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Die slagting van die towenaars: hoe antieke Persië 'n jaarlikse vakansie van volksmoord gemaak het

Die slagting van die towenaars: hoe antieke Persië 'n jaarlikse vakansie van volksmoord gemaak het

Lank voor die Holocaust en die gruweldade wat ons vandag sien, is die geskiedenis besaai met volksmoord. Keer op keer het minderheidsgroepe wat te midde van 'n kultuur is wat nie hul eie is nie, gesien hoe hul bure hulle afkeer en hulle uitmekaar skeur.

Een van die ergste slagtings was 'n verhaal wat vandag selde vertel word. Dit het meer as 2 500 jaar gelede in antieke Persië gebeur. In 522 vC is die Magi, 'n immigrantegroep wat in Persië woon, byna heeltemal uitgewis.

Die Perse waaraan hulle gedink het as hul landgenote, het deur die strate gehardloop en elke towenaar wat hulle kon vind, vermoor. En hulle het nie daar gestop nie. Vir jare daarna het hulle The Slaughter of the Magi 'n jaarlikse vakansie gemaak.

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The Magi: 'n minderheidsgroep in 'n vreemde land

Ten spyte van hul naam, was die towenaars nie towenaars of towenaars nie. Hulle was 'n groep mense uit Media met 'n unieke stel godsdienstige oortuigings. Mettertyd sou hulle 'n nis in die Persiese samelewing vind, met soveel van hulle as priesters dat die woorde 'priester' en 'Magi' amper nie onderskei kon word nie. Maar toe die Slagting van die towenaars gebeur, was hulle steeds nuwelinge in 'n vreemde land.

Destyds was die towenaars slegs 27 jaar in Persië. Gedurende die grootste deel van hul geskiedenis was die Magi een van die ses stamme van Media. Maar in 549 vC is hul vaderland verower deur die Persiese koning Kores die Grote. Nadat hulle jare onder hul eie gebly het, het hulle vreemdelinge geword in 'n vreemde land in die Persiese Ryk.

Uitbeelding van Zoroaster in Clavis Artis, 'n alchemie -manuskrip wat in die laat 17de of vroeë 18de eeu in Duitsland gepubliseer is en pseudoepigrafies aan Zoroaster toegeskryf word. ( Publieke domein )

Hulle was anders as die Perse by wie hulle gewoon het. Die Perse beskou hulle as 'n godsdienstige 'sekte' met hul eie unieke interpretasie van die Zoroastriese godsdiens wat vasgehou het aan hul eie unieke lewenswyse.

Hulle het reëls wat hulle gedwing het om 'n buitengewoon gelyke posisie as diere te aanvaar. Toe hulle vleis eet, het hulle daarop aangedring om die diere met hul blote hande dood te maak, omdat hulle geglo het dat diere wat met wapens gedood is, onrein is. En toe een van hul eie sterf, het hulle geweier om sy liggaam te begrawe of te verbrand totdat die vleis deur voëls en honde skoongemaak is.

Tog is hulle vir die grootste deel van hul tyd in Persië aanvaar. Dit het nie lank geduur voordat die Magi hul rol as godsdienstige leiers gevind het nie. Die koninklike hof sou 'n towenaar teenwoordig hou wanneer hulle 'n offer aan die gode bring en baie werk kry om die drome van konings te interpreteer.

Hulle het floreer in Persië, al was hulle nie presies soos almal nie. Hulle het hul eie oortuigings en hulle het hul eie maniere, maar sover hulle kon weet, is hulle daar aanvaar. En hulle het geen rede gehad om te dink dat dit ooit sou verander nie.

Rhyton in die vorm van 'n ram se kop, goud - Wes -Iran - Mediaan, laat 7de - vroeë 6de eeu vC. (Iroony/ CC BY SA 3.0)

Die towenaars word sondebokke in 'n politieke plot

Die oomblik wat die mense van Persië teen hul Mediane gekeer het, is 'n verhaal van politieke intrige, sameswering en korrupsie. En die kans is goed dat dit ook 'n leuen is.

Volgens die Persiese geskiedenis het die Magi probeer om die koninkryk omver te werp deur hom as die koning na te boots.

Cambyses, die seun van Kores die Grote, het sy kop verloor in Egipte. Eers het hy 'n sluipmoordenaar gestuur om sy broer Smerdis, die volgende op sy troon, dood te maak, en kort daarna het hy homself doodgemaak deur per ongeluk op sy eie swaard te val.

Die sluipmoordenaar het daarin geslaag en Smerdis is dood - maar die Magi -priesters in die koninklike hof het die geleentheid aangegryp om sy dood te verbloem. Hulle het 'n soortgelyke Smerdis met die naam Gaumâta op die troon gesit en vir die mense van Persië gesê dat hul bedrieër die ware Smerdis is, erfgenaam van die troon van Persië. 'N Magiese priester, vermom as die koning, is heerser van die hele koninkryk gemaak.

Die verhaal eindig met Darius I en 'n span edeles wat die Magi vermoor wat voorgee dat hulle Smerdis is en homself as koning verklaar - daarom is die verhaal meer as net 'n bietjie agterdogtig.

Darius I, voorgestel deur 'n Griekse skilder, 4de eeu vC. ( Publieke domein )

Daar is geen direkte bewys dat Darius die hele saak gemaak het nie, maar dit is, soos 'n historikus dit stel, 'n 'redelik onwaarskynlike' verhaal. Dit is alles baie gerieflik - 'die koning was 'n bedrieër' lyk presies soos jy sou verwag dat die man wat hom vermoor en vervang het, sou sê.

Dit kan wees dat 'n groep magiese priesters werklik 'n plan gemaak het om die Persiese koning omver te werp, of dat dit net 'n gerieflike groep buitelanders was wat Darius gedink het hy as sondebok kon gebruik vir sy vyandige oorname.

Hoe dan ook, die Perse het die verhaal van Darius gekoop - haak, lyn en sink - en die gevolge was aaklig.

Die slag van die towenaars

Darius en sy moordenaars het deur die kasteel gehardloop en Magiese eunugs en priesters geslag totdat hulle uiteindelik die man bereik het wat homself koning Smerdis genoem het. Hulle het hom op die plek doodgemaak, die koppe van die dooies afgekap en in die strate uitgegaan.

Hulle het die onthoofde koppe voor mense se gesigte gewaai en vir hulle gesê dat hul koning 'n bedrieër is wat in 'n Magiese komplot vervang is. Hulle het die mense aangesê om enige wapen wat hulle kon kry, te gryp, elke Magi te jag en hulle almal te slag.

Die Apadana-paleis in Persepolis, Iran, noordelike trap (detail)-Achaemenidiese bas-reliëf van die vyfde eeu vC toon 'n mediese soldaat in tradisionele mede-kostuum (agter Persiese soldaat). ( Publieke domein )

Die koning wat hulle vermoor het, was in die Persiese Ryk ongelooflik gewild. Volgens Griekse bronne het hy hulpverleners na die verste dele van die koninkryk gestuur en hulle laat ontwyk om hulde aan die hoofstad te bring.

Die mense in die hoofstad het hom egter gehaat. Hulle was gewoond daaraan om bo te wees, en hulle het nie daarvan gehou dat hierdie nuwe koning dinge verander nie. Toe Darius vir hulle sê dat die koning 'n bedrieër was, was hulle maar te gewillig om dit te glo.

Hulle het hul wapens gekry en deur die stad gehardloop, elke Magi wat hulle kon vind, gegryp en in stukke gesny. Die stad loop oor van hulle bloed. Soos Herodotus dit stel: "As die nag hulle nie gekeer het nie, sou hulle nie een Magus lewendig gelaat het nie."

Gaumata onder die stewel van Darius I gegraveer by Behistun Inscription in Kermanshah. (Vahidarbab/ CC BY SA 3.0)

Volksmoord word 'n vakansie

Jare daarna was The Slaughter of the Magi 'n jaarlikse vakansie. Op die herdenking van Smerdis se dood sou die Perse massiewe feeste hou. Hulle het die gode bedank, saam met hul gesin geëet en die dag gevier waarop 'n immigrante -gemeenskap amper uitgewis is.

Dit was 'n groot vakansie. Verskeie ou bronne praat daaroor, en hoewel dit nie heeltemal duidelik is hoe lank dit geduur het nie, word gesê dat tydens die bewind van Darius I, die Slag van die Magi 'die grootste heilige dag was wat alle Perse hou'.

  • Ou Persiese inskripsies Verbind 'n Babiloniese koning met die man wat Boeddha geword het
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  • Die onthulling van die ware prins van Persië en 'n koning van die konings wat moderne films geïnspireer het

Maar dit was meer as net 'n fees. Volgens streng wet moes elke Magi op die dag van die vakansie in sy huis bly. As iemand uitgevang word dat hy buite rondloop, was daar niks wat hom beskerm nie. Elke Pers wat hom gesien het, is aangemoedig om hom te slaan, te sny en hom bloedig en sterwend in die middel van die pad te laat.

Een keer per jaar herleef die Perse die volksmoord wat die strate rooi gemaak het met die bloed van onskuldige mense.


