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Pizarro voer die laaste Inka -keiser tereg

Pizarro voer die laaste Inka -keiser tereg

Atahuallpa, die 13de en laaste keiser van die Inkas, sterf deur verwurging deur die hande van die Spaanse veroweraars van Francisco Pizarro. Die teregstelling van Atahuallpa, die laaste vryheersende keiser, was die einde van 300 jaar van die Inka -beskawing.

Hoog in die Andesgebergte van Peru het die Inca 'n skitterende ryk gebou wat 'n bevolking van 12 miljoen mense beheer het. Alhoewel hulle geen skryfstelsel gehad het nie, het hulle 'n uitgebreide regering, groot openbare werke en 'n briljante landbousisteem. In die vyf jaar voor die Spaanse aankoms het 'n verwoestende opvolgingsoorlog die ryk aangegryp. In 1532 verslaan Atahuallpa se leër die magte van sy halfbroer Huascar in 'n geveg naby Cuzco. Atahuallpa was besig om sy bewind te versterk toe Pizarro en sy 180 soldate verskyn het.

Francisco Pizarro was die seun van 'n Spaanse heer en het in sy jeug as varkboer gewerk. Hy word 'n soldaat en gaan in 1502 saam met die nuwe Spaanse goewerneur van die New World -kolonie na Hispaniola. Pizarro het gedien onder die Spaanse veroweraar Alonso de Ojeda tydens sy ekspedisie na Colombia in 1510 en was saam met Vasco Nunez de Balboa toe hy die Stille Oseaan ontdek in 1513. Hy hoor legendes van die groot rykdom van 'n Indiese beskawing in Suid -Amerika. mede -veroweraar Diego de Almagro in 1524 en vaar langs die weskus van Suid -Amerika vanaf Panama. Die eerste ekspedisie het net tot in die huidige Ecuador deurgedring, maar 'n tweede het verder gekom, tot by die huidige Peru. Daar het hulle eerstehands verhale van die Inca -ryk gehoor en Inca -artefakte bekom. Die Spanjaarde het die nuwe land Peru gedoop, waarskynlik na die Vire -rivier.

Terugkeer na Panama, beplan Pizarro 'n ekspedisie vir verowering, maar die Spaanse goewerneur wou nie die skema ondersteun nie. In 1528 seil Pizarro terug na Spanje om die steun van keiser Charles V. te vra. Hernan Cortes het die keiser onlangs groot rykdom gebring deur sy verowering van die Asteke, en Charles keur Pizarro se plan goed. Hy het ook belowe dat Pizarro, nie Almagro nie, die meerderheid van die ekspedisie se wins sou ontvang. In 1530 keer Pizarro terug na Panama.

In 1531 vaar hy af na Peru en land by Tumbes. Hy het sy leër teen die Andesgebergte gelei en op 15 November 1532 die Inca -stad Cajamarca bereik, waar Atahuallpa die warmwaterbronne geniet ter voorbereiding van sy opmars na Cuzco, die hoofstad van sy broer se koninkryk. Pizarro het Atahuallpa genooi om 'n fees ter ere van hom by te woon, en die keiser het dit aanvaar. Nadat hy net een van die grootste gevegte in die geskiedenis van die Inca gewen het, en met 'n leër van 30 000 man tot sy beskikking, het Atahuallpa gedink dat hy niks hoef te vrees vir die baardwit vreemdeling en sy 180 man nie. Pizarro het egter 'n hinderlaag beplan en sy artillerie op die plein van Cajamarca opgerig.

Op 16 November het Atahuallpa by die ontmoetingsplek aangekom met 'n begeleiding van etlike duisende mans, almal blykbaar ongewapen. Pizarro het 'n priester uitgestuur om die keiser te vermaan om die soewereiniteit van die Christendom en keiser Karel V. te aanvaar, en Atahuallpa het geweier en 'n Bybel wat in walging aan hom oorhandig is, gewerp. Pizarro het onmiddellik 'n aanval gelas. Die duisende Inkas is geslag terwyl die angswekkende Spaanse artillerie, gewere en kavallerie (wat almal vreemd was vir die Inka's) geslag en die keiser gevange geneem is.

Atahuallpa het aangebied om 'n kamer met skat te vul as losprys vir sy vrylating, en Pizarro aanvaar. Uiteindelik is ongeveer 24 ton goud en silwer na die Spanjaarde gebring uit die hele Inka -ryk. Alhoewel Atahuallpa die rykste losprys in die geskiedenis van die wêreld verskaf het, het Pizarro hom verraderlik tereggestel omdat hy beplan het om die Spanjaard omver te werp, omdat hy sy halfbroer Huascar laat vermoor het en vir verskeie ander mindere aanklagte. 'N Spaanse tribunaal het Atahuallpa skuldig bevind en hom ter dood veroordeel. Op 29 Augustus 1533 word die keiser aan 'n paal vasgemaak en die keuse gebied om lewendig verbrand te word of deur 'n wurg gewurg te word as hy hom tot die Christendom bekeer. In die hoop om sy liggaam vir mummifikasie te behou, het Atahuallpa laasgenoemde gekies, en 'n ysterkraag is om sy nek gespan totdat hy gesterf het.

Met Spaanse versterkings wat vroeër dieselfde jaar by Cajamarca aangekom het, marsjeer Pizarro daarna op Cuzco, en die hoofstad van die Inca val in November 1533 sonder moeite. Huascar se broer, Manco Capac, is as 'n marionetkeiser geïnstalleer, en die stad Quito is gedemp. Pizarro vestig hom as Spaanse goewerneur van die Inka -gebied en bied Diego Almagro die verowering van Chili aan as 'n versoening om die rykdom van die Inca -beskawing vir homself te eis. In 1535 het Pizarro die stad Lima aan die kus gestig om kommunikasie met Panama te vergemaklik. Die volgende jaar het Manco Capac ontsnap uit Spaanse toesig en 'n onsuksesvolle opstand gelei wat vinnig verpletter is. Dit was die einde van die Inka -weerstand teen die Spaanse bewind.

Diego Almagro het verbitterd teruggekeer uit Chili deur die armoede van die land en eis sy deel van die buit van die voormalige Inka -ryk. Burgeroorlog het spoedig uitgebreek oor die geskil, en Almagro het Cuzco in 1538 in beslag geneem. Pizarro het sy halfbroer, Hernando, gestuur om die stad terug te neem, en Almagro is verslaan en doodgemaak. Op 26 Junie 1541 dring bondgenote van Diego el Monzo — Almagro se seun — tot by Pizarro se paleis in Lima en vermoor die conquistador terwyl hy aandete eet. Diego el Monzo het homself tot goewerneur van Peru uitgeroep, maar 'n agent van die Spaanse kroon wou hom nie herken nie, en in 1542 is Diego gevange geneem en tereggestel. Konflik en intrige onder die veroweraars van Peru het voortgeduur totdat die Spaanse onderkoning Andres Hurtado de Mendoza einde 1550's orde gevestig het.


11c. Die Inka -ryk: Kinders van die son

Toe die Spaanse veroweraar Francisco Pizarro in 1532 in Peru beland, vind hy ondenkbare rykdom. Die Inka -ryk was in volle bloei. Die strate was moontlik nie bedek met goud nie, maar hulle tempels was.

Die Coricancha, of Tempel van Goud, spog met 'n siertuin waar die kluite aarde, mielieplante kompleet met blare en mieliekoppe, van silwer en goud gemaak is. Naby het 'n kudde van 20 goue lamas en hul lammers wei, waarna soliede goue herders toesig hou. Inka -edeles het op sandale rondgeloop met silwer sole wat hul voete beskerm teen die harde strate van Cuzco.

Die Inka's het hul ryk Tahuantinsuyu, oftewel Land van die Vier Kwartiere, genoem. Dit het 2 500 myl gestrek van Quito, Ecuador, tot anderkant Santiago, Chili. Binne sy gebied was ryk kusnedersettings, hoë bergvalleie, reën-deurdrenkte tropiese woude en die droogste woestyne. Die Inca beheer miskien 10 miljoen mense en praat honderd verskillende tale. Dit was destyds die grootste ryk op aarde. Maar toe Pizarro sy laaste keiser, Atahualpa, tereggestel het, was die Inka -ryk net 50 jaar oud.

Die ware geskiedenis van die Inca word nog geskryf. Volgens een verhaal het vier broers uit die Titicacameer gekom. Tydens 'n lang reis het almal behalwe een verdwyn. Manco Capac het oorleef om 'n goue staf in die grond te steek waar die Rios Tullamayo en Huantanay mekaar ontmoet. Hy het die heilige stad Cuzco gestig.

