ander plek in die Westerse wêreld. Slawe is gereeld met groot brutaliteit en onmenslikheid behandel. Die Franse het egter vir hul eie veiligheid dwaas toegelaat dat die aantal slawe sonder enige kommer groei, en binne 'n 100 jaar van koloniale bewind bereik hulle 'n baie gevaarlike verhouding van 10 tot vrye tot slawe. In 1791 was daar ongeveer 500 000 slawe en ongeveer 50 000 vrye mense. Ongeveer 30 000 van die vrymense was swart en mulatkleurige mense.

In die Franse koloniale stelsel kon vrye mense slawe en eiendom besit, maar daar was ook ander beperkings. Op San Domingue was die vrye mense van kleur nie baie betrokke by die suikerhandel nie, maar het veral koffie beheer. Hulle was egter 'n duidelike "heerser" -klas.

Hierdie struktuur was fenomenaal bepalend vir 'n groot deel van die latere geskiedenis van Haïtia. Na onafhanklikheid en die koms van 'n swart republiek, het hierdie klas voormalige gratis planters na vore gekom as heersers van Haïti. Hierdie klasstruktuur van 'n baie klein klas heersers en 'n groot massa gewone mense was nog altyd die norm in Haïti en is een van die grootste hindernisse vir die opkoms van Haïti in 'n land met 'n ernstige gevoel van demokratiese gelykheid.

DIE HAITSE REVOLUSIE: 1791-1804.

Die gees van die Franse Revolusie het Haïti besmet. Daarby kom die brutaliteit van die Franse slawestelsel en die groot aantal slawe met betrekking tot die vrye mense en die verhoog vir 'n blywende revolusie. Daar was baie opstande van slawe en pogings en sosiale verandering, maar die laaste oomblik van die Franse bewind kom in Augustus 1791 met 'n opstand wat meer handel oor die regte van vrye mense van kleur as oor vryheid vir slawe.

Hierdie opstand van 1791 het egter ontwikkel tot 'n volwaardige rewolusieoorlog. Frankryk het die belangrike ekonomiese belangrikheid van die kolonie besef en het elke poging aangewend om hul heerskappy te verdedig. Uiteindelik het Napoleon 'n groot ekspedisiemag gestuur om die kolonie veilig terug te wen vir Frankryk in 1802. Dit het die laaste revolusionêre ywer en die nederlaag van die Franse veroorsaak. Op 1 Januarie 1804 word die nasie Haïti uitgeroep. Dit was 'n geheel-swart (en mulatto) republiek met 'n grondwetlike verbod om wit mense grond te besit. Hierdie spesifieke bepaling van die Haïtiaanse grondwet duur tot 1918 totdat die besettingsmagte van die Verenigde State 'n grondwet op Haïti afgedwing het wat hierdie verbod nie bevat nie.

Daar is baie kontroversie oor die Haïtiaanse rewolusie en watter sin het hulle vir hierdie oorwinning oor die Franse. Ons sal dit betyds in meer besonderhede bestudeer.

VROEGE DAE VAN ONAFHANKLIKHEID: NAVOLGING VAN DIE FRANSE MODEL

Die ontluikende leiers van die nuut onafhanklike Haïti, Dessalines en Christophe, het probeer om die Franse stelsel na te volg sonder slawerny. Hulle wou 'n ekonomie bou wat gebaseer is op plantasie landbou en suiker. Eintlik het hulle verstommende prestasies behaal, wat albei die ekonomie op ongeveer 75% van die produktiwiteit van die pre-rewolusionêre tydperk terugbring. Dit is egter gedoen binne die konteks van 'n sosiale stelsel wat, hoewel dit nie 'n slawe -ekonomie was nie, dit genader het en baie meer op Europese diens gelyk het. Dit was eenvoudig nie wat die Haïtiaanse mense wou hê nie.

DIE ONTWIKKELING VAN DIE "TWEE HAITIS"

Tussen ongeveer 1820 tot 1840, onder die presidensies van Alexander Petion en Jean-Pierre Boyer, het die ou Franse plantstelsel van ekonomie vir ewig gesterf.

In die kortste vorm wat ontwikkel het, was 'n wêreld van een nasie, maar eintlik twee Haitis. Daar was die amptelike nasie van Haïti, regeer deur die regering, maar werklik gesentreer in die twee belangrikste stede, Port-au-Prince en Cap Haitien en die volgende halfdosyn grootste dorpe, almal behalwe een 'n hawestad. (Die enigste uitsondering was die binnelandse sentrale plato -stad Hinche.)