Slagting van die onskuldiges

Die Slagting van die onskuldiges is die voorval in die geboortevertelling van die Evangelie van Matteus (2: 16–18) waarin Herodes die Grote, koning van Judea, beveel dat alle manlike kinders van twee jaar en jonger in die omgewing van Bethlehem tereggestel moet word. Die Katolieke Kerk beskou hulle as die eerste Christelike martelare, en hul fees - Heilige Onskuldige Dag (of die Fees van die Heilige Onskuldiges) - word op 28 Desember gevier. [3] 'n Meerderheid van Herodes se biograwe, en 'waarskynlik 'n meerderheid Bybelwetenskaplikes', beskou die gebeurtenis as 'n mite, legende of folklore. [4]

  • 27 Desember (Wes -Siriërs)
  • 28 Desember (Katolieke Kerk, Lutherse Kerk, Anglikaanse Nagmaal)
  • 29 Desember (Oosterse Ortodoksie)
  • 10 Januarie (Oos -Siriërs)

10 Maak 'n stoel uit jou vel

Toe 'n Persiese regter met die naam Sisamnes 'n omkoopgeskenk aanvaar, was koning Darius vasbeslote om 'n voorbeeld van hom te maak. Die howe van Persië, volgens Darius, moet onpartydig en regverdig wees. Hy sou seker wees dat die vervanging van Sisamnes en rsquos nie dieselfde fout gemaak het nie.

Sisamnes is dood, maar dit was net die begin. Nadat sy keel gesny is, het Darius die boete elke sentimeter van sy vel laat afvlek en dit in stroke mensleer gemaak. Toe laat hy hulle 'n stoel aanmekaar naai, gemaak van Sisamnes en rsquos vel. [1] Van toe af sou die nuwe regter op 'n stoel van menslike vlees moes sit.

Dit word erger: die plaasvervanger van Sisamnes en rsquos was sy eie seun. Terwyl hy Persia en rsquos -proewe gelei het, sou hy elke dag op 'n stoel moes sit wat van sy vader en rsquos -vlees was. Koning Darius het geglo dat hulle 'n regter sou hê wat nooit sou vergeet wat gebeur het as hy omkoopgeld aanvaar nie.


Tuine van Persië

Persiese tuine is 'n voorbeeld van Persiese argitektuur en ontwerp op sy beste. Hierdie pragtige en uitgebreide tuine is ontwerp om troos te bied onder die strawwe weerstoestande in 'n gebied wat meestal woestyn was, die somers warm en die winters koud.

Pasargadae, die eerste hoofstad van die Achaemenidiese Ryk, het die oudste en miskien die elegantste voorbeeld van 'n Persiese tuin. Die tuine by Pasargadae is opgegrawe deur David Stronach, 'n kenner van die studie van die antieke en middeleeuse Iran en Irak.

Omring deur eksotiese bome, orgideë en waterkanale, was dit plekke vir sosiale byeenkomste en ontspanning vir die Perse. Binne die tuine self was daar riviertjies met rande met ronde rande, en modderstene het die hele tuin omring. Die woord "paradys" kom van die ou Persiese woord pardeiza wat vertaal word as ''n muur om' ', wat beteken dat dit gebruik is om 'n omheinde ruimte te beskryf. Die tuine sou inderdaad 'n paradys gewees het - 'n oase - gedurende hul tyd. Na die Islamitiese verowerings is die ontwerpbeginsels van hierdie tuine versmelt met Islamitiese argitektuur om die klassieke Islamitiese tuine te skep.

Vanweë die bros aard daarvan verg tuine met modderstene baie onderhoud, en gevolglik het baie min tuine oorleef.


Elite Persiese seuns het 'n streng opvoeding gevolg om hulle tot militêre leiers te vorm. 'N Seun is van sy pa geneem en deur sy ma en ander vroulike familielede grootgemaak tot vyf jaar oud. Daarna het hy hof toe gegaan om met sy militêre opvoeding te begin, insluitend hoe hy ‘perdry, die boog gebruik en die waarheid praat’.

Shutterstock

4. Die Royal Road

Darius die Grote het 'n snelweg gebou wat die Persiese Ryk verbind tussen Susa en Sardis. Sy doel was om gladde en vinnige kommunikasie oor die uitgestrekte ryk te verseker.

Die afstand tussen die westelike en oostelike grens was 1,700 myl. Dit het 90 dae geneem vir voetgangers om die lengte van die pad te loop en slegs nege dae vir koeriers te perd. Caravanserai, of koninklike buiteposte, is langs die pad deur voetgangers deur Darius die Grote gestig. Die mense wat hierdie roete ry het bekend gestaan ​​as woonwaens, vandaar die buiteposte se name. Hierdie karavanserai het gou middelpunte geword vir handel, handel en die uitruil van inligting.


Purim - Blood Lust & Volksmoord

Vir die jaar 2010 het purim geval van 28 Februarie tot 1 Maart, soos hier gesien kan word, en ek was van plan om inligting te hê oor hierdie walglike Joodse vakansie van bloedlust, volksmoord en kannibalisme, voordat dit gebeur het, maar beter laat as nooit . As u nie bekend is met purim nie, behoort u dit waarskynlik te wees, want dit beklemtoon hoe pateties en afstootlik Joods gedrag en oortuigings ooit ontmasker is.

In hierdie beeld kan die yenta Madonna en Guy Ritchie gesien word geklee in feestelike kostuums vir 'n purim viering van volksmoord met haar plaaslike kabbalahvriende. Die Joodse media beeld dit dikwels net uit as 'n onskuldige, onskadelike Halloween, maar mense drink nie bloed nie en slag babas ritueel vir Halloween.

Purim paradeer homself as 'n onskuldige viering en 'n noodsaaklike deel van die Joodse godsdiens. Die waarheid is dat die sogenaamde Joodse godsdiens niks anders is as 'n siek, verdraaide ideologie wat Joodse haat vir nie-Jode, supremacisme, rassisme, elitisme, moord, volksmoord, verkragting, pedofilie, ondermyning, bedrog, woeker, goedkeur en bevorder nie. en al die ander kwale was byna elke land op aarde baie algemeen bekend vir die Jode.

As u hieraan twyfel, gaan kyk na die rolprent Jud Süß van 1940 en kyk hoe die samelewing werklik die Jode gesien het, wat hulle altyd as indringende, vernietigende, moorddadige parasiete gedra het. Hierdie film was nie 'n Nazi-propaganda nie, soos 'n Joodse skrywer by die New Yorker net hier probeer sê het, terwyl hy Subverted Nation as 'n “ antisemitiese ” webwerf benadeel het. Aangenaam dat hulle my noem, maar die manier waarop hy probeer om die ondermynende nasie, wrakende, moorddadige, verkragter -Jood Oppenheimer soos 'n slagoffer te laat lyk, is net vrot.

So, wat van purim? Wat is dit? Om dit eenvoudig te stel, purim is 'n fees wat jaarliks ​​op die 14de van die Hebreeuse maand Adar gehou word, omdat supremasistiese Jode nie eens dieselfde kalender as ons gebruik nie. In vakmanskap val die vakansie gewoonlik rondom Februarie of Maart, met Pasga 'n maand later. Gedurende hierdie purim -tyd vier Jode die mitiese slagting van 75 000 van hul vyande, dit wil sê volksmoord.

Hier is 'n paar Jode aangetrek vir hul viering van purim in Israel. Kan u weet watter een die regte vrou is? Of is hulle altwee mans? Hulle sal ongetwyfeld 'n aanvalsgeweer van Amerika saamneem, vir die geval dat 'n Palestyn as offer aangebied moet word.

Die Jode vier die massamoord op hul vyande, met die voorwendsel dat hierdie vyande van die Jode net bose mense is, wat verdien het om koelbloedig vermoor te word, maar dit kon nie verder van die waarheid af wees nie. Histories was die vyande van die Jode AL julle voorvaders, vir julle wat nie-Joods is. Histories was die vyand van die Jood die hardwerkende, etiese mense met 'n gewete, wat ons heeltemal vreemd maak vir Jode.

Vir Jode bestaan ​​daar nie gewete en deernis nie. Hulle is bloot ons eie eienskappe wat hulle naboots, sodat hulle ons kan manipuleer. Trouens, byna al die gedrag van Jode vandag is 'n nabootsing van ons eie gedrag. Agter geslote deure, of buite die oog van nie-Joodse “goyim ” (beeste) soos hulle ons noem, is dit 'n heel ander storie.

Kyk na die verhaal van purim, soos Chabad -Jode (sommige van die vieslikste Jode) dit hier beskryf:

Die Persiese ryk van die 4de eeu vC strek oor 127 lande, en al die Jode was sy onderdane. Toe koning Ahasveros sy vrou, koningin Vashti, laat teregstel omdat sy sy bevele nie nagekom het nie, het hy 'n skoonheidskompetisie georkestreer om 'n nuwe koningin te vind. 'N Joodse meisie, Esther, vind guns in sy oë en word die nuwe koningin - hoewel sy geweier het om die identiteit van haar nasionaliteit bekend te maak.

