Longleat

Longleat House & Safari Park is die setel van die Marquesses of Bath, en is ook opvallend omdat die eerste safaripark buite Afrika gebou is. Dit is geleë in West Wiltshire, die Verenigde Koninkryk.

Geskiedenis van Longleat

Longleat was oorspronklik 'n Augustynse priory: die huis is in 1541 vir Sir John Thynn gekoop, maar kort daarna in 1567 afgebrand. Teen 1580 is die huis herbou, hoofsaaklik volgens 'n ontwerp deur Sir John. Die huis het sedertdien by die gesin gebly: Sir James Thynne het sir Christopher Wren in die 17de eeu by die huis aangestel, en sy seun, Thomas Thynne, het formele tuine en landskap aangestel deur George London.

Verskeie ander veranderings het in die 19de eeu onder John Crace plaasgevind, wat 'n paar interieurs in Italiaanse styl in Renaissance -styl bygevoeg het. Die huis is tydens die Eerste Wêreldoorlog as 'n tydelike hospitaal gebruik en was 'n basis vir 'n ontruimde skool in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog.

Longleat is aan die einde van die veertigerjare vir die publiek geopen om inkomste te genereer, en die safaripark is in 1966 geopen en word die eerste deurry-safaripark buite Afrika. 'N Gedeelte van die 900 hektaar groot landgoed is ook die afgelope paar jaar aan Center Parcs verhuur.

Die huis het vandag nog 'n indrukwekkende kuns- en boekversameling, en die formele tuine is buitengewoon aangenaam. Die huidige vader van Marquess was dol oor doolhowe en het verskeie oor die terrein geplant wat die moeite werd is om te verdwaal as u tyd het.

Longleat vandag

Die huis is toeganklik via vrye vloei, selfgeleide besoek of per toer: daar is verskeie temas om uit te kies, insluitend 'Scandalous History Tours' wat die meer kwaai skinder oor die Thynne-gesin, insluitend die huidige Marquess-pa, wat sy minnaresse in genade en guns kothuise oorkant die landgoed en duidelike muurskilderye in sy huis geverf - wees gewaarsku as u van plan is om kinders te neem!

Die safaripark bly die sterre -aantrekkingskrag vir die meeste besoekers: die meerderheid ry deur: die ape is besonder ondeunde en het al geweet dat hulle motorantenne steel as jy nie versigtig is nie. Die park het 'n groot verskeidenheid diere, insluitend leeus, jagluiperds, kameelperde en sebras, en nog vele meer - die nuwigheid om leeus in die lente tussen die blouklokke te sien, is êrens wat u elders nie sal vind nie.

Kom by Longleat

Longleat is net langs die A36 geleë, ongeveer halfpad tussen Bath en Salisbury, op die A362 tussen Warminster en Frome. Openbare vervoer -opsies is ietwat beperk: die naaste stasies is onderskeidelik Frome en Warminster, alhoewel hulle albei ongeveer 8 kilometer ver is en daar geen busdiens is nie.

Die rit deur die terrein kan besonder aangenaam en atmosferies wees, so geniet dit!


Die geskiedenis van Longleat Safari Park 's vertel in 'n buiteluguitstalling

Tales of the Garden bevat beeldhouwerke van werkers en diere wat deel was van die terrein en tuine van die landgoed Wiltshire.

Die kunswerke is gemaak met behulp van 'n verskeidenheid materiale en is geïnspireer deur beelde wat uit Longleat se argiewe geneem is.

Dit is sedert die 1600's die tuiste van die markies van Bath en word beskou as die eerste safaripark ter wêreld.

Die uitstalling is versprei oor nege verskillende installasies rondom Longleat se formele tuine en historiese stalwerf.

Landskapsargitekte en tuinontwerpers wat deur die eeue bygedra het tot die voorkoms van Longleat, soos George London, ⟊pability ' Brown, Humphry Repton, Russell Page en Graham Burgess word in die stukke uitgebeeld.

Hierdie ontwerpers is gelei deur die visioene van die Thynne -gesin wat op die landgoed gewoon het.

Britse kunstenaars, Charlotte Austen, Rebecca McDonald, Penny Spedding en hul spanne het materiaal soos jesmoniet, staal, wol, hout, draad, ink, stof, pigment en goudblaar gebruik om die skulpe te maak.


Die nuwe projek van Longleat Estate onthul 'n nuwe geskiedenis van kothuise

'N Projek om 'n versameling kothuise op die Longleat -landgoed te omskep in luukse toevlugsoord, het hul fassinerende geskiedenis onthul.

Altesaam ses eiendomme, waarvan baie uit die 18de eeu dateer, word tans omskep in eksklusiewe landelike ontsnappings, met die eerste drie wat vanaf April beskikbaar is.

As deel van die opknappingsprojek het 'n span argivarisse die erfenis van elk van die eiendomme ondersoek en hul interessante geskiedenis en die lewens van die mense wat deur die eeue geleef het, onthul.

Jon Timney, landgoeddirekteur, het gesê dat ons, behalwe om luukse akkommodasie in 'n asemrowende omgewing aan te bied, ook elkeen van die unieke verhale van die eiendom wou ondersoek en weerspieël, "

Hy het bygevoeg dat ons in die Longleat -argiewe oorspronklike planne en tekeninge onthul het, sowel as ou foto's en dokumente wat ons in staat gestel het om die rol van hierdie huisies in die ryk geskiedenis van die landgoed te illustreer.

Onder die nuut opgeknapte wegbreekplekke is East Lodge. Dit is oorspronklik in die 1760's gebou as deel van Lancelot 'Capability' Brown se transformasie van Longleat se park. Gebou in die vorm van 'n triomfboog, is die gebou later in die 19de eeu herontwerp deur die bekende argitek Jeffry Wyatville, die man agter die verbouing van Windsor Castle.

Die gebou het eens 'n huisvesting gebied vir 'n portier om toesig te hou oor die verkeer wat die park binnegaan en af ​​en toe 'spesiale' tolgeld, soos skaapdroërs se fooie, of die sjielings as gevolg van lykswaens wat 'n kis na sy begraafplaas neem, op te vang.

Die Deer Keeper's House uit die 18de eeu, geleë in 'n afgesonderde bosveld met uitsigte oor die rollende landgoed, is oorspronklik gebou om die Longleat Steward te huisves.

Aan die begin van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog is dit gebruik deur die wildbewaarder Bill Buckett, wat sersant van Longleat se hulpeenheid geword het, opgerig om die Duitse inval te weerstaan ​​en as toerusting- en ammunisiewinkel van die eenheid gebruik te word. Toe die planne vir die opening van die beroemde Safari Park in 1965 openbaar word, het die destydse huurder, 'n parlementslid van die Arbeid, dringend versoek om 'n telefoonlyn te installeer in die geval van verdwaalde leeus.

Met die uitsig oor die Safari Park se Oos -Afrika -reservaat, was die twee wagte se huisies oorspronklik 'n enkele woning. Die eerste inwoner daarvan, Park Keeper Charles Lucas, het meer as 40 jaar daar gewoon. Bo en behalwe sy salaris, het hy ook 'n weeklikse toelae gehad om vier bloedhonde aan te hou.

In 1968 is die gebou in twee verdeel en as akkommodasie vir die 'Lions of Longleat' -bewaarders gebruik. Aanvanklik is East Lodge, Keeper's House en Keeper's Cottage beskikbaar vir besprekings vanaf April, met Deer Keepers House, Gardeners Cottage en Prairie Lodge wat betyds bygevoeg word vir die somer.