Hierdie dorpe is beheer deur die elite -eienaar van klein eiendom. Die oorgrote meerderheid Haïtiaanse mense het in die landelike gebiede gewoon en hoort eintlik nie in 'n normale sin van 'Haiti' nie. Die landbou het bestaan ​​en het soveel as moontlik van "Haïti" en sy regering en weermag weggehou. Gegewe die bergagtige aard van 'n groot deel van Haïti, was dit nie moeilik om te bereik nie. Daar was buffersones, markte, waar die plattelandse boere landbouprodukte, veral koffie, teen 'n breukdeel van sy internasionale waarde kon verruil in ruil vir noodsaaklikhede. Hierdie handel het die elite -klas in staat gestel om 'n aansienlike inkomste te verdien en vir die massas mense om te oorleef in 'n soort vrede, veiligheid en isolasie van 'Haiti', die amptelike nasie.

Hierdie proses was weereens uiters definitief in die vorming en skepping van die fundamentele sosiale, ekonomiese en regeringsisteem wat vandag nog in Haïti oorheers.

DIE IMPAK VAN DIE INTERNASIONALE GEMEENSKAP: HAITSE ONAFHANKLIKHEID DEUR DIE VSA BEROEP VAN 1915.

Die blanke eienaarswêreld was heeltemal geskok oor die oorwinning van Haïtiaanse revolusionêre oor Frankryk. Hier was 'n wit wêreld met slawe (Engeland het nie slawerny in 1833 verban nie, die eerste groot wit nasie wat dit gedoen het, en die VSA het tot 1862 slawe gehou) en dit was 'n skrikwekkende situasie. Daar was baie sprake van 'diensbare revolusies' en die kommer was dat slawe op ander plekke die suksesvolle Haïtiaanse revolusionêre as modelle sou neem en op ander plekke sou opstandig wees. Dit was 'n besondere kommer in die suide van die Verenigde State, waar die landbou-ekonomie van katoen en tabak heeltemal afhanklik was van slawe.

In Frankryk was daar nog meer kommer oor die ongerepte eiendom van Franse burgers, die voormalige blanke planters uit San Domingue. Die Franse wou vergoeding vir hierdie eiendom hê voordat dit Haïtiaanse onafhanklikheid sou erken.

Verder was daar 'n groot geskreeu in die wit wêreld dat swart mense inherent nie in staat was om self te regeer nie. Multitudes of books and pamphlets belabored this view in the early 19th century and Haiti always came in for attack as one of the key pieces of evidence of this impossibility.

It is important to note that the success of the Haitian Revolution came just at the same time as the French and American Revolutions. This was the period of the birth of functional democracy.

But, the white nations of Europe and the United States refused to recognize Haitian independence and boycotted trade relations with Haiti. This was one of the major causes of the development of the "two Haitis" that I discussed above, and made the growth of democracy in Haiti to be virtually impossible.

The masses of Haitian rural peasants were illiterate and remain so today. Both the Industrial Revolution and the Democratic Revolutions passed Haiti by.

It is critically important to understand the causal implications of these actions and attitudes of the outside world on the internal development of the history of Haiti.

FROM THE 1840S TO THE U.S. OCCUPATION OF 1915.

Within Haiti there began a curious and disastrous series of governmental revolutions. Basically the government was a tiny class of elite. Various factions of the elite would sponsor a "president" and under the protection of this particular government the favored faction of the elite would pillage the Haitian treasury. After a certain amount of time a different faction of the elite, normally funded by foreign (often German) capital, would raise an army, march on Port-au-Prince and drive the sitting government into exile. The new faction would take its turn at the troff of the Haitian treasury and the cycle continued.

The upshot of this period of Haitian history is critical. First of all it further established the class and color relations which exist to this very day as dominant patterns in Haitian life. Further, the role of foreign capital in funding these revolutions gave an increasing foothold of foreign capital. This became troubling to the United States after the decision to build the Panama Canal. This geo-political decision of the U.S. gave rise to a much more militant interpretation of the Monroe Doctrine and desire for full control over the Caribbean, the "back yard" of the U.S. As World War I approached, the penetration of German capital into Haiti was a great worry to the U.S.