Die heilige stad Cuzco

Cuzco is geleë in 'n bergvallei 10 000 voet bo seespieël. Dit vorm die middelpunt van die Inka -wêreld. Die eerste keiser, Pachacuti, het dit van 'n beskeie dorp omskep in 'n groot stad in die vorm van 'n puma. Hy het ook Inti, die songod, as die amptelike beskermheer van die Inkas geïnstalleer en vir hom 'n wonderlike tempel gebou.

En hy het iets anders gedoen wat die Inca se skielike magstoot kan verklaar. Hy het die kultus van voorvaderaanbidding uitgebrei. Toe 'n heerser sterf, het sy seun al sy aardse magte ontvang, maar nie een van sy aardse besittings nie. Al sy grond, geboue en bediendes het na sy panaqa gegaan, of ander manlike familielede. Die familielede het dit gebruik om sy ma te bewaar en sy politieke invloed te handhaaf. Dooie keisers het 'n lewende teenwoordigheid behou.

'N Nuwe heerser moes sy eie inkomste skep. Die enigste manier om dit te doen was om nuwe lande te gryp, meer mense te onderwerp en die Ryk van die Son uit te brei.


Vanaf die hoogtes van Machu Picchu kan u die hele Urabamba -vallei in die Andes -gebergte sien.

Hoe is dit gedoen? Die lewe in tradisionele Andes -dorpe was broos. Een egpaar sou 'n ander help om gewasse te plant of te oes. Hulle sou in ruil daarvoor hulp op hul eie gebied ontvang. Die Inca het hierdie praktyk van wederkerigheid en mdash gee-en-neem & mdash aangepas by hul eie behoeftes.

Hulle stede was gesentreer op groot pleine waar hulle groot partytjies gehou het vir naburige hoofmanne. Die feesvieringe het dae lank voortgeduur, soms 'n maand. Hooggeplaastes is gevoer en geskenke van goud, juwele en tekstiele gegee. Slegs dan sou die Inka's hul versoeke om arbeid, om voedselproduksie te verhoog, om besproeiingskemas te bou, om heuwels te terras of om die grense van die ryk te verleng, versoek.

Machu Picchu en Ryk

Die Inca was groot bouers. Hulle was byna net so lief vir stone & mdash as vir goud. By die magiese Machu Picchu word 'n grensvesting en 'n heilige plek, 'n mistieke kolom, die haakpaal van die son, uit die lewende rots gesny. 'N Ander plaat is gevorm om die berg daarbuite te eggo.


Die Spaanse leier Francisco Pizarro het die laaste Inca -keiser, Atahuallpa, vir 24 ton goud ter waarde van $ 267 miljoen vandag gevang en losgekoop. Nadat hulle die losprys van die Inca -mense ontvang het, het die veroweraars Atahuallpa in elk geval gewurg.

Tempels en versterkings by Machu Picchu is gebou uit groot, kussingsagtige rotsblaaie, sommige wat 100 ton of meer weeg. Die verbindings tussen hulle, wat sonder mortel gebou is, is so styf dat hulle nie 'n mesmes kan binnegaan nie. 'N Groot arbeidsmag was nodig. Daar is rekords van 20 mans wat op 'n enkele klip gewerk het, weggekap, gehys en laat sak het, en dit uur vir uur vir 'n hele jaar met sand gepoleer.

'N Netwerk snelweë het Inca -keisers toegelaat om hul uitgestrekte ryk te beheer. Een hardloop langs die rug van die Andes, 'n ander langs die kus. Inka -bouers kan alles hanteer wat die verraderlike terrein benodig en steil paadjies langs die berghange, touhangbrue wat oor steil klowe gegooi word, of verraderlike paaie wat vloedvlaktes deurkruis. Elke anderhalf kilometer het hulle wegstasies as ruspunte gebou. Bande amptelike hardlopers het tussen hulle 150 myl per dag gehardloop. 'N Boodskap kan binne 'n week 1200 myl van Cuzco na Quito gestuur word.


Die Inka -ryk het 2500 myl van Ecuador tot in die suide van Chili gestrek voordat dit in 1532 deur die Spaanse veroweraars verwoes is.

Daar word van almal verwag om tot die ryk by te dra. Grond is in drie verdeel. Een derde is vir die keiser gewerk, een derde was vir die gode gereserveer, en 'n derde het die mense vir hulself gehou. Almal moes belasting betaal as huldeblyk.

Die Inca kon nie skryf nie. Tollenaars en burokrate het dinge bygehou met quipu, geknoopte snare. Deur verskillende lengtes, kleure, knooptipes en posisies, kon hulle enorme hoeveelhede inligting stoor.

Ten spyte van sy glorie, was die Inkas 'n brose ryk, saamgehou deur beloftes en dreigemente. Toe Pizarro die laaste keiser teregstel, stort dit vinnig in duie. Katolieke priesters wat trou aan 'n nuwe Christelike god eis, het die Kinders van die Son gou vervang. Soos dit al duisende jare lank was, het die geharde mense van die Andes aangepas. Hulle het wat hulle moes van hul nuwe meesters geneem en soveel van hul ou maniere vasgehou as wat hulle kon.


Goue hebsug: Spaanse veroweraars en die lot van die laaste gratis Inka -keiser Atahualpa

Alle geskiedenis is 'n mengsel van feit en legende. In die lewe van die jong Inka -keiser Atahualpa, is dit 'n feit dat hy verraderlik ontvoer en tereggestel is deur Spaanse veroweraars, terwyl die legende is of 'n deel van die groot losprys wat sy onderdane aan sy gevangenes sou betaal, in die Andes verborge bly. Berge.

Atahualpa het in die 16de eeu heer geword van die Inka -ryk nadat hy sy broer Huáscar in 'n burgeroorlog verslaan het. Alles was goed totdat die Spaanse ontdekkingsreisiger Francisco Pizarro aangekom het.

Dit is 'n portret van Atahualpa, uit die lewe getrek, deur 'n lid van Pizarro se losbandigheid

Pizarro en sy groep van 160 verwoeste veroweraars het die westelike kus van Suid -Amerika al twee jaar verken en gesoek na 'n ryk ryk in die Andes. In November 1532 vind hulle die stad Cajamarca - saam met Atahualpa. By die aankoms van Pizarro en sy bemanning was Atahualpa nie bekommerd nie, aangesien hy beskerm is deur 'n lojale leër van duisende mans. Wat hy nie geweet het nie, is dat Pizarro reeds bewus was van die magtige leër van die Inka -keiser, sowel as die enorme hoeveelhede silwer en goud wat Atahualpa en Inca -adel gedra het. Pizarro was ook vertroud met hoe Hernán Cortes die Asteke -keiser Montezuma gevang het om groot rykdom te bekom, en Pizarro was gereed om dit ook te doen.

Pizarro het sy swaar gewapende veroweraars rondom Cajamarca geposisioneer. Daarna het hy 'n priester, vader Vicente de Valverde, gestuur om die Inca -adel te ontmoet. Die priester het vir hulle 'n Christelike breviary gewys, wat hulle onmerkbaar gevind het en op die grond neergegooi het. Die Spanjaarde het dit as 'n heilige aksie van die Inca -kant beskou en op die plein van Cajamarca ingestorm, terwyl hulle die Inka -adel en krygers vermoor het toe kanonne donder. Conquistadors te perd het angsbevange inboorlinge agtervolg wat probeer ontsnap het. Die Spanjaard was geklee in swaar staalwapens en het nie een slagoffer uit die geveg gehad nie. Atahualpa is gevange geneem, en die nasleep van die geveg tussen die Inkas en die Spaanse het duisende Inca -burgers, soldate en adel dood gelaat.

Pizarro ontmoet Atahualpa, wat in die tempel van die son fyn dopgehou is. Atahualpa is toegelaat om met sommige van sy oorlewende onderdane te praat, aangesien 'n inheemse tolk alles in Spaans vertaal het sodat Pizarro dit kon verstaan. Die jong keiser het besef dat Pizarro en sy veroweraars goud en silwer wou hê, dat hulle vinnig tempels en ander plekke in Cajamarca gebuit het. Die Spaanse het aan Atahualpa gesê dat hy vir die regte hoeveelheid goud en silwer vrygelaat sou word. Dit was geen probleem vir Atahualpa nie, en hy het 'n kolossale aanbod gegee wat die Spanjaarde verstom het - die keiser verklaar dat hy 'n kamer van 22 voet lank en 17 voet breed sal vul met goud en silwer tot agt voet hoog.