Intussen is die antisemitiese Haman as premier van die ryk aangestel. Mordegai, die leier van die Jode (en die neef van Esther) het die bevele van die koning getart en geweier om voor Haman te buig. Haman was ontstoke en het die koning oortuig om 'n bevel uit te reik waarin gelas word om al die Jode op die 13de van Adar uit te roei - 'n datum wat gekies is deur 'n lotery wat Haman gemaak het.

Mordegai het al die Jode gegalvaniseer en hulle oortuig om tot bekering te kom, te vas en tot God te bid. Intussen het Ester die koning en Haman gevra om saam met haar vir 'n feesmaal saam te kuier. By die fees het Ester haar Joodse identiteit aan die koning bekend gemaak. Haman is opgehang, Mordegai is in sy plek as premier aangestel, en 'n nuwe besluit is uitgevaardig - wat die Jode die reg gee om hulself teen hul vyande te verdedig.

Op die 13de van Adar het die Jode baie van hul vyande gemobiliseer en vermoor. Op die 14de van Adar het hulle gerus en fees gevier.

Hierdie terroriste-Joodse moordenaar het tydens purim met granate en 'n M-16 by 'n moskee ingestap en begin om Moslemaanbidders te slag. Gelukkig is hierdie patetiese ellende gestop en met brandblussers doodgeslaan. Dit is hoe alle Jode hanteer moet word.

Eintlik het 'n Jood in die guns van die koning geslinger, net soos Oppenheimer in die film Jud Süß. Sy verberg haar identiteit, want tot in hierdie vorige eeu was die hele wêreld deeglik bewus van die gevare wat Jode vir gesonde mense en die mensdom as geheel inhou. Die regverdige Haman het gedoen soos baie van ons vandag gedoen het. Het verklaar dat alle Jode uitgeroei moet word weens hul misdade teen ons mense en hul weiering om hul vernietigende, moorddadige, verraadlike en subversiewe gedrag te stop.

Ongelukkig is die Jode goed in die gebruik van seks, hebsug en wellus om die vermoë van baie mense om duidelik te dink ondermyn. Aangesien Esther, 'n Jood, nou ingesluip het en haarself die voorwerp van die koning se begeerte gemaak het, sou sy hierdie invloed uitoefen om Haman te laat doodmaak vir die besluit wat hy beveel het. Moenie mislei word nie, want Jode glo nie in of bid tot 'n god nie, soos hierbo genoem, anders sou hulle nie so 'n probleem hê om die woord god te vervang nie, waarvoor hulle “G-d ” vervang. Wat hulle ook al bid, is 'n donker, demoniese krag van bose energie, waaraan hulle ook menslike babas offer.

Nadat sy haar invloed gebruik het om Haman van te weerhou regverdig nadat Jode uitgeroei het, het Esther haar seksuele en emosionele trek met die koning gebruik om Haman eerder tereg te stel. Daarna het die Jode#8220 gemobiliseer en 75.000 mense vermoor om enige werklike teenkanting teen hul bedrog te versmoor. Tien seuns van Haman is ook tereggestel deur op te hang en hierdie veragtelike verhaal in moraliteit nog 'n kerf af te neem. Weereens, hierdie verhaal is 'n fabel, maar dit keer nie dat Jode hul fees van volksmoord geniet nie. Die Jode vier hierdie vakansie met groot passie en groot fanfare. Hier is meer oor wat hulle op purim doen:

a) Lees van die Megillah (Esterboek), wat die verhaal van die Purim -wonder vertel.

b) Gee geskenke aan armes.

c) Stuur geskenke van kos aan vriende.

d) 'n Purim -fees.

Dit is ook gebruiklik dat kinders in vermomde kostuums aantrek.

Die Jode sorg dus dat hulle die verhaal van die slag van hul vyande tydens hierdie vakansie lees om die gedagte aan volksmoord op nie-Jode aan die voorpunt van hierdie moorddadige “-viering ” te hou. Daarna gee hulle geldgeskenke aan armes Jode, sodat hulle magsposisies en invloed kan beoefen oor nie-Jode, en die kinders aantrek soos die kabouters wat hulle is, voordat hulle hul fees van bloedlust geniet.

U kan hier klik om die verhaal van Baruch Goldstein te sien, wat tydens purim met granate en 'n Amerikaanse M-16-geweer in 'n Moslem-moskee ingestap het en as deel van sy viering begin het om Moslems te slag. Dit is nie die enigste moord deur Jode wat met purim saamval nie, maar die belangrikste is hoe Jode 'n heiligdom vir hierdie moordenaar in Israel opgerig het en hom nou as 'n held en 'n martelaar beskou. Hoeveel ander kulture vier doelbewus moorddadige terroriste soos Goldstein? Hoe pateties dit ook al klink, durf nie jammer wees vir die Jood nie; hulle het niemand vir u of die mense wat hulle vermoor vir hierdie feestelike geleenthede nie.

Purim -versnaperinge sluit in hamantashen of Haman's Ore, lekkernye wat soos menslike liggaamsdele lyk, wat dikwels met gedroogde menslike bloed gemaak word. U wil nog steeds hê dat hierdie patetiese wesens in u land moet hang?

Hoeveel ander kulture kan jy, behalwe die Jode, werklik bewyse vind van mense wat volksmoord en terrorisme vier? Die antwoord is geen, maar dit is 'n werklike voorbeeld van Joodse massamoord op purim, en die Jood vier die genoemde moorde. 'N Mens sou nie 'n beter illustrasie kon vra nie, maar die wêreld sou beslis kon vra om sonder Jode te kom, sodat ons hierdie moorde nie eers hoef te beleef nie.

Die Jode stuur geskenke kos aan mekaar, maar watter soort kos? U sal dit interessant vind om op te let dat Jode op purim vier met 'n spesiale bederf genaamd Hamantashen. Hierdie naam word doelbewus deur die Jode verdraai, want in Jiddies beteken dit "Hamans sakke", maar dit blyk dat daar 'n ander term vir hierdie lekkerny is, wat 'n meer eerlike definisie van hierdie sogenaamde “behandeling ” ondersteun. Die lekkerny word eintlik in die Hebreeus Oznei Haman ” genoem, wat beteken dat die ore van die mens en die ore#8217. Kyk hier.

Dit is reg, op purim -Jode vier hulle mekaar deur geskenkmandjies te gee met 'n “behandeling ” wat bedoel is om die liggaamsdele voor te stel, terwyl hulle die moord op 75.000 van hul vyande vier. Begin die prentjie nog duidelik word? As u die Jood in die New Yorker glo, is hierdie webwerf bloot antisemities en moet dit dus glad nie gelees word nie! Jy is gelukkig dat jy so ver gekom het! Hier is nog lekkerder versnaperinge om Jode te pla met 'n aptyt vir menslike vlees:

Purim -kos eindig nie net met koekies nie. Kaveyos di Haman, wat "Haman se hare" beteken, is 'n noedelgereg met 'n suurlemoensous. En Keylitsh is 'n groot challah wat gemaak is om die toue voor te stel wat Haman doodgemaak het.

Purim vervul bloot die behoefte van die Jode aan fantasieë van volksmoord en riviere bloed. Die Jode hou daarvan om hul vyande by duisende dood te maak, en hulle het dit selfs ver oortref deur miljoene der miljoene mense in te slag regte lewe. Die Jode weet ook dat die meeste van julle niks hiervan weet nie, en dit is Jode soos die een by die New Yorker wat onvermoeid werk om seker te maak dat u dit nooit doen nie.

Noudat ons vasgestel het hoe veragtelik die uitgangspunt agter purim is, wil u met reg vra, hoe belangrik is hierdie moorddadige fees vir die Jode? Dit blyk dat dit belangrik is dat Jode 'n uitspeelwedstryd vir hul basketbalspan in die hoërskoolmeisie in die yeshiva verbeur, soos hier blyk. Hierdie volgende generasie Joodse rassiste het eers probeer om die wedstryd te herskeduleer, sodat hulle hul viering van moord en#8220goyim ” of hul uitspeelwedstryd nie hoef te misloop nie.

Kyk na die grynslae op die gesigte van hierdie Jode terwyl hulle die verwarde nie-Joodse (goyim) teenstanders se hande skud. Dit is asof hul gesigte sê: "Ons sal eerder op u bloed smul as om saam met u speletjies te speel, dom goy".

Hierdie supremasistiese klein diertjies wou hê dat die hele uitspeelskedule aangepas moet word by hul volksmoordfees. Toe dit nie werk soos beplan nie, besluit hierdie moorddadige demone dat dit die beste is om nie te speel nie, met die verskoning dat hulle sal vas voordat hulle die volksmoord op die menslike beeste (goyim) vier, wat beteken dat hulle nie water sal kan hê nie tydens hul spel. Vir hierdie Jode is dit baie belangriker om dit aan riviere van bloed en opoffering te vier, as om 'n balspel te speel met die beeste wat gebruik word om te slag.