Using a trumped up concern for U.S. financial interests and the "concern" with approaching anarchy in Haiti, the U.S. occupied Haiti in June 1915 and remained in control of Haiti until 1934, with financial and political hegemony continuing long after the end of the official occupation. In many ways it still continues today.

From 1915 until and including the present, the United States has been a major power and factor in what does and does not happen in Haiti.

THE WINDS OF CHANGE: NOIRISM (NEGRITUDE MOVEMENT) IN HAITI DURING THE AMERICAN OCCUPATION.

In the 1930s a movement sprang up in Haiti which turned the mainly mulatto intellectual class away from its old power base -- imitation of white, French European models of life and meaning -- and toward a greater appreciation of blackness, Africanness and Haiti's roots in the common black people.

This movement effected the intellectual class, especially poets, novelists and other writers first, later on artists as well. It set the stage for a political ideology which led the "black revolution" which Francois Duvalier (Papa Doc) was pledging to enact before it got sidetracked into the personalist dictatorship of the Duvalier dynasty.

HAITI'S DESPERATE POVERTY AND THE 1986 REVOLUTION.

Haiti's peasants may have lived lives of agrarian simplicity in order to escape a corrupt and damaging government, but eventually simplicity gave way to misery. It's hard to fix when this occurred, but the dynamics are not too hard to see.

Haitian peasants owned a bit of land. However, they chose to divide the land equally among their sons. Thus land plot sizes got smaller and smaller as the population grew. Secondly, the peasants used farming methods which we actually harmful to the land, burning off top soil, and over-planting crops which took too much out of the soil. Lastly, since the only fuel in the country is wood, little by little the vast forests of Haiti were cut, overwhelmingly for charcoal. The land became deforested and the soil could not hold against the season torrential rains. The top soil of Haiti washed away into the sea leaving great pressure on the land left. The result was eventually misery. My own suspicion is that agrarian simplicity with a modestly adequate diet became increasingly scarce after the beginning of the 20th century, and now, as that century ends, Haiti is left in a desperate situation in which millions of her people are malnourished, hungry and having little hope or prospects for a better future.

However, a populist movement somewhat tied to the democratic impetus implicit in Latin American Liberation Theology arose in Haiti in the late 1970s and gained power in the early 1980s. On February 7, 1986 this movement culminated with the fleeing of Jean-Claude Duvalier to France on an U.S. military jet. There was a great deal of hope in the latter part of the 80s, but since then things have deteriorated and today the Haitian movement for more populist movement is in great struggle with forces of reaction.

This short and over-simplified history is meant to give the reader a context for a course on Haitian history. The gaps and details will hopefully be filled by the course itself. However, if this sampling has either raised explicit questions which weigh on you, or if there are gaps that leave you surprised, or if you think that from what you already know the picture should look different in some particular that I have sketched, then please don't hesitate to write me at the address below to inquire or suggest additions or corrections.


Haitian independence proclaimed

Two months after his defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte’s colonial forces, Jean-Jacques Dessalines proclaims the independence of Saint-Domingue, renaming it Haiti after its original Arawak name.

In 1791, a slave revolt erupted on the French colony, and Toussaint-Louverture, a former slave, took control of the rebels. Gifted with natural military genius, Toussaint organized an effective guerrilla war against the island’s colonial population. He found able generals in two other former slaves, Dessalines and Henri Christophe, and in 1795 he made peace with revolutionary France following its abolishment of slavery. Toussaint became governor-general of the colony and in 1801 conquered the Spanish portion of island, freeing the slaves there.

In January 1802, an invasion force ordered by Napoleon landed on Saint-Domingue, and after several months of furious fighting, Toussaint agreed to a cease-fire. He retired to his plantation but in 1803 was arrested and taken to a dungeon in the French Alps, where he was tortured and died in April.

Soon after Toussaint’s arrest, Napoleon announced his intention to reintroduce slavery on Haiti, and Dessalines led a new revolt against French rule. With the aid of the British, the rebels scored a major victory against the French force there, and on November 9, 1803, colonial authorities surrendered. In 1804, General Dessalines assumed dictatorial power, and Haiti became the second independent nation in the Americas. Later that year, Dessalines proclaimed himself Emperor Jacques I. He was killed putting down a revolt two years later.