Die Spanjaarde het die aanbod aangegryp en dit selfs laat notuleer. Atahualpa het woord gegee aan sy onderdane, en draers het gou die fortuin goud en silwer aan die Spanjaarde afgelewer vanaf alle plekke in die Inca -ryk. Terwyl Atahualpa wag dat sy losprys aflewerings klaar is, val sy ryk in pandemonie.

Keiser Atahualpa tydens die Slag van Cajamarca

Oorlewende Inka's, wat hul keiser as 'n half-goddelike beskou het, sou nie die risiko loop om die Spanjaarde aan te val om Atahualpa te red uit vrees dat hy vermoor sou word. Sy broer Huáscar het nog geleef en word gevange gehou, en Atahualpa was bang dat hy sou ontsnap en die nuwe keiser word. Atahualpa het sy broer se dood vinnig beveel.

Atahualpa het nog drie groot leërs in die ryk gehad onder sy beste generaals Quisquis, Chalcuchima en Rumiñahui. Hulle het verneem dat hul keiser deur die Spanjaarde gevange geneem is, maar hulle het besluit om nie aan te val nie. Ongelukkig sou Chalcuchima mislei en gevange geneem word deur die broer van Francisco Pizarro, Hernando. Quisquis en Rumiñahui het in die daaropvolgende maande die stryd teen die Spanjaarde aangepak.

Teen 1533 het die Spaanse veroweraars gerugte gehoor dat Rumiñahui, die beste van al die Inca -generaals, en sy reuse -leër voorberei op 'n hewige stryd teen die Spanjaarde. Niemand in die Spaanse kamp het geweet waar die Inca -generaal was nie. Francisco Pizarro het op die gerugte opgetree en mans in alle rigtings gestuur om die Inca -weermag te vind, maar hulle het niks gevind nie. Die Spanjaarde was nou bekommerd oor 'n aanval en beskou Atahualpa as 'n gevaarlike las. In paniek het hulle Atahualpa weens verraad verhoor en beweer dat hy Rumiñahui beveel het om in opstand te kom en die laaste vrye keiser van die Inka -ryk tereggestel op 26 Julie 1533.

Pizarro ontmoet die Inca -keiser Atahualpa, 1532

Die losprys van Atahualpa is betaal, en dit was fenomenaal. Die kamer was, soos hy belowe het, gevul met goud en silwer, selfs al het gulsige veroweraars waardevolle voorwerpe afgebreek sodat die kamer minder vinnig vol sou word. Die buit het selfs Atahualpa se troon van 15 karaat van 183 pond ingesluit, wat Francisco Pizarro as 'n 'geskenk' ontvang het.

Sodra al die losprys gesmelt is, weeg dit meer as 13 000 pond goud en meer as 26 000 pond silwer. Nadat hulle die belasting van 20% betaal het wat die koning van Spanje op veroweringsplundering opgelê het, ontvang die 160 veroweraars gedeeltes van Atahualpa se losprys volgens hul rang. Selfs die deel van die laagste soldaat sou meer as $ 500,000 werd wees in die huidige mark. Francisco Pizarro, afgesien van sy 'geskenke', het 14 keer die deel van sy mede -veroweraars gekry, berig About Education.

Atahualpa, veertiende Inca,

Die sage van die Inkas en hul keiser Atahualpa is beslis tragies. Die verhaal leef voort in die feitelike geskiedenis, maar 'n ander deel daarvan het as 'n legende oorleef. Op grond van historiese dokumente, meen sommige dat die Spaanse veroweraars nie al die losprys van Atahualpa ontvang het nie. Volgens die legende was 'n groep Inca -inboorlinge op pad na Cajamarca met goud en silwer toe hulle hoor dat Atahualpa tereggestel is. Die generaal in beheer het besluit om die skat in 'n onbekende grot in die Andes te verberg.

Na bewering het 'n Spanjaard met die naam Valverde dit 50 jaar later ontdek, maar dit het weer verlore gegaan totdat 'n man met die naam Barth Blake dit in 1886 gevind het. Blake is later onder twyfelagtige omstandighede dood, en sedertdien het niemand die verlore Inca -skat gesien nie. So gaan die legende voort.

Beslaglegging op Atahualpa by Cajamarca

Is die laaste betaling van Atahualpa se skat in die Andes versteek? As dit die geval is, sou dit beteken dat 'n deel van sy nalatenskap nog bestaan ​​vir kundiges om te ontdek en te bestudeer.

Dit sou ook 'n gepaste uitweg wees vir die veroweraars wat lankal dood was, wat geglo het dat hulle alles gesteel het wat die Inka-ryk te bied het.


Atahualpa, die laaste Inka -keiser. Tereggestel deur die Katolieke Kerk NADAT hy gedwing is om hom tot die Christendom te bekeer

Hoe gaan dit met 'n walglike Christelike gedrag?

Die laaste Inka -keiser Atahualpa sou tereggestel word deur op die brandstapel te brand. 'N Gepaste uitvoeringsvorm vir 'n heiden. Maar as Vincent de Valle Viridi bied 'n Dominikaanse monnik Atahualpa 'n uitweg uit hierdie pynlike eksekusie. Gaan oor na die Christendom en dit sal goed gaan. Hy het gesê.

Atahualpa het dus bekeer. Slegs om deur verwurging uitgevoer te word.

Hier speel advokate van Devil (ek weet niks van die gebeurtenis nie): deur hom tot die Christendom te bekeer voordat hy hom vermoor, vernietig hulle net sy sterflike liggaam terwyl hy sy onsterflike siel red. Baie deurdagte, goedhartige conquistadors, reg?

Ek het geen liefde vir godsdiens nie, maar hy is nie deur die kerk tereggestel nie; hy is tereggestel deur veroweraars wat selfs nie onder die toestemming van die Spaanse regering bedrywig was nie (eintlik is hulle aangesê om nie te gaan nie).

Hy was opgewonde onder 'n godsdienstige voorwendsel. Dieselfde voorwendsel as wat hulle gebruik het om die oorwinning van die nuwe wêreld te regverdig en te plunder. Die Incans het ook onder 'n godsdienstige voorwendsel oorlog gevoer en oorlog gevoer.

Ek erken dat die titel my mislei het, maar hy is in die naam van die Christelike godsdiens vermoor nadat hy tot die Christendom oorgegaan het. As hy vermoor is met die seën van die Rooms -Katolieke kerk of nie, is dit nie regtig relevant nie. Na my mening ten minste.

Peruaanse hier. Hy kry 'n bybel wat hy nie verstaan ​​nie en gooi weg. Dit was godslasterlik en het gemaak dat Pizarro die Spanjaarde beveel om aan te val, of so sou die Duitsers ons wou laat glo.

jy skeur die hare van 'n kaal man

Pizarro het eintlik die eksplisiete steun van die Spaanse kroon gehad. Cortez was die een wat skelm geword het, hoewel hy later steun gekry het.

Ek weet 'n bietjie van conquistadors en geen wonder dat ek 'n bietjie weet van hul gruwelike dade nie, maar ek het nog nooit regtig gelees oor hierdie spesifieke voorval nie en kan iemand my vertel waarom hulle hom vermoor het, alhoewel hy hom tot die Christendom bekeer het?

Solank hy gelewe het, was hy 'n bedreiging vir hul mag. Hy was 'n lewende god vir die mense en om hom dood te maak, het hulle gedemoraliseer tot die punt dat hulle alle gedagtes oor opstand laat vaar het.

As u nog nooit van die losprys van Atahualpa gelees het nie, sal dit u sokkies laat val. Hier is 'n wikipedia -inskrywing om mee te begin: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ransom_Room (deur na die artikel te klik, gee konteks. Die kleinkiekie is swak.)

Oor die presiese rede waarom hy vermoor is, bestaan ​​daar 'n wye verskeidenheid opinies. My eie teorie, nie ondersteun deur die akademie of kundiges nie. net my eie oortuiging: Pizarro het moontlik geleer uit naburige kulture op pad na Cuzco hoe brutaal en genadeloos die Inca kan wees. Die Spanjaarde was bang vir die omvang en omvang van die Inka -rykdom en gewapende mag, en was besig om hul broek te skeur by die gedagte aan 'n regverdige stryd. Die onthoofding van 'n teokrasie waar die koning 'n god is, was die veilige spel.