In die artikel word gesê dat die skool 'n poging aangewend het om te speel, maar slegs as die “goyim ”, onbewus van hul volksmoordfees, die hele verdomde skedule sou verander om by die oppergesagde Jode te pas. Uiteindelik het die klein Jode op die basketbalbaan opgedaag om hul spel te verbeur, sodat hulle nie hul verkwikte vakansie van haat en moord teen nie-Jode kan verbeur nie.

Daar is geen twyfel nie, die dogtertjies wat daardie dag hul hande op die baan geskud het, het geen idee gehad wat die werklike rede was dat hierdie ghouls nie sou speel nie. Trouens, hulle het waarskynlik gedink dat dit 'n godvrugtige godsdienstige toewyding is wat hierdie diere verhinder om basketbal saam met hulle te dribbel, maar dit kan nie verder van die waarheid wees nie. Die dribbel van menslike bloed deur hul walglike gesigte is baie belangriker vir hierdie Jode. Hierdie waarheid is so 'n teenoorgestelde dat die gebreinspoelde kinders van die openbare skole na die geluid daarvan sou snak en hul ore toemaak asof hulle dit alleen kon hoor as hulle hoor.

Ja, want op purim vier Jode nie net volksmoord en moord nie, maar soos aangedui met Baruch Goldstein, doen hulle gereeld massamoord en rituele moord op nie-Jode vir purim. Baie mense besef nie dat die inval van Irak in 2003 interessant was deur George Bush tydens purim daardie jaar nie. U kan hier sien dat sy toespraak tydens purim 2003 (18-19 Maart) gehou is.

Die aankondiging van die inval in Irak en die bombardement van die Saddam -paleis was op 'n tyd wat saamval met die purim -vakansie van 2003. Is dit bloedig genoeg om die demoniese Jode te versadig?

Daarna is meer as 1 miljoen Irakezen vermoor en vermink deur uitgeputte uraan, apache -wapens, M1 Abrams -tenks en duisende Amerikaanse soldate. Baie duisende van hierdie soldate het ook hul lewens verloor deur die purim -geïnitieerde oorlog te voer teen die Midde -Ooste, wat nou van Irak en Afghanistan na Pakistan, Jemen en verder versprei het.

U kan selfs hier op wikipedia kyk en sien dat die inval vooraf is deur 'n lugaanval op die Irakse presidensiële paleis op 19 Maart 2003 ”, om seker te maak dat hul aanvalle saamval met hul moorddadige purim -vakansie.

Noudat ons Purim tot stand gebring het as 'n volksmoordfees, kan ons 'n ander interessante en baie belangriker aspek bekyk wat gepaard gaan met purim, rituele moord. Dit lyk asof die Jode 'n ding het om mense te sny en in blokkies te sny, hul bloed te droog en dit in sommige van die bogenoemde versnaperinge te eet, gevorm in die vorm van menslike liggaamsdele.

Dit klink aanvanklik dom, totdat jy besef dat byna elke land wat die Jode verban het, rituele moord op nie-Jode onder die vele redes beskou het. Nadat vier -en -tagtig lande dit deurgemaak het, wil u nie belaglik klink om dit as 'n kwaadwillige laster te probeer afskryf nie, maar die wrede barbaarse Jood het geen probleem om die media te gebruik om dit as blote laster af te skryf nie.

Baie mense het die term “blod ​​laster ”, en ek verseker u, dit is nie bloot 'n antisemitiese laster nie. Dit is iets wat deur die geskiedenis deeglik gedokumenteer is. Trouens, dit lyk asof die geskiedenis deur die loop van die geskiedenis gevalle is van rituele moord wat met purim verband hou. Kyk wat Arnold Leese hier in sy boek oor Joodse rituele moord gesê het.

Hierdie fees word gereeld gevier deur 'n uitstalling van vraatsug, dronkenskap en vloeke oor die nagedagtenis aan Haman en selfs tot vandag toe in Londen maak die Joodse bakkers koeke in die vorm van menslike ore wat op hierdie dag deur die Jode geëet word, en word die ore van die mens genoem, en weer onthul die inherente haat en barbaarsheid van die Jood in ons midde. Die twee belangrikste feesdae wat verband hou met rituele moord was (1) Purim en (2) Pasga, laasgenoemde tydens Paasfees en eersgenoemde ongeveer 'n maand voor dit. As 'n rituele moord by Purim plaasgevind het, word gewoonlik gesê dat 'n volwasse Christen wat vir sy bloed vermoor is, gesê word dat die bloed gedroog is en dat die poeier in driehoekige koeke gemeng is om te eet, dat die gedroogde bloed van 'n Purim -moord kan soms vir die volgende Pasga gebruik word. As 'n rituele moord tydens die pasga plaasgevind het, was dit gewoonlik die van 'n kind onder sewe jaar oud, 'n so volmaakte voorbeeld as moontlik, wat nie net witbloedig was nie, maar gekruisig, soms besny en met dorings gekroon is, gemartel, geslaan, gesteek is , en soms afgesluit deur in die sy te wond in navolging van die moord op Christus. Die bloed wat van die kind geneem is, is in poeiervorm of andersins in die pasga -brood gemeng. 'N Ander fees waarop gedink word dat daar soms aan rituele moord toegegee is, is Chanucah, wat in Desember plaasvind, ter herdenking van die herstel van Jerusalem onder die Makkabeërs in B.C. 165. Voorbeelde van Purim -moorde is dié van Damaskus, Rhodes, Xanten Polna, Gladbeck en Paderborn.

Is dit nie wonderlik hoe Jode babas vol gate steek en hul bloed in 'n wasbak dreineer nie, en dit alles om die moord op 75 000 nie-Jode te vier! Purim is 'n wonderlike fees van gehaat, rassisme en volksmoord!

Dit kan maklik gesien word dat mense al eeue lank oor Joodse rituele moord praat. Dit is maar een voorbeeld. Daar is letterlik honderde bronne van inligting oor bekende gevalle van Joodse rituele moord regoor die wêreld. Die boek van Leese dek 'n groot aantal rituele moorde van 'n lang tyd.

In die boek kry Leese dit selfs reg deur dit aan 'n rassekwessie toe te skryf, maar dit lyk asof dit die water modderig maak oor wat Jode as 'n ras is, en dit verwar onder meer met die khazar -teorie. Terselfdertyd hou hy die kwessie ten minste gefokus op die Joodse ras (hoe hy dit ook al definieer) terwyl hy talle onmiskenbare bewyse vir Joodse rituele moord uiteensit, en die boek is nietemin 'n waardevolle verwysing.

Daar is ook ander outeurs wat hierdie onderwerp behandel, waarvan u sommige hier kan sien genoem waar die rituele moorde in Damaskus, en vele ander, in redelike goeie besonderhede behandel word. Hier is 'n blik op hoeveel gevalle daar werklik ondersoek moet word. Ek smeek u egter om self meer navorsing te doen as u voel dat u dit moet doen. Hierdie onderwerp is tot dusver vreemder as fiksie, jy sou dit nie kon uitmaak as jy dit probeer het nie.

1750's –Algerië: omkoopgeld is gebruik om die feite uit die weg te ruim. 1791 –Pera (Konstantinopel): Helmut Schramm teken die rituele moord op 'n jong Griekse kind op. 1810 –Aleppo, Sirië: moord op 'n vrou tydens Paasfees/Purim -tyd. 1812 –Isle Of Corfu: drie Jode is skuldig bevind aan die moord op drie kinders. Monniot in Le Crime Rituel Chez Les Juifs sê die rekords is in die amptelike argiewe van die eiland gehou. 1821 –Beirut, Libanon: 'n volwasse Christenman was die slagoffer. 1824 –Beirut: Fatallah Sayegh, 'n Moslem, is gedood vir rituele doeleindes. 1824 – Schramm noem nog 'n saak van kinderritueel op Korfu. 1826-1827 – Antiochië: met Paasfees is twee Christelike seuns seremonieel gedood. 1829 –Hama, Sirië: die Jode van Hama het 'n Moslemmeisie doodgemaak en daarna uit die stad gesit. 1834 –Tripoli, Libië: 'n Christen -Griek het slagoffer geword. 1838 –Jerusalem: Daar was 'n poging om 'n Moslem te vermoor vir rituele doeleindes. 1847 – Libanon: Jode is aangekeer nadat hulle 'n Christelike seun vermoor het. [3] Dit was ook nie die laaste gevalle wat in Damaskus voorgekom het nie, 'n ander in 1890. [4]

The following two cases bear most directly on the Damascus murders.

