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9 Februarie 1945

9 Februarie 1945


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9 Februarie 1945

Oorlog op see

Duitse duikboot U-923 het met alle hande in Kielbaai gesink

Duitse duikbote U-864 het van Bergen afgesink

Wesfront

Britse en Kanadese troepe breek deur die Siegfried -lyn en bereik die Ryn

Die Amerikaanse 6de leër skakel die Colmar -sak uit

Oosfront

Sowjet -troepe vang Elbing in



9 Februarie 1945: Oorwinning in die Colmar -sak, Duitsers Uitsetting uit die Wesoewer van die Ryn

Op 9 Februarie 1945 is die laaste Duitse magte op die westelike oewer van die Ryn verslaan deur die Franse en Amerikaners. Die nederlaag van hierdie troepe, wat 'n gebied wat die Colmar -sak genoem word, vasgehou het, was 'n belangrike strategiese oomblik om 'n verdedigingslinie langs die Ryn te verseker.

Dit was ook 'n simbolies belangrike oomblik. Elsas, die streek waarin die Pocket bestaan ​​het, was byna 'n eeu lank 'n bron van konflik tussen Frankryk en Duitsland. Dit is deur die Duitsers in die Frans-Pruisiese oorlog (1870-71) deur die Duitsers uit Frankryk geneem, aan die einde van die Eerste Wêreldoorlog deur die Franse teruggeneem, in 1940 weer deur die Duitsers in beslag geneem, en nou word dit weer Frans.

Grense is teruggeskuif na waar die Franse van mening was dat hulle moes wees, en van nou af sou troepe in die streek na Duitsland vorder.


9 Februarie 1945 'n Onderwater Tsjernobil

Daar word geskat dat slegs 4 kg kwik tot dusver ongeveer nege pond uitgelek het, en omliggende waters is reeds buite perke vir visvang. Die Nazi -duikboot sak hierdie dag in 1945 met 67 ton.

'N Ligte reën val op die Heston -vliegveld in Londen, terwyl duisende die teerpad opgedaag het in afwagting van die terugkeer van die Britse premier, Neville Chamberlain. Net 20 jaar in die verlede het die herinneringe aan die Groot Oorlog soos 'n swart en kwaadwillige wolk oor Londen gehang.

Die premier kom die aand in September 1938 by die deur van die vliegtuig uit en begin praat. Die stuk papier wat Chamberlain in sy hand gehou het, het die stukkie van die Tsjeggo -Slowaakse Republiek, bekend as die “Sudetenland ”, aan Nazi -Duitsland gevoeg. Die territoriale ambisies van Duitsland na haar ooste was versadig. Dit was vrede in ons tyd.

Met die inval in Maart in Tsjeggo-Slowakye, het Hitler selfs aan Neville Chamberlain gedemonstreer dat die sogenaamde München-ooreenkoms niks beteken nie. Dat Pole volgende was, was 'n oop geheim. Die onderhandelinge tussen Pools-Britse onderlinge hulp het in April begin. Twee dae nadat Nazi-Duitsland en Stalin se Sowjetunie die nie-aggressieverdrag Molotov-Ribbentrop onderteken het, is die Pools-Britse gemeenskaplike verdedigingspakt by die Frans-Poolse militêre alliansie gevoeg. Sou Pole deur 'n vreemde mag binnegeval word, was Engeland en Frankryk nou daartoe verbind om in te gryp. Dieselfde maand verlaat die eerste veertien "Unterseeboots" (U-bote) hul basisse en waai oor die Noord-Atlantiese Oseaan.

Die Duitse inval in Pole het op 1 September begin, dieselfde dag as die Britse passasiersvaartuig SS Athenia met 1,418 passasiers en bemanning uit Glasgow na Montreal vertrek het. Twee dae later verklaar Groot -Brittanje en Frankryk oorlog teen Duitsland. Aangesien die verklaring slegs ure oud was, het Athenia vir die tweede ronde aandete gaste sit.

Om 19:40 het die U-30 Oberleutnant Fritz Julius Lemp twee torpedo's afgevuur, waarvan een teen die motorvoertuig aan die agterkant van die motor getref het. 14 uur later sak Athenia eerste agteruit met die verlies van 98 passasiers en 19 bemanningslede. Die Slag van die Atlantiese Oseaan het begin.

In 'n herhaling van die Eerste Wêreldoorlog het sowel Engeland as Duitsland blokkades op mekaar geïmplementeer. En met goeie rede. Op die hoogtepunt van die oorlog het Engeland alleen meer as 'n miljoen ton ingevoerde goedere per week nodig gehad om te oorleef en in die stryd te bly.

Die "Slag van die Atlantiese Oseaan" het 5 jaar, 8 maande en 5 dae geduur, wat strek van die Ierse See tot die Golf van Mexiko, van die Karibiese Eilande tot die Arktiese Oseaan.

Nuwe wapens en taktiek sal die balans eers verskuif ten gunste van die een kant, en dan na die ander kant. Voordat dit meer as 3500 handelskepe was en 175 oorlogskepe tot onder gesink het. 500 000 ton geallieerde skeepsvaart is in Junie 1941 alleen gesink.

Nazi-Duitsland het 783 U-bote verloor.

Duikbote werk in die driedimensionele ruimte, maar hul doeltreffendste wapen is nie. Die torpedo is 'n oppervlakwapen wat in tweedimensionele ruimte werk: links, regs en vorentoe. Om op 'n ondergedompelde teiken af ​​te vuur, vereis dat die torpedo in neutrale dryfvermoë omgeskakel word. Die kompleksiteit van afvuurberekeninge is alles behalwe onoorkombaar.

Die mees ongewone onderwateraksie van die oorlog het op 9 Februarie 1945 plaasgevind in die vorm van 'n geveg tussen twee ondergedompelde duikbote.

U-864

Die oorlog het sleg gegaan vir die asmoondhede in 1945, terwyl die bondgenote byna onbetwiste oppergesag geniet oor die wêreld se seevaarte. Enige oppervlakaflewering tussen Nazi -Duitsland en die keiserlike Japan sal beslis opgespoor en vernietig word. Die eerste reis van die Duitse duikboot U-864 van 287 voet, 1799 ton, vertrek op 5 Desember op "Operation Caesar" en lewer Messerschmitt-enjinonderdele, V-2-missielbegeleidingstelsels en 67 ton kwik aan die keiserlike Japanse oorlogsproduksiebedryf .

Die missie was van die begin af 'n mislukking. U-864 het in die Kielkanaal gestrand en moes terugtrek na Bergen, Noorweë, vir herstelwerk. Die duikboot kon op 6 Februarie die eiland Fedje aan die kus van Noorweë onopgemerk skoonmaak, teen die tyd dat die Britse MI6 die Duitse Enigma -kode gebreek het en deeglik bewus was van Operasie Caesar.

Die Britse duikboot Venturer, onder bevel van die 25-jarige luitenant Jimmy Launders, is van die Shetland-eilande gestuur om U-864 te onderskep en te vernietig.

ASDIC, 'n vroeë naam vir sonar, sou nuttig gewees het om U-864 op te spoor, maar teen 'n prys. Die bekende 'ping' sou deur albei kante gehoor gewees het, wat die Duitse bevelvoerder gewaarsku het dat hy gejag word. Wassers kies vir hidrofone, 'n passiewe luisterapparaat wat hom kan waarsku teen eksterne geluide. Die berekening van sy teenstander se rigting, diepte en spoed was baie ingewikkelder sonder ASDIC, maar die noodsaaklikheid van diefstal het gewen.

U-864 het 'n enjingeraas ontwikkel en bevelvoerder Ralf-Reimar Wolfram was bang dat dit hom sou weggee. Die duikboot keer terug na Bergen vir herstelwerk. Duitse duikbote van die ouderdom was toegerus met 'snorkels', swaar buise wat die oppervlak breek, sodat dieselenjins en spanne in staat was om asem te haal terwyl hulle onder water was. Venturer was op batterye toe die eerste geluide opgespoor is.

Die Britse sub het die voordeel in stealth gehad, maar slegs 'n kort tydsraamwerk.

'N Vierdimensionele vuuroplossing wat tyd, afstand, peiling en teikendiepte in ag neem, was teoreties moontlik, maar is selde onder gevegstoestande probeer. Daar kan slegs op onbekende faktore geraai word.

'N Vinnige aanvalsonderneming het slegs vier torpedobuise gedra, baie minder as haar veel groter vyand. Launders bereken sy vuuroplossing, bestel al vier die buise en skiet met 'n vertraging van 17½ sekonde tussen elke paar. Met vier inkomende op verskillende dieptes, het die Duitse sub nie tyd gehad om te reageer nie. Wolfram was eers besig om sy snorkel te gaan haal en oor te skakel na 'n elektriese motor toe die #4 -torpedo toeslaan. U-864 het ontplof en gesink en onmiddellik al 73 aan boord doodgemaak.

En wat van al die kwik?

In ons tyd beveel owerhede die verbruiksbeperkings van sekere vissoorte aan. Skerp beperkings word aanbeveel vir swanger vroue en verpleegmoeders.