Hoe het die Inka -ryk geëindig?

Siekte. Siekte was 'n baie belangrike faktor led tot die ineenstorting van die Inka -ryk. Pokke, wat destyds 'n baie gevaarlike siekte was, het ver gekom voor die aankoms van die Spanjaarde. Daar word gesê dat hierdie siekte weens Europese handelaars na Peru gebring is.

Tweedens, bestaan ​​die Inka -ryk nog? Die Inkas, 'n Amerikaanse Indiese volk, was oorspronklik 'n klein stam in die suidelike hooglande van Peru. In minder as 'n eeu, gedurende die 1400's, het hulle een van die grootste, strengste beheerde gebou ryke die wêreld ooit geken het. Paaie, mure en besproeiingswerke wat deur die Inkas is steeds vandag in gebruik.

Wanneer het die Inka -ryk gevolglik geëindig?

Die val van die Inka -ryk. Verowering van die Inka -ryk Kaart. Vanaf ongeveer 1200 toe die eerste Inca, Manco Capac, gevestig in Cusco, tot 1533 toe die laaste Inca, Atahualpa, is tereggestel die Inka -beskawing het gegroei van 'n groep setlaars tot die grootste ryk in die Pre-Columbiaanse Amerika.

Hoe het die Inkas hul ryk verenig gehou?

Die Inca verenig, versterk en bygevoeg hul ryk meestal deur vreedsame middele (maar ook deur verowering). Derde, die Inca die aanbidding van aangemoedig hul songod wat hulle 'Inti' genoem het. Verder het hulle die Incan koning om die "seun van die son" te wees.


Inhoud

  • 1526–1529 - Francisco Pizarro en Diego de Almagro maak eerste kontak met die Inka -ryk by Tumbes, die noordelikste Inca -vesting langs die kus
  • c. 1528-Die Inca-keiser Huayna Capac sterf as gevolg van pokke wat deur Europa geïntroduceer is. Die dood veroorsaak 'n burgeroorlog tussen sy seuns: Atahualpa en Huáscar
  • 1528–1529 - Pizarro keer terug na Spanje waar hy deur die koningin van Spanje die lisensie kry om Peru te verower
  • 1531–1532 - Pizarro se derde reis na Peru. Spanjaarde vorm 'n band met die inboorlinge (Huancas, Chankas, Cañaris en Chachapoyas) wat onder die onderdrukking van die Inka -ryk was, en Pizarro sluit hulle onder sy troepe in om die Inkas die hoof te bied. Atahualpa word deur Spaans gevange geneem.
  • 1533-Atahualpa word tereggestel nadat hy beveel het dat Huáscar vermoor moet word. De Almagro arriveer Pizarro dien Cuzco voor en installeer die sewentienjarige Manco Inca as nuwe Inka-keiser
  • 1535-Pizarro stig die stad Lima De Almagro na die huidige Chili
  • 1536 - Gonzalo Pizarro steel Manco Inca se vrou, Cura Olcollo. Manco rebelleer en omring Cuzco. Juan Pizarro word vermoor, en die Inca -generaal Quizo Yupanqui val Lima aan
  • 1537 - Almagro neem Cuzco van Hernando en Gonzalo Pizarro in beslag. Rodrigo Orgóñez ontslaan Vitcos en vang Manco Inca se seun, Titu Cusi. Manco ontsnap en vlug na Vilcabamba, wat die hoofstad van die staat Neo-Inca geword het
  • 1538 - Hernando Pizarro voer Diego de Almagro tereg
  • 1539 - Gonzalo Pizarro val binne en val Vilcabamba Manco Inca in, maar Francisco Pizarro voer Manco se vrou, Cura Olcollo, uit
  • 1541 - Francisco Pizarro word vermoor deur Diego de Almagro II en ander ondersteuners van De Almagro
  • 1544 - Manco Inca word vermoor deur ondersteuners van Diego de Almagro. Die Inka's stop nie hul opstand nie
  • 1572-Onderkoning van Peru, Francisco Toledo, verklaar oorlog teen die staat Neo-Inca Vilcabamba word afgedank en Túpac Amaru, die laaste Inca-keiser, word gevange geneem en tereggestel in Cuzco. Die Neo-Inca-hoofstad Vilcabamba word in die steek gelaat deur die Spaanse verwydering van inwoners en hulle verplaas na die nuutgestigte Christelike stad San Francisco de la Victoria de Vilcabamba [8]: xiii – xv

Die burgeroorlog tussen Atahualpa en Huascar het die ryk verswak onmiddellik voor sy stryd met die Spaanse. Geskiedkundiges is nie seker of 'n verenigde Inka -ryk op lang termyn die Spaanse kon verslaan nie weens faktore soos die hoë sterftesyfer en die verwante sosiale ontwrigting daarvan, en die voortreflike militêre tegnologie van die veroweraars, wat perde, honde, metaal besit het. wapens, swaarde, kanonne en primitiewe, maar effektiewe, vuurwapens. [9] Atahualpa was meer gewild onder die mense as sy broer, en hy was beslis meer gewaardeer deur die weermag, waarvan die kern gebaseer was in die onlangs verowerde noordelike provinsie Quito.

Aan die begin van die konflik het elke broer sy onderskeie gebiede beheer, met Atahualpa veilig in die noorde, en Huáscar beheer die hoofstad van Cuzco en die groot gebied in die suide, insluitend die gebied rondom die Titicacameer. Hierdie streek het 'n groot aantal troepe vir Huáscar se magte voorsien. Na 'n tydperk van diplomatieke postuur en 'n pos om die pos, het oop oorlog ontstaan. Dit lyk asof Huáscar gereed was om die oorlog vinnig tot 'n einde te bring, aangesien troepe wat getrou was aan hom Atahualpa gevange geneem het terwyl hy 'n fees in die stad Tumibamba bygewoon het. Atahualpa ontsnap egter vinnig en keer terug na Quitu. Daar kon hy wat na raming minstens 30 000 soldate is, versamel. Terwyl Huáscar dit reggekry het om ongeveer dieselfde aantal soldate bymekaar te kry, was hulle minder ervare.

Atahualpa het sy magte suidwaarts gestuur onder bevel van twee van sy voorste generaals, Challcuchima en Quisquis, wat 'n ononderbroke reeks oorwinnings behaal het wat hulle gou by die poorte van Cuzco gebring het. Op die eerste dag van die stryd om Cuzco het die kragte wat lojaal was aan Huáscar 'n vroeë voordeel behaal. Op die tweede dag het Huáscar egter persoonlik 'n slegte 'verrassingsaanval' gelei, waarvan die generaals Challcuchima en Quisquis gevorderde kennis gehad het. In die daaropvolgende geveg is Huáscar gevange geneem en weerstand het heeltemal in duie gestort. Die seëvierende generaals het noord gestuur charqui boodskapper na Atahualpa, wat van Quite na die koninklike oord buite Cajamarca suidwaarts verhuis het. Die boodskapper het opgedaag op dieselfde dag dat Pizarro en sy klein groepie avonturiers saam met 'n paar inheemse bondgenote van die Andes afstam na die stad Cajamarca.

Francisco Pizarro en sy broers (Gonzalo, Juan en Hernando) is aangetrokke deur die nuus van 'n ryk en wonderlike koninkryk. Hulle het die destydse verarmde Extremadura verlaat, soos baie migrante agterna. [7]: 136

Daar lê Peru met sy rykdom
Hier, Panama en sy armoede.
Kies elke man wat die beste 'n dapper Castiliaan word.

In 1529 het Francisco Pizarro toestemming van die Spaanse monargie gekry om die land wat hulle Peru genoem het, te verower. [7]: 133

Volgens historikus Raúl Porras Barrenechea is Peru nie 'n Quechuan- of Karibiese woord nie, maar Indo-Spaans of baster. Hy was onbekend aan Pizarro, omdat hy gepleit het vir toestemming om 'n ekspedisie te onderneem, maar sy voorgestelde vyand is verwoes deur die siektes wat tydens vroeëre Spaanse kontakte na die Amerikaanse vastelande gebring is.