Inhoud

Pre-independence Edit

Struggles began during colonial times and have developed into nearly constant conflict between the two governments. [2] The political division of the island of Hispaniola is due in part to the European struggle for control of the New World during the 17th century, when France and Spain began fighting for control of the island. They resolved their dispute in 1697 by splitting the island into two colonies. [3] It was not until the 19th century that Haiti became independent from France on January 1, 1804. Spanish colony of Santo Domingo, the predecessor of the Dominican Republic, became independent from Spain on December 1, 1821, after more than 300 years of Spanish rule.

Ephemeral Independence and Haitian occupation (1821–1844) Edit

On November 9, 1821 the Spanish colony of Santo Domingo was overthrown by a group of rebels at the command of José Núñez de Cáceres, the colony's former administrator, [2] [4] as they proclaimed independence from the Spanish crown on December 1, 1821. [5]

A group of Dominican military officers favored uniting the newly independent nation with Haiti, as they sought political stability under Haitian president Jean-Pierre Boyer. The Dominicans were unaware that Boyer made a concession with the French, and agreed to pay France for the lost territory of Haiti. Boyer agreed to pay a sum of 150 million Francs (more than twice what France had charged the United States for the much larger Louisiana territory in 1803) thus the Haitians would essentially be forced into paying to maintain their freedom from the French.

During twenty-two years of Haitian occupation, the Haitians implemented what some Dominicans viewed as a brutal military regime. [ aanhaling nodig ] Use of the French language over Spanish was enforced, and the army closed Universidad Santo Tomás de Aquino. In addition, the Haitian army confiscated all church land and property and imposed mandatory military service. This difficult time for the Dominicans created cultural conflicts in language, race, religion and national tradition between the Dominicans and Haitians. Many Dominicans developed a resentment of Haitians, who they saw as oppressors.

In order to raise funds for the huge indemnity of 150 million francs that Haiti agreed to pay the former French colonists, and which was subsequently lowered to 60 million francs, Haiti imposed heavy taxes on the Dominicans. Since Haiti was unable to adequately provision its army, the occupying forces largely survived by commandeering or confiscating food and supplies at gunpoint. Attempts to redistribute land conflicted with the system of communal land tenure (terrenos comuneros), which had arisen with the ranching economy, and newly emancipated slaves resented being forced to grow cash crops under Boyer's Code Rural. [6] In rural areas, the Haitian administration was usually too inefficient to enforce its own laws. It was in the city of Santo Domingo that the effects of the occupation were most acutely felt, and it was there that the movement for independence originated. [ aanhaling nodig ]

Haiti's constitution also forbade non-citizens from owning land. However, it did protect citizens who were recognized for owning land from other's who may have tried and taken this land from them. According to their constitution, it was unlawful for one to deny property from a citizen who already owned it. [7] Most emigrated to Cuba, Puerto Rico (these two being Spanish possessions at the time) or Gran Colombia, usually with the encouragement of Haitian officials, who acquired their lands. The Haitians, who associated the Roman Catholic Church with the French slave-masters who had exploited them before independence, confiscated all church property, deported all foreign clergy, and severed the ties of the remaining clergy to the Vatican. Santo Domingo's university, lacking both students and teachers had to close down, and thus the country suffered from a massive case of human capital flight.

Although the occupation effectively eliminated colonial slavery and instated a constitution modeled after the United States Constitution throughout the island, several resolutions and written dispositions were expressly aimed at converting average Dominicans into second-class citizens: restrictions of movement, prohibition to run for public office, night curfews, inability to travel in groups, banning of civilian organizations, and the indefinite closure of the state university (on the alleged grounds of its being a subversive organization) all led to the creation of movements advocating a forceful separation from Haiti with no compromises.

Dominican War of Independence (1844–1856) Edit

On February 27, 1844 the Dominicans, led by Juan Pablo Duarte along with Francisco del Rosario Sánchez and Matías Ramón Mella, gained freedom from Haitian rule, thus giving birth to the Dominican Republic.