1839–Beirut, Lebanon: Both Sir Richard Burton and Arnold Leese mention that inspectors detected a mysterious flask of blood while it passed through the Customs House in Beirut. Leese gives the details: “A Remittance of Blood. During the Damascus Ritual Murder trial, the French Consul, Comte de Ratti-Menton, by whose energy and determination the case was brought to light, received a letter from Comte de Suzannet, who wrote: ‘Nearly a year ago, a box arrived at the custom-house that a Jew came to claim on being asked to open it, he refused and offered first 100 Piastres, then 200, then 300, then 1,000 and at last 10,000 Piastres (2,500 Francs). The custom-house official persisted, and opened the box, discovering therein a bottle of blood. On asking the Jew for an explanation, the latter said that they had the custom of preserving the blood of their Grand Rabbis or important men. He was allowed to go, and left for Jerusalem.’ Comte Ratti-Menton (also French Consul for Damascus) later looked for the chief of the custom-house, but found that he had died. His successor only vaguely recollected the affair but he confirmed that the box had several bottles of red liquid. The man who came to claim the shipment was Aaron Stambouli of Damascus, who had told him the substance was an efficacious drug.” The quick death of the chief custom-house officer is not surprising witnesses to the crimes of Israel are subject to a sudden demise. But the reader will perhaps be more interested by the fact that Aaron Stambouli was one of those found guilty in the Damascus murders the very next year.![5]

1840–Isle of Rhodes: This transpired at almost the same time as the better-known Damascus Affair. The circumstances are familiar: a small boy, missing, last seen going into a home in the Jewish Quarter. A public outrage and demand for action followed, and Ottoman Governor Yusuf Pasha ordered an investigation. As in Damascus, this was at the instigation of several European Consuls. From here on, the Rhodes Case is a mishmash of charges, counter-charges and allegations. The Alliance Israelite Universelles of France and other important Judaic organizations of the day, bribed the authorities, paralleling what happened in Damascus. In yet another parallel, Austria withdrew its call for an investigation and supported dismissal of all charges. Sir Moses Montefiore, Adolph Cremieux, and the Rothchild barons (financiers of the Austro-Hungarian Empire) were successful — the charges were dropped and the accused freed. The Greek Orthodox clergy and European consuls were left holding the bag, their honor impugned by involvement in a case with no results. And the victim and his killers? The case remained unsolved. No one else was ever accused.

1839-1840 were active years for the ritual murder cult. Jonathan Frankel displays a revealing map, showing cases that year not only in Damascus and Rhodes, but at four other locations as well: Constantinople and Smyrna in the Near East as well as Schwetz, Prussia, and Julich, Bavaria.[6] He also says: “Falling into this category, too, were the many criminal investigations and trials in which Jews were accused of ritual murder. Probably the best-known of such events in the period under discussion here was the Beiliss Trial held in Kiev in 1913. Among contemporaries, especially the Jews in the countries involved, though, the cases of Tisza-Eszlar in 1882 (in Hungary), of Xanten in 1891 (in Prussia), and of Polna in 1899 (in Bohemia) engendered hardly less tension. The Damascus affair of 1840, as already noted, caused an extraordinary sensation in its own time.”[7] As the reader will soon see, this is an understatement.

I don’t want to even begin to attempt covering the hundreds of cases of jewish ritual murder throughout history, or even just the ones pertaining to purim itself. I think it has been clearly demonstrated here that jews enjoy a festival of genocide, blood lust, ritual murder, drunkenness, and gluttony for what they call purim. Some might have seen the story of the girls who avoided playing during their purim as just an innocent religious observance, but knowing what purim really means gives the entire thing a new twist. Again, jews aren’t a religion anyway, they are a twisted race of inbred neanderthal like beasts that feast on human flesh and blood.

Accounts of jewish ritual murder during purim are too many to list. The jews have been draining the blood of their conscious victims, slitting their throats to bleed them out, and making treats with human blood for millenium.

Passover is not long away, just about a month from now. Keep a close eye on your children, before they end up crucified, and drained of their blood while still conscious. Anyone defending jews and their behavior needs to know and understand jewish ritual murder of non-jews. This behavior is beyond unacceptable, it’s so filthy fucking disgusting, that people should immediately want all of their lands rid of the jew.

Haman tried to facilitate just such a thing, by ridding Persia of jews in the fable of Esther, the infiltrating subversive seductress jewess who’s slimy, slutty tactics still give her people reason to rejoice today. Much like the tales of little jew girls escaping death camps to grow up with a pack of wolves, or shrunken jew heads and jew skin lampshades, this too is a fable, but is still none the less used as a way for jews to revel in blood sacrifice, ritual murder, and genocide against all non-jews.

People need to stop thinking of jews as humans with a conscience like themselves. Do these sound like the kind of people you want running your courts, governments, banking system, corporations, media, etc? Do you think these blood thirsty beasts should be allowed quarter amongst our people, so that they might dine on the flesh of our children? How many jews are a safe number to keep around in light of the facts? If you have human compassion, a human conscience, and even one iota of common sense, your natural response will be “not a single fucking one”.


A Purim Lesson: Lobbying Against Genocide, Then and Now

The holiday of Purim celebrates the successful effort by prominent Jews in the capitol of ancient Persia to prevent genocide against the Jewish people. What is not well known is that a comparable lobbying effort took place in modern times–in Washington, D.C., at the peak of the Holocaust.

In late 1942, the Roosevelt administration publicly confirmed that Hitler had embarked on a campaign to murder all of Europe’s Jews, and that at least two million were already dead. But FDR was not prepared to go beyond a verbal denunciation of the genocide. He did not want to upset the British by pressing them to open Palestine to refugees. He would not even permit immigration to the U.S. to the full extent of the existing quotas. The quotas from Axis-controlled countries were 90% unfilled during the period from late 1941 through early 1945�,000 quota places that could have saved lives were left unused. The man whom FDR had hand-picked to handle refugee matters, Breckinridge Long, instructed U.S. consular officials abroad to “postpone and postpone and postpone the granting of the visas.”

In ancient Persia, a Jewish activist named Mordechai responded to Haman’s genocide decree by staging a protest demonstration. Donning sackcloth and ashes, he “went out into the midst of [the capitol city, Shushan] and cried loudly and bitterly.” (Esther 4:1) He then marched right up to “the front of the King’s gate” –not exactly the sort of polite behavior in which Persian Jews normally engaged.

In the United States during the Holocaust, there was a Mordechai of sorts: a young Zionist emissary from Jerusalem, Peter Bergson (real name: Hillel Kook) led a series of protest campaigns to bring about U.S. rescue of Jews from Hitler. The Bergson group’s newspaper ads and public rallies roused public awareness of the Holocaust–particularly when it organized over 400 rabbis to march to the front gate of the White House just before Yom Kippur in 1943.

But protests from the outside were not sufficient, by themselves, to change the policies of either President Roosevelt or King Ahashverosh. An insider was needed as well.

In Persia, there was one Jew with access to the King. Esther, Mordechai’s adopted daughter, had been chosen to become the king’s wife. Keeping her Jewish identity a secret, Esther found herself elevated to First Lady of Persia precisely at the moment that her people needed her most. But her first reaction was one of caution– “greatly distressed” by the spectacle of Mordechai’s boisterous protest, she tried to persuade him to remove the sackcloth. When Mordechai urged her to go to the king and plead for revocation of the genocide decree, Esther hesitated, pointing out that to go without being summoned would violate the palace rules and possibly result in her execution.

The Esther in 1940s Washington was Henry Morgenthau, Jr., a wealthy, assimilated Jew of German descent who (as his son later put it) was anxious to be regarded as a “one hundred percent American.” Downplaying his Jewishness, Morgenthau gradually rose from being FDR’s friend and adviser to his Treasury Secretary. In late 1943, just as the Bergson activist campaign was reaching its peak, several of Morgenthau’s senior aides discovered that State Department officials had been secretly obstructing rescue opportunities and blocking transmission of Holocaust-related information to the U.S. The State Department did not want them to be rescued, because that would increase pressure on the Allies to give them shelter.

Although his aides urged Morgenthau to take the matter directly to the president, he hesitated, hoping that polite appeals to the Secretary of State might suffice to change U.S. policy toward Europe’s Jews. Mordechai’s pressure finally convinced Esther to go to the king the pressure of Morgenthau’s aides finally convinced him to go to the president, armed with a stinging 18-page report that they titled “Report to the Secretary on the Acquiescence of This Government in the Murder of the Jews.”

Esther’s lobbying succeeded. Ahashverosh canceled the genocide decree and executed Haman and his henchmen. Morgenthau’s lobbying also succeeded. A Bergson-initiated Congressional resolution calling for U.S. rescue action quickly passed the Senate Foreign Relations Committee–enabling Morgenthau to tell FDR that “you have either got to move very fast, or the Congress of the United States will do it for you.” Ten months before election day, the last thing FDR wanted was an embarrassing public scandal over the refugee issue. Within days, Roosevelt did what the Congressional resolution sought–he issued an executive order creating the War Refugee Board, a U.S. government agency to rescue refugees from Hitler.

Here, unfortunately, is where the parallels end. While Esther triumphed before Haman could harm her people, Morgenthau’s intervention came very late, after millions of Jews had been murdered. Still, there is no gainsaying the fact that the War Refugee Board played a key role in the rescue of some 200,000 Jews and 20,000 non-Jews, in part by facilitating and financing the life-saving work of Swedish diplomat Raoul Wallenberg in Budapest. The claim that nothing could be done to help Europe’s Jews had been demolished by Jews who shook off their fears and spoke up for their people–in ancient Persia and in modern Washington.

WYMAN INSTITUTE AND SMITHSONIAN COLLABORATE ON HISTORY PROJECTS

As part of a new collaborative relationship, Wyman Institute director Rafael Medoff was recently invited to take part in an event at the Smithsonian Institution commemorating the 75th anniversary of President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s order authorizing the mass internment of Japanese-Americans.