Toe Pizarro in 1532 in Peru aankom, vind hy dit baie anders as toe hy net vyf jaar tevore daar was. Te midde van die ruïnes van die stad Tumbes, het hy probeer om die situasie voor hom saam te stel. Van twee jong plaaslike seuns wat hy geleer het om Spaans te praat om vir hom te vertaal, het Pizarro verneem van die burgeroorlog en van die siekte wat die Inca -ryk vernietig het. [8]

Na vier lang ekspedisies het Pizarro die eerste Spaanse nedersetting in die noorde van Peru gevestig en dit San Miguel de Piura genoem. [7]: 153–154

Toe die inboorlinge die eerste keer opgemerk word, was dit vermoedelik dat Pizarro en sy manne dit was Viracocha Cuna of "gode". Die naturelle het die mans van Pizarro aan die Inca beskryf. Hulle het dit gesê capito was lank met 'n vol baard en was heeltemal toegedraai in klere. Die naturelle het die mans se swaarde beskryf en hoe hulle skape saam met hulle doodgemaak het. Die manne het nie menslike vlees geëet nie, maar eerder skape, lam, eend, duiwe en takbokke, en die vleis gaargemaak. Atahualpa was bang vir waartoe die blanke mans in staat was. As hulle was runa quicachac of “vernietigers van mense”, dan moet hy vlug. As hulle was Viracocha Cuna Runa allichac of "gode wat weldoeners van die mense is", dan moet hy nie vlug nie, maar hulle verwelkom. [ aanhaling nodig ] Die boodskappers het teruggegaan na Tangarala, en Atahualpa het Cinquinchara, 'n Orejon -vegter, na die Spanjaarde gestuur om as tolk te dien.

Na 'n reis met die Spaanse, keer Cinquinchara terug na Atahualpa, en bespreek of die Spaanse mans al dan nie gode is nie. Cinquinchara het besluit dat hulle mans is omdat hy gesien het hoe hulle eet, drink, aantrek en 'n verhouding met vroue het. Hy het gesien dat hulle geen wonderwerke veroorsaak nie. Cinquinchara het Atahualpa ingelig dat hulle klein was, ongeveer 170–180 man, en dat hulle die inheemse gevangenes met 'ystertoue' gebind het. Toe Atahualpa vra wat hy met die vreemdelinge moet doen, het Cinquinchara gesê dat hulle doodgemaak moet word omdat hulle bose diewe is wat hulle neem wat hulle wil, en supai cuna of "duiwels". Hy het aanbeveel dat hulle die mans in hul slaapplek vasgekeer en doodgebrand het. [10]

Na sy oorwinning en die inname van sy broer Huáscar, vas Atahualpa in die Inca -baddens buite Cajamarca. Pizarro en sy manne het daardie stad op 15 November 1532 bereik.

Pizarro het Hernando de Soto na die Inca -leier se kamp gestuur. Soto het Atahualpa op sy perd ontmoet, 'n dier wat Atahualpa nog nooit gesien het nie. Met een van sy jong tolke het Soto 'n voorbereide toespraak voor Atahualpa gelees waarin hy gesê het dat hulle as dienaars van God gekom het om hulle die waarheid oor God se woord te leer. [11] Hy het gesê dat hy met hulle praat sodat hulle dit kan doen

"lê die grondslag van ooreenstemming, broederskap en ewige vrede wat tussen ons moet bestaan, sodat u ons onder u beskerming kan ontvang en die goddelike wet van ons kan hoor en al u mense dit kan leer en ontvang, want dit sal die grootste wees eer, voordeel en redding vir hulle almal. ”

Boonop het hulle die Incan -leier genooi om Pizarro by sy woonplekke langs die Cajamarca -plein te besoek. Toe De Soto Atahualpa se belangstelling in sy perd raaksien, het hy 'n uitstekende "ruitery" in die omgewing vertoon. Atahualpa het gasvryheid betoon deur verversings te bedien. [7]: 166–170 [12]

Atahualpa reageer eers nadat Francisco Pizarro se broer, Hernando Pizarro, daar aangekom het. Hy het geantwoord met wat hy van sy verkenners gehoor het en gesê dat Spaans talle getalle aan die kus vermoor en verslaaf het. Pizarro denied the report and Atahualpa, with limited information, reluctantly let the matter go. At the end of their meeting, the men agreed to meet the next day at Cajamarca. [8]

The next morning, on 16 November 1532, Pizarro had arranged an ambuscade around the Cajamarca plaza, where they were to meet. At this point, Pizarro had in total 168 men under his command: 106 on foot and 62 on horses. When Atahualpa arrived with about 6,000 unarmed followers, Friar Vincente de Valverde and the interpreter Felipillo met them and proceeded to "expound the doctrines of the true faith" (requerimiento) and seek his tribute as a vassal of King Charles. The unskilled translator likely contributed to problems in communication. The friar offered Atahualpa the Bible as the authority of what he had just stated. Atahualpa stated, "I will be no man's tributary." [7] : 173–177

Pizarro urged attack, starting the Battle of Cajamarca. The battle began with a shot from a cannon and the battle cry "Santiago!" [12] The Spaniards unleashed volleys of gunfire at the vulnerable mass of Incas and surged forward in a concerted action. Pizarro also used cavalry charges against the Inca forces, which stunned them in combination with gunfire. [7] : 177–179 Many of the guns used by the Spaniards were however hard to use in close combat. The effect was devastating, the shocked Incas offered such feeble resistance that the battle has often been labeled a massacre, with the Inca losing 2,000 dead and Spanish having just 1 soldier wounded.

The majority of Atahualpa's troops were in the Cuzco region along with Quisquis and Challcuchima, the two generals he trusted the most. This was a major disadvantage for the Inca. Their undoing also resulted from a lack of self-confidence, and a desire to make public demonstration of fearlessness and godlike command of situation. [12] The main view is that the Inca were eventually defeated due to inferior weapons, 'open battle' tactics, disease, internal unrest, the bold tactics of the Spanish, and the capture of their emperor. While Spanish armour was very effective against most of the Andean weapons, it was not impenetrable to maces, clubs, or slings. [13] [14] Later, most natives adapted in 'guerrilla fashion' by only shooting at the legs of the conquistadors if they happened to be unarmored. [15] However, ensuing hostilities such as the Mixtón Rebellion, Chichimeca War, and Arauco War would require that the conquistadors ally with friendly tribes in these later expeditions.

Though the historical accounts relating to the circumstances vary, the true Spanish motives for the attack seemed to be a desire for loot and flat-out impatience. The Inca likely did not adequately understand the conquistadors' demands. [16] And, of course, Pizarro knew they did not have the slightest chance against the Inca army unless they captured the Emperor.

By February 1533, Almagro had joined Pizarro in Cajamarca with an additional 150 men with 50 horses. [7] : 186–194

After Atahualpa was captured at the massacre at Cajamarca, he was treated with respect, allowed his wives to join him, and the Spanish soldiers taught him the game of chess. [17] : 215,234 During Atahualpa's captivity, the Spanish, although greatly outnumbered, forced him to order his generals to back down by threatening to kill him if he did not. According to the Spanish envoy's demands, Atahualpa offered to fill a large room with gold and promised twice that amount in silver. While Pizarro ostensibly accepted this offer and allowed the gold to pile up, he had no intention of releasing the Inca he needed Atahualpa's influence over his generals and the people in order to maintain the peace. The treasure began to be delivered from Cuzco on 20 December 1532 and flowed steadily from then on. By 3 May 1533 Pizarro received all the treasure he had requested it was melted, refined, and made into bars. [12] Hernando Pizarro went to gather gold and silver from the temples in Pachacamac in January 1533, and on his return in March, [17] : 237 captured Chalcuchimac in the Jauja Valley. Francisco Pizzaro sent a similar expedition to Cuzco, bringing back many gold plates from the Temple of the Sun.

The question eventually came up of what to do with Atahualpa both Pizarro and Soto were against killing him, but the other Spaniards were loud in their demands for death. False interpretations from the interpreter Felipillo made the Spaniards paranoid. They were told that Atahualpa had ordered secret attacks and his warriors were hidden in the surrounding area. Soto went with a small force to scout for the hidden army, but the trial of Atahualpa was held in his absence. Among the charges were polygamy, incestuous marriage, and idolatry, all frowned upon in Catholicism but common in Inca culture and religion.