After ousting the Haitian occupying force from the country, Dominican nationalists had to fight against a series of attempted invasions from 1844 to 1856. Haitian soldiers would make incessant attacks to try to regain control of the territory, but these efforts were to no avail as the Dominicans would go on to win every battle henceforth. Since then, Dominican–Haitian relations have been unstable. [8]

Parsley Massacre (1937) Edit

In October 1937, claiming that Haiti was harboring his former Dominican opponents, Rafael Trujillo ordered an attack on the border, slaughtering tens of thousands of Haitians as they tried to escape. The number of dead is still unknown, though it is now calculated between 20,000 [9] and 30,000. [10]

Cultural and economic factors Edit

In the mid-twentieth century, the economies of the two countries were comparable. Since that time, the Dominican economy has grown while the Haitian economy has diminished. The economic downturn in Haiti has been the result of factors such as internal power struggles, rapid population growth, environmental degradation, and trade embargoes. Today, Haiti is the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere. There is a lack of resources, and Haiti's population density exceeds its neighbor's by far. Despite the UN sending missions since the 1990s, in order to maintain peace, terrible conditions persist. [11]

One large contributor to cultural dissonance is the language barrier, as Spanish is the primary language spoken in the eastern part of Hispaniola (Dominican Republic) while French and Haitian Creole are spoken in the western part (Haiti). Race is another defining factor of Dominican–Haitian relations. The ethnic composition of the Dominican population is 73% mixed race, [12] 16% white, and 11% black [13] while 95% of the Haitian population is black. [14]

The Dominican economy is also over 600% larger than the Haitian economy. The estimated annual per capita economic output (PPP) is US$1,819 in Haiti and US$20,625 in Dominican Republic. [15] The divergence between the level of economic development between Haiti and the Dominican Republic makes their border the one with the highest contrast of all Western world borders and it is evident that the Dominican Republic has one of the highest illegal migration issues in the Americas. [16]

Haitian migration in the Dominican Republic Edit

Some cross-border cooperation exists in areas such as health, business, and infrastructure. Many Haitians travel to the Dominican Republic to find seasonal or long-term work in order to send remittances to their families. Some of these Haitian workers, as well as Dominicans of Haitian descent have reported complaints of discrimination against them by the Dominican majority population. Other Haitians who would seek work, instead remain in Haiti, fearing discrimination on the other side of the border. [17]

Migration has been taking place since the 1920s, when Haitian laborers were actively encouraged to come work in the thriving Dominican sugar industry. With modernization from the 1960s on, fewer workers were required, and other Dominican industries and services started employing more Haitian workers, often an inexpensive, less regulated labor source with fewer legal protections. Many Haitian women find work in Dominican households, and Haitian men at Dominican construction sites, often leading to the move of an entire family. [17]

A large number of migrated Haitian workers have continued to live in the Dominican Republic over several generations. The two governments have been unable to agree upon a legal framework to address the nationality of these descendants, leaving around one million people of Haitian ancestry in the Dominican Republic effectively stateless, restricting their access to health care, education and employment opportunities. [17]

Though migration from Haiti to the Dominican Republic is economically beneficial to both countries [ aanhaling nodig ] , it is one of the leading contributors to tension between the two countries as well illegal immigration from Haiti resonates high dissonance with the Dominican people. It has led to anti-Haitian feelings and mistrust of the Haitian people. Another problem with Haitian migration into Dominican Republic is that it blurs the line of citizenship. This factor of migration affects not only Dominican economy but its culture as well. [18]

Travel across the border is quite easy, with daily bus service from Santo Domingo to both Haiti's north and south coasts. [19] Much of the frontier remains very open, with regular crossings to markets on either side. [20] It is possible to drive much of the line and one unfenced north–south highway actually straddles the border. [21]

2010 Haitian earthquake Edit

After the devastating earthquake of 12 January 2010, countless Haitians fled across the border to escape the quake's effects. The Dominican government was one of the first to send teams to help distribute food and medicine to the victims and made it easier for Haitians to acquire visas to receive treatment in Dominican hospitals. Supplies were transported to Haiti through the Dominican Republic, and many injured Haitians have been treated in Dominican hospitals. [22]

Haitian refugees were also taken in and supported by many Dominicans, though relations deteriorated as the refugees have remained in the Dominican Republic. This has led to reported concerns among some Dominicans that quake refugees contribute to rising crime, over-crowding, cholera and unemployment. More and more discrimination has been attributed to the massive numbers of Haitian refugees in the Dominican Republic. Over the past years tensions have risen, causing the International Organization for Migration to offer Haitians $50 each plus additional relocation assistance to return to Haiti. More than 1,500 have accepted that assistance and returned. [22]

The baseball federations of the Dominican Republic and Haiti have agreed to develop and promote baseball in Haiti (especially at the border), on the basis that sport is a developmental element to foster peace, as well as strengthening friendship and mutual respect between the two peoples. With the support of the Dominican ministry of Sports, the president of the Dominican Baseball Federation (FEDOBE) was thankful and quoted saying "it allows our federation to fulfill the dream of helping Haiti in baseball." He has pledged to put the Haitian Baseball Federation in relation to the international organizations. Coaches will be sent to Haiti for technical courses, referees and scorers by the Dominican Baseball Federation, while the Haitian Federation will support the logistics in the training and training programs. [23]


Protests

2010 October-December - Cholera outbreak claims some 3,500 lives and triggers violent protests. The source of the outbreak is thought to be a camp for recently-arrived UN soldiers.