Vis en skulpvis het 'n natuurlike neiging om te konsentreer of bioakkumuleer kwik in liggaamsweefsels in die vorm van metielkwik, 'n hoogs giftige organiese verbinding van kwik. Konsentrasies neem toe namate u in die onderwatervoedselketting beweeg. In 'n proses genoem biomagnifikasie, top roofdiere soos tuna, swaardvis en koning makriel kan kwik konsentrasies tot tien keer hoër as prooi spesies ontwikkel.

Die giftige gevolge van kwik sluit in skade aan die brein, niere en longe en neurologiese skade op lang termyn, veral by kinders.

Blootstellings lei tot afwykings wat wissel van gevoelloosheid in die hande en voete, spierswakheid, verlies van perifere sig en skade aan gehoor en spraak.

In uiterste gevalle sluit die simptome waansin, verlamming, koma en dood in. Die reeks simptome is die eerste keer in 1956 in die stad Minamata, Japan, geïdentifiseer en is te danke aan hoë konsentrasies metielkwik.

In die geval van Minamata het metielkwik sy oorsprong in industriële afvalwater van 'n chemiese fabriek, wat bio -opgehoopte en biogemagneer is in skulpvis en vis in Minamatabaai en die Shiranui -see. Sterftes as gevolg van die Minamata -siekte duur ongeveer 36 jaar onder mense, honde en varke voort. Die probleem was so ernstig onder katte dat dit 'n katte -veeartsenykundige toestand veroorsaak het wat bekend staan ​​as '#dansende kattekoors'.

Vandag lê 67 ton kwik onder 490 voet water aan die onderkant van die Noordsee, in die gebreekte romp van Adolf Hitler se laaste beste kans. Roeshouers het reeds begin om giftige kwik in omliggende waters te lek.

Die wrak is 'n onderwater Tsjernobil genoem.

Daar word geskat dat slegs 4 kg tot dusver uitgelek het, ongeveer nege pond, en die omliggende waters is reeds buite perke vir visvang. Swanger en borsvoedende vroue en jong kinders word aangeraai om nie vis wat naby die wrak gevang word, te eet nie.

Die wrak was in 2003. Besprekings het byna onmiddellik begin om die dodelike vrag op te haal uit wat Oslo se koerant Dagbladet noem, "Hitler se geheime gifbom."

Nou, 76 jaar tot op die dag van die laaste duik van die U-864, word die vaartuie van die duikboot en kwik inhou om te kwesbaar om na die oppervlak gebring te word.

In die herfs van 2018 besluit die Noorse regering om die ding onder 'n groot sarkofaag, van beton en sand, te begrawe. Nagenoeg dieselfde tegniek as dié wat in Tsjernobil gebruik is om besmette reaktore af te see. Na verwagting sal die werk $ 32 miljoen (VS) kos met die voltooiingsdatum, einde 2020. Die werk is vertraag, en die regering ondersoek nou weer die moontlikheid om die vrag op te haal.


9 Februarie 1945 Operasie Caesar

Die mees ongewone konfrontasie met WO2 het op hierdie dag in 1945 plaasgevind in die vorm van 'n gevegsaksie tussen twee ondergedompelde duikbote.

In 1939 was die naderende Nazi -inval in Pole 'n oop geheim. In Augustus het verteenwoordigers van Nazi-Duitsland en die Sowjetunie die Nazi-Sowjet-verdrag onderteken en onderlinge nie-aggressie vir 'n tydperk van twee jaar belowe.

Twee dae later het verteenwoordigers van die Verenigde Koninkryk die ooreenkoms van wedersydse bystand met Pole onderteken, wat Groot-Brittanje in lyn gebring het met die Frans-Poolse militêre alliansie. Sou Pole deur 'n vreemde mag binnegeval word, was Engeland en Frankryk nou daartoe verbind om in te gryp.

Die eerste veertien "Unterseeboots" (U-bote) verlaat hul basisse en waai oor die Noord-Atlantiese Oseaan. Hitler se inval in Pole begin drie weke later. Selfs toe het Hitler geglo dat oorlog met Engeland en Frankryk steeds vermy kan word. Die 'Kriegsmarine' was streng beveel om die 'prysregulasies' van 1936 na te kom.

Engeland en Frankryk verklaar oorlog op Nazi-Duitsland op 3 September. Ure later het U-30 Oberleutnant Fritz Julius Lemp 'n torpedo afgevuur in die Britse vaartuig SS Athenia. Lemp het verkeerdelik geglo dat dit 'n gewapende handelsskip was en 'n eerlike wild onder die prysregulasies, maar die skade is aangerig. Die langste en mees komplekse seestryd in die geskiedenis het begin.

Net soos in die Eerste Wêreldoorlog was Engeland en Duitsland vinnig besig om blokkades op mekaar te implementeer. Met goeie rede. Teen die tyd dat die Tweede Wêreldoorlog in volle gang was, sou Engeland alleen meer as 'n miljoen ton ingevoerde goedere per week benodig om die stryd voort te sit.

Die "Slag om die Atlantiese Oseaan" het 5 jaar, 8 maande en 5 dae geduur, wat strek van die Ierse See tot die Golf van Mexiko, van die Karibiese Eilande tot die Arktiese Oseaan. Winston Churchill sou dit beskryf as die oorheersende faktor gedurende die hele oorlog. Nooit kon ons vergeet dat alles wat elders, op die land, op see of in die lug gebeur, uiteindelik afhang van die uitkoms daarvan nie ”.

Duisende skepe was betrokke by meer as honderd konvooi -gevegte, met meer as 1 000 enkele skip -ontmoetings wat oor 'n teater van duisende myle wyd afgespeel het. Volgens http://www.usmm.org het die Verenigde State Merchant Marine die hoogste sterftesyfer in enige diensvertakking gehad, met 1 uit 26 in vergelyking met een uit 38, 44, 114 en 421 onderskeidelik vir die Marine Corps, Weermag, vloot en kuswag.

Nuwe wapens en taktiek sal die balans eers ten gunste van die een kant, en dan na die ander kant, verskuif. Uiteindelik sou meer as 3500 handelskepe en 175 oorlogskepe tot onder in die see gesink word, vergeleke met die verlies van 783 U-bote.

Die mees ongewone konfrontasie van die oorlog het op hierdie dag in 1945 plaasgevind in die vorm van 'n gevegsaksie tussen twee ondergedompelde duikbote. Duikbote werk in die driedimensionele ruimte, maar hul doeltreffendste wapen werk nie. Die torpedo is 'n oppervlakwapen wat in tweedimensionele ruimte werk: links, regs en vorentoe. Om op 'n ondergedompelde teiken af ​​te vuur, vereis dat die torpedo in neutrale dryfvermoë omgeskakel word, wat bykans onoorkomelike kompleksiteit in vuurberekenings lei.

U-864

Die oorlog het sleg gegaan vir die asmoondhede in 1945, terwyl die bondgenote byna onbetwiste oppergesag geniet oor die wêreld se seevaarte. Op hierdie tydstip sal enige oppervlakaflewering tussen Nazi -Duitsland en die keiserlike Japan waarskynlik opgespoor en gestaak word. Die eerste reis van die Duitse duikboot U-864 van 287 ', 1,799 ton, vertrek op 5 Desember op "Operation Caesar" en lewer Messerschmitt-enjinonderdele, V-2-missielbegeleidingstelsels en 65 ton kwik aan die keiserlike Japanse oorlogsproduksiebedryf .

WW2 U-boot penne, Bergen, Noorweë

Die missie was 'n mislukking, want U-864 moes terugtrek na die duikboothokke in Bergen, Noorweë, vir herstelwerk nadat hulle in die Kielkanaal gestrand het. Die sub kon op 6 Februarie die eiland Fedje aan die kus van Noorweë onopgemerk skoonmaak. Teen hierdie tyd het die Britse MI6 die Duitse Enigma -kode gebreek. Hulle was deeglik bewus van Operasie Caesar.

Die Britse duikboot Venturer, onder bevel van die 25-jarige luitenant Jimmy Launders, is van die Shetland-eilande gestuur om U-864 te onderskep en te vernietig.

'N Vierdimensionele vuuroplossing wat tyd, afstand, peiling en teikendiepte in ag neem, was teoreties moontlik, maar is selde onder gevegstoestande probeer.

ASDIC, 'n vroeë naam vir sonar, sou baie meer nuttig gewees het om U-864 op te spoor, maar teen 'n prys. Die bekende "ping" sou deur albei kante gehoor gewees het en die Duitse bevelvoerder gewaarsku het dat hy gejag word. Wassers kies vir hidrofone, 'n passiewe luisterapparaat wat hom kan waarsku oor eksterne geluide. Die berekening van die rigting, diepte en spoed van sy teëstander was baie ingewikkelder sonder ASDIC, maar die behoefte aan stealth het gewen.

Ralf-Reimar Wolfram, bevelvoerder van die U-864, het 'n enjingeluid ontwikkel wat hy vrees dat hy hom sou weggee, en besluit om na Bergen terug te keer vir herstelwerk. Duitse duikbote van die ouderdom was toegerus met 'snorkels', swaar buise wat die oppervlak breek, sodat dieselenjins en spanne in staat was om asem te haal terwyl hulle onder water was. Venturer was op batterye toe die eerste geluide opgespoor word, wat die Britse sub -speler 'n stealth -voordeel gee, maar die tydsraamwerk waarin dit kan optree, skerp beperk.

'N Vierdimensionele vuuroplossing wat tyd, afstand, peiling en teikendiepte in ag neem, was teoreties moontlik, maar is selde onder gevegstoestande probeer. Boonop was daar onbekende faktore wat slegs benader kon word.

Venturer was 'n vinnige aanval, maar het net vier torpedobuise gedra, baie minder as haar veel groter vyand. Launders het sy vuuroplossing bereken en beveel dat al vier die buise met 'n vertraging van 17½ sekonde tussen elke paar moet afvuur.

Met vier inkomende op soveel dieptes, het die Duitse sub nie tyd gehad om te reageer nie. Wolfram was eers besig om sy snorkel te gaan haal en oor te skakel na 'n elektriese motor toe die #4 -torpedo toeslaan. U-864 het ontplof en gesink en onmiddellik al 73 aan boord doodgemaak.

Oppervlakte-aksies was algemeen genoeg tussen alle vorme van vaartuie, maar 'n ten volle ondergedompelde duikboot tot onderduikbootmoord het slegs een keer in die Eerste Wêreldoorlog op 18 Oktober 1914 plaasgevind toe die Duitse U-27 die Britse sub HMS E3 getorpedeer en laat sink het met die verlies van almal 28 aan boord. Na my wete het so 'n aksie slegs hierdie een keer gedurende die hele Tweede Wêreldoorlog plaasgevind.


Vandag in die geskiedenis van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog - 9 Februarie 1940 & 1945

80 jaar gelede — 9 Februarie 1940: Ierland stel wet op om IRA -mans sonder verhoor aan te hou.

William Dodd, Amerikaanse ambassadeur in Duitsland 1933-37, sterf aan longontsteking in Virginia, 70 jaar oud.

Franse infanterie vorder in Colmar, 2 Februarie 1945 (US Army Center of Military History)

75 jaar gelede - Feb. 9, 1945: Amerikaanse sewende en Franse eerste leërs maak Colmar Pocket en die Elsassiese vlakte skoon en ry Duitsers oor die Ryn suid van Straatsburg, Frankryk.

In seldsame sub -teen -sub -gevegte en die enigste gedokumenteerde geval in vlootgeskiedenis waar beide ondergedompel was, Britse duikboot HMS Ondernemer sink Duitse U-boot U-864 uit Bergen, Noorweë.


Inval

Na berigte oor groot ongevalle het die Geallieerdes versterkings gestuur om hul aanvalle te versterk. Generaal Milburn se XXI Corps, wat nou Franse sowel as Amerikaanse troepe opgeneem het, het die taak gekry om Colmar self te neem.

Intussen was die Duitsers in chaos. Hulle kon nie die geallieerde doelwitte bereik nie, omdat hulle geglo het dat dit net 'n opportunistiese vooruitgang was. Onttrekkingseenhede het deurmekaar geraak en verward geraak. Hitler sou nie 'n terugtog oor die natuurlike verdedigingsgrens van die Ryn beveel nie.

'N Voorskot begin nou naby die middel van die sak. Een vir een is die belangrikste dorpe ingeneem. Biesheim het op 3 Februarie geval ná 'n hele dag se geveg. Versterkte Neuf-Brisach, 'n sleutelposisie, is op 6 Februarie ingeneem nadat Franse kinders die Amerikaners 'n onverdedigde roete gewys het.

Die stad Colmar is op 2 Februarie deur die Geallieerdes aangeval, en die Duitsers het die volgende dag verdryf. Die Franse 152ste Infanterieregiment, wat voor die oorlog in Colmar was, het uiteindelik teruggekeer na 'n huis wat byna vyf jaar in vyandelike hande was.

Op 5 Februarie het die afsonderlike voorskotte te Rouffach ontmoet en die sak in twee verdeel. Nog vier dae van gevegte het gevolg toe die Geallieerdes die Duitse toevlugroetes dek en posisies wat steeds deur die as -magte beklee word, aangerand het. Artillerie en vliegtuie het aansienlike trosse Duitse troepe gebombardeer en hulle teruggedryf.

Op 9 Februarie is die Duitse agterhoede by Chalampé vernietig, en die Duitsers het die brug oor die Ryn daar gesloop. Met geen noemenswaardige Duitse magte in die Elsas oor nie, het die Colmar -sak geval.


Inhoud

Eerste Wêreldoorlog Edit

Die 2de afdeling is die eerste keer op 21 September 1917 in die gewone leër saamgestel. [7] [8] [9] [10] Dit is georganiseer op 26 Oktober 1917 in Bourmont, Haute Marne, Frankryk. [11]

Slagorde Bewerk

  • Hoofkwartier, 2de Afdeling
  • 5de masjiengeweerbataljon
    (75 mm) (75 mm) (155 mm)
  • 2de slootmortelbattery
  • 2de ammunisie trein
  • 2de toevoerstrein
  • 2de ingenieurstrein
  • 2de sanitêre trein
    • 1ste, 15de, 16de en 23ste ambulansmaatskappye en veldhospitale [12] [13]

    Twee keer tydens die Eerste Wêreldoorlog was die afdeling onder bevel van generaals van die US Marine Corps, brigadier -generaal Charles A. Doyen en generaal -majoor John A. Lejeune (na wie die Marine Corps Camp in Noord -Carolina vernoem is), die enigste keer in die Amerikaanse militêre geskiedenis toe Beamptes van die Marine Corps was bevelvoerder oor 'n leërafdeling. [11]

    Die afdeling het die winter van 1917–18 opleiding saam met Franse en Skotse veterane deurgebring. Hoewel die Amerikaanse ekspedisiemag (AEF) as onvoorbereid deur Franse taktici geoordeel is, was hy in die lente van 1918 daartoe verbind om te veg in 'n desperate poging om 'n Duitse opmars na Parys te stuit. Generaal -majoor Edward Mann Lewis was bevelvoerder oor die 3de Brigade toe hulle ontplooi het om die gehawende Franse langs die Parys tot by Metz -pad te versterk. Die afdeling het eers tydens die Slag van Belleau Wood geveg en het daartoe bygedra dat die vierjarige dooiepunt op die slagveld verbreek is tydens die daaropvolgende veldtog Château-Thierry.

    Op 28 Julie 1918 neem die generaal -generaal Lejeune van die Marine Corps die bevel oor die 2de afdeling en bly in daardie hoedanigheid tot Augustus 1919, toe die eenheid na die VSA terugkeer. Die afdeling behaal oorwinnings in Soissons en Blanc Mont. Uiteindelik het die Indianhead-afdeling deelgeneem aan die Meuse-Argonne-offensief wat enige Duitse hoop op oorwinning beëindig het. Op 11 November 1918 is die wapenstilstand afgekondig, en die 2de afdeling het Duitsland binnegekom, waar dit besetting tot April 1919 aangeneem het. 2de afdeling het in Julie 1919 na die VSA teruggekeer.

    Die 2de afdeling is drie keer bekroon met die Franse Croix de guerre vir dapperheid onder vuur in Belleau Wood, Soissons en Blanc Mont. Dit het die huidige lede van die afdeling en die regimente wat op daardie stadium deel was van die afdeling (insluitend die 5de en 6de mariene regiment) geregtig om 'n spesiale koord, of fourragère, ter herdenking te dra. Die vloot het 'n spesiale uniformsverandering goedgekeur waarmee hospitaalkorpsmanne wat aan die 5de en 6de mariene regiment toegewys is, 'n skouerband aan die linkerskouer van hul uniform kan dra, sodat die fourragère gedra kan word.

    Die afdeling verloor 1,964 (plus USMC: 4,478) dood in aksie en 9,782 (plus USMC: 17,752) in aksie. [ aanhaling nodig ]

    Groot bedrywighede Redigeer

    Tussenoorlogse jare Redigeer

    By die terugkeer na die Verenigde State was die afdeling gestasioneer in Fort Sam Houston, in San Antonio, Texas, as een van drie afdelings om vir die hele tussenoorlogstyd ongeskonde en aktief te bly. Dit het die volgende 23 jaar daar gebly en dien as 'n eksperimentele eenheid en toets nuwe konsepte en innovasies vir die weermag. Die 2de afdeling wat by Camp Bullis en Fort Sam Houston, Texas, gestasioneer was, was die eerste bevel wat herorganiseer is onder die nuwe driehoekige konsep van organisasieteorie van oorlogvoering, wat voorsiening gemaak het vir drie afsonderlike regimente in elke afdeling. Indianhead-soldate was pioniers in die konsepte van lugmobiliteit en teen-tenkoorlogvoering, wat die weermag vir die volgende twee dekades op slagvelde in elke uithoek van die wêreld gedien het. [ aanhaling nodig ]

    Die 2de afdeling het tussen 3 en 27 Januarie 1940 aan maneuvers in Christine, Texas, deelgeneem. Daarna het dit van 26 April tot 28 Mei 1940 beweeg na Horton, Texas, gevolg deur maneuvers in Cravens, Louisiana, van 16 tot 23 Augustus 1940. Dit het teruggekeer na Fort Sam Houston, waar dit voortgegaan het met opleiding en opknapping, totdat dit van 1 Junie tot 14 Junie 1941 in Comanche, Texas, verhuis het na Brownwood, Texas, vir die VIII Corps -maneuvers. Die afdeling is daarna van 11 Augustus tot 2 Oktober 1941 na Mansfield, Louisiana, gestuur vir die Louisiana -maneuvers van Augustus tot September 1941. [ aanhaling nodig ]

    Die afdeling is op 27 Julie 1941 na die VIII Corps Louisiana -maneuvergebied oorgeplaas, in Augustus herontwerp as die 2de Infanteriedivisie, en het daar gebly tot 22 September 1942, waarna die formasie na Fort Sam Houston teruggekeer het. Daarna verhuis hulle na Camp McCoy in Sparta, Wisconsin, op 27 November 1942. Vier maande se intensiewe opleiding vir winteroorlog het gevolg. In September 1943 het die afdeling hul opdragopdragte ontvang en op 3 Oktober 1943 na die opvanggebied Camp Shanks in Orangeburg, New York, verhuis, waar hulle Port Call -bevele ontvang het. Op 8 Oktober seil die afdeling amptelik vanaf die New York Port of Embarkation en begin op 17 Oktober in Belfast, Noord -Ierland, aankom. Hulle het daarna na Engeland verhuis, waar hulle opgelei en opgevoer is om vorentoe te beweeg na Frankryk. [10]

    Tweede Wêreldoorlog Wysig

    Opdragte in die Europese Operasieteater Redigeer

    1. 22 Oktober 1943: verbonde aan die Eerste Weermag
    2. 24 Desember 1943: XV Corps, maar verbonde aan Eerste Weermag
    3. 14 April 1944: V Corps, Eerste Weermag
    4. 1 Augustus 1944: V Corps, Eerste Weermag, 12de Legergroep
    5. 17 Augustus 1944: XIX Korps
    6. 18 Augustus 1944: VIII Corps, Derde Leër, 12de Legergroep
    7. 5 September 1944: VIII Corps, Negende Leër, 12de Legergroep
    8. 22 Oktober 1944: VIII Corps, Eerste Weermag, 12de Legergroep
    9. 11 Desember 1944: V Korps
    10. 20 Desember 1944: verbonde, saam met die hele Eerste Leër, aan die Britse 21ste Weermaggroep
    11. 18 Januarie 1945: V Corps, Eerste Weermag, 12de Legergroep
    12. 28 April 1945: VII Korps
    13. 1 Mei 1945: V Korps
    14. 6 Mei 1945: Derde weermag, 12de weermaggroep

    Verhalende redigering

    Na opleiding in Noord-Ierland en Wallis van Oktober 1943 tot Junie 1944, het die 2de Infanteriedivisie die kanaal oorgesteek om op Omaha Beach op D plus 1 (7 Junie 1944) naby Saint-Laurent-sur-Mer te land. Die afdeling het op 10 Junie oor die Aure-rivier aangeval en Trévières bevry en Hill 192, 'n belangrike vyand se sterk punt op die pad na Saint-Lo, aangeval en beveilig. Na drie weke van versterking van die posisie en op bevel van kommandant -generaal Walter M. Robertson, is die bevel gegee om Hill 192 te neem. Op 11 Julie onder bevel van kolonel Ralph Wise Zwicker die 38ste Infanterieregiment en met die 9de en 23ste aan sy sy het die geveg om 5:45 begin. Met behulp van 'n artilleriekonsep uit die Eerste Wêreldoorlog (rollende spervuur) en met die ondersteuning van 25.000 rondtes HE/WP wat deur 8 artilleriebataljons afgevuur is, is die heuwel geneem. Behalwe vir drie dae tydens die Slag van die Bulge, was dit die swaarste ammunisie wat deur die 38ste veldartilleriebataljon was, en was dit die enigste keer gedurende die 11 maande van geveg dat artillerie van die 2de divisie 'n rollende spervuur ​​gebruik het. Die afdeling het tot 26 Julie verdedig. Nadat die Saint-Lo-uitbraak uitgebuit is, vorder die 2de afdeling daarna oor die Vire om Tinchebray op 15 Augustus 1944 te neem. Na 39 dae van die stryd om Brest is gewen, en dit was die eerste plek waar die Army Air Forces bunkerbomme gebruik het. [ aanhaling nodig ]

    Die afdeling het 'n kort rus geneem tussen 19 en 26 September voordat hulle op 29 September 1944 na verdedigingsposisies in St. Vith, België, oorgegaan het. Die afdeling het Duitsland op 3 Oktober 1944 binnegekom en op 11 Desember 1944 beveel om die Roer aan te val en te gryp. Rivierdamme. Die Duitse Ardennen-offensief middel Desember het die afdeling genoop om terug te keer na verdedigingsposisies naby Elsenborn Ridge, waar die Duitse dryfveer gestaak is. In Februarie 1945 val die divisie aan, verlore grond herwin en Gemund op 4 Maart in beslag neem. By die Ryn op 9 Maart het die afdeling suidwaarts gevorder om Breisig te neem, 10-11 Maart, en om die Remagen -brug te bewaak, 12-20 Maart.

    Die afdeling het op 21 Maart die Ryn oorgesteek en gevorder na Hadamar en Limburg an der Lahn, wat elemente van die 9de Pantserdivisie op 28 Maart verlig het. In die nasleep van die 9de Pantser het die 2de Infanteriedivisie vinnig op 6 tot 7 April die Weser by Veckerhagen oorgesteek, Göttingen 8 April ingeneem, 'n brughoof oor die Saale op 14 April opgerig en op 15 April Merseburg in beslag geneem. Op 18 April het die afdeling Leipzig ingeneem, in die gebied opgekap en die elemente van die Mulderivier wat die rivier oorgesteek het, op 24 April teruggetrek. Op die Mulde verlig, het die 2de, 1–3 Mei 200 myl beweeg na posisies langs die Duits-Tsjeggiese grens naby Schönsee en Waldmünchen, waar 2 ID die 97ste en 99ste ID's verlig het. Die afdeling het op 4 Mei 1945 na Tsjeggo -Slowakye oorgegaan en in die algemene rigting van Pilsen aangeval en die stad op VE -dag aangeval. Die afdeling verloor 3.031 dood in aksie, 12.785 gewondes in aksie en 457 sterf aan wonde.

    Die 2de Infanteriedivisie het op 20 Julie 1945 na die New York Port of Embarkation teruggekeer en op 22 Julie 1945 by Camp Swift in Bastrop, Texas, aangekom. was nog op VJ -dag by Camp Swift. Hulle verhuis daarna op 28 Maart 1946 na die verhoogarea by Camp Stoneman in Pittsburg, Kalifornië, maar die beweging ooswaarts is gekanselleer, en hulle ontvang bevele om na Fort Lewis in Tacoma, Washington, te verhuis. Hulle het op 15 April 1946 by Fort Lewis aangekom, wat hul tuisstasie geword het. Vanaf hul Fort Lewis -basis het hulle opleiding in Arktiese gebiede, lugvervoerbaarheid, amfibie en maneuver gedoen.

    Veldtogdeelname krediet Wysig

    Ongevalle Redigeer

    • Totale slagoffers: 16,795 [14]
    • Gedood in aksie: 3,031 [14]
    • Gewond in aksie: 12,785 [14]
    • Vermis in aksie: 193 [14]
    • Krygsgevangene: 786 [14]

    Toekennings en versierings Redigeer

    Koreaanse oorlog wysig

    Met die uitbreek van vyandelikhede in Korea op 25 Junie 1950, is die 2de Infanteriedivisie vinnig ingelig oor die beweging na die Verre Ooste -kommando en toewysing aan die agtste Amerikaanse weermag. Die afdeling het op 23 Julie via Pusan ​​in Korea aangekom en die eerste eenheid geword wat Korea direk vanuit die Verenigde State bereik het. [ aanhaling nodig ] Aanvanklik was die hele afdeling op 24 Augustus 1950 stukkend in diens, en die 24ste Infanteriedivisie by die Naktongrivierlyn verlig. Die eerste groot toets kom toe die Noord -Koreaanse Koreaanse Volksleër (KPA) die aand van 31 Augustus in 'n menslike golfaanval toegeslaan het. In die daaropvolgende 16 dae lange stryd het die klerke, bandmanne, tegniese personeel en verskaffers van die afdeling bygedra tot die verdediging teen die aanvallers. [ aanhaling nodig ]

    Kort daarna was die afdeling die eerste eenheid wat op 16 September uit die Pusan ​​-omtrek uitbreek, en die agtste weermag begin daarna met 'n algemene offensief noordwaarts teen die verbrokkelde KPA -opposisie om kontak te kry met magte van die 7de Infanteriedivisie wat suidwaarts van die Inchon -strandkop ry. Belangrike elemente van die KPA is vernietig en afgesny in hierdie aggressiewe penetrasie, die verbinding is op 26 September suid van Suwon uitgevoer. Op 23 September is die afdeling aan die nuut geaktiveerde US IX Corps toegewys. Die VN -offensief is op 1 Oktober noordwaarts, verby Seoul, en oor die 38ste parallel na Noord -Korea voortgesit. Die momentum van die aanval is gehandhaaf en die wedloop na die Noord -Koreaanse hoofstad, Pyongyang, het op 19 Oktober geëindig toe elemente van die ROK 1st Infantry Division en US 1st Cavalry Division beide die stad verower het. Die opmars het voortgegaan, maar teen onverwags verstewigende weerstand. Die Chinese People's Volunteer Army (PVA) het die oorlog aan die kant van Noord -Korea betree en einde Oktober hul eerste aanvalle gedoen. Die afdeling was binne 80 myl van die grens van Manchurië toe die PVA op 25 November hul tweede fase -offensief begin. Tydens die Slag van die Ch'ongch'on -rivier het soldate van die 2de Infanteriedivisie die taak gekry om die agterste en regterflank van die Agtste Leër te beskerm terwyl dit na die suide terugtrek. Na hierdie stryd, terwyl dit omring en sonder vuur was, moes die afdeling suidwaarts veg deur wat bekend sou staan ​​as "The Gauntlet" - 'n PVA -versperring wat 9,7 km lank was, waar die 23ste Infanterieregiment sy voorraad van 3,206 afgeskiet het. artillerieskille binne 20 minute, 'n massiewe spervuur ​​wat PVA -troepe verhinder het om die regiment te volg. Hierdie gevegte rondom Kunu-ri het die afdeling byna 'n derde van sy oorblywende krag gekos. [ aanhaling nodig ]

    Die Agtste Weermag beveel 'n volledige terugtrekking na die Imjinrivier, suid van die 38ste Parallel. Op 1 Januarie 1951 val PVA -troepe die verdedigingslinie van die Agtste Weermag by die Imjin -rivier aan, wat hulle 80 myl terugtrek en die PVA toelaat om Seoul te verower. The PVA offensive was finally blunted by the 2nd Infantry Division on 20 January at Wonju. Following the establishment of defenses south of Seoul, General Matthew B. Ridgway ordered US I, IX and X Corps to conduct a general counteroffensive against the PVA/KPA, Operation Thunderbolt. Taking up the offensive in a two-prong attack in February 1951, the Division repulsed a powerful PVA counter-offensive in the epic battles of Chipyong-ni and Wonju. The UN front was saved and the general offensive continued. [ aanhaling nodig ]

    In August 1951, the Division was on the offensive once again, ordered to attack a series of ridges that had been designated threats to the Eighth Army's line. These actions would devolve into the battles of Bloody Ridge and Heartbreak Ridge. The Division would not receive relief until October, with its infantry regiments having suffered heavy losses. The 23rd Infantry Regiment bore the brunt of the damage, having been severely mauled on Heartbreak Ridge. The 2nd Division was withdrawn after possessing both Bloody and Heartbreak Ridges, and the damage they inflicted upon the PVA/KPA that held the ridges was estimated at 25,000 casualties. Ridge warfare was not embarked upon again as a military strategy for the remainder of the war. [15] In January 1953 the Division was transferred from IX Corps to I Corps.

    After the Korean Armistice Agreement was signed on 27 July 1953, the 2nd Infantry Division withdrew to positions south of the Korean Demilitarized Zone. [16] Soon after the armistice, 8th United States Army commander, General Maxwell D. Taylor, appointed Brigadier General John F. R. Seitz as Commander of the 2nd Infantry Division which remained on duty in Korea. [17] [18] Seitz commanded the division during a tense period following the armistice when both vigilance and intensive training of the Republic of Korea Army was required by the U.S. Army until the 2nd Infantry Division was redeployed to the United States in 1954. [17]

    Awards and decorations Edit

      : 18
          (4 and 5 September 1950) (31 August 1, 2 and 3 September 1951) (31 August 1, 2 and 3 September 1950) (1 September 1950) (1 September 1950) (31 August 1, 2 and 3 September 1950)
    • (2 January 1951) (1 February 1951) (17 September 1951) (26 November 1950) (14 February 1951)
      (8 and 9 October 1951) (1 September 1950) (12 February 1951) (12 January 1952)
      (27 August 1951)
      (1 September 1950)
    • MSG Ernest R. Kouma (1 September 1950)

    Reorganization Edit

    After the armistice, the division remained in Korea until 1954, when it was reduced to near zero strength, the colors were transferred to Fort Lewis, Washington, Georgia and, in October 1954, the 44th Infantry Division was reflagged as the Second.

    In September 1956, the division deployed to Alaska, with the division headquarters at Fort Richardson, as part of an Operation Gyroscope deployment (soldiers and families, no equipment), switching places with the 71st Infantry Division (which was reflagged as the 4th Infantry Division upon its arrival at Fort Lewis).

    On 8 November 1957, it was announced that the division was to be inactivated. However, in the spring of 1958, it was announced that the division would be reorganizing at Fort Benning. Division elements were reorganized into two infantry battle groups (the 1-9 IN and the 1-23 IN) that would remain in Alaska as separate units, eventually reorganizing in 1963 as infantry battalions, as the 4-9 IN and the 4-23 IN, assigned to the 171st and 172nd Infantry Brigades, respectively.

    In June 1958, the division was reorganized at Fort Benning, Georgia, as a Pentomic Division, having reflagged the 10th Infantry Division upon the latter's return from Germany. The division's three infantry regiments (the 9th, 23rd and 38th) were inactivated, with their elements reorganized into five infantry battle groups (the 2-9 IN, 2-23 IN, 1-87 IN, 2-1 IN and the 1-11 IN). Initially serving as a training division, it was designated as a Strategic Army Corps (STRAC) unit in March 1962.

    In 1963, the division was reorganized as a Reorganization Objective Army Division (ROAD). Three Brigade Headquarters were activated and Infantry units were reorganized into battalions.

    Back to Korea Edit

    In 1965 at Fort Benning, Georgia, the 2nd Infantry Division's stateside units, the 11th Air Assault Division's personnel and equipment, and the colors and unit designations of the 1st Cavalry Division, returned from Korea, were used to form a new formation, the 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile). The personnel of the existing 1st Cavalry Division in Korea took over the unit designations of the old 2nd Infantry Division. Thus, the 2nd Infantry Division formally returned to Korea in July 1965. From 1966 onwards North Korean forces were engaging in increasing border incursions and infiltration attempts and the 2nd Infantry Division was called upon to help halt these attacks. On 2 November 1966, soldiers of the 1st Battalion, 23d Infantry Regiment were killed in an ambush by North Korean forces. In 1967 enemy attacks in the Korean Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) increased, as a result, 16 American soldiers were killed that year.

    In 1968 the 2nd Infantry Division was headquartered at Tonggu Ri and responsible for watching over a portion of the DMZ. [19] In 1968 North Koreans continued to probe across the DMZ, and in 1969, while on patrol, four soldiers of 3d Battalion, 23d Infantry were killed. On 18 August 1976, during a routine tree-trimming operation within the DMZ, two American officers of the Joint Security Force (Joint Security Area) were axed to death in a melee with North Korean border guards called the Axe Murder Incident. On 21 August, following the deaths, the 2nd Infantry Division supported the United Nations Command in "Operation Paul Bunyan" to cut down the "Panmunjeom Tree". This effort was conducted by Task Force Brady (named after the 2nd ID Commander) in support of Task Force Vierra (named after the Joint Security Area Battalion commander).

    Given the task of defending likely areas of enemy advance from the north, in 1982 the division occupied 17 camps, 27 sites, and 6 combat guard posts in strategic locations such as the Western (Kaesong-Munsan) Corridor the Chorwon-Uijongbu Valley and other areas. [20]

    Organization 1987-93 Edit

    In 1987-1993 parts of the division were organized as follows: [21]

      • Aviation Brigade, Camp Stanley[22][23]
        • Headquarters & Headquarters Company
        • 5th Squadron, 17th Cavalry (Reconnaissance), Camp Garry Owen (M60A3 Patton main battle tanks & OH-58C Kiowa helicopters) [22]
        • 1st Battalion, 2nd Aviation (Attack), Camp Stanley (AH-1F Cobra & OH-58C Kiowa helicopters) [22]
        • 2nd Battalion, 2nd Aviation (General Support), Camp Stanley (UH-60A Black Hawk, UH-1H Iroquois & OH-58C Kiowa helicopters) [24][22]
        • Headquarters & Headquarters Battery
        • 1st Battalion, 4th Field Artillery, Camp Pelham (18 × M198 155mm towed howitzers up-gunning to 24 × M198) [25][26][27][28]
        • 8th Battalion, 8th Field Artillery, Camp Stanley (18 × M198 155mm towed howitzers switching to 24 × M109A3 155mm self-propelled howitzers) [25][26][27][28]
        • 1st Battalion, 15th Field Artillery, Camp Stanley (18 × M109A3 155mm self-propelled howitzers up-gunning to 24 × M109A3) [25][26][27][28]
        • 6th Battalion, 37th Field Artillery, Camp Essayons (12 × M110A2 203mm self-propelled howitzers & 9 × M270 MLRS) [25][26][27][29]
        • Battery F, 26th Field Artillery, Camp Stanley (Target Acquisition) [25][26][27][30]
        • Battery B, 6th Battalion, 32nd Field Artillery, Camp Mercer (attached Eighth Army unit with 2x MGM-52 Lance with W70-3 nuclear warheads) [25]
        • Battery C, 94th Field Artillery, Camp Stanley (9 × M270 MLRS)
        • Headquarters & Headquarters Company
        • 2nd Medical Battalion
        • 2nd Supply & Transportation Battalion, Camp Casey , Camp Edwards (activated 16 October 1989, first of the new support battalions (Forward), which were raised to replace the units of the Division Support Command) [31]
        • 702nd Maintenance Battalion, Camp Casey
        • Company C, 2nd Aviation (Aviation Intermediate Maintenance), Camp Stanley [22]

        Recent times in Korea Edit

        On 13 June 2002, a 2ID armored vehicle struck and killed two 14-year-old South Korean schoolgirls on the Yangju highway as the vehicle was returning to base in Uijeongbu after training maneuvers. Sergeants Mark Walker and Fernando Nino, the two soldiers involved, were found not guilty of negligent homicide in a subsequent General Court-martial. The deaths and court-martial was the subject of anti-American sentiment in South Korea.

        The 2nd Infantry Division is still headquartered in Korea, with a number of camps near the DMZ. Command headquarters are at Camp Humphreys in Pyeongtaek-si.

        Iraq War Edit

        From November 2003 to November 2004, the 3rd Stryker Brigade Combat Team deployed from Fort Lewis, Washington in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom. In the sands of Iraq the 3rd Brigade Stryker Brigade Combat Team proved the value of the Stryker brigade concept in combat and logistics operations. [39]

        During the late spring of 2004, many of the soldiers of the 2nd Infantry Division's 2d Brigade Combat Team were given notice that they were about to be ordered to further deployment, with duty in Iraq. Units involved in this call-up included: 1st Battalion, 503rd Infantry Regiment (Air Assault) 1st Battalion, 506th Infantry Regiment (Air Assault) 2d Battalion, 17th Field Artillery Regiment 1st Battalion, 9th Infantry Regiment (Mechanized) 44th Engineer Battalion 2nd Forward Support Battalion Company A, 102nd Military Intelligence Battalion Company B, 122d Signal Battalion, elements of the 2d Battalion, 72nd Armor Regiment, a team from the 509th Personnel Services Battalion, and B Battery, 5th Battalion 5th Air Defense Artillery Regiment (Deployed as a combination of mechanized infantry and light infantry with two platoons of Bradley Fighting Vehicles and 1 platoon of armored HMMWVs). As a result of the short notice, extensive training was conducted by the brigade as they switched from a focus of the foreign defense of South Korea to the offensive operations that were going to be needed in Iraq. Furthermore, time was given for the majority of the soldiers to enjoy ten days of leave. This was vital: many of the soldiers had been in South Korea for a year or more with only two weeks or less time in the United States during their stay of duty. More, they were about to depart on a deployment scheduled to last at least another year. Finally, in August 2004, the brigade deployed to Iraq.

        Upon landing in country, the 2d BCT was given strategic command to much of the sparsely populated area south and west of Fallujah. Their mission, however, changed when the major strategic actions began to take place within the city proper. At this time, the brigade combat team was refocused and given control of the eastern half of the volatile city of Ar-Ramadi. Within a few weeks of taking over operational control from the previous units, 2nd Brigade began suffering casualties from violent activity. Many of the units had to move to new camps in support of this new mission. The primary focus of the 2d BCT for much of their deployment was the struggle to gain local support and to minimize casualties.

        The brigade was spread out amongst many camps. To the west of the city of Ar-Ramadi sat the camp of Junction City. 2ID units stationed there included: HQ 2d BCT, 2nd ID 2–17th Field Artillery 1–9th Infantry 44th Engineer Battalion Company A, 102d Military Intelligence Battalion Company B, 122d Signal Battalion, and Company C (Medical), 2d Forward Support Battalion. To the eastern end of the city sat a much more austere camp, known as the Combat Outpost. This was home to the 1-503d Infantry Regiment. East of them but outside of the city proper itself was the town of Habbiniya and the 1–506th Infantry Regiment. Adjacent to this camp was the logistically important camp of Al-Taqaddum, where the 2d Forward Support Battalion was stationed.

        For this mission, the brigade fell under the direct command not of the 2d Infantry Division, but rather under a Marine division. For the first six months while in Ramadi, the BCT fell under the 1st Marine Division. For the second half of the deployment, they were attached to the 2nd Marine Division. While the Marines do not wear unit patches on their uniforms, the units of the 2d BCT involved are authorized to now wear any of the following combat patches: the 2nd Infantry Division patch, the 1st Marine Division unit patch or the 2nd Marine Division unit patch. [ aanhaling nodig ]

        The 2d Brigade Combat Team was in action in the city of Ramadi for many events, including the Iraqi national elections of January 2005. While the voting was accomplished and little to no violence was seen within the city, few voters participated (estimated to be in the 700 person range for the eastern half of the city, according to 2nd BCT officials).

        The 2d BCT also built several new camps within the city. For security reasons, many are left unverified, however ones that can be confirmed include Camps Trotter and Corregidor built to ease the burden on the accommodations at Combat Outpost.

        In July 2005, the brigade began to get relieved by units of the Army National Guard, as well as the 3d Infantry Division of the Regular Army. Six months into the deployment, the units of the 2d BCT were given word that they would not be returning to South Korea but, rather, to Fort Carson, Colorado in an effort to restructure the Army and house more soldiers on American soil.

        From June 2006 to September 2007, the 3rd Stryker Brigade Combat Team deployed from Fort Lewis, Washington in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom. During the 3rd Stryker Brigade's second deployment to Operation Iraqi Freedom their mission was to assist the Iraqi security forces with counter-insurgency operations in the Ninewa Province. 46 soldiers from the brigade were killed during the deployment.

        On 1 June 2006 at Fort Lewis, Washington the 4th Brigade, 2d Infantry Division was formed. From April 2007 to July 2008 the 4th Stryker Brigade Combat Team was deployed in as part of the surge to regain control of the situation in Iraq. The brigade assumed responsibility for the area north of Baghdad and the Diyala province. 35 soldiers from the brigade were killed during the deployment.

        From October 2006 to January 2008, the 2nd Infantry Brigade Combat Team deployed from Fort Carson, Colorado in support of the Multi-National Division – Baghdad (1st Cavalry Division) and was responsible for assisting the Iraqi forces to become self-reliant, bringing down the violence and insurgency levels and supporting the rebuilding of the Iraqi infrastructure. 43 soldiers from the brigade were killed during the deployment.

        SSG Christopher B. Waiters of 5th Battalion, 20th Infantry Regiment, 3d Brigade Combat Team was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross on 23 October 2008 for his actions on 5 April 2007 when he was a specialist. Shortly after, SPC Erik Oropeza of the 4th Battalion, 9th Infantry Regiment, 4th Brigade Combat Team [40] Thus the division will be credited with the 17th and 18th Distinguished Service Cross awardings since 1975.

        The 2nd Infantry Division's 4th Brigade Combat Team deployed to Iraq in the fall of 2009. [41]

        3rd Brigade deployed to Iraq 4 August 2009 for the brigade's third deployment to Iraq, the most of any Stryker Brigade Combat Team (SBCT).

        War in Afghanistan Edit

        On 17 February 2009, President Barack Obama ordered 4,000 soldiers from the 5th Stryker Brigade Combat Team to Afghanistan, along with 8,000 Marines. Soldiers are being sent there because of the worsening situation in the Afghan War. These soldiers were deployed in the southeast, on the Afghanistan-Pakistan border. During deployment, 35 soldiers were killed in combat, two others were killed in accidents, and 239 were wounded. [42] In July 2010, the 5th Stryker Brigade Combat Team was inactivated and reflagged as the 2nd Stryker Brigade Combat Team. The brigade's Special Troops Battalion was also inactivated and reflagged and the rest of the subordinate units were reassigned to the reactivated 2nd SBCT. [43]

        3rd SBCT deployed in December 2011 and served in Afghanistan for one-year. 16 soldiers from the brigade lost their lives during the deployment. [44] [45] They were joined by their sister Stryker brigade, the 2nd SBCT, in the spring. [46] 2nd Brigade returned around December 2012 and January 2013 having lost eight soldiers during deployment. The 4th Stryker BCT also deployed to its first deployment to the country in fall 2012 and returned in summer 2013 having lost four soldiers. [47] [48]

        Rogue "kill team" criminal charges Edit

        During the summer of 2010, the U.S. military charged five members of the 3rd Platoon, Bravo Company, 2nd Battalion, 1st Infantry Regiment with the formation of a "kill team", which staged three separate murders of Afghan civilians in Kandahar province. In addition, seven soldiers were also charged with crimes including hashish use, impeding an investigation and attacking a whistleblowing soldier who alerted MPs during an initially unrelated investigation into hashish use by members of the 3rd Platoon. The alleged ringleader was Staff Sergeant Calvin Gibbs.

        • On 15 January 2010, Gul Mudin was killed "by means of throwing a fragmentary grenade at him and shooting him with a rifle," an action carried out by SPC Jeremy Morlock and PFC Andrew Holmes under the direction of Gibbs. Morlock allegedly told Holmes, age 19 and on his first tour of duty, that the killing was carried out for fun.
        • On 22 February, Gibbs and SPC Michael S. Wagnon allegedly shot the second victim, Marach Agha, and placed a Kalashnikov next to the body to justify the killing.
        • On 2 May, Mullah Adadhdad was killed after being shot and attacked with a grenade. SPC Adam C. Winfield and Gibbs were allegedly the perpetrators.

        Christopher Winfield, the father of platoon member SPC Adam Winfield, attempted to alert the Army of the kill team's existence after his son explained the situation from Afghanistan via a Facebook chat. In response to the news from his son, Winfield called the Army inspector general's 24-hour hotline, the office of Sen. Bill Nelson (D-Fla.), and a sergeant at Joint Base Lewis-McChord who told him to call the Army Criminal Investigation Division. He then contacted the Fort Lewis command center and spoke to a sergeant on duty who agreed that SPC Winfield was in potential danger but that he had to report the crime to his superiors before the Army could take action. [49]


        February 9 Zodiac Horoscope Birthday Personality

        FEBRUARY 9 birthday horoscope predicts that you are shrewd and calculating when it comes to business. You are always armed and ready for whatever conflicts come your way. After all, the February 9 zodiac sign is Aquarius. You do not take no for an answer.

        11 comments

        HAHAHA, I KNOW SOMEONE WHO HAS A BDAY OF THESE, AND HAS A BAD HABIT OF CHEATING, SOCIAL REPOSE. CHECK THAT YOUTUBER OUT. LMAO.

        This is so me and it’s all real

        Wow ! 9th I think I need to meet y’ll

        I know a feb 9th aqua, with a virgo rising and libra moon that I´m starting to see in the clear.

        He is often very agitated, at the point of blowing up over the littlest things- he realizes that later, but in the moment he gets as hot-headed as double scorpio with an aries moon.

        He says things STRAIGHT OUT the wrong way, even though you tell him to not say “that spesific thing” as it hurst you or others, that just makes him do it more. A bit toddler- ish, he likes to call people names, and is more often than not basically rudeness… summed up in a person….

        He has a habit of putting the blames the consequences of his vocal blunder’s on pretty much everyone else, an is also an alcoholic.

        So a very shadowy aqua, sadly without any balance. If he could get his rising to bring him down to earth, and his moon to balance him out with the scales, that would help him, but he seems to have chosen the path of all the negative traits of virgo and libra as well — sadly. And there is so much compassion in this combo!

        I have a few aquarian friends, and they are not like this. Brigth, inventive, fun, and most of all : non-judgemental and honest to the teeth.

        I guess my 9 feb friend is good deep own, but is defiant as well as having quite a granose sense of self, (I´ve heard him say “I am the greatest human being you ever will meet, everybody loves me!” When he was sober.

        I felt really bad for him, and took him under my wing… And then when he’s used all my patience (and money), he calls them me for not coming back, being like everyone else and so and so…Very draining. I genuinely feel sorry for him.


        Tweede Wêreldoorlog databasis


        ww2dbase "The German is now licked", said Alan Brooke to Dwight Eisenhower early in 1945, after Adolf Hitler's gamble in the Ardennes Offensive (Battle of the Bulge) had failed. "It is merely a question of when he chooses to quit." Before Eisenhower ordered his troops across Germany's traditional boundary, he gave the order to clear the area west of the Rhine River (and south of the Maas and Waal rivers in the Netherlands). The armies involved were, from north to south:

        • Canadian First and British Second Armies, attacking the northern section west of the Arnhem-Wesel region.
        • American Ninth Army, attacking the area west of the Duisburg-Düsseldorf region.
        • American First Army, attacking Cologne-Bonn region.
        • American Third Army, attacking the wide central Rhine region, including the Saar Basin.
        • American Seventh Army, attacking the Saar Basin.
        • French First Army, attacking the southern area from Strasbourg to near the Austrian border.

        ww2dbase In the extreme south of this operation, the French First Army launched their offensive against Colmar on 20 Jan 1945. Fierce German resistance and bad weather slowed the progress of the French troops. To reinforce the French, the XXI Corps under the command of Major General Frank Milburn came into the region, which included three American infantry divisions and one French armored division. The Germans surrendered Colmar on 3 Feb, and within a week all German forces in the region retreated across the Rhine. German casualties reached the count of 22,000 near Colmar.

        ww2dbase The northern borders of German were heavily defended with the best troops that were available to Germany, including the First Paratroop Army. The dams along the Roer also provided the German forces additional advantage in that they could control of the flow of the water by opening or closing the dams based on reported Allied movements. British General Bernard Montgomery launched his Canadian troops first, under the command of General H.D.G Crerar, on 10 Feb 1945 into the muddy flooded region near the Netherlands-Germany border. Slightly to the south, the American troops that could have relieved some pressure off of the bogged-down Canadian troops were sitting in frustration as the Roer was flooded by German troops, making an American advance impossible. The opportunity finally came two weeks later, launching the offensive on 23 Feb. The American troops maneuvered through difficult terrain caused by destructive Allied bombing and shelling, often needing armored bulldozers to clear the way so that Allied armor could continue their advance. The American Ninth Army finally met up with the Canadian and British troops on 3 Mar, driving the Germans back to their defensive positions at bridges on the Rhine.

        ww2dbase Part of the difficult terrain formed by bombing encountered by the Ninth Army was caused by Operation Clarion, an operation launched on 22 Feb 1945 with the goal of wiping out all forms of transportation still available to the German troops at this stage of the war. In 24 hours, nearly 9,000 aircraft were sent from Britain, France, Belgium, and the Netherlands in a coordinated attack over 250,000 square miles of German territory. The primary targets were roads, bridges, crossroad towns, ports, and railroads. Die Luftwaffe, previously hurt and currently overwhelmed, offered little organized resistance to the Allied operation. "It was a most imaginative and successful operation and stood as one of the highlights in the long air campaign to destroy the German warmaking power", commented Dwight Eisenhower.

        ww2dbase On the same day Lieutenant General William Simpson's Ninth Army launched their attacks in the northern sector, Omar Bradley ordered the First and Third armies to strike the central sector. The American VII Corps reached the outskirts of Cologne on 5 Mar, completely surprising the hastily trained German defenders. Cologne fell under American control two days later. The unexpected quick capture of Cologne gave Eisenhower some breathing room in that should any nearby sectors run into difficulties, the VII Corps could spare a couple of divisions as reserve or reinforcements.

        ww2dbase The opportunity to use the reserves came almost immediately. As Major General Courtney Hodges' III and V Corps reached the Rhine near Remagen, their rapid advances completely surprised the German troops, and in this surprise they had failed to destroy the Ludendorff Bridge as the other German units had done to the other bridges on the Rhine as the Allied troops drew near. Without hesitation, the 9th Armored Division of the III Corps crossed the bridge and established a defensive perimeter. A small charge exploded under the bridge, damaging some of its understructure, but the bridge remained in tact. Knowing that he had no orders to cross the Rhine just yet, Bradley cautiously reported the situation back to Eisenhower, who recalled:

        "I was at dinner in my Reims headquarters with the corps and division commanders of the American airborne forces when Bradley's call came through. When he reported that we had a permanent bridge across the Rhine I could scarcely believe my ears. I fairly shouted into the telephone: 'How much have you got in that vicinity that you can throw across the river?'"

        ww2dbase With Eisenhower's blessing, Bradley ordered four divisions to cross the bridge near Remagen. From the north, Eisenhower sent entire divisions from the Cologne area to Remagen. "That was one of my happy moments in the war", Eisenhower commented in 1948. Within two days the bridgehead area was expanded three miles into German territory. Even though on 17 Mar German long-range artillery fire caused the previously damaged Ludendorff Bridge to collapse (recall the small charge that caused structural damage when the bridge was initially secured), by this time a large number of American troops and equipment had already crossed the river, and enough temporary bridges were established in the region to supply these troops.

        ww2dbase During the action on the west bank of the Rhine, a major logistical operation was underway to transport Canadian and British troops from the Mediterranean region to the 21st Army Group in western Europe. The goal, as stated by Eisenhower's headquarters, was "to build up the maximum possible strength on the Western Front to seek a decision in that theatre". The bulk of the troops transferred during Operation Goldflake landed at the port city of Marseille and travelled across France on the vast network of roads and railroads. One achievement to be noted with this operation was that the large number of troops travelled across the country of France without disrupting supply runs to the front lines. Experienced logistical staff of the Allies contributed greatly to this achievement Eisenhower commended those who were responsible in the planning of this operation, stating that

        "[t]he complicated process of moving the units to France and northward across the lines of communication of the Southern and Central Groups of Armies was carried out efficiently and smoothly, and the security precautions taken were completely successful in concealing from the Germans what was afoot."

        ww2dbase Politically, it also appeased the Canadian leaders, who wished that at this stage all Canadian troops involved in Europe could serve under one single chain-of-command. As all Canadians serving in Europe came under the command of H.D.G. Crerar under the flag of the First Canadian Army, he emotionally announced to his troops that "now that we are all together, let us all speed to the victory in no uncertain manner".

        ww2dbase A little to the south, the Third Army secured both banks of the Moselle River. The northern component of the Third Army reached the Rhine on 10 Mar, while the southern arm attacked the Saar Basin simultaneously with the American Seventh Army to the south. The German defense at the Saar Basin held on valiantly, but to little effectiveness. Instead of sacrificing this region and withdrawing the troops across the Rhine where natural barriers could have provided advantages in defense, Hitler ordered that the ground was to be held at all costs. And the costs were indeed high. On 15 Mar the Seventh Army attacked, and the Third Army launched a simultaneous attack from the north in the direction of Worms. This southward move by the Third Army was not expected by the German commanders, who thought they would attempt to penetrate the Rhine defenses via the breach at Remagen. Several days later, the French First Army which had secured the Colmar region earlier moved north to assist in the Saar Basin. The region was secured on 23 Mar.

        ww2dbase On 25 Mar 1945, all significant German resistance on the western banks of the Rhine ceased.

        ww2dbase What was impressive with the operations to secure the western bank of the Rhine was not the crushing Allied maneuvers, but rather how they were conducted. The coordination between the armies of two major powers and other nations were as seamless as it could be consider their differing philosophies and goals. Even within the American salient, the fluidity of the army components, as demonstrated by the quickness to shift manpower from the VII Corps at Cologne to the III Corps near Remagen, proved Hitler wrong of what the German dictator thought of the armies of a democracy. Hitler, as recently as the Ardennes Offensive, thought that Eisenhower was nothing more than a puppet of Winston Churchill and Franklin Roosevelt, reporting every move back to Washington and London. Unlike Hitler's thoughts, Eisenhower at the frontlines was able to make quick decisions on the field to take advantage of even the small windows of opportunities that presented themselves during the action. "Happening to be on the spot at the moment, I authorized appropriate boundary adjustments, specifying particularly close interarmy liaison", Eisenhower recalled. "This involved also the transfer of an armored division from the Seventh to the Third Army. The insignificance of this slight change illustrates the accuracy with which staffs had calculated the probabilities."

        ww2dbase This advance also saw the start of a new problem: prisoners. At this stage of the war, the Allied forces were encountered with over 10,000 prisoners of war each day. This problem eventually turned out to be yet another Allied achievement that attributed to the superb organization skills of the logistics officers, who processed these prisoners efficiently without disrupting the frontline combat.

        ww2dbase Sources: Canadian Military Headquarters Historical Section Report No 181, Crusade in Europe.

        Last Major Update: Oct 2005

        Advance to the Rhine Interactive Map

        Advance to the Rhine Timeline

        2 Nov 1944 In accordance with Dwight Eisenhower's plan, Bernard Montgomery ordered a complete redeployment of his Army Group in Europe. First Canadian Army now assumed responsibility for the front from the sea to the Reichsward near Kleve in Germany, whilst Second British Army was ordered to clear the Germans west of the Maas River from the huge pocket between Venray and Roermond in the Netherlands, and then to take over the American front north of Geilenkirchen in Germany known as the Heinberg Salientl.
        13 November 1944 General Philippe LeClerc's Free French troops attacked to the Upper Rhine out of Alsace, France.
        21 Nov 1944 The French 1st Corps captured the city of Belfort in the Vosges region, but the Germans clung so tenaciously to defences beyond the city that it would not be until 25 November 1944 that the French advance could be resumed.
        14 Jan 1945 Operation Blackcock: British forces cleared the Roer Triangle in Germany, which was known for dams that powered the German industry.
        29 Jan 1945 Allied troops captured Oberhausen, Germany in the Rhine river basin.
        1 Feb 1945 US First Army captured Remscheid in Germany, east of Düsseldorf. On the same day, US Seventh Army reached the Moder River and the Siegfried Line/Westwall.
        2 Feb 1945 French troops captured Colmar, France.
        9 Feb 1945 British and Canadian troops forced their way through a main Siegfried Line/Westwall defensive zone. Meanwhile, half of German 19.Armee was evacuated back into Germany before the final Rhine River bridge in the Colmar Pocket in France was blown.
        12 Feb 1945 British and Canadian forces captured Kleve, Germany.
        14 Feb 1945 British and Canadian troops reached the Rhine River northwest of Duisberg, Germany.
        17 Feb 1945 US Third Army penetrated the Siegfried Line/Westwall and launched massive assault into German territory.
        19 Feb 1945 Units of the US 8th Division began encircling German troops trapped within the Siegfried Line/Westwall.
        20 Feb 1945 George Patton wrote to Omar Bradley, urging Bradley to convince Dwight Eisenhower to allow Bradley's army group to attack aggressively toward the Rhine River.
        25 Feb 1945 Omar Bradley gave George Patton the authority to make advances toward the Rhine River.
        28 Feb 1945 US Ninth Army achieved breakthrough near Erkelenz, Germany.
        1 Mar 1945 US Ninth Army captured cities of München-Gladback and Rheydt in Germany. On the same day, Dwight Eisenhower approved the commencement of Operation Lumberjack.
        2 Mar 1945 Elements of US Ninth Army reached the Rhine River at Neuss, Germany. To the north US Third Army captures Trier, Germany.
        3 Mar 1945 Canadian troops captured Xanten, Germany while US First Army captured Krefeld, Germany.
        5 Mar 1945 Patrols from US First Army reached outskirts of Köln, Germany.
        6 Mar 1945 US Third Army reached the Rhine River near Koblenz, Germany, while US First Army captured Köln.
        7 Mar 1945 US 9th Armored Division unexpectedly captured Rhine River bridge and formed a bridgehead on the east side of the river at Remagen, Germany.
        8 Mar 1945 In Germany, US troops entered Bonn while British and Canadian troops entered Xanten.
        9 Mar 1945 US Third Army captured Andernach, Germany.
        10 Mar 1945 The Germans evacuated Wesel as US Third Army captured Bonn.
        11 Mar 1945 US Third Army captured Kochem, Germany.
        12 Mar 1945 US Third Army crossed Moselle River near Koblenz, Germany.
        13 Mar 1945 In Operation Undertone, US 3rd and 7th Armies advanced toward Rhine River in Germany.
        15 Mar 1945 US First Army was unable to further expand the Remagen bridgehead in Germany due to enemy resistance.
        17 Mar 1945 The Ludendorff Bridge at Remagen, Germany, which had served the Allies so well, collapsed after repeated being bombed by German Ar 234 jet bombers. Twenty-eight American engineers trying to strengthen the structure were swept away to their deaths. Meanwhile, US Third Army captured Koblenz, Germany about 15 miles to the southeast.
        18 Mar 1945 US Third Army captured Boppard, Germany.
        19 Mar 1945 US Seventh Army captured Worms, Germany.
        20 Mar 1945 US Seventh Army captured Saarbrücken, Germany while the US Third Army reached Mainz, Germany.
        21 Maart 1945 US First Army advanced toward Siegburg, Germany.

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        . of famous people, actors, celebrities and stars born in 1945

        75
        Vernon Wells
        75
        Franz Beckenbauer

        German association football player

        Andreas Schmidt-Schaller
        72
        Christine Kaufmann

        German actress and businesswoman

        *January 11th, 1945, Lengdorf March 28th, 2017, Munich

        75
        Gerd Müller

        German association football player

        *November 3rd, 1945, Nördlingen

        36
        Bob Marley

        Jamaican singer, songwriter and musician

        *February 6th, 1945, Nine Mile May 11th, 1981, Jackson Memorial Hospital

        Kip Niven

        *May 27th, 1945, Kansas City May 6th, 2019, Kansas City

        Rasa von Werder

        American bodybuilder and sex worker

        75
        Helen Mirren

        *July 26th, 1945, Hammersmith

        71
        Bernd Fritz

        *November 12th, 1945, Bechtheim April 16th, 2017, Bechtheim

        76
        Rodrigo Duterte

        Filipino politician and the 16th President of the Philippines

        72
        Barkley L. Hendricks

        *April 16th, 1945, Nicetown-Tioga April 18th, 2017, New London

        Claus Ryskjær

        *June 26th, 1945, Frederiksberg Municipality December 12th, 2016

        75
        John Lithgow

        American character actor, musician, and author

        76
        Barry Bostwick
        76
        Aung San Suu Kyi

        Current State Counsellor of Myanmar and Leader of the National League for Democracy

        Brian Oldfield

        *June 1st, 1945, Elgin March 26th, 2017, Illinois

        75
        Jean Nouvel
        76
        Adrienne Barbeau

        *June 11th, 1945, Sacramento

        75