The men who were against Atahualpa's conviction and murder argued that he should be judged by King Charles since he was the sovereign prince. Atahualpa agreed to accept baptism to avoid being burned at the stake and in the hopes of one day rejoining his army and killing the Spanish he was baptized as Francisco. On 29 August 1533 Atahualpa was garrotted and died a Christian. He was buried with Christian rites in the church of San Francisco at Cajamarca, but was soon disinterred. His body was taken, probably at his prior request, to its final resting place in Quito. Upon de Soto's return, he was furious he had found no evidence of any secret gathering of Atahualpa's warriors. [12]

Pizarro advanced with his army of 500 Spaniards toward Cuzco, accompanied by Chalcuchimac. The latter was burned alive in the Jauja Valley, accused of secret communication with Quizquiz, and organizing resistance. Manco Inca Yupanqui joined Pizarro after the death of Túpac Huallpa. Pizarro's force entered the heart of the Tawantinsuyu on 15 November 1533. [7] : 191,210,216

Benalcázar, Pizarro's lieutenant and fellow Extremaduran, had already departed from San Miguel with 140 foot soldiers and a few horses on his conquering mission to Ecuador. At the foot of Mount Chimborazo, near the modern city of Riobamba (Ecuador) he met and defeated the forces of the great Inca warrior Rumiñawi with the aid of Cañari tribesmen who served as guides and allies to the conquering Spaniards. Rumiñahui fell back to Quito, and, while in pursuit of the Inca army, Benalcázar was joined by five hundred men led by Guatemalan Governor Pedro de Alvarado. Greedy for gold, Alvarado had set sail for the south without the crown's authorization, landed on the Ecuadorian coast, and marched inland to the Sierra. Finding Quito empty of its treasures, Alvarado soon joined the combined Spanish force. Alvarado agreed to sell his fleet of twelve ships, his forces, plus arms and ammunition, and returned to Guatemala. [7] : 224–227 [17] : 268–284

After Atahualpa's execution, Pizarro installed Atahualpa's brother, Túpac Huallpa, as a puppet Inca ruler, but he soon died unexpectedly, leaving Manco Inca Yupanqui in power. He began his rule as an ally of the Spanish and was respected in the southern regions of the empire, but there was still much unrest in the north near Quito where Atahualpa's generals were amassing troops. Atahualpa's death meant that there was no hostage left to deter these northern armies from attacking the invaders. Led by Atahualpa's generals Rumiñahui, Zope-Zupahua and Quisquis, the native armies were finally defeated, effectively ending any organized rebellion in the north of the empire. [7] : 221–223,226

Manco Inca initially had good relations with Francisco Pizarro and several other Spanish conquistadors. However, in 1535 he was left in Cuzco under the control of Pizarro's brothers, Juan and Gonzalo, who so mistreated Manco Inca that he ultimately rebelled. Under the pretense of recovering a statue of pure gold in the nearby Yucay valley, Manco was able to escape Cuzco. [7] : 235–237

Manco Inca hoped to use the disagreement between Almagro and Pizarro to his advantage and attempted the recapture of Cuzco starting in April 1536. The siege of Cuzco was waged until the following spring, and during that time Manco's armies managed to wipe out four relief columns sent from Lima, but was ultimately unsuccessful in its goal of routing the Spaniards from the city. The Inca leadership did not have the full support of all its subject peoples and furthermore, the degrading state of Inca morale coupled with the superior Spanish siege weapons soon made Manco Inca realize his hope of recapturing Cuzco was failing. Manco Inca eventually withdrew to Tambo. [7] : 239–247

Archaeological evidence of the rebellion incident exists. The remains of about 70 men, women, and adolescents were found in the path of a planned expressway near Lima in 2007. Forensic evidence suggests that the natives were killed by European weapons, probably during the uprising in 1536. [18]

After the Spanish regained control of Cuzco, Manco Inca and his armies retreated to the fortress at Ollantaytambo where he, for a time, successfully launched attacks against Pizarro based at Cuzco and even managed to defeat the Spanish in an open battle. [7] : 247–249

When it became clear that defeat was imminent, Manco Inca retreated further to the mountainous region [7] : 259 of Vilcabamba and established the small Neo-Inca State, where Manco Inca and his successors continued to hold some power for several more decades. His sun, Túpac Amaru, was the last Inca. After deadly confrontations, he was murdered by the Spanish in 1572.

In total, the conquest took about forty years to complete. Many Inca attempts to regain the empire had occurred, but none had been successful. Thus the Spanish conquest was achieved through relentless force, and deception, aided by factors like smallpox and a great communication and cultural divide. The Spaniards destroyed much of the Incan culture and introduced the Spanish culture to the native population.

A struggle for power resulted in a long civil war between Francisco Pizarro and Diego de Almagro in which Almagro was killed. Almagro's loyal followers and his descendants later avenged his death by killing Pizarro in 1541. This was done inside the palace of Francisco Pizarro in a fight to the death by these assassins, most of which were former soldiers of Diego de Almagro who were stripped of title and belongings after his death. [19]

Despite the war, the Spaniards did not neglect the colonizing process. Spanish royal authority on these territories was consolidated by the creation of an Audiencia Real, a type of appellate court. In January 1535, Lima was founded, from which the political and administrative institutions were to be organized. In 1542, the Spanish created the Viceroyalty of New Castile, that shortly after would be called Viceroyalty of Peru. Nevertheless, the Viceroyalty of Peru was not organized until the arrival of a later Viceroy Francisco de Toledo in 1572. Toledo ended the indigenous Neo-Inca State in Vilcabamba, executing the Inca Túpac Amaru. He promoted economic development using commercial monopoly and built up the extraction from the silver mines of Potosí, using slavery based on the Inca institution of forced labor for mandatory public service called mita.

The integration of Spanish culture into Peru was carried out not only by Pizarro and his other captains, but also by the many Spanish who also came to Peru to exploit its riches and inhabit its land. These included many different kinds of immigrants such as Spanish merchants, peasants, artisans, and Spanish women. Another element that the Spanish brought with them were African slaves to work alongside captive Incas for use in labor with things such as agriculture and mining for silver. [20] These people all brought with them their own pieces of Spanish culture to integrate into Peruvian society.

The arrival of the Spanish also had an unexpected impact on the land itself, recent research points out that Spanish conquest of the Inca altered Peru's shoreline. [21] Before the Spaniards arrived, inhabitants of the arid northern Peruvian coast clad massive sand dune–like ridges with a -likely- accidental form of “armor”, millions of discarded mollusk shells, which protected the ridges from erosion for nearly 4700 years prior to the Spanish arrival, and produced a vast corrugated landscape that is visible from space. This incidental landscape protection came to a swift end, however, after diseases brought by Spanish colonists decimated the local population and after colonial officials resettled the survivors inland, without humans to create the protective covering, newly formed beach ridges simply eroded and vanished. [22] According to Archaeologist Torben Rick, parts of the northern coast of Peru may look completely natural and pristine, “but if you rewind the clock a couple of millennia, you see that people were actively shaping this land by creating beach ridge systems". [23]

Effects of the conquest on the people of Peru Edit

The long-term effects of the arrival of the Spanish on the population of South America were simply catastrophic. While this was the case for every group of Native-Americans invaded by Europeans during this time period, the Incan population suffered an exceptionally dramatic and rapid decline following contact. It is estimated that parts of the empire, notably the Central Andes, suffered a population decline ratio of 58:1 during the years of 1520–1571. [24]

The single greatest cause of the decimation of native populations was Old World infectious diseases, carried by colonists and conquistadors. As these were new to the natives, they had no acquired immunity and suffered very high rates of death. More died of disease than any army or armed conflict. [25] As the Inca did not have as strong a writing tradition as the Aztec or Maya, it is difficult for historians to estimate population decline or any events after conquest. But, it is sometimes argued, and equally disputed among scholars. that the Inca began to contract these diseases several years before the Spanish appeared in the region, as it was possibly carried to their empire by traders and travelers. The outbreak, argued to be hemorrhagic smallpox, reached the Andes in 1524. While numbers are unavailable, Spanish records indicate that the population was so devastated by disease that they could hardly resist the foreign forces.