Wyman Comic Wins Silver Medal

Karski's Mission , which was authored by Wyman Institute director Rafael Medoff and illustrated by renowned comic book artist Dean Motter, was awarded the Silver Medal in the category of "Graphic Novel/Drawn Book – Drama/Documentary category."

Karski's Mission is based on the true story of Jan Karski (1914-2000), a Polish Catholic and member of the Polish Underground during World War II, who risked his life to bring Allied leaders his eyewitness account of the ongoing slaughter of the Jews in Nazi-occupied Poland.

Karski's Mission , which was co-published by the Wyman Institute and the Jan Karski Educational Foundation, received additional support from Fundacja Edukacyjna Jana Karskiego, the Association of Friends of the Polish History Museum, Sigmund A. Rolat (chairman of the Wyman Institute's board of directors), Carole Bilina, and John McLees. With assistance from the Polish Ministry of Culture and National Heritage, a Polish-language edition of Karski's Mission is now being used widely in schools in Poland.


Inhoud

Normative Judaism is not pacifist and violence is condoned in the service of self-defence. [7] J. Patout Burns asserts that Jewish tradition clearly posits the principle of minimization of violence. This principle can be stated as "(wherever) Jewish law allows violence to keep an evil from occurring, it mandates that the minimal amount of violence be used to accomplish one's goal." [8] [9]

Nonviolence Edit

Judaism's religious texts endorse compassion and peace, and the Hebrew Bible contains the well-known commandment to "love thy neighbor as thyself". [2] According to the 1937 Columbus Platform of Reform Judaism, "Judaism, from the days of the prophets, has proclaimed to mankind the ideal of universal peace, striving for spiritual and physical disarmament of all nations. Judaism rejects violence and relies upon moral education, love and sympathy." [6]

The philosophy of nonviolence has roots in Judaism, going back to the Jerusalem Talmud of the middle 3rd century. While absolute nonviolence is not a requirement of Judaism, the religion so sharply restricts the use of violence, that nonviolence often becomes the only way to fulfilling a life of truth, justice and peace, which Judaism considers to be the three tools for the preservation of the world. [10] : 242

The biblical narrative about the conquest of Canaan, and the commands related to it, have had a deep influence on Western culture. [11] Mainstream Jewish traditions throughout history have treated these texts as purely historical or highly conditioned, and in any event not relevant to later times. [12]

The Second Temple period experienced a surge in militarism and violence aimed at curbing the encroachment of Greco-Roman and Hellenistic Jewish influence in Judea. Groups such as the Maccabees [13] the Zealots, the Sicarii at the Siege of Masada, [14] and later the Bar Kochba revolt, all derived their power from the biblical narrative of Hebrew conquest and hegemony over the Land of Israel, sometimes garnering support of the rabbis, [15] and at other times their ambivalence. [16]

In Modern times, warfare conducted by the State of Israel is governed by Israeli law and regulation, which includes a purity of arms code that is based in part on Jewish tradition the 1992 IDF Code of Conduct combines international law, Israeli law, Jewish heritage and the IDF's own traditional ethical code. [17] However, tension between actions of the Israeli government on the one hand, and Jewish traditions and halakha on the conduct of war on the other, have caused controversy within Israel and have provided a basis for criticisms of Israel. [18] Some strains of radical Zionism promote aggressive war and justify them with biblical texts. [19] [20]

Forced conversions occurred under the Hasmonean kingdom. The Idumaens were forced to convert to Judaism, either by threats of exile, or threats of death, depending on the source. [21] [22]

In Eusebíus, Christianity, and Judaism Harold W. Attridge claims that “there is reason to think that Josephus’ account of their conversion is substantially accurate.” He also writes, "That these were not isolated instances but that forced conversion was a national policy is clear from the fact that Alexander Jannaeus (c. 80 BCE) demolished the city of Pella in Moab, 'because the inhabitants would not agree to adopt the national custom of the Jews. ' " Josephus, Antiquities. 13.15.4. [23]

Maurice Sartre has written of the "policy of forced Judaization adopted by Hyrcanos, Aristobulus I and Jannaeus", who offered "the conquered peoples a choice between expulsion or conversion". [24]

William Horbury has written that "The evidence is best explained by postulating that an existing small Jewish population in Lower Galilee was massively expanded by the forced conversion in c. 104 BCE of their Gentile neighbours in the north." [25]

Kingdom of Himyar Edit

After the conversion of the kingdom of Himyar in the late 4th century to Judaism, [26] two episodes of "coercion and brutality" by Himyar Jewish kings took place during the fifth and early sixth centuries. [27] Thirty-nine Christians were martyred in the third quarter of the fifth century, [27] and a massacre of Christians took place in 523. [27] The Yemeni Jewish Himyar tribe, led by King Dhu Nuwashad, offered Christian residents of a village in Saudi Arabia the choice between conversion to Judaism or death, and 20,000 Christians were massacred. [28] Inscriptions show the great pride he expressed after massacring more than 22,000 Christians in Zafar and Najran. [29]

Eye for an eye Edit

While the principle of lex talionis ("an eye for an eye") is clearly echoed in the Bible, in Judaism it is not literally applied, and was interpreted to provide a basis for financial compensation for injuries. [30] [31] Pasachoff and Littman point to the reinterpretation of the lex talionis as an example of the ability of Pharisaic Judaism to "adapt to changing social and intellectual ideas." [32] Stephen Wylen asserts that the lex talionis is "proof of the unique value of each individual" and that it teaches "equality of all human beings for law." [33]

Capital and corporal punishment Edit

While the Bible and the Talmud specify many violent punishments, including death by stoning, decapitation, burning, and strangulation for some crimes, [34] these punishments were substantially modified during the rabbinic era, primarily by adding additional requirements for conviction. [35] The Mishnah states that a sanhedrin that executes one person in seven years – or seventy years, according to Eleazar ben Azariah – is considered bloodthirsty. [36] [37] During the Late Antiquity, the tendency of not applying the death penalty at all became predominant in Jewish courts. [38] According to Talmudic law, the competence to apply capital punishment ceased with the destruction of the Second Temple. [39] In practice, where medieval Jewish courts had the power to pass and execute death sentences, they continued to do so for particularly grave offenses, although not necessarily the ones defined by the law. [39] Although it was recognized that the use of capital punishment in the post-Second Temple era went beyond the biblical warrant, the Rabbis who supported it believed that it could be justified by other considerations of Jewish law. [40] [41] Whether Jewish communities ever practiced capital punishment according to rabbinical law and whether the Rabbis of the Talmudic era ever supported its use even in theory has been a subject of historical and ideological debate. [42] The 12th-century Jewish legal scholar Maimonides stated that "It is better and more satisfactory to acquit a thousand guilty persons than to put a single innocent one to death." [35] The position of Jewish Law on capital punishment often formed the basis of deliberations by Israel's Supreme Court. It has been carried out by Israel's judicial system only once, in the case of Adolf Eichmann. [41]

The Book of Esther, one of the books of the Jewish Bible, is a story of palace intrigue centered on a plot to kill all Jews which was thwarted by Esther, a Jewish queen of Persia. Instead of being victims, the Jews killed "all the people who wanted to kill them." [43] The king gave the Jews the ability to defend themselves against their enemies who tried to kill them, [44] numbering 75,000 (Esther 9:16) including Haman, an Amalekite that led the plot to kill the Jews. The annual Purim festival celebrates this event, and includes the recitation of the biblical instruction to "blot out the remembrance [or name] of Amalek". Scholars – including Ian Lustick, Marc Gopin, and Steven Bayme – state that the violence described in the Book of Esther has inspired and incited violent acts and violent attitudes in the post-biblical era, continuing into modern times, often centered on the festival of Purim. [4] : 2–19, 107–146, 187–212, 213–247 [45] [46] [47] [48] [49] [50] [51] [52] [53] [54]

Other scholars, including Jerome Auerbach, state that evidence for Jewish violence on Purim through the centuries is "exceedingly meager", including occasional episodes of stone throwing, the spilling of rancid oil on a Jewish convert, and a total of three recorded Purim deaths inflicted by Jews in a span of more than 1,000 years. [55] In a review of historian Elliot Horowitz's book Reckless rites: Purim and the legacy of Jewish violence, Hillel Halkin pointed out that the incidences of Jewish violence against non-Jews through the centuries are extraordinarily few in number and that the connection between them and Purim is tenuous. [56]

Rabbi Arthur Waskow and historian Elliot Horowitz state that Baruch Goldstein, perpetrator of the Cave of the Patriarchs massacre, may have been motivated by the Book of Esther, because the massacre was carried out on the day of Purim [4] : 4, 11, 315 [57] [58] [59] [60] but other scholars point out that the association with Purim is circumstantial because Goldstein never explicitly made such a connection. [61]

Radical Zionists and settlers Edit

The motives for violence by extremist Jewish settlers in the West Bank directed at Palestinians are complex and varied. While religious motivations have been documented, [62] [63] [64] [65] the use of non-defensive violence is outside of mainstream Judaism and mainstream Zionism. [66] [67] [68] [69]

Abraham Isaac Kook (1865–1935), the Ashkenazi Chief Rabbi of Mandate Palestine, urged that Jewish settlement of the land should proceed by peaceful means only. [70] Contemporary settler movements follow Kook’s son Tzvi Yehuda Kook (1891–1982), who also did not advocate aggressive conquest. [70] Critics claim that Gush Emunim and followers of Tzvi Yehuda Kook advocate violence based on Judaism's religious precepts. [71] Ian Lustick, Benny Morris, and Nur Masalha assert that radical Zionist leaders relied on religious doctrines for justification for the violent treatment of Arabs in Palestine, citing examples where pre-state Jewish militia used verses from the Bible to justify their violent acts, which included expulsions and massacres such as the one at Deir Yassin. [72]

After Baruch Goldstein carried out the Cave of the Patriarchs massacre in 1994, his actions were widely interpreted to be based on the radical Zionist ideology of the Kach movement, and were condemned as such by mainstream religious and secular Jews and praised as such by radical Zionists. [4] : 6–11 [73] [74] [75] [76] Dov Lior, Chief Rabbi of Hebron and Kiryat Arba in the southern West Bank and head of the "Council of Rabbis of Judea and Samaria" has made speeches legitimizing the killing of non-Jews and praising Goldstein as a saint and martyr. Lior also said "a thousand non-Jewish lives are not worth a Jew's fingernail". [77] [78] Lior publicly gave permission to spill blood of Arab persons and has publicly supported extreme right-wing Jewish terrorists. [79]

In July 2010, Yitzhak Shapira who heads Dorshei Yihudcha yeshiva in the West Bank settlement of Yitzhar, was arrested by Israeli police for writing a book that encourages the killing of non-Jews. In his book "The King's Torah" (Torat HaMelech) he wrote that under Torah and Jewish Law it is legal to kill Gentiles and even in some cases to kill the babies of enemies. [80] [81] Later in August 2010 police arrested rabbi Yosef Elitzur-Hershkowitz – co-author of Shapira's book – on the grounds of incitement to racial violence, possession of a racist text, and possession of material that incites to violence. While the book has been endorsed by radical Zionist leaders including Dov Lior [62] and Yaakov Yosef [82] it has been widely condemned by mainstream secular and religious Jews. [62]

Assassination of Yitzhak Rabin Edit

The assassination of Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin by Yigal Amir was motivated by Amir’s personal political views and his understanding of Judaism's religious law of moiser (the duty to eliminate a Jew who intends to turn another Jew in to non-Jewish authorities, thus putting a Jew's life in danger [83] ) and rodef (a bystander can kill a one who is pursuing another to murder him or her if he cannot otherwise be stopped). [5] : 91 Amir’s interpretation has been described as "a gross distortion of Jewish law and tradition" [84] and the mainstream Jewish view is that Rabin's assassin had no Halakhic basis to shoot Prime Minister Rabin. [9]

Extremist organizations Edit

In the course of history there have been some organizations and individuals that endorsed or advocated violence based on their interpretation to Jewish religious principles. Such instances of violence are considered by mainstream Judaism to be extremist aberrations, and not representative of the tenets of Judaism. [85] [86]

    (defunct) and Kahane Chai[87][88][89] (defunct): formed by members of Gush Emunim. [90] (defunct): an organisation operating in Israel from 1950 to 1953 with the objective of imposing Jewish religious law in the country and establishing a Halakhic state. [91]
  • The Jewish Defense League (JDL): founded in 1969 by Rabbi Meir Kahane in New York City, with the declared purpose of protecting Jews from harassment and antisemitism. [92]FBI statistics show that, from 1980 to 1985, 15 terrorist attacks were attempted in the U.S. by members of the JDL. [93] The FBI’s Mary Doran described the JDL in 2004 Congressional testimony as "a proscribed terrorist group". [94] The National Consortium for the Study of Terror and Responses to Terrorism states that, during the JDL's first two decades of activity, it was an "active terrorist organization". [92][95]Kahanist groups are banned in Israel. [96][97][98]

Views on violence against Islam Edit

While Judaism contains commandments to exterminate idol worship, according to all rabbinic authorities, Islam contains no trace of idolatry. [99] Rabbi Hayim David HaLevi stated that in modern times no one matches the biblical definition of an idolater, and therefore ruled that Jews in Israel have a moral responsibility to treat all citizens with the highest standards of humanity. [99]

Following an arson incident in 2010, in which a mosque in Yasuf village was desecrated, apparently by settlers from the nearby Gush Etzion settlement bloc, [99] [100] [101] the Chief Ashkenazi Rabbi Yona Metzger condemned the attack and equated the arson to Kristallnacht, he said: "This is how the Holocaust began, the tragedy of the Jewish people of Europe." [102] Rabbi Menachem Froman, a well-known peace activist, visited the mosque and replaced the burnt Koran with new copies. [103] The rabbi stated: "This visit is to say that although there are people who oppose peace, he who opposes peace is opposed to God" and "Jewish law also prohibits damaging a holy place." He also remarked that arson in a mosque is an attempt to sow hatred between Jews and Arabs. [102] [104]

Some critics of religion such as Jack Nelson-Pallmeyer argue that all monotheistic religions are inherently violent. For example, Nelson-Pallmeyer writes that "Judaism, Christianity and Islam will continue to contribute to the destruction of the world until and unless each challenges violence in 'sacred texts' and until each affirms nonviolent, including the nonviolent power of God." [105]

Bruce Feiler writes of ancient history that "Jews and Christians who smugly console themselves that Islam is the only violent religion are willfully ignoring their past. Nowhere is the struggle between faith and violence described more vividly, and with more stomach-turning details of ruthlessness, than in the Hebrew Bible". [106] Similarly, Burggraeve and Vervenne describe the Old Testament as full of violence and evidence of both a violent society and a violent god. They write that, "[i]n numerous Old Testament texts the power and glory of Israel's God is described in the language of violence." They assert that more than one thousand passages refer to YHWH as acting violently or supporting the violence of humans and that more than one hundred passages involve divine commands to kill humans. [107]

Supersessionist Christian churches and theologians argue that Judaism is a violent religion and the god of Israel is a violent god, while Christianity is a religion of peace and that the god of Christianity is one that expresses only love. [108] While this view has been common throughout the history of Christianity and remains a common assumption among Christians, it has been rejected by mainstream Christian theologians and denominations since the Holocaust. [109] : 1–5

  1. ^ ab Fighting the War and the Peace: Battlefield Ethics, Peace Talks, Treaties, and Pacifism in the Jewish Tradition. Michael J. Broyde, 1998, p. 1
  2. ^ ab *Reuven Firestone (2004), "Judaism on Violence and Reconciliation: An examination of key sources" in Beyond violence: religious sources of social transformation in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, Fordham Univ Press, 2004, pp. 77, 81.
    • Goldsmith (Ed.), Emanuel S. (1991). Dynamic Judaism: the essential writings of Mordecai M. Kaplan. Fordham Univ Press. bl. 181. ISBN0823213102 . CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
    • Spero, Shubert (1983). Morality, halakha, and the Jewish tradition. KTAV Publishing House, Inc. pp. 137–318. ISBN0870687271 .
  3. ^ Carl. S. Ehrlich (1999) "Joshua, Judaism, and Genocide", in Jewish Studies at the Turn of the Twentieth Century, Judit Targarona Borrás, Ángel Sáenz-Badillos (Eds). 1999, Brill.
  4. ^ abcd
  5. Horowitz, Elliott S. (2006). Reckless rites: Purim and the legacy of Jewish violence. Princeton University Press. ISBN0691124914 .
  6. ^ ab
  7. Stern, Jessica (2004). Terror in the Name of God: Why Religious Militants Kill, Jessica Stern. HarperCollins. ISBN0-06-050533-8 .
  8. ^ ab The Columbus Platform: The Guiding Principles of Reform Judaism, 1937
  9. ^
  10. "The Co-existence of Violence and Non-Violence in Judaism" . Retrieved 2010-12-09 .
  11. ^
  12. Burns, J. Patout (1996). War and its discontents: pacifism and quietism in the Abrahamic traditions. Georgetown University Press. bl. 18.
  13. ^ abHalacha File: The Halacha of Rodef and the Rabin Shooting. Koltorah.org (2004-11-20). Retrieved on 2010-10-27.
  14. ^ Sandra L. Bloom, Michael Reichert, Bearing witness: violence and collective responsibility. Routledge, 1998. 978-0789004789
  15. ^Lemche, Niels Peter, The Old Testament between theology and history: a critical survey, Westminster John Knox Press, 2008, pp. 315–316:"The [Biblical] story of the 'morally supreme people' that defeats and exterminates another, inferior, nation was part of the ideological baggage of European imperialists and colonizers throughout the nineteenth century. It was also carried by European Jews who. migrated to Palestine to inherit their ancestral country … In this modern version of the biblical narrative, the Palestinian population turned into 'Canaanites', supposed to be morally inferior to the Jews, and of course the Arabs were never considered their equals … The Bible was the instrument used to suppress the enemy".
  16. ^Greenberg, Moshe, "On the Political User of the Bible in Modern Israel: An Engaged Critique", in Pomegranates and golden bells: studies in biblical, Jewish, and Near Eastern ritual, law, and literature, Eisenbrauns, 1995, pp. 467–469:

No "national" commandment such as that of "conquest and settling the land" occurs in any of these [Judaic] summaries [of the Torah]… [arguments for applying herem to modern Israel] introduces a distinction that Scripture does not recognize nowhere are the obligations referred to in the summaries contingent on the achievement of the land-taking or the destruction of Israel's enemies. To suppose that they may be set aside or suspended for the accomplishment of national ends is a leap far beyond scripture. The [biblical] injunctions to take the land are embedded in narrative and give the appearance of being addressed to a specific generation, like the commandment to annihilate or expel the natives of Canaan, which refers specifically to the seven Canaanite nations. Now, had there been any inclination to generalize the law [of extermination], it would have been easy for the talmudic sages to [do so]. But in fact the sages left the ancient herem law as they found it: applying to seven extinct nations.

Sin has changed [since biblical times] crime has changed. We bring a different sensibility to our reading of the sacred texts of the past, even the Torah. There are passages in it which to our modern minds command crimes, the kind of crimes which our age would call "crimes against humanity". I think of the problematic section in the Mattot [Numbers 31] which contains the commandment to exact revenge against the Midianites by slaying every male and every female old enough to engage in sexual intercourse. I used to think that were they [Midianites] suddenly to appear, no Jew would be willing to carry out such a commandment. Then Baruch Goldstein appeared on the scene, and he was followed by Yigal Amir and now I am not sure. I find the commandment to commit genocide against the Midianite unacceptable. To accept the commandment to do the same to "the Hittites, the Amorites, the Canaanites, the Peruzzites, the Hivites, and the Jebusites" seems to me to make permissible the Holocaust, the attempted genocide of the Jewish people.


More Comments:

Bob Loza - 11/25/2010

Mr. Bangs' comments from way back in '05 (which I just stumbled upon this Thanksgiving Day 2010) seem well presented and well said.
I have no idea what the "agenda" may be behind the author's words. A call for unemotional debate or discussion of the "facts" seems to cover it, however. I have always been skeptical of the glorious rhetoric so often heard in praise of the Puritans (or Friends, or whatever they called themselves), because I have never felt we as a nation needed to do so. The holiday itself was instituted in the latter 1800's, or so I have read, and as a union of states who had survived all manner of discordant events - some of them self-inflicted - it made sense then, as it does today, to set aside a day to ponder our history and fortunes, and then sit down to stuff ourselves. I would personally prefer it if we didn't have to keep bringing up these ornery malcontents who landed here to establish their own exclusive (literally) society, and ascribe all manner of noble and self-determining motives to them, but that's the history of own history, and in the end, most of us try to just have a day together and get along as best we can.

I mean, what does buying a mattress or watching The Saints on TV have to do with Thanksgiving anyway?

The good news is that I am free to read and absorb all the truth available and conclude, in the end, that one single story or POV doesn't quite cover everything. Maybe we should have a few American Natives join us for dinner every year, and hey, that's not a bad idea. But today I'll just chill and enjoy the dinner my wife's cooking downstairs. It'll be great. Cheers to us all.

Steven A. Gold - 11/27/2009

Revealing the grand narrative of colonialism appears to sting those who make their living supporting it.

The article headline is not supported in the analysis. Not many of the 'debunkers' he's talking about, say that the colonial force that massacred approx. 700 men, women and children of the Pequot Nation was from one specific particular colony. The gloating Governor proclaiming an annual day of celebration and thanksgiving for an act of genocide was from the Massachusetts Bay Colony.

Myself and many people indigenous to Turtle Island really do not care about the European squabling about secular/non-secular, pilgrim/puritan/protestant or any other biblical reference inaccuracy. That fact that genocide was justified and encouraged by Euro-christians is enough. The majority of Bangs clarifications are simply designating the difference between the SS and the Gestapo, to use a more recent genocide as reference.

And, Bangs seems to think that by disproving claims of 'initial' grave robbing by pilgrims, he is disproving the introduction of sexism, racism, homophobia, jails, social class system, and the murderous genocidal tendencies of early colonials. It doesn't.

I do agree with this wee bit of insight:
“To ask whether this is true is to ask the wrong question. It’s true to its purposes. … And that’s all it needs to be. For these holidays say much less about who we really were in some specific Then, than about who we want to be in an ever changing Now." "And that’s all it needs to be”? I disagree. I think that a historian approaching the question of Thanksgiving Day in the “ever changing Now” will need to ask “the wrong question” – what of all this is true?"

Truth is relative. Bangs' acculturation as a historian, classically trained in the European tradition means that he thinks he can discover the truth of the Then, if he is diligent enough. But what he will accept as truth will be different than someone else who may be trained differently and is just as dilligent.

re: 200 Internet websites that he surveyed on this topic:
"Almost all the corrections are themselves incorrect or banal. With heavy self-importance and pathetic political posturing, they demonstrate quite unsurprisingly that what was once taught in grade school lacked scope, subtlety, and minority insight."
1) I could find 10,000 Internet references by christians and muslims alike, that are likely incorrect. It's the Internet for heaven sake.
2) That he uses terms like "banal" and "pathetic" reveal his own self-importance and his position within a specific ideology.

What is taught today, not "once taught," in all formal education, not just grade school, on this topic, does "lack scope, subtlety, and minority insight." Now if this comes "unsurprisingly" to Bangs, then why does he banter about the differences between the colony's? Why doesn't he add some scope and minority insight into the myths being taught as history? Maybe add some stories that have previously failed to the meet the colonial project that continues to teach that the transplanted European civilization is the pinnacle of humanity. He knows it is not, but he choses to participate in the erasure of knowledge that doesn't fit the colonial project standard.

To call other perspectives as being "heavy with self-importance and pathetic political posturing" is an excellent grasp of the extremely obvious. He is only able to publish this on the Internet, because no academic publication would allow such an opinion piece that is ladden with his own "self-importance and pathetic political posturing." That is not calling the kettle black. It is what it is. What in the world did he expect to find by surveying 200 or more Internet sites? Waarheid? His truth is already revealed. My response supports the revelation of other peoples truths. Yup, it's a political project.

William D French - 11/26/2009

The article on the debunkers of Thanksgiving myths is completely wrong. The writer might have a Doctorate but his arguments are not based on fact (he gives very few in his piece) and we must remember he worked for THE organization that has purposefully spread lies about the history of Thanksgiving.

Sarah Tollen - 11/8/2009

What was done to the Jewish people in Germany was sick. But even the people who were guily of those crimes do not have a holiday to relish what they did year after year. Millions of native American killed. Millions of Africans killed. And we keep sugar coating what happened and lying to our children to carry on a very sick tradition based on death. We cant forget what happened to these people because history has a way of repeating itself. The children of America are raised on lies and denials
Many go their whole life believing in fairytales that the rest of the world find horrific. The truth will set us all free. Then and only then can we move forward as a whole nation and be respected throughout the world.

Steve Stockford - 11/3/2008

Nice job at trying to discredit A dead college professor who did the academic research needed to set the record straight. Had you done a little more research you would have discovered professor Newell was in fact well learned, and a faculty member at at several prestigious schools including U of Florida, U of Maine, U Penn, and U of Tampa. Newell was also a recognized expert in U.S. Indian relations, giving testimony to the U.S. congress in the early 1970's. I believe William Newell's accounting to be the most true and accurate accounting of the facts. Peraps before you try to discredit someone you shoud do a little more research.

Michael Roy Paulick - 11/8/2005

I agree with Dr. Bangs that there is a great assortment of nonsensical interpretations regarding the Pilgrim thanksgiving celebration of 1621. I believe it is useful to review the documentary sources from that time.
In 1614 John Robinson, the Pilgrim’s pastor and religious teacher, wrote that thanksgiving to God “for other good things [bestowed] upon themselves, and theirs . . . [was merely] a duty of the Christian person, or family. . . ” Later, in the same essay, John Robinson wrote that Leiden Pilgrims must especially serve God with “fervent prayer, and hearty thanksgiving unto God, for his unspeakable goodness . . ..”
Thomas Wilson’s A Christian Dictionarie was first published in 1612 so it is possible that the Pilgrims read it in Leiden and carried it onboard the Mayflower in 1620.
Copies were found in the inventories of some of the Pilgrims and William Brewster had a copy in his library which may have served the community. Wilson’s dictionary offered a religious definition of thanksgiving that included “An acknowledgement and confessing, with gladnesse, of the benefits and deliverances of God . . . to the praise of his Name.” Wilson added Thanksgiving hath in it “Cheerfulnesse, being glad of an occasion to praise him, and doing it gladly, with joy.”
Research into what the Pilgrims themselves were taught and read can, perhaps, shed some light on their intentions. It is likely that they fulfilled their perceived Christian duty by offering thanksgiving and praise to God for their harvest. Baie van hulle was waarskynlik bly, bly en vrolik om op die vrugte van hul oes te kon oorleef.


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