2010 November - Presidential and parliamentary elections.

2010 December - Announcement of inconclusive provisional results of presidential election triggers violent protests.

2011 January - Former president Jean-Claude Duvalier returns from exile, faces corruption and human rights abuse charges.

2011 March - Michel Martelly wins second round of presidential election.

2011 July - Death toll from cholera outbreak climbs to nearly 6,000.

2011 October - President Martelly appoints UN development expert Garry Conille as his prime minister, after parliament rejected his two previous nominees.

2012 January - Presidential Martelly proposes reviving Haiti's army, which was disbanded in 1995 because of its role in coups and its history of human rights abuses.

2012 February - Prime Minister Garry Conille resigns in protest at the refusal of many of his ministers and the presidential administration to cooperate with a parliamentary inquiry into dual citizenship among senior officials.

2012 May - Parliament approves Foreign Minister Laurent Lamothe as prime minister.

2012 October - Hundreds protest against the high cost of living and call for the resignation of President Martelly. They accuse the president of corruption and failure to deliver on his promises to alleviate poverty.

2012 November - Hurricane Sandy causes extensive crop damage and leaves at least 20,000 people homeless, exacerbating the cholera epidemic.

2013 May - Thousands of people turn out for ex-president Aristide's first public appearance since his return from exile two years previously. He gives evidence in a court case.

2013 October - Lawyers representing victims of a cholera epidemic in Haiti file a lawsuit against the United Nations at a court in New York. They say UN peacekeepers introduced cholera to Haiti in 2010.

2013 November/December - Street protests in Port-au-Prince and other major cities, with marchers voicing discontent about various issues including an overdue election, unemployment and corruption.

2014 April - New wave of anti-government protests begins in Port-au-Prince.

2014 December - Prime Minister Laurent Lamothe resigns over failure to reach agreement with opposition over delayed elections, amid escalating street protests.

2015 January - President Martelly appoints former mayor of Port-au-Prince Evans Paul head of a planned national unity government as protests continue and parliament's mandate expires.

2015 August - First round of long-delayed parliamentary elections held. Second round to coincide with presidential poll in October.

2016 February - Michel Martelly ends his presidential term without handing power to a successor after the run-off presidential election is postponed indefinitely. Parliament appoints Jocelerme Privert as interim president.

2016 October - Hurricane Matthew, the strongest to hit the region in a decade, kills hundreds in Haiti and destroys thousands of homes.

2017 January - Provisional Electoral Council declares Jovenel Moise the winner of the November 2016 presidential elections ending a political crisis which began in October 2015 over allegations of electoral fraud.

2017 June - Guy Philippe, leader of the 2004 coup that toppled President Aristide, is jailed in the US for money laundering. He was arrested days before being sworn in as senator.

2018 February - International aid agencies face scrutiny after revelations of sexual misconduct by Oxfam staff in Haiti in 2011.

2019 February - At least four people are killed and dozens injured in nationwide anti-corruption protests against President Moise and other officials.


Hatti - History

Most of you know a bit about the pirates on the island of LaTortue. It is my contention that the pirates contributed very little to the future history of Haiti, but, on the other hand, it was their de facto rule of the western part of the island that strongly encouraged the French to sue for the cession of that portion of Hispaniola in 1697. Below is the story in brief form as I understand it.

About pirates. In the early 16th century Spain was, of course, dominant in the so-called "New World." But, France, Great Britain and Holland joined to hire tough sailors called privateers to disrupt the Spanish shipping, steal the gold and silver and other precious items and give the largest share back to the supporting governments.

One of the central places for these privateers to hang out was the island of La Tortue, just off Haiti's north coast. If you look at a map you will see that this is the route of one path back to Europe from Central and South America. The other path, to the south of Puerto Rico, was too shallow and dangerous. Thus La Tortue, a rocky island with caves, was an excellent vantagepoint for the early privateers.