Historians differ as to whether the illness of the 1520s was smallpox a minority of scholars claim that the epidemic was due to an indigenous illness called Carrion's disease. In any case, a 1981 study by N. D. Cook the shows that the Andes suffered from three separate population declines during colonization. The first was of 30–50 percent during the first outbreak of smallpox. When a measles outbreak occurred, there was another decline of 25–30 percent. Finally, when smallpox and measles epidemics occurred together, which occurred from 1585 to 1591, a decline of 30–60 percent occurred. Collectively these declines amounted to a decline of 93 percent from the pre-contact population in the Andes region. [26] Mortality was particularly high among children, ensuring that the impact of the epidemics would extend to the next generation. [4]

Beyond the devastation of the local populations by disease, they suffered considerable enslavement, pillaging and destruction from warfare. The Spanish took thousands of women from the local natives to use as servants and concubines. As Pizarro and his men took over portions of South America, they plundered and enslaved countless people. Some local populations entered into vassalage willingly, to defeat the Inca. Native groups such as the Huanca, Cañari, Chanka and Chachapoya fought alongside the Spanish as they opposed Inca rule. The basic policy of the Spanish towards local populations was that voluntary vassalage would yield safety and coexistence, while continued resistance would result in more deaths and destruction. [27]

Another significant effect on the people in South America was the spread of Christianity. As Pizarro and the Spanish subdued the continent and brought it under their control, they forcefully converted many to Christianity, claiming to have educated them in the ways of the "one true religion." [28] [29] With the depopulation of the local populations along with the capitulation of the Inca Empire, the Spanish missionary work after colonization began was able to continue unimpeded. It took just a generation for the entire continent to be under Christian influence. [6]

Peter Shaffer's play The Royal Hunt of the Sun (1964) dramatizes the conquest of the Incas. In the play, Pizarro, Atahualpa, Valverde and other historical figures appear as characters.

The conquest is also used as a starting point for the Matthew Reilly novel Temple, where the siege of Cusco is used. Many historical figures are mentioned, especially Pizarro who is mentioned as the pursuer of the protagonist.

The Inca are featured in the third Campaign in Age of Empires 3, having a Lost City hidden in the Andes. They are also in the Multiplayer, found primarily in the areas making up Chile and Argentina.

The conquest is parodied in Die Simpsons TV series, in the episode "Lost Verizon", written by John Frink. [30]

Pizarro and his fellow conquistadors feature as antagonists in the 1982 animated serial Die geheimsinnige stede van goud.

I wish Your Majesty to understand the motive that moves me to make this statement is the peace of my conscience and because of the guilt I share. For we have destroyed by our evil behaviour such a government as was enjoyed by these natives. They were so free of crime and greed, both men and women, that they could leave gold or silver worth a hundred thousand pesos in their open house. So that when they discovered that we were thieves and men who sought to force their wives and daughters to commit sin with them, they despised us. But now things have come to such a pass in offence of God, owing to the bad example we have set them in all things, that these natives from doing no evil have turned into people who can do no good.. I beg God to pardon me, for I am moved to say this, seeing that I am the last to die of the Conquistadors."

When has it ever happened, either in ancient or modern times, that such amazing exploits have been achieved? Over so many climes, across so many seas, over such distances by land, to subdue the unseen and unknown? Whose deeds can be compared with those of Spain? Not even the ancient Greeks and Romans.

When I set out to write for the people of today and of the future, about the conquest and discovery that our Spaniards made here in Peru, I could not but reflect that I was dealing with the greatest matters one could possibly write about in all of creation as far as secular history goes. Where have men ever seen the things they have seen here? And to think that God should have permitted something so great to remain hidden from the world for so long in history, unknown to men, and then let it be found, discovered and won all in our own time!

The houses are more than two hundred paces in length, and very well built, being surrounded by strong walls, three times the height of a man. The roofs are covered with straw and wood, resting on the walls. The interiors are divided into eight rooms, much better built than any we had seen before. Their walls are of very well cut stones and each lodging is surrounded by its masonry wall with doorways, and has its fountain of water in an open court, conveyed from a distance by pipes, for the supply of the house. In front of the plein, towards the open country, a stone fortress is connected with it by a staircase leading from the square to the fort. Towards the open country there is another small door, with a narrow staircase, all within the outer wall of the plein. Above the town, on the mountain side, where the houses commence, there is another fort on a hill, the greater part of which is hewn out of the rock. This is larger than the other, and surrounded by three walls, rising spirally.


Warfare and Weapons

A resilient empire, the Inca Empire maintained what was the most powerful military at that time. The commander in chief of the Inca army was the Sapa Inca. The military was made up of soldiers who came from different ethnic groups, and anyone could be drafted into military service at any time. No part of the empire escaped contribution to the military.

Weapons were mainly arrows, clubs, throwers, spears, maces with heads made from bronze or copper, etc. The massive size of the Inca army also worked to their advantage. The Incas fought several battles, and one of the most remarkable ones is the battle they fought with the Mapuches.


Pizarro & the Fall of the Inca Empire

In 1533 CE the Inca Empire was the largest in the world. It extended across western South America from Quito in the north to Santiago in the south. However, the lack of integration of conquered peoples into that empire, combined with a civil war to claim the Inca throne and a devastating epidemic of European-brought diseases, meant that the Incas were ripe for the taking. Francisco Pizarro arrived in Peru with an astonishingly small force of men whose only interest was treasure. With superior weapons and tactics, and valuable assistance from locals keen to rebel, the Spanish swept away the Incas in little more than a generation. The arrival of the visitors to the New World and consequent collapse of the Inca Empire was the greatest humanitarian disaster to ever befall the Americas.

The Inca Empire

The Incas themselves called their empire Tawantinsuyo (or Tahuantinsuyu) meaning 'Land of the Four Quarters' or 'The Four Parts Together'. Cuzco, the capital, was considered the navel of the world, and radiating out were highways and sacred sighting lines (ceques) to each quarter: Chinchaysuyu (north), Antisuyu (east), Collasuyu (south), and Cuntisuyu (west). Spreading across ancient Ecuador, Peru, northern Chile, Bolivia, upland Argentina, and southern Colombia and stretching 5,500 km (3,400 miles) north to south, a mere 40,000 Incas governed a huge territory with some 10 million subjects speaking over 30 different languages.

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The Incas believed they had a divine right to rule over conquered peoples as in their mythology they were brought into existence at Tiwanaku (Tiahuanaco) by the sun god Inti. As a consequence, they regarded themselves as the chosen few, the 'Children of the Sun', and the Inca ruler was Inti's representative and embodiment on earth. In practical terms, this meant that all speakers of the Inca language Quechua (or Runasimi) were given privileged status, and this noble class then dominated all the important political, religious, and administrative roles within the empire.

The rise of the Inca Empire had been spectacularly quick. Although Cuzco had become a significant centre some time at the beginning of the Late Intermediate Period (1000-1400 CE), the process of regional unification only began from the late 14th century CE and significant conquest in the 15th century CE. The Empire was still young when it was to meet its greatest challenge.

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Pizarro & the Conquistadores

Francisco Pizarro and his partner Diego de Almagro were both in their mid-50s, from humble backgrounds, and neither had won any renown in their native Spain. Adventurers and treasure-seekers, they led a small group of Spanish adventurers eager to find the golden treasures their compatriots had found in the Aztec world of Mexico a decade earlier. Sailing down the Pacific coast from Panama in two small caravel merchant ships, they searched on in Colombia and the Ecuadorian coast but could not find the gold they so desperately sought. This was Pizarro's third such expedition, and it seemed his very last chance for fame and glory.

Then, in 1528 CE, one Bartolomé Ruiz (the expedition's pilot) captured a raft off the coast which was full of treasure. There might, after all, be something worth exploring deeper in South America. Pizarro used the discovery as a means to secure the right from the Spanish king Charles V to be governor of any new territory discovered with the Crown getting its usual one-fifth of any treasure found. With a force of 168 men, which included 138 veterans, 27 cavalry horses, artillery, and one friar, a Father Valverde, Pizarro headed for the Andes.

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In 1531 CE, making slow and careful progress, he reached and conquered Coaque on the Ecuadorian coast and waited for reinforcements. These arrived the following year and swelled the Spanish force to 260 men of which 62 were cavalry. The force moved on down the coast to Tumbes, pillaging as they went and putting the natives to the sword. Moving on again they began to see the tell-tale signs of a prosperous civilization – storehouses and well-built roads. They formed a new settlement at San Miguel (modern Piura), and by the end of the year 1532 CE Pizarro was ready to make first contact with the rulers of what seemed a huge and wealthy empire.

Trouble in the Empire

When the foreign invaders arrived in Peru the Incas were already beset by some serious internal problems. As we have seen, their massive empire was a politically fragile and loose integration of conquered states whose subservience came from Inca military dominance and the taking of hostages - both of important persons and important religious artefacts - to ensure a continued, if uneasy, compliance to Cuzco's rule. Unpopular taxes were extracted in the form of goods or service (military and general labour), and many communities were forcibly resettled to other parts of the empire or had to welcome new communities of people more loyal to their overlords.