Sedert die 1600's was die tuiste van die markies van Bath, en verwelkom al meer as 400 jaar besoekers. Die landgoed Wiltshire was die eerste om in 1949 sy deure vir die publiek oop te maak en het die toerisme-wêreld in 1966 heeltemal herdefinieer toe dit die eerste deurry-safaripark buite Afrika geloods het.


Die geskiedenis van Longleat House

Soos Engelse statige huise gaan, is Longleat House in Wiltshire omtrent die merkwaardigste wat u kan vind. Op verskillende punte in sy geskiedenis het dit groot voorspoed geniet of is dit uit die nabye vergetelheid gered. ontelbare kere deur die versameling karakters wat dit meer as 450 jaar se geskiedenis tuisgemaak het.

Die huis was die eerste huis wat spesifiek gebou is om indruk te maak op die destydse koning Koningin Elizabeth I, die eerste statige huis wat sy deure vir die publiek oopgemaak het en is die tuiste van die eerste deurry safaripark wêreldwyd buite Afrika. Behalwe dit alles, spog dit ook met uitbundige interieurs en indrukwekkende versamelings boeke, kuns en ander versamelstukke.

In hierdie blog ontdek ons ​​die geskiedenis van Longleat House van sy oorsprong in die middel van die 16de eeu tot vandag, en ondersoek ons ​​'n paar feite en syfers wat bydra tot sy status vandag as een van die beste statige huise in Engeland.

BOU LANGBROEK

Longleat House is tussen 1568 en 1580 deur sir John Thynn gebou en het sedertdien in die familie gebly. Sir John was 'n kombuisklerk by 'n lid van die koninklike hof wat baie vinnig bestuurder word van die hertog van Somerset, die toekomstige Lord Protector of the Realm wat namens die negejarige Edward VI die land sou regeer na die dood van sy vader Henry VIII. Sir John het die grond waarop die huis in 1540 gebou is, gekoop vir £ 53 (gelykstaande aan meer as £ 300,000 vandag), wat destyds 60 hektaar groot was met die oorspronklike huis, 'n boord en 'n konynhok. Die oorspronklike huis is in April 1567 deur 'n brand verwoes.

Die bou van Longleat sou die begin wees van die ambisieuse en besigheidsvernuflike eiendom van Sir John Thynn en val saam met sy meteoriese toename in status. Dit is gebou om sy rykdom en status te toon, en was een van die eerste sogenaamde wonderkindhuise wat gebou is, en is steeds een van die beste. Die huis is gebou met die hulp van verskeie argitekte, maar daar word geglo dat Sir John sterk betrokke was by die ontwerp daarvan, aangesien hy vasbeslote was om 'n merkwaardige huis te skep, 'n huis wat koningin Elizabeth I genoeg sou beïndruk om haar te lok, om die posisie van Sir John in die samelewing te versterk. In die bou van Longleat was Sir John vasbeslote om 'n nalatenskap te skep wat vir ewig sou duur.

Met soveel op die spel, is dit miskien nie verbasend dat sir John baie eis in sy eise nie. Arbeiders en vakmanne is aangesê om met 'haastigheid' te werk, maar as 'n fout gevind word, moes hulle 'weer' maak. Tydens die konstruksie het Sir John 'n hele steengroef Bathsteen in die nabygeleë Hazelbury gekoop, en toe hy die een uit die weg geruim het, koop hy eenvoudig 'n ander steengroef. As wat hy wou nie in Engeland beskikbaar was nie, was hy bly om verder te gaan. En hy was ook nie skaam om oor pryse te onderhandel nie, terwyl die klipmesselaar opgemerk het in 'n destydse brief: "Ons dink dat daar in Engeland niemand is wat minder wins en minder dank dan ons ontvang het."

Bou Longleat House, in getalle
• 128 kamers
• 3,486m2 (meer as 40 keer die grootte van die gemiddelde Britse huis)
• 36.010 ton badsteen
• 365 vensters, met ruitjies van ingevoerde Spaanse glas
• 112 vakmanne en arbeiders
• 12 jaar om te bou
• Koste net meer as £ 8,016 (gelykstaande aan £ 31 miljoen vandag).

Met al hierdie tyd, geld en moeite is ingesit om te verseker dat die voltooide huis absoluut perfek was, kan 'n mens vergewe word as jy aanneem dat Sir John verheug sou gewees het toe koningin Elizabeth I aangekondig het dat sy sou kom bly. Die gasheer vir die koningin was egter ongelooflik duur, veral nie te danke aan die aantal mense wat sy saamgebring het nie. Sir John het die koningin probeer weerhou om Longleat te besoek en het haar eers vertel dat die huis nie gereed is nie, en dat die hele huishouding 'n sweet gehad het.

Maar op die ou end het sy besoek afgelê en hy haal alles uit en bied haar 'n halssnoer aan wat £ 140 kos - gelykstaande aan byna £ 465,000 vandag, en drie keer soveel as wat hy spandeer het om die grond te koop by Longleat in die eerste plek. Dit het gewerk - die koningin was baie beïndruk met wat sy by Longleat gesien het.

WYSIGINGS AAN DIE HUIS EN GRONDE

Na die dood van Sir John Thynn in 1580, het Longleat in baie verskillende hande oorgegaan, waarvan sommige veiliger was as ander, maar almal op een of ander manier hul stempel afgedruk het. Daar is gesê dat as Sir John vandag sou terugkeer om die huis te besoek, die Great Hall waarskynlik die enigste kamer is wat hy sou erken as sy oorspronklike ontwerp en karakter. Alhoewel die buitekant van die huis grotendeels oorspronklik bly, is die interieurontwerp en -dekor deur die jare deur opeenvolgende eienaars verander en hervorm.

Deur die eeue is gevierde ontwerpers, waaronder Jeffry Wyatville en John Crace, in diens geneem om hul towerkuns aan die binnekant van die huis te verwerk, met die invoer van gange vir ekstra privaatheid, groot trappe en versierde plafonne. Groot formele tuine met myl paadjies, fonteine, kanale en 'n doolhof is teen groot koste ingebring (£ 30,000 - gelykstaande aan £ 63 miljoen vandag) voordat, net 70 jaar later, die hele stuk uitgeruk is en duisende nuwe bome geplant om die natuurlike landskap van Capability Brown te skep, teen 'n verdere koste van £ 6,000 (vandag £ 11 miljoen).

Daar was tye van voorspoed en tye dat die finansiële posisie van die boedel benadeel was. Sommige bewaarders was groot uitgawes, terwyl ander groot besigheidsvernuf en talent vir finansies gehad het.

OOPGANG VIR DIE PUBLIEK

Een so 'n bewaarder met die hoof van sake was die 6de markies, Henry Frederick Thynne. Toe Henry Longleat in 1946 geërf het, erf hy ook skuld van £ 700 000, wat gelykstaande is aan £ 69 miljoen vandag. Die boedel se inkomste was beperk. Sedert die eeuwisseling minder as 50 jaar tevore, is ongeveer 1 200 soortgelyke landhuise afgebreek, aangesien hul eienaars dit nie meer kon bekostig om dit te behou nie.

Om sy gesin se huis te red, besluit Henry met vrymoedigheid dat Longleat die eerste privaat woning moet wees wat sy deure vir die publiek oopmaak. Sy besluit het destyds groot woede veroorsaak - sy eweknieë was geskok - maar dit was die regte besluit. In sy eerste openingsjaar in 1947, het Longleat meer as £ 16 000 (gelykstaande aan £ 1,5 miljoen vandag) vir opnames geneem. Gedurende die volgende 15 jaar sou 600 ander privaat huise ook hul deure vir die publiek oopmaak.

DIE EERSTE SAFARI PARK BUITE AFRIKA

The 6th Marquess was ook verantwoordelik vir die omstrede besluit in 1966 om 'n safaripark op die Longleat -landgoed te open. Die park was die eerste buite Afrika en het wêreldwyd opslae gemaak. Dit is selfs in die laerhuis gedebatteer. Toe dit oopgaan, het die verkeer 'n ry van vier myl om die landgoed gestaan ​​terwyl gretige besoekers 'n blik op die 50 leeus van die park (toe die enigste spesie) kry.

Om die park te skep, het die Marquess kontrakteurs opdrag gegee om nuwe paaie en omheinings te bou wat saam meer as £ 37,000 (£ 1,2 miljoen vandag) kos.

Tans dwaal ongeveer 500 diere oor meer as 130 spesies deur die 9.000 hektaar omringende Longleat -huis, en die safaripark het die land se belangrikste inkomstebron geword. Besoekers kan kothuise op die landgoed huur sodat hulle voor en in die middel van die safari -aksie kan bly.

VEILIG VANDAG

Vandag trek Longleat House steeds die besoekers aan. Die landgoed word besit deur die 7de markies van Bath, Alexander Thynn, terwyl die huis, terrein en safaripark deur sy seun Ceawlin en die vrou van Ceawlin, Lady Emma, ​​bestuur word.

The 7th Marquess het sy eie merk op Longleat gemaak deur die meerderheid van die kamers in die privaat vleuels te verf met sy eie mengsel van olieverf en saagsels om 'n unieke driedimensionele pleisterwerk te skep en verskeie doolhowe te ontwerp wat nou die terrein beslaan.

Die huis is vol antiekhede en belangrike artefakte uit die geskiedenis, insluitend die onderbaadjie wat koning Charles I gedra het tydens sy teregstelling in 1649, wat in die Great Hall te sien is. Die huis het een van die grootste private versamelings boeke in Europa, met meer as 40 000 in sy sewe biblioteke.

Die plafonne van die huis is versier met versierde skilderye en in die groot saal is daar twee bewegende portrette. Die skilderye toon die 2de Burggraaf Weymouth, Thomas Thynne, en sy vrou Louisa Carteret wat stry oor die geheimsinnige dood van haar dienskneg. Die verhaal gaan dat die 2de Burggraaf jaloers was op die aantreklike slaaf, wat 'n gunsteling van sy pragtige vrou was, en het gerugte geglo dat die paar 'n verhouding het. Hy het die dienskneg by die trappe afgegooi, sy nek gebreek en hom vermoor, maar het dit nie aan sy vrou gesê nie. Tot vandag toe - word gesê - dwaal haar spookagtige visioen deur die gange van die huis op soek na haar geliefde.

Vir meer inligting oor Longleat House, besoek www.longleat.co.uk.

Vir meer inligting oor die bewaring en herstel van kuns, lees ons e -boek waar ons kyk na verdere wetenskap en kuns om die kunswerke van die geskiedenis te bewaar.


Longleat Safari en avontuurpark

Die park is geleë op die terrein van Longleat House, 'n Engelse statige huis wat oop is vir die publiek en die tuiste was van die 7de markies van Bath. Longleat Safari Park en die konsep van safariparke was die geesteskind van Jimmy Chipperfield (1912–1990), voormalige mededirekteur van Chipperfield's Circus. [5]

Longleat huis en terrein Wysig

Die voorouerhuis van die markies van Bath, wat in 1949 vir die publiek oopgemaak is, bly 'n gewilde trekpleister onder besoekers. Besoekers kan deelneem aan een van die vele gereelde huistoere of bloot op hul gemak rondloop. Hulle kan ook die tuine rondom die huis verken en 'n aantal kafees op die terrein besoek. 'N Afsonderlike kaartjie word verkoop vir besoekers wat slegs die huis en tuine wil besoek.

Safari Park Edit

Oos -Afrikaanse Reserwe Redigeer

Jungle Cruise Wysig

Die Jungle Cruise (bekend as die Safari Boat tot 2011) is 'n kort rit om Half Mile Lake. Die reis neem besoekers verby die eiland, wat voorheen die tuiste was van die bejaarde manlike westelike laagland-gorilla Nico, die oudste gorilla in Europa, tot sy dood op 7 Januarie 2018, op 56 Januarie, en nou die tuiste is van swart-en-wit kolobapies. [7]

Monkey Temple Wysig

Die middelpunt van hierdie besienswaardigheid, wat in 2012 geopen is, is 'n ruïnes met 'n groot tema met lang toupaadjies wat oor die paadjies loop, waardeur besoekers veilig met 'n verskeidenheid marmosette en tamariene kan omgaan. [8]

Elders in hierdie gebied is 'n omheining met 'n familie rooi panda's. Die broeipaar, genaamd Ajendra en Rufina, het sedert 2015 drie welpies gebaar. [9] [10] [11]

Reuse -otters en krokodille wysig

Hierdie aantrekkingskrag het van die Monkey Temple af oopgemaak in 2019. Voorheen was die omhulsel die tuiste van 'n kolonie Humboldt-pikkewyne wat in aanhouding geteel is, wat die eerste keer in 2013 vertoon is, maar daar was verskeie uitbrake van aviaire malaria in September 2016 [12] en Desember 2018 . [13]

Animal Adventure Redigeer

Hierdie gebied bevat baie diere wat voorheen in Pets 'Corner gehou is, en bevat baie eksotiese en bekende soogdiere, voëls, reptiele en insekte wat in 2009 geopen is. [14]

Longleat Railway Edit

Hierdie 381 mm (381 mm) rybare miniatuurspoorweg, wat in 1965 gestig is en in 1976 uitgebrei is, is een van die besigste in die land. Dit het 'n lengte van 2 km deur 'n skilderagtige bosveld en langs die rand van die Half Mile -meer. Die lyn het deur die jare verskeie kursusse gevolg, maar die roete langs die meer het konsekwent gebly. Na die opening is die spoorweg oorspronklik bestuur deur die eksterne onderneming Minirail op 'n kontrak van tien jaar, wat nie hernu is nie weens meningsverskille tussen die twee maatskappye. Hierna het Longleat die bestuur van die spoorweg oorgeneem in 1976. Baie enjins het deur die jare op die spoorweg geloop, beide stoom en diesel vanaf 2018. Die spoorlyn besit drie diesellokomotiewe. Die treinspoor het ook 15 waens, almal tussen 1976 en 2013 in Longleat gebou en met 'n karmosynrooi en roomkleurige British Railways saam met verskeie permanente waens. Tussen 2011 en 2017 was die spoorweg bekend as die Jungle Express, met die stasie en waens bykomende tema. [15] [16] [17]


Longleat

Longleat naby Warminster in Wiltshire was een van die vroegste van die groot Elizabethaanse skou- of wonderkinderhuise, begin voor Wollaston (1580's) of Hardwick (1590's). Dit is begin deur sir John Thynne, wat goed gevaar het uit die ontbinding van die kloosters. Die adviserende argitek was Robert Smythson, later werksaam in Wollaston en Hardwick. Die belangrikste kenmerk daarvan is die groot vensters. Brown en Repton was albei in die 18de eeu werksaam. op die groot park. Die Thynne -familie, wat later deur Weymouth en markies van Bath gestig is, was een van die vroegstes wat die kommersiële potensiaal van aristokrasie besef het, en die leeus van Longleat is waarskynlik beter bekend as die argitektuur.

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In 'n vroeëre verklaring kondig Boris Johnson strenger maatreëls aan en moedig ons almal aan om tuis te bly, tensy dit absoluut noodsaaklik is om te gaan werk en so gereeld as moontlik noodsaaklikhede te koop.

Oefeningbeperkings blyk 'n groter probleem te wees as wat verwag is, so ons verwag dat dit in die komende dae hersien sal word.

Lewens gaan verlore, en natuurlik sterf beroemdhede ook opslae. 'N Aantal beroemde figure is ongelukkig oorlede weens die virus, met Alexander Thynn - 7de markies van Bath - een van die nuutste ...

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Alexander Thynn sterf

Alexander George Thynn het op Saterdag, 4 April 2020, sy lewe verloor nadat hy in die hospitaal opgeneem is en positief getoets het vir COVID-19.

Soos deur The Guardian berig, bevestig Longleat safaripark die nuus op Facebook en skryf: 'Die familie wil hul groot waardering uitspreek vir die toegewyde span verpleegsters, dokters en ander personeel wat so professioneel en deernisvol vir Alexander omgegee het in hierdie uiters moeilike tye vir almal. Hulle sou beleefd 'n tydperk van privaatheid versoek om hul verlies te hanteer. "

'N Aantal huldeblyke het ingestroom, met baie wat na Twitter stroom om woorde van vriendelikheid te bied. Die nuus het egter ook baie aangemoedig om te wonder wie Longleat, die groot Tudor -herehuis, gaan erf.

O LIEFDE! Die veldtogadvertensie van Joe Exotic is van onskatbare waarde

Vaarwel Lord Bath, die laaste van die aristokratiese eksentrieke, wat gister deur die dierlike Coronavirus geneem is. RIP Alexander Thynn, 7de markies van Bath, 6 Mei 1932-4 April 2020 pic.twitter.com/RXgzliaZva

- The Chap Magazine (@TheChapMag) 5 April 2020

Wie sal Longleat erf?

Dit word deur die Mirror berig, met Ceawlin Thynn - gestileer as Viscount Weymouth - wat nou die titel as die 8ste markies van Bath erf.

Die 45-jarige Britse sakeman is Alexander se eerste seun en tweede kind. Hy word in Januarie 2009 voorsitter van Longleat Enterprises, en trou later in 2013 met Emma McQuiston, wat verskyn het op Kom streng dans in die verlede saam met Aljaž Skorjanec.

Eintlik het die huwelik nogal 'n familievete veroorsaak, en die vorige bron het opgemerk dat beide Lord Bath en die moeder van Viscount Weymouth, Anna Thynn, blykbaar teen die vakbond was.

Hulle het selfs die troue geboikot!

Nietemin sal hulle nou die landgoed bestuur na die dood van die 7de markies van Bath.


THYNNE, Sir John (1513 of 1515-80), van Longleat, Wilts.

b. 1513 of 1515, 1ste s. van Thomas Thynne van Stretton, Salop deur Margaret, da. van Thomas Heynes of Eynes van Stretton. m. (1) 1548, Christian of Christiana, da. van Sir Richard Gresham van Londen, 3s. inc. John en Thomas I 3da. (2) teen 1567, Dorothy, da. van William Wroughton van Broadhenton, later vrou van sir Carew Ralegh van Downton, 5s. Kntd. 1547.3

Kantore gehou

Burger en handelaar van die hoë rentmeester in Londen, Warminister landmeter, kroonlande, Wilts. 1545, 1580 kommr. gesange 1548, skou 1569 balju, Som. en Dorset 1548-9, Wilts. 1569-70.

J.p. Wilts. uit 1558, Glos. uit 1558, Som. vanaf 1573 vrot vragte. Wilts. vanaf c.1564.4

Biografie

John Thynne, rentmeester van die graaf van Hertford vanaf 1536, het saam met sy meester opgestaan ​​en van hom afgehang, in 1547 hertog van Somerset geskep. en elders uit sanglande en deur sy eerste huwelik met die enigste dogter van 'n heer burgemeester van Londen. Hy val uit die bewind saam met Protector Somerset, maar slaag daarin om terug te trek na sy Wiltshire -landgoedere, waar hy wag op die terugkeer van beter dae. Sy bekende protestantse simpatie het Thynne, wat in die parlement gesit het as 'n afhanklike van Somerset, uitgesluit van lidmaatskap van die Mariese parlemente, of hy het verkies om politieke toewyding te vermy. Dit lyk asof hy Elizabeth nie eers die aand voor haar toetreding genader het nie, toe hy aan Parry skryf om troepe tot haar beskikking te stel. Tuis het hy hom reeds voorberei op 'n verandering in die politieke toneel. Noudat die Seymour -invloed in die graafskap verlam was deur die wenner van Somerset, en slegs verteenwoordig was deur die seun van die beskermer wat eers volwasse geword het in die jaar van Elizabeth se toetreding, kon Thynne strewe na onafhanklikheid in sy eie westelike deel van die shire en hy het geen behoefte gehad om die ondersteuning van die oorlewende edele magnaat, die 1ste graaf van Pembroke, te soek toe Elizabeth haar eerste parlement ontbied nie. Deur die verkiesing van sir George Penruddock, die bestuurder van Pembroke, as tweede ridder van die herkoms te betwis, het Thynne homself teruggekeer in weerwil van die peiling, en het dus voorrang geniet aan die begin van die nuwe bewind.

So 'n aanname van oppergesag kan slegs slaag as dit onverwags was. Thynne se hooghartige gedrag in 1559 was 'n voorval in 'n lang ruzie met Pembroke, en dit het tot so 'n lengte gekom dat Thynne in 1564 persoonlik by die Privy Council ingeroep is om sy aandeel daarin te verantwoord. In 1562-3 kon Thynne dus geen hoop gehad het op die instemming van Pembroke in sy kandidatuur vir die hof nie, en moes hy bly gewees het om terug te val op die wyk Great Bedwyn, waar die Seymour-belang steeds bestaan, ondanks die onlangse skande van die jong graaf van Hertford. Hier moes hy boonop al van die dae van sy rentmeesterskap af bekend gewees het en uit eie rekening die tiendes van die vooroordeel verkry het. Teen 1571 was die 1ste graaf van Pembroke dood en Thynne se betrekkinge met sy opvolger het voldoende verbeter sodat Thynne as eerste ridder van die koninkryk verkies kon word. Maar dat hy geen monopolie op hierdie eer kon verwag nie, is bewys deurdat hy elders 'n sitplek moes soek vir die volgende parlement. Hy het dit gevind in Heytesbury, 'n stad wat feitlik in die hande van sy gesin was. Alhoewel Thynne nie in die debat gepraat het nie, het hy in 1563 deelgeneem aan een opgetekende komitee (met betrekking tot vervalsers), een in 1566 (oor die huwelik en opvolging van die koningin), nege in 1571, ses in 1572 en 12 in 1576. Op 5 November 1566 was hy een van 30 lidmate wat byeengeroep is om die boodskap van die koningin oor die opvolging te hoor. In 1571 was sy komitees oor godsdiens (6 Apr., 10 Mei), die orde van sake (21, 26 Apr.), skatkis (11 Mei) en regsake (14, 23 Apr., 14, 28 May). In 1572 het sy komitees betrekking op Mary Stuart (12, 22, 28 Mei) en privaat- en voorregsake (20, 22, 30 Mei). Die van 1576 handel oor die subsidie ​​(10 Feb.), handel (16, 18, Feb.), regsake (18 Feb., 8, 12, 14 Mar.), die dekaan en hoofstuk van Norwich (2 Mar.) , grondaanwinning (6 mrt.), klere (10 mrt.) en die huwelik van die koningin (12 mrt.). Thynne waardeer ongetwyfeld 'n setel in die parlement as bewys van sy gevestigde posisie in Wiltshire, maar hy het ander konneksies met Londen gehad, wat dit nie moeilik gemaak het nie. Hy is voorsien van 'n huis in Cannon Row en het regsondernemings. Sy neef Francis was vanaf 1561 in Lincoln's Inn en het daarna in Poplar en in Bermondseystraat gewoon.

Sy posisie in Wiltshire het die gebruiklike eise aan sy tyd meegebring. As balju was hy verantwoordelik vir die invordering van die privileuse -lening van 1570 1570 in die graafskap, en as hooflanddros ontvang hy sy deel bevele van die Privy Council, maar dat hy nie altyd toegelaat het dat hulle hom te swaar weeg nie. deur 'n reeks briewe van 'n toenemend apoplektiese toon wat hom oor 'n tydperk van agt maande aangespoor het om aksie te neem oor misbruik in die klerehandel. Hy het baie private sake in gedagte gehad, rusies om te voer, met Edward Ludlow in 1579 wat weer die ingryping van die Raad vereis. Hy het ook sy eiendom gehad om uit te buit. Hy het sy park by Longleat uit die bos gesny en voortgegaan om gedeeltes van die bos te bekom. Hy het die weivelde en weidings gebruik om vee te laat wei, en 'n jaar voor sy dood begin rekord hou daarvan, kon hy sy weduwee, onder meer erflatings, 30 koeie, 'n bul en 100 skape by Corseley agterlaat. Maar die voorwerp wat sy sterkste gevoelens aangeheg het en sy deurlopende inspannings vereis het, was die groot huis self. Vanaf 1547 bou hy, in groot mate, waarskynlik as sy eie argitek, en roep die hulp van die aannemer of metselaar toe elke fase bereik word. Die huis het nog in die laaste kwart van die eeu opgegaan en is in Augustus 1574 deur die koningin besoek

Benewens sy twee bekende huwelike, ken die Shropshire -besoek van 1623 aan Sir John 'n tussenpersoon toe met Anne, weduwee van ene Cole, seun van Alexander Cole van Londen. As dit gebeur het, moes Anne teen Januarie 1566 dood gewees het, toe Thynne as 'n man vir Lady St. Loe voorgestel is. Deur sy 11 kinders het hy sy bes gedoen om te verseker dat daar altyd Thynnes by Longleat sal wees. Maar toe hy op 6 Mei 158o 1580 sy testament kom opstel, het sy angs om sy lande in Wiltshire, Somerset, Gloucestershire, Oxfordshire, Shropshire en Kent en sy huise in Londen, Bristol en Westminster te beskerm teen alle gebeurlikhede sy doel amper verslaan - a 'n voorlopige vonnis van die hof was nodig om hom te verklaar compos mentis- en die verwarring wat daaruit voortspruit, toon hoe moeilik hy dit gevind het om die bekommernisse van 'n leeftyd te beëindig. Hy is op 21 Mei 1580 oorlede, en die testament is op 12 November bewys. Sy gedenksteen in die Longbridge Deverill -kerk, hoewel dit eers in die sewentiende eeu opgerig is, was waarskynlik na sy eie ontwerp. Maar sy ware monument, met sy korrespondensie, rekeninge en boedelpapiere, en sy portret, geskilder toe hy 51 was, is Longleat.8


Warminster (vn. 1) lê aan die voet van die afdraande, naby die noordwestelike hoek van Salisbury Plain, wat hier eindig in die opvallende Arn Hill (694 voet). (vn. 2) Vanaf Arn Hill sluit 'n rant van ongeveer 400 voet hoog aan by die vlakte tot op die geïsoleerde hoogte van Cley Hill in die weste, en vorm die waterskeiding tussen die vallei van die Biss en Frome in die noorde en dié van die Wylye in die suide. Warminster het grootgeword by die sameloop van twee klein stroompies wat na die aansluiting in die suidelike helling van die rif uitloop, wat die Were vorm wat die stad sy naam gegee het. (fn. 3) The stream, called the Swan River since at least the mid-19th century, (fn. 4) is still only small as it flows on to join the Wylye, which skirts the parish on the south. To the west of the town begins rather higher and more broken country, formerly heathland but now largely wooded, which forms the eastern verge of the Longleat estate.

The ancient parish of Warminster differed considerably in its boundaries from the present urban district. (fn. 5) From the 1962 boundary between Tascroft Farm and Botany Farm a narrow strip extended westward to the Somerset border near Stalls Farm, so that the parish was over seven miles long. South-east of Bishopstrow the former common meadow of Pit Mead was manorially part of Warminster, but was parochially divided between the parishes of Warminster, Bishopstrow, and Norton Bavant. Adjoining it the former farm at Moot Hill belonged to Warminster smaller detached pieces included Eastleigh Farm and some land near Norridge. Inside the Warminster boundary lay small detached pieces of Corsley, Upton Scudamore, and Boyton. By the Divided Parishes Act of 1882 (fn. 6) and an order of 1883, (fn. 7) Pit Mead and Moot Hill Farm were assigned to Sutton Veny and Eastleigh Farm to Bishopstrow, and the smaller detached pieces were included in the parishes which surrounded them. In addition, detached parts of Bishopstrow and Norton Bavant, which adjoined Warminster on the south, were included within it together they stretched from Botany Farm to Henford's Marsh. These changes made the area of the parish 6, 564 a. (fn. 8) In 1934 the western part of the parish, from Tascroft Farm to the Somerset border, was added to Corsley, leaving the urban district with an area of 5,658 a. (fn. 9)

Within its boundaries Warminster parish included a diversified stretch of country. The high chalk downland of Salisbury Plain, which provided good sheep pasture, is penetrated by deep combes at Mancombe and Oxendean. On either side of them ridges of high land reach to the south, culminating in Arn Hill to the west and Battlesbury to the east. They enclose a lower area of greensand, separated from the Wylye valley to the south by the chalk outliers of Cop Heap and Chalk Hill. This greensand, and a similar area west of Arn Hill to the north of the town, provided most of Warminster's open field arable land before the parish was inclosed in the late 18th century. The town itself lies roughly in the centre of the parish, on well-watered land protected from the north by the downs, providing good meadow and garden land. More meadow and pasture lay along the Wylye and to the west of the town. Most of the south-western extremity of the parish was open common until the inclosure it has since been planted with woods and forms the outlying part of Longleat Park. Of the hamlets outside Warminster, Smallbrook was mentioned separately in 1086 and still in the 14th century, (fn. 10) but has long been reduced to a single farm. Bugley and Boreham remain semi-rural, connected to the town only by sporadic ribbon-development. The origin of the large hamlet of Warminster Common is discussed below. (fn. 11)

Apart from prehistoric occupation, of which considerable evidence has been found in the hillfort of Battlesbury, the earliest known inhabited site in Warminster is that of two Roman villas found in the late 18th century at Pit Mead, while deposits of Roman coins have been found at the Common, and Romano-British remains at Arn Hill and Mancombe Down. (fn. 12) No Roman road ran this way, but the site of the town lay on a viable route from Salisbury to Bath there the traveller could descend from the downs and perhaps spend a night before going on to meet the road south from Bath near Beckington. (fn. 13) Warminster seems to have owed its comparative inportance in Saxon times rather to its being a royal manor than to its position on a north-south route. Its status as a borough may be inferred from the late 10th century, when moneyers, who were limited to boroughs by law, worked there, (fn. 14) while the minster which gave the town its name must have supplied the spiritual needs of a considerable district around it in even earlier times. (fn. 15) It was a royal residence in the early 10th century, (fn. 16) and at the Conquest its obligation to provide the farm of one night was probably of ancient standing. There is no evidence, however, that its importance arose from its urban character. There were, it is true, 30 burgesses in 1086, but they lived on the royal demesne, and were probably only the traders and craftsmen who served the needs of the large estate which surrounded them. There is no indication of heterogeneous tenure or the payment of the third penny, two of the hallmarks of the urban Domesday borough. (fn. 17) No moneyers are known to have worked in Warminster after the reign of Harold I, (fn. 18) and the town never developed any organ of self-government or achieved parliamentary representation. (vn. 19)

The development of Warminster into a relatively prosperous town, which with its 304 poll-tax payers in 1377 stood tenth in the county, (fn. 20) was based on its market, first mentioned in the 13th century. (fn. 21) In the 12th century the capital manor was granted away from the royal estate, (fn. 22) and there are slight indications of growth in the town which may have taken place under the new lords, and may even have been artifically fostered by them. They are to be deduced from the plan of the town. The parish church stands at the very end of the town, and nearby is the site of the manor house. They stand on a slight rise, almost surrounded by two small streams, which no doubt marks the area of the earliest settlement. From the church a curved street leads southwards to an open space at the junction of other roads leading east and west here until the 18th century stood the remains of a cross called the High Cross or Emwell Cross. (fn. 23) In the early 19th century the tradition still remained in Warminster that this place had once been the centre of the town, which had extended no further east than Almshouse Bridge (now the junction of George Street and High Street). (fn. 24) The present centre of the town, the wide and straight High Street and Market Place, extends on the opposite side of the bridge. This was called the market of Warminster in the earlier 13th century, when a shop covered with stone stood there adjoining the Chapel of St. Laurence. (fn. 25) Other permanent buildings there were mentioned later in the century. (fn. 26) Such a street or market-place, distinct though not necessarily separate from an older settlement, is a feature of the artificially-fostered new towns of the 13th century. (fn. 27) It may be that in Warminster development was less formal than the founding of a new town attached to the rural manor, but the occurrence of the place-name Newport applied to at least part of this end of the town in the 14th century (fn. 28) must add some weight to the supposition that the town grew eastwards in the 13th century.

Little else is known of Warminster's development in the Middle Ages. Houses in Byne Street, the modern Church Street, are regularly mentioned from the 13th century. (fn. 29) West Street was sonamed by 1325, (fn. 30) and houses lay in Newport Street, now Portway, by 1366. (fn. 31) The whereabouts of 'Curtstrate' of the 13th century, (fn. 32) and 'Pidemanneslane' of 1384 (fn. 33) is not known. Nor are there visible remains of building to fill in the picture of the medieval town. It seems reasonable to assume, however, that at the end of the Middle Ages Warminster stretched from the church to the east end of the Market Place the part west of Almshouse Bridge was probably not very closely built, for even in the 18th century some lessening of density and greater informality in the layout of the houses and plots could be detected there. (fn. 34)

By the 16th century the fame of Warminster market was well-established, and the clothing and malting trades, which with the market were to be the economic mainstays of the town until the 19th century, had begun. (fn. 35) Some expansion may have resulted from the growth of these industries. A house with a timber-framed upper story (now no. 34 Vicarage Street) standing in the former West Street, past its junction with Pound Street, shows its extent to the west, and the mention of a house adjoining the Common Close in 1572 (fn. 36) probably indicates growth to the north too. Other timber-framed houses perhaps of this period survive in Silver Street (nos. 39, 44-50) and High Street (nos. 36-37), though all have been variously refronted. The central block of the house in Emwell Street, now the 'Weymouth Arms', contains a 16th century-fireplace. All but the most important houses in the town were probably of timber at this time in 1638 13 out of 14 houses in the town belonging to the manor of Furnax were of timber, thatched with straw or reed. (fn. 37) The most substantial buildings in the town were perhaps the inns, with which the town was well supplied for the convenience of visitors to the market. In 1686 Warminster stood fourth for accommodation among Wiltshire towns, with 116 beds and stabling for 328 horses, (fn. 38) and it was said that there were 51 inns and alehouses in the town in 1710. (fn. 39) The value of the principal ones may be judged from the price of £1,000 paid for the 'Red Lion' in 1636. (fn. 40) The best example of the old inns of the town is the 'Old Bell' its exterior of coursed rubble stone probably dates from the late 18th century, but the interior has earlier timber work which may connect it with the 'Bell' of 1483. (fn. 41) The open arcade across the pavement, said to have been for the protection of buyers and sellers at the market, was formerly a feature of other Warminster inns, including the 'Anchor' (fn. 42) and the 'Red Lion'. (fn. 43)

Warminster was the scene of some activity in the Civil War. Henry Wansey, a Warminster man, was a major in the Parliamentary forces in 1644 when he was besieged at Woodhouse in Horningsham, another force under Edmund Ludlow was prevented from relieving him after a skirmish on Warminster Common. (fn. 44) The town also contained other parliamentary sympathizers (fn. 45) in 1646 it was said that it had suffered to the extent of £500 by being a parliamentary garrison. (vn. 46)

It is in the 17th century that we first know anything of the external road connexions of Warminster. The only road through the town mentioned in Ogilby was a now lost way over the Plain from Amesbury through Shrewton, which descended into the Wylye valley near Norton Bavant and, passing through Warminster, went on to Maiden Bradley. This was the main road from London to Barnstaple in 1675, (fn. 47) and in 1754 it was still as a place on the road from London to the west that Warminster was noted. (fn. 48) There were routes from Salisbury to Bath which avoided Warminster altogether, and even if the traveller kept roughly to the line of the present main road between the two places, he did not actually pass through the town. From Thoulstone the road skirted Upton Scudamore village, joined the road from Westbury, and passed east of Warminster by Cop Heap Lane and Woodcock to join the road down to the Wylye valley beyond the present Bishopstrow House. (fn. 49) The present main road from Thoulstone to Warminster church, which brought the route through the centre of the town, was turnpiked in 1752. (fn. 50)

The 18th century was a prosperous time in Warminster the malting and woollen trades and the market all flourished, and in 1751 it was described as a 'Populous place with good inns'. (fn. 51) The population grew somewhat. In 1665 there were 354 householders in the town, (fn. 52) which indicates a total of perhaps 1,800 people. In 1781 the town within the turnpike gates contained 539 houses and 2,605 inhabitants. (fn. 53) In extent it probably grew most towards the west. By 1783 houses stretched along West Street on both sides for ½ mile beyond the High Cross and along Pound Street further than the end of Princecroft Lane. (fn. 54) Houses in Pound Street are mentioned by 1748, (fn. 55) and some at Topps, near Princecroft Lane, rather earlier. (fn. 56) In 1783 cottages, some evidently built on waste at the side of the road, extended sporadically along Portway as far as the bottom of Elm Hill. (fn. 57) East of the town houses extended as far as the Imber road, and some of the cottages of the Furlong were built. The row of houses built on the grounds of the prebendal mansion house (from the 'Masons' Arms' to East End Garage) was at least partly built by 1751, when the Packhorse Inn stood in it. (fn. 58) East of the Imber road a number of houses stood in the Boreham road on plots probably made available by the inclosure of open-field land. Houses bearing the dates 1712, 1718, and 1739 still stood there in 1962. (fn. 59) In the older area of the town courts began to develop on what had been the gardens of houses. Meeting House Lane, now North Row, probably dates from the establishment of the Old Meeting there in the late 17th century. (fn. 60) Other surviving courts are Three Horseshoes Yard, off the Market Place, and Oxford Terrace and Cromwell Gardens (formerly Ludlow's Court), off East Street.

The period has left ample evidence of its prosperity in buildings, and the amount which remains will allow only general observations to be made. The most common building material was a roughlysquared rubble stone, apparently quarried locally, (fn. 61) and laid in courses of about the depth of brickwork. It was used in buildings ranging in size from cottages to all but the largest houses, and in 1796 Arthur Young described Warminster as a stone town. (fn. 62) Many groups of cottages built of this rubble can be seen in West Street and Pound Street good examples of its use in larger buildings are West House (no. 12 West Street) and Lord Weymouth's Grammar School of 1707 in Church Street. The latter is of two stories and attics, with mullioned and transomed windows, and has an elaborate central doorcase which came from Longleat, and was designed by Wren. (fn. 63) In larger rubble houses ashlar was used for quoins and window surrounds it was used with great effect to embellish no. 32 Vicarage Street. Only the most pretentious houses such as Portway House and the Manor House, both described below, (fn. 64) were entirely faced with ashlar. Brick does not appear to have been in general use, but was evidently highly thought of from the mid-18th century. The earliest surviving example is probably in the wings of the house in Emwell Street, used since 1928 as the 'Weymouth Arms', (fn. 65) where its use may date from 1749 Craven House in Silver Street, dated 1774, where it is used for the front only, and nos. 3-4 Church Street are prosperous brick houses of the second half of the century. In cottages it was used extensively for quoins and window surrounds. Tiles were the most common roofing material, although much thatch survived on smaller buildings until the 19th century. (fn. 66) Large and prosperous houses are to be found in all parts of the town, but there is a striking group in Church Street. Byne House, built by John Wansey in 1755, (fn. 67) has three-light windows with the central light taller than the outer ones, similar to those in the Chantry, High Street, and the house, dated 1767, now converted into the Regency Arcade in East Street. These houses are also notable for their Venetian windows, of which there is another good example at no. 25A High Street. They were probably by a local architect, unlike the house in Church Street, which William Wansey had built by Joseph Glascodine, a Bristol man, in 1796 (fn. 68) this must be the house now incorporated in St. Boniface's College, which bears that date. Elaborate doorways can be seen at nos. 3 and 4 Church Street. The buildings of three of the chief 18th-century inns of the town survive. The 'Angel', now no. 4 High Street, and the 'Lamb', no. 51 Market Place, are both three-storied houses of rubble, used as shops. The building which still houses the 'Bath Arms' must date, externally at least, from 1732 when the 'Three Goats' Heads', which stood on the site, was let on condition that it was rebuilt. The new house was first called the 'King's Arms', but the name 'Lord's Arms' or 'Weymouth Arms' was used by 1769. (fn. 69)

The deliberate improvement of Warminster streets probably began soon after the first Turnpike Act affecting the town was passed in 1727. It affected seven roads radiating from Warminster none was over three miles long and some did not leave the parish, so that the purpose of the Act was clearly local improvement rather than the care of a long stretch of a nationally important route. The roads in the town were described in the Act as 'ruinous' and 'impassible in winter', (fn. 70) and although the phrases were conventional, it is clear that they were also accurate. Water ran over the road through the town at four places, Coldharbour, High Cross, Chain Street, and Almshouse Bridge. Chain Street itself was closed to all except foot passengers by chains at either end, and the horse road ran behind the houses along 'shallow water, or the backside of Chain Street', which was often flooded in winter. (fn. 71) The way in East Street was so deep that it was possible to jump from the footpath on to the top of a loaded hay-waggon. (fn. 72) The earliest improvements of which we know were carried out in 1759, when Portway, which had previously been only a bridle track, was made into a road by the demolition of a number of cottages. (fn. 73) In 1765 Thomas Marsh, a timber-merchant, took a lease of all the ground on the west side of Portway from Almshouse Bridge to Portway House, and built several houses on it. (fn. 74) The hollow way in Pound Street was filled up in 1759, and a new road, probably the present Sambourne Road, was made to the Common, replacing a deep and winding lane. (fn. 75) In 1763 a road bridge was made at Almshouse Bridge to replace the narrow wooden footbridge, and the stream at Coldharbour was bridged in 1770. (fn. 76) In 1769 the base of the High Cross, and a barn which stood in the street near it, were removed to improve the junction of Church Street and West Street the obelisk, which commemorates the inclosure of the parish, was placed on the site of the cross in 1783. (fn. 77) In 1792 the turnpike commissioners obtained additional powers to make and maintain pavements in the town. (fn. 78) Such improvements no doubt encouraged improvement in buildings, and several substantial houses in the Market Place date from about the end of the century. The terrace which extends east from the 'Old Bell' was built after 1783 to replace several scattered houses, parts of which may still be seen at the rear. On the same side of the road no. 14 is of about 1800, built on the site of the Bush Inn.

In the first half of the 19th century Warminster's clothing trade collapsed, and malting declined somewhat, though it still remained important. The market suffered for a time from the competition of other towns with better communications. In spite of this the town seems to have suffered no permanent depression. Increase in retail trade, and new occupations such as brewing and iron-founding had, it was considered in 1860, made up for the loss of the clothing trade, while the silk mill at Crockerton provided employment for many women and girls. (fn. 79) This is borne out by population figures. From 4,932 in 1801 the number declined slightly by 1811, when the slump in the cloth trade was severe, but rose to 6,115 by 1831, and slightly more, to 6,285 by 1851. (fn. 80) Cobbett approved of Warminster as a 'solid and good town', with 'no villainous gingerbread houses running up', (fn. 81) and in 1830 it was said that a spirit of improvement was very apparent. (fn. 82) This spirit has left a permanent mark on the town. The first movement of the century was initiated by the bequest of George Wansey, who in 1807 left £1,000 to be laid out in improvements provided that another £1,000 was raised for the same purpose. A committee was formed which bought all the houses on the south side of Chain Street and demolished them, so making the wide road called George Street, presumably after the donor. (fn. 83) On the north side land which had previously been gardens was let for building, and a row of three-storied brick houses of uniform design was built on it c. 1815. (fn. 84) Further east a fire which destroyed a number of houses at the corner of Portway and High Street gave an opportunity for rebuilding, and the plain three-storied houses which stand there are of c. 1825. (fn. 85) On the opposite corner the two-storied houses nos. 36-40 George Street are of c. 1831, (fn. 86) and the widening of the road here, completely covering the stream so that all semblance of a bridge disappeared, was carried out in 1832. (fn. 87)

There were also notable changes in the Market Place. In 1830 Weymouth Street was made from it to provide a new road to Sambourne. Its cutting provided an opportunity to build a new Town Hall and demolish the old one which stood inconveniently in the middle of the Market Place. (fn. 88) Edward Blore, the architect of the new building, also designed the group built in the Tudor style, an early example of its use, at the opposite corner of the new road, (fn. 89) on the site of an inn called the 'King's Arms'. (fn. 90) The corner building, which housed the newly formed Literary and Scientific Institute, was opened in 1838. (fn. 91) Other buildings were improved by their occupiers. No. 3 High Street, which had been built c. 1730, was improved in 1841 at a cost of over £700, and its plain front of ashlar must date from then. (fn. 92) Some new buildings were also put up, such as those at the east corner of North Row and the Market Place, built in 1831, (fn. 93) and the terrace of early-19th-century houses, now nos. 52 and 53 Market Place.

While the centre of the town was being transformed, the movement of the wealthier inhabitants to the outskirts which was typical of the period went only slowly. The earliest suburban house in Warminster was probably Sambourne House, built by Henry Wansey c. 1800. (fn. 94) Cambridge House, also in Sambourne Road (nos. 54-55), must be of about the same time. Several smaller houses dating from the earlier part of the century may be seen along the Boreham road, such as no. 89 East Street, a stone-built villa, and nos. 35-37 Boreham Road, a pair of brick houses. Boreham Terrace is of six brick houses of three stories (nos. 24-34 Boreham Road) all these were probably among the 'elegant and lofty houses' which had been very recently built in 1822. (fn. 95) By 1840 a group of cottages and four larger houses (nos. 81-87) had been built further along the road near what was to be the site of St. John's Church, and at Boreham itself two large villas, Heronslade and Boreham Villa. (fn. 96) Other parts of the town were less favoured. Even after Christ Church was built at Sambourne in 1830, New Road and Sambourne Road did not prove attractive to builders perhaps they were too near the Common and the Union Workhouse, built in 1836, or perhaps freehold land was not available. The west end of the town, West Street and Pound Street, was a predominantly working-class area which did not expand at this time.

The railway from Westbury to Warminster was opened in 1851, and extended down the Wylye to Salisbury in 1856. (fn. 97) Its coming marked the beginning, and was largely the cause, of a period of comparative depression. The great market declined almost to nothing, the retail trade suffered in consequence, and hardly any industry was carried on. Even in 1860, before the full effects had been felt, Warminster was 'a clean-swept, semi-aristocratic, decidedly poor place', in a 'lukewarm, stagnant, bankrupt state'. (fn. 98) By 1871 many inns had been closed, and carriers and others connected with the market had left the town. (fn. 99) In the 1890's shopkeepers did not get one busy day a month, and a traveller was told that the town had 'gone to sleep and never wakes up' so that 'men rust out rather than wear out'. (fn. 100) The population declined slightly at each census until it was 5,547 in 1901, a decrease of over 700 since 1851. (fn. 101) Building in the town was discouraged by its declining state and by the policy of not renewing long leases pursued by the Longleat estate. (fn. 102) Several public buildings were, however, built in the 1850's. The Savings Bank at the east end of the Market Place is of 1852. The name of its site, Hatchet Corner, is derived from an inn which stood there from the 16th century until c. 1789. (fn. 103) The Corn Market, opened in 1855, was built on the site of the 'Red Lion' which had been burnt down four years earlier, (fn. 104) and the Athenaeum, designed by the local architect, W. J. Stent, in an early Renaissance style, replaced the London Inn in 1858. (fn. 105) The improvement made in 1856 by exposing St. Laurence's Chapel to the street has been mentioned below. (fn. 106) There are few buildings of the later part of the century in the centre of the town among them are those occupied in 1962 by Lloyds and Barclays Banks and nos. 36 and 40 Market Place and 11 High Street. An important improvement carried out c. 1900 was the opening of Common Close into the High Street by the removal of the 'Ship'. (fn. 107)

New building was desultory in the suburbs of the town. The Boreham road continued to be the most favoured site for villas its attraction was increased by the building of St. John's Church in 1865. Boreham Villas, three pairs of stone houses, now nos. 52-62, date from before 1860, (fn. 108) and another pair, nos. 35-37, were built by 1874. (fn. 109) St. John's Lodge, built in 1883, (fn. 110) and Highbury, of about the same time, are large detached houses. North of the town nos. 67-68 Portway are perhaps the new pair of villas built there in 1863, (fn. 111) and Downside and Portway Villa are of much the same time. (fn. 112) A few houses were also built near Christ Church by 1886, including Christ Church Terrace and Hampton House. (fn. 113) In the 1890's a future direction of suburban expansion was indicated by the building of a number of houses on the Imber road north of the railway. (fn. 114)

The early years of the 20th century saw little change in Warminster. Combination in the brewing industry led to the closing of the small breweries which had grown out of the older malting businesses, and what little manufacturing industry there was in the town employed few hands. There was a tendency to regard the town's future chiefly as residential. It had a pleasant position and many well-built large houses. During the incumbency (1859-97) of Sir James Philipps it had become a centre of Anglican activity. (fn. 115) Sporting facilities included good fishing and hunting country and a golf course opened in 1891. (fn. 116) In 1907 a Town Advertisement Committee was formed. It authorized the production of a town guide, and inserted advertisements in the G.W.R. publication Holiday Haunts. An ambitious project to build a hotel and villas in Elm Hill and Cop Heap Lane only broke down because the committee insisted on refusing the plots offered by Lord Bath, and asked for others more favourably placed. (fn. 117) The population of the town declined slightly in each decade between 1851 and 1931, (fn. 118) so that it was little bigger in 1931 than in 1801. It was the approach of the Second Word War which finally halted the economic decline. Camps and permanent barracks in the town were begun in 1937, (fn. 119) and a large workshop for vehicle repairs was opened in 1940. (fn. 120) After the war Warminster remained a permanent garrison town, housing the School of Infantry and a R.E.M.E. workshop. Large estates of married quarters were built. Several light industries were also begun, and the population of the town in 1961 was estimated at 9,900.

The growth of a settlement of houses built on the waste at the edge of Warminster Common can be traced from the late 17th century. A cottage which adjoined other cottages there belonged to the Longleat estate in 1668, (fn. 121) and by 1727 a parish workhouse was built there. (fn. 122) In 1739 it was complained that one cottage, built 20 years before, had since been enlarged to hold four families, and an attempt was made to prosecute the inhabitants for not having the statutory four acres adjoining their dwellings. (fn. 123) About 1770 an attempt to establish the lord of the manor's ownership of the cottages ended in failure. (fn. 124) By 1781 there were 200 houses in which lived 1,015 people. (fn. 125) The squalor of the place in the late 18th century was vividly described by William Daniell. Hovels of one room up and one down, unceiled, unplastered, and with earth floors housed families which were without the commonest necessities of life. Outside piles of filth corrupted the stream which was the only water supply, so that typhus was rarely absent and smallpox not uncommon. The rudeness of the Commoners matched that of their houses respectable people would not go there, and Sundays were occupied in brutal sports, fighting, and drunkenness. The ill-fame of the place for crime was known as far away as Devon. (fn. 126) The labours of Daniell himself, and of the Anglican clergy, to reform the inhabitants are mentioned below. (fn. 127) They were accompanied by a gradual physical improvement, and by 1833 the hamlet was neat, clean, and respectable. (fn. 128) The seal was set on its respectability in the following year, when the streets were named by a committee of the vestry. (fn. 129) By 1862 even the name of the Common had begun to be abandoned in favour of New Town. (fn. 130) Many of the rubble cottages which still stand there in 1962 date from the early 19th century. A survivor of an earlier time is the thatched house at the corner of Broadway Road.