Later, by the 17th century when the privateers gave way to non-governmental groups of free lance criminals, the pirates were born. By this point La Torture was mainly the province of French pirates. The British pirates (Henry Morgan being the most famous of them) moved to Jamaica. The Dutch sort of dropped out.

Now, back to an interesting complication. The island of Hispaniola was Columbus' second landfall in 1492, after San Salvador. He claimed the island for Spain, but it had very little gold, thus it was not too important at that time. As the Spanish moved into Central and South America Hispaniola was at first the breadbasket, where Indian and African slaves raised food for the conquistadors. Later, after the Spanish settled some areas of Central and South America, and the settlers started raising their own food, Hispaniola was virtually abandoned.

But there were Spanish on the eastern portion of the island where they raised some cattle, but the western portion (today's Haiti) was virtually abandoned. However, since this land was wildly fertile and formerly a place where animal farming went on, there were lots of wild cattle and pigs.

When the pirates weren't pirating, some of them began to cross the 16 km. over to Haiti to hunt meat. Since they cooked it over open fires they were called boukanier (the open fire men). But the British couldn't say that and that was the origin of the English term buccaneers. They weren't really pirates, but off-duty pirates, enjoying a barbarque!

Little by little these people settled in this area and built a French settlement in Spanish property. Disputes arose about this French infringement of Spanish land and these disputes were finally settled in 1697 when the Treaty of Rystwik, which settled a European war, granted the western portion of the island to France, which named it the colony of San Domingue. This French colony is basically the same boundaries as modern day Haiti.

The native Arawak/Taino Indians were completely wiped out by this time. But, by the early part of the 16th century the Spanish and then the French were importing African slaves to work the land.

The African slaves revolted many times, but the revolt of 1791 "stuck" and grew into a revolution that finally succeeded in late 1803. Jan. 1, 1804 the country of Haiti began, the only Republic ever formed by slaves after a victorious revolution.

Back to the pirates. They ultimately didn't make much of a contribution to the growth of either Saint-Domingue or Haiti, but they were the origins, the first French who settled there and began to farm. Most of them eventually tired of this sedentary life and drifted back to the sea and to pirating. But, other less adventuresome French came to settle this fertile land and to build settlements.


Hatti Civilization

The people known as Hattis are amongst the oldest settlers in Anatolian history. They ruled Central Anatolia for about 500 years. Small city kingdoms were their favorite type of settlement units. They spoke a totally different language than the other influential Anatolian civilizations. There are signs of Mesopotamian influence on Hatti art and culture.

The main cities Mahmatlar, Horoztepe, Alacahoyuk and Hattus are inside the Kizilirmak (Red River, a large river in Central Anatolia) bend.

They believed in a number of gods representing various acts of nature in the form of animals. Some statues of their most popular gods are on exhibition in major museums of Turkey.

Hatti and the Hittite Principalities Period (2000-1750 BC)

By the end of the 3rd millennium BC a large scale migration took place mainly from North Europe to the mild weathered south. One of the strong elements of the Indo-European people, the Hittites gravitated to Anatolia through Caucasia while Hatti principalities were ruling the land.

These newcomers did not invade the land suddenly. They settled along side the existing people and set their own settlement units in time. Only after a long time, as a lot of Hittite principalities emerged, they claimed the rule of the land, Anatolia. They never destroyed the existing people and their cities, but instead, they mixed with the Hattis and other people of Anatolia. They even shared their gods, goddesses, art, culture and a large amount of words from Hatti language.


The Importance of History

Reading history can often feel like reading a fictional story. Historical people are so far removed from us we can scarcely imagine them and the world they helped create. Haiti and the Dominican Republic, however, are examples of history in action. Two countries on the same island with vastly different fates thanks to those that ruled them.

The French exploited Haiti’s soil, imported hundreds of thousands of West African slaves and shunned her when the country declared independence, imposing impossible debts and forever crippling her economy. The Dominican Republic became independent in a largely bloodless revolt, its naturally fertile lands having been used to graze cattle and mine for gold, not grow cash crops.

Slowly, race was used as a political weapon and the Dominican Republic grew to hate its neighbour, a stance reinforced by preferential treatment form the US, and from the rest of the world. Haiti, the world’s first nation built by slaves, has become a poster child for a broken country, but understanding its history lets you realise that this has less to do with the Haitians, and more to do with the rest of the world.


Kyk die video: TORTİLLA HATTI - TORTILLA LINE (November 2021).