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The Incas also imposed their religion on conquered peoples, even if they allowed the continued worship of some gods provided they were given a lesser status to Inti. The Incas even imposed their own art across the empire as a way to visually impress exactly who was the ruling class. There were some benefits to Inca rule – a more regulated food supply, better roads and communications, the possibility of Inca military protection, and occasional state-sponsored feasts. All in all, though, the lot of a conquered area was such that, in many cases, when a rival power threatened Inca rule, loyalty to preserve the empire was somewhat lacking. Some areas, especially in the northern territories were constantly in rebellion, and an ongoing war in Ecuador necessitated the establishment of a second Inca capital at Quito.

Perhaps more significantly than this unrest, when Pizarro arrived on the scene the Incas were fighting amongst themselves. On the death of the Inca ruler Wayna Qhapaq in 1528 CE, two of his sons, Waskar and Atahualpa, battled in a damaging six-year civil war for control of their father's empire. Atahualpa finally won but the empire was still beset by factions yet to be fully reconciled to his victory.

Finally, if all those factors were not enough to give the Spanish a serious advantage, the Incas were at that time hit by an epidemic of European diseases, such as smallpox, which had spread from central America even faster than the European invaders themselves. Such a disease killed Wayna Qhapaq in 1528 CE and in some places a staggering 65-90% of the population would die from this invisible enemy.

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Pizarro Meets Atahualpa

On Friday, 15th of November, 1532 CE, the Spaniards approached the Inca town of Cajamarca in the highlands of Peru. Pizarro sent word that he wished to meet the Inca king, there enjoying the local springs and basking in his recent victory over Waskar. Atahualpa agreed to finally meet the much-rumoured bearded white men who were known to have been fighting their way from the coast for some time. Confidently surrounded by his 80,000 strong army Atahualpa seems not to have seen any threat from such a small enemy force, and he made Pizarro wait until the next day.

The first formal meeting between Pizarro and Atahualpa involved a few speeches, a drink together while they watched some Spanish horsemanship, and not much else. Both sides went away planning to capture or kill the other party at the first available opportunity. The very next day Pizarro, using the conveniently labyrinth-like architecture of the Inca town to his advantage, set his men in ambush to await Atahualpa's arrival in the main square. When the royal troop arrived, Pizarro fired his small canons, and then his men, wearing armour, attacked on horseback. In the ensuing battle, where firearms were mismatched against spears, arrows, slings, and clubs, 7,000 Incas were killed against zero Spanish losses. Atahualpa was hit a blow on the head and captured alive.

Atahualpa's Ransom & Death

Either held for ransom by Pizarro or even offering a ransom himself, Atahualpa's safe return to his people was promised if a room measuring 6.2 x 4.8 metres were filled with all the treasures the Incas could provide up to a height of 2.5 m. This was done, and the chamber was piled high with gold objects from jewellery to idols. The room was then filled twice again with silver objects. The whole task took eight months, and the value today of the accumulated treasures would have been well over $50 million. Meanwhile, Atahualpa continued to run his empire from captivity, and Pizarro sent exploratory expeditions to Cuzco and Pachacamac while he awaited reinforcements from Panama, enticed by sending a quantity of gold to hint at the wealth on offer. Then, having got his ransom, Pizarro summarily tried and executed Atahualpa anyway, on the 26th of July, 1533 CE. The Inca king was originally sentenced to death by burning at the stake, but after the monarch agreed to be baptised, this was commuted to death by strangulation.

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Some of Pizarro's men thought this was the worst possible response, and Pizarro received criticism from the Spanish king for treating a foreign sovereign so shabbily, but the wily Spanish leader had seen just how subservient the Incas were to their king, even when he was held captive by the enemy. As a living god, Pizarro perhaps knew that only the king's death could bring about the total defeat of the Incas. Indeed, even in death, the Inca king exerted an influence over his people for the severed head of Atahualpa gave birth to the enduring Inkarri legend. For the Incas believed that one day the head would grow a new body and their ruler would return, defeat the Spanish, and restore the natural order of things. Crucially, the period of Atahualpa's captivity had shown the Spanish that there were deep factions in the Inca Empire and these could be exploited to their own advantage.

The Fall of Cuzco

Having cut off the snake's head, the Spanish then set about conquering Cuzco with its vast golden treasures which were reported by Hernando Pizarro following his reconnaissance expedition there. After that, they could deal with the rest of the empire. The first battle was with troops loyal to Atahualpa near Hatun Xauxa, but the Spaniards were helped by the local population delighted to see the back of the Incas. The Spaniards were given supplies from the local Inca storehouses, and Pizarro established his new capital there. Local assistance and the plundering of the Inca storehouses would become a familiar pattern which aided Pizarro for the remainder of his conquest.

The invaders next defeated an army in retreat at Vilcaswaman but did not have everything their own way and even suffered a military defeat when an advance force was attacked by surprise on their way to Cuzco. The next day the Old World visitors resumed their unstoppable march, though, and swept all before them. A brief resistance at Cuzco was overcome, and the city fell into Pizarro's hands with a whimper on 15th of November, 1533 CE. The treasures of the city and the golden wonders of the Coricancha temple were ruthlessly stripped and melted down.

Pizarro's first attempt to install a puppet ruler - Thupa Wallpa, the younger brother of Waskar - failed to restore any sort of political order, and he soon died of illness. A second puppet ruler was installed – Manqo Inka, another son of Wayna Qhapaq. While he ensured the state did not collapse from within, Pizarro and his men left to pacify the rest of the empire and see what other treasures they could find.

Conquering the Empire

The Spanish were severely tested in the northern territories, where armies led by Ruminawi and Quizquiz held out, but these too capitulated from internal strife and their leaders were killed. The Europeans' relentless conquest could not be answered. In this, they were greatly helped by the Inca mode of warfare which was highly ritualised. Such tactics as deceit, ambush, and subterfuge were unknown to them in warfare, as were changing tactics mid-battle and seizing opportunities of weakness in the enemy as they arose. In addition, Inca warriors were highly dependent on their officers, and if these conspicuous individuals fell in battle, a whole army could quickly collapse in panicked retreat. These factors and the superior weaponry of the Europeans meant the Incas had very little chance of defending a huge empire already difficult to manage. The Incas did quickly learn to fight back and deal with cavalry, for example by flooding areas under attack or fighting on rough terrain, but their spears, slings, and clubs could not match bullets, crossbows, swords, and steel armour. The Spaniards also had nearly half the population of the old empire fighting for them as old rivalries and factions re-emerged.

The Spanish soon found out that the vast geographical spread of their new empire and its inherent difficulties in communication and control (even if their predecessors had built an excellent road system) meant that they faced the same management problems as the Incas. Rebellions and defections spread all over, and even Manqo Inka rebelled and formed his own army to try and win real power for himself. Cuzco and the new Spanish stronghold of Cuidad de Los Reyes (Lima) were besieged by two huge Inca armies, but the Spaniards held out until the attackers had to retreat. The Inca armies were largely composed of farmers, and they could not abandon their harvest without starving their communities. The siege was raised again the next year, but once more the Spanish resisted, and when they killed the army leaders in a deliberately targeted attack, resistance to the new order ebbed away. Manqo Inka was forced to flee south where he set up an Inca enclave at Vilcabamba. He and his successors would resist for another four decades. Finally, in 1572 CE, a Spanish force led by Viceroy Toledo captured the Inca king Thupa Amaru, took him back to Cuzco, and executed him. The last Inca ruler was gone and with him any hope of restoring their once great empire.

Afsluiting

Atahualpa, following victory in the war with his brother, had killed historians and destroyed the Inca quipu records in what was intended to be a total renewal, what the Incas called a pachakuti or 'turning over of time and space', an epoch-changing event which the Incas believed periodically occurred through the ages. How ironic then, that Atahualpa was to suffer a pachakuti himself and the new rulers would similarly loot, burn, and destroy every vestige of Andean culture they could find. The arrival of the Old World into the New turned it upside down. Nothing would ever be the same again.

The Spanish, after decades of their own internal problems, which included the murder of Pizarro, eventually established a stable colonial government in 1554 CE. For the Andean people, their way of life, which had stretched back millennia despite the Inca interruption, would be challenged again by the new epoch. These were the lucky ones, though, as by 1570 CE 50% of the pre-Columbian Andean population had been wiped out. For those ordinary people who survived the ravages of war and disease, there was to be no respite from a rapacious overlord once again eager to steal their wealth and impose on them a foreign religion.


Kyk die video: Horrible Histories Incas Francisco Pizarros Very Rough Guide (November